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Stephen A. Douglas World War Two Envelopes

Creator:
Douglas, Stephen A., 1912- (World War II soldier)  Search this
Names:
Aviation Engineer Battalion.  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Paintings
Envelopes
Cachets (philately)
Watercolors
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1942-1945
Scope and Contents:
This collection is divided into two series.

Series 1: Illustrated Envelopes contains envelopes drawn by Stephen Douglas and mounted on mat boards. This type of painted envelope is also called "patriotic." See Lawrence Sherman, United States Patriotic Envelopes of World War II, 2006.

Series 2: Unit History, documents the engineers in the South West Pacific, The 864th Aviation Engineers in World War II by Bob George, a member of the unit. The history contains anecdotes and photographs of many of the locales Mr. Douglas drew.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Stephen Douglas Collection consists of eighty-one envelopes that Mr. Douglas mailed to his family from U.S. Army posts in the Pacific during World War II. Mr. Douglas decorated the front of the envelopes with watercolors depicting the life of a GI in the South Pacific.

Mr. Douglas grew up in Wewoka, Oklahoma and trained for one year at the Art Institute of Chicago. He then worked in the Oklahoma oil fields and sold paintings of scenes of oil production. He was drafted in the Army in 1942 and served as a corporal with the 864th Engineering Aviation Battalion, Army Corps of Engineers until war's end in 1945. After mustering out he worked thirty-three years in the Postal Service, retired and continued to paint.

Corporal Douglas began mailing the illustrated letters from Geiger Field, Washington, where his unit trained, then from Los Angeles where it shipped out. By the time the men arrived at Townsville, Australia in September 1943, US forces had already won the battle of Guadalcanal and were occupying much of the Solomon Islands. The rest of the Southwest Pacific including New Guinea had yet be taken before the Japanese could be driven out of the Pacific. His unit's mission was to build and maintain the airstrips and facilities that the allies would use as they advanced on Japan. The 864th moved through various bases in New Guinea then to Cape Gloucester in New Britain, and finally to Luzon in the Philippines.

Using a child's watercolor set, he captured both the deprivations of GI life at these bases and the romance of the islands with their colorful natives, lush foliage, lagoons and tropical moons. Some of the illustrations depict battle scenes involving aircraft and ships, others provide commentary on Army food, housing and recreation, or the lack thereof. They are all humorous or upbeat. The US aircraft or ships are always depicted on the envelopes defeating the enemy and one is a fanciful illustration of Hitler and Tojo on the run. But only fifteen of the eighty-one depict planes, ships, guns or fighting, and most of those are sketches of guard duty. The rest show GI's successfully coping with such mundane activities as laundry, showers, and latrines and overcoming boredom. Illustrating the envelopes was his way of escaping the tedium.
Related Materials:
Mauldin Cartoon Collection, 1946 1987. Believed to contain all of Bill Mauldin's published cartoons during those years; also periodical and newspaper articles about and by Mauldin, personal items, including his genealogy, and an original sketchbook used by Mauldin while he was in Vietnam, February 1965.

War posters, ca. 1914 1960s (mostly 1942 1945). Isadore Warshaw donated this collection of 350 items. Artists such as Howard Chandler Christy, James Montgomery Flagg and Norman Rockwell are represented. It is part of the Smithsonian's Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer Poster Collection, 1942 1952. Twenty posters designed by Schlaikjer during World War II and after.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Mr. Stephen A. Douglas, the artist, on January 7th, 2001.
This collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History by Mr. Stephen A. Douglas, the artist, on January 7th, 2001.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Wit and humor  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Postcards  Search this
Genre/Form:
Paintings
Envelopes
Cachets (Philately)
Watercolors
Citation:
Stephen A. Douglas World War Two Envelopes, 1942-1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Gift of the artist.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0755
See more items in:
Stephen A. Douglas World War Two Envelopes
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0755
Online Media:

Pete Claussen Collection of American Flag Magazine Covers

Creator:
Claussen, Pete  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (21 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1941-1943
Summary:
American magazines and magazine covers dating from 1941 through 1943 with illustrations of the American flag collected and donated by Pete Claussen.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains American periodicals and periodical covers dating from 1941 through 1943 that depict the American flag. There is one cover dating from 1941. Series one consists of the periodicals and periodical covers. Oversized materials are located at the end of the collection but are alphabetized in the container list. Series two is composed of period ephemera related to the flag.

The artwork on the covers illustrates the flag in a variety of styles, from a small inset on an unrelated image to a color spread encompassing nearly the entire cover. In some instances, the flag appears in patriotic scenes of American life on the home front while in others it appears in battle or in close proximity to specific factories or consumer products.

Beyond their covers, the periodicals contain a snapshot of American life during the middle years of the Second World War. They include an extremely broad range of interests and topics ranging from embalming practices to railroad employee journals. War-related themes are conveyed in the form of patriotic articles, practical advice and knowledge, jokes, and caricatures of enemies. Photographs provide a visual depiction of day-to-day life during the period. Periodicals in the collection include magazines, comic books, community newspapers, and story collections. Most are imprinted with a date of publication or copyright and many include the "United We Stand" slogan. Non-periodical materials in the collection include a "United We Stand" postcard, an Indiana public schools syllabus entitled "Character Education," and a booklet entitled "Make and Mend for Victory" with instructions for making clothing wear longer. A reprint of a letter of appreciation for high achievement in the production of war equipment sent to the White Motor Company by the Under Secretary of War is included, along with a similar letter to the Hoover Company. Also part of this series is a 1942 magazine which captures the patriotic spirit of the time but does not depict the American flag.

This collection represents a contribution to the understanding of American patriotism and patriotic symbolism in American life, as well as mutually beneficial collaboration between the United States government and private industry.

In July 2002, Mr. Pete Claussen, a member of the Museum's National Board, viewed the exhibit July 1942: United We Stand (http://www.americanhistory.si.edu). The exhibition featured American flag cover art. Most of the covers in the exhibition were loaned to the Museum. Mr. Claussen became so interested in the covers that he began collecting them and donating them to the Museum.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1, Magazine Flag Covers, 1941-1943

Series 2, Ephemera, 1942-1943
Biographical / Historical:
The National Publishers Association coordinated a campaign with the United States Department of the Treasury in the summer of 1942 to feature the American flag on magazine covers. Paul MacNamara, a publicist with the Hearst Corporation in New York, conceived of the campaign. The magazine industry could demonstrate its patriotism and the importance of magazines to American morale and at the same time justify its use of paper and other resources in the face of rationing. The Treasury Department endorsed the program and assisted magazine publishers by organizing store displays designed to show off the covers to the public. The federal government benefited from the campaign as many magazines, at the request of the Treasury Department, ran advertisements for war bonds. About five hundred magazines participated in this campaign.

The campaign rules required that the flag was not to have any overprinting, was to be displayed according to flag protocol, and was to appear with the motto "United We Stand." The motto, long a part of American history, came from the 1768 ballad The Liberty Song by John Dickenson. The United States Flag Association, in support of the "United We Stand" campaign, selected winning cover designs and awarded its Patriotic Service Cross to eight magazines and the Cross of Honor to the grand prize winner. Harper's Bazzar, House and Garden, Infantry Journal, The Merck Report, Modern Industry, NYLIC Review, This Week and Time earned the Patriotic Service Cross. The House and Garden cover, as the grand prizewinner, also was awarded the Cross of Honor.

The Treasury Department attempted to reprise the campaign again in 1943, but participation was scattered and not on the same level as the original 1942 campaign.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Ivory Soap Advertising Collection, 1883-1998 (AC0791)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Fred S. Rosenau Papers, 1944-1945 (AC0478)

Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer Poster Collection, 1942-1952 (AC0546)

Some of the magazines in this collection are in bound editions in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries.
Provenance:
Donated by Pete Claussen in May 2004 and January 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Flags -- United States  Search this
Patriotism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Magazines (periodicals) -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Pete Claussen Collection of American Flag Magazine Covers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0860
See more items in:
Pete Claussen Collection of American Flag Magazine Covers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0860
Online Media:

Gordon E. Cole Advertising History Papers

Creator:
Cole, Gordon E. (advertising executive)  Search this
Names:
Advertising Council  Search this
Association of National Advertisers  Search this
Can Manufacturers Institute.  Search this
Cannon Mills, Inc.  Search this
Pedlar & Ryan Ad Agency.  Search this
Wartime Ad Council.  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertising cards
Business letters
Clippings
Trade cards
Tear sheets
Speeches
Scrapbooks
Pamphlets
Ephemera
Date:
1879-1899; 1926-1964
Scope and Contents note:
Correspondence, speeches, clippings, unpublished manuscripts, scrapbooks related to advertising.
In addition to Cole's professional work, the collection documents his involvement in professional associations, including the Association of National Advertisers, the Advertising Research Foundation, and the Advertising Council. Also includes the published findings of three ANA-commissioned surveys of wartime advertising and the proceedings of wartime ANA conferences; and a scrapbook of advertising ephemera, including late nineteenth-century trade cards and pamphlets. There is a letter in Box 1, folder 1, correspondence from Cole to Barry Goldwater noting he would not be voting for Goldwater in the 1964 Presidential Election due to Goldwater's stand on Civil Rights.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1926-1964 Series 2: Unpublished Papers, 1942-1957

Series 3: Wartime Proceedings of the Association of National Advertisers, 1941-1944

Series 4: Advertising Ephemera, 1879-1964
Biographical/Historical note:
Gordon E. Cole's advertising career spanned thirty years, and this collection documents his work and interests.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Madelene Cole, 1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright or trademark restrictions may be in effect for some material.
Occupation:
Executives -- advertising  Search this
Topic:
advertising -- World War, 1939-1945  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising cards
Business letters
Clippings
Trade cards
Tear sheets
Speeches
Scrapbooks
Pamphlets
Ephemera
Citation:
Gordon E. Cole Advertising History Papers, 1879-1964, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0371
See more items in:
Gordon E. Cole Advertising History Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0371

Propaganda performed kamishibai in Japan's fifteen year war by Sharalyn Orbaugh

Title:
Kamishibai in Japan's fifteen year war
Author:
Orbaugh, Sharalyn http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/nr95025640 http://viaf.org/viaf/41731483  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xi, 365 pages) illustrations (chiefly color
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Criticism, interpretation, etc
History
Place:
Japan
Asia
Date:
2015
20th century
1912-1945
Topic:
Kamishibai--History and criticism  Search this
Street theater  Search this
Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945--Propaganda  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Propaganda  Search this
Propaganda, Japanese--History  Search this
HISTORY--General  Search this
Kamishibai  Search this
Manners and customs  Search this
Propaganda  Search this
Propaganda, Japanese  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Call number:
PN1979.K3 O73 2015 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
1-user
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1145371

Frederic Jean Thalinger papers

Creator:
Thalinger, Frederic Jean, 1915-1965  Search this
Names:
Thalinger, Ciel Frampton  Search this
Thalinger, E. Oscar, b. 1885  Search this
Thalinger, Ernest  Search this
Extent:
3.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
[ca. 1929-1988]
bulk 1935-1965 dates
Scope and Contents:
A family history, an interview with Ciel Frampton, Thalinger's Senior Thesis for Antioch College, letters between Thalinger and his wife Ciel Frampton during World War II, sketches and drawings, photographs and other materials document the lives and careers of sculptor Frederic Jean Thalinger and his painter father, E. Oscar Thalinger. Biographical material includes a family history written by Thalinger's son Ernest, resumes, certificates, address books, notes and clippings on both Frederic and Oscar, an inventory of Oscar's paintings and Ernest's March 1987 audio tape of his mother's reminiscences about meeting Frederic.
Correspondence between Thalinger and his wife forms the bulk of the correspondence. Letters between family members refer predominately to conditions during World War II, Thalinger's tour of duty in the U.S. Merchant Marines, the effects of Thalinger's lengthy separations from his wife and son, the state of their mental and physical health, and their lack of financial security. Writings include Thalinger's thesis on the relevance of his college experience to his future career, notes, poems and essays. Printed material includes clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs pertaining to both Frederic and Oscar. Photographs show Thalinger, family, friends and sculpture.
Numerous photographs of sculpture, many taken by Thalinger, are included in project files, along with notes, clippings, correspondence, price lists, and a set of blueprints for play sculpture intended to replace conventional playground structures.
Biographical / Historical:
Sculptor, born in St. Louis, Missouri. Father, E. Oscar Thalinger, was a painter and served as registrar at the City Art Museum, St. Louis.
Provenance:
Ernest Thalinger assembled, collected and annotated his father's papers. He compiled the family history and updated resume. The placement of photographs of sculpture into subject files is based on Ernest Thalinger's prior arrangement and annotations of the papers.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Merchant mariners -- United States  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Painters -- Missouri -- St. Louis  Search this
Topic:
Painting, American -- Missouri -- Saint Louis  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal narratives, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.thalfred
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-thalfred

Oral history interview with Robert Chapman Turner

Interviewee:
Turner, Robert Chapman, 1913-2005  Search this
Interviewer:
Carney, Margaret, 1949-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
48 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2001 June 11
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Robert Turner conducted 2001 June 11, by Margaret Carney, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Smithsonian Productions, in Washington, D.C.
Turner speaks of his childhood in Brooklyn, N.Y.; his father's business, Turner Concrete (now called Turner Construction); drawing classes; attending the George School for a post-graduate year before attending Swarthmore College, where his major was economics; the importance of Quakerism in his life and work; traveling throughout Europe and the Southwestern United States; his marriage to Sue, their trip to Europe during the outbreak of World War II and the difficulty of coming home to America; his involvement in war activities as a conscientious objector; the transition after the war ended into a "different reality"; visiting the different schools of craft, including Penland, Alfred, and Haystack; attending Alfred University, the teachers and students there during his years there; his relationships with other students, such as Ted Randall and Bill Schickel; teaching at Black Mountain College immediately after his graduation from Alfred; his admiration of Marguerite Wildenhain; his involvement in the first Super Mud phenomenon in 1966; how African culture fits into his work; the collaborative effort at Penland; the establishment of the National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (NCECA), and his experience as the third president of the group; his "retirement" since 1979; the types of materials he uses; the awards he has received; galleries and exhibitions in which he has exhibited; and recollections of Bill Brown, founder of the Penland School of Crafts. Turner also recalls Josie Adams, Charles Harder, Kurt Ekdahl, Marion Fosdick, Bill Pitney, Jessie Shefrin, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Turner (1913-2005) was a ceramic artist from Alfred, N.Y. and Sandy Spring, Maryland. Margaret Carney (1949- ) is the director of the Schein-Joseph International Museum of Ceramic Art in Alfred, N.Y.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 digital audio tapes. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hr., 23 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics, and administrators.
Topic:
Conscientious objectors -- World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Ceramicists -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Ceramicists -- Maryland -- Interviews  Search this
Quakers  Search this
Ceramics -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.turner01
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-turner01

U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums

Creator:
Aikins, Russell Chorley, 1896-  Search this
U.S. Steel Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1940s
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises of 21 albums depicting the steel making and finishing operations of the United States Steel Corporation. All of the images were made by Russell Aikins around 1940. The albums contain photographic prints (8" x 9-1/2"). The majority of prints are mounted on spiral-bound pages. The photographs were created for public relations purposes and provide visual documentation of American steel making technology, production practice, and worker manager relationships. Subject matter varies widely, depicting the process of manufacturing steel or steel-related products. The photographs have a strong human and dramatic emphasis. The strongest theme is industrial mobilization for the war effort. Many photographs document female wartime work in industry, and African American workers are also represented. The theme of worker safety is well documented with images depicting safety glasses and protective garments. Printed captions below each photograph usually identify workers by name and occupation.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series, chronologically by album number.
Biographical:
Russell Chorley Aikins was born in Philadelphia on December 7, 1896. He began his photographic career at the Philadelphia Inquirer as a news photographer in 1917. Two years later, Aikins joined the New York Times Sunday Rotogravure Section and the World Wide Syndicate as a staff photographer. In the early 1920s, Aikins organized and ran the New York Times Washington picture bureau. Aikins served briefly, in 1929, as an editor for the newly developing Associated Press (AP) photo service. Following the growing trend in the photo news industry Aikins left the AP and became a freelance photographer. He opened his studio in New York City and did work for Fortune, Time, Life, and Colliers.

Aikins career shifted in 1937 when he decided to "devote all my time to the portrayal of business and industry." Aikins noted the need for big business to be represented and saw his images as tools for business self-promotion: "It had been a growing conviction with me that industry in addition to its product advertising should promote its fitness to serve the public and its ability to make quality goods." He started to recruit companies to combat the stereotypical cold, unfeeling edge of big business. Aikins called this new style of photography "camera-reporting," which he thought could transport stockholders, customers, and the public into the mills, giving the viewer greater confidence in the corporation and its products. A few companies Aikins represented included Chrysler Corporation, General Electric Company, Johnson & Johnson, and the United States Steel Corporation. After World War Two the demand for the technique Aikins helped to pioneer began to diminish as public and labor attitudes changed. After 1948, there is no record of Aikins' activities.

Source

Division of Work and Industry staff.
Historical:
The United States Steel Corporation was created in 1901 by the purchase and consolidation of several companies by financier J.P. Morgan. At the time of formation, it was the largest company in the world. U.S. Steel represented Morgan's attempt to bring stability to the volatile steel market. Morgan purchased Andrew Carnegie's highly aggressive Carnegie Steel and brought it together with Federal Steel, National Tube, American Steel and Wire, American Sheet Steel, American Hoop Steel, American Tin Plate, American Bridge, and the Lake Superior Consolidated Iron Mines. Other companies were added later.

Capitalized at $1.4 billion, U.S. Steel was in 1901 the largest company in the world. It controlled over 50% of American Steel production but was in many ways hamstrung by its size. While the operation of Carnegie Steel was characterized by technological efficiency, US Steel avoided innovation. Some in the company referred to the Corporation's policy as "no inventions, no innovation." The company was thought by many to be driven by a banker's vision of protecting investment, not an industrialist's vision of increasing production. Always sensitive about public antitrust action, Elbert Gary, the leader of the company, sought to cast U.S. Steel as a "good trust." In 1936, the CIO formed the Steel Workers Organizing Committee (SWOC), and began a massive union drive. Although strongly antiunion, U.S. Steel, under Myron Taylor was the first major steel company to recognize the steelworkers union in 1937.

An industry once characterized by low wages and harsh conditions emerged by the late 1940s as one of the highest-paying blue collar employers, forced to negotiate with one of the nation's most powerful unions. Following recognition of the union U.S. Steel followed a corporate strategy of paying for wage settlements by increasing steel prices. This often put the giant company at odds with governmental economic policy.

Source

Division of Work and Industry staff.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School

1934 Art and Industry Exhibition photograph collection

The 1934 Art and Industry Exhibition photograph collection contains photographs that were on display in New York City and Chicago in an exhibition sponsored by the National Alliance of Art and Industry.

United States Steel Corporation photographs, circa 1940-1960

A large collection of black and white gelatin silver prints depicting the United States Steel Corporation's steel plants, works, personnel, machinery, mining operations, buildings, warehouses and production of the numerous products manufactured by the company, circa 1940-1960.

Industrial Life Photograph Collection, 1920-1941

Photographs collected by the Business Historical Society to document major industries in the United States and industrial processes.

Lowell National Historical Park

Youngstown Center for Industry and Labor
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- War work  Search this
Safety  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Citation:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1037
See more items in:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1037
Online Media:

Ralph H. Baer Papers

Creator:
Baer, Ralph H., 1922-2014  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet (44 boxes and 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
Cd-roms
Diagrams
Drawings
Interviews
Videotapes
Correspondence
Sketches
Photographs
Oral history
Notes
Manuals
Date:
1943 - 2015
Summary:
Ralph H. Baer was a German-born ordnance specialist, inventor, and engineer. He was a pioneer of early videogame technology. The papers include autobiographical materials; firearms notes, manuscripts, and photographs; and videogame and television engineering notes, diagrams, schematics, and video documentation.
Scope and Contents:
The Ralph Baer Papers include autobiographical materials and an extended oral history interview. The Papers also include materials about military small arms created by Baer during his World War II service. The largest portion of the collection documents Baer's work on video games.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 12 series.

Series 1: Autobiographical Documents, 1962-2006

Subseries 1.1: Manuscript, book and other documents, 1962-2006

Subseries 1.2: Other Media: CDs, VHS videos, periodical, 1991, 2000-2003

Series 2: WW II Small Arms Documents, 1943-1953

Subseries 2.1: Correspondence, 1950-1953

Subseries 2.2: Writings and notes, 1943-1948

Subseries 2.3: Drawings and schematics, undated

Subseries 2.4: Manuals and encyclopedias, 1943

Subseries 2.5: Photographs, 1945

Series 3: Hans Otto Mauksch Materials, 1944-1964

Subseries 3.1: Personal background information, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1964

Subseries 3.2: Instructional materials, 1944-1946, undated

Subseries 3.3: Ft. Riley, Kansas, 1946, 1953

Series 4: TV Game Documents, 1966-1972

Subseries 4.1: Working notes, diagrams and schematics, 1966-1971

Subseries 4.2: Administrative documents, 1966-1972 Subseries 4.3: Notebooks, 1966-1968

Subseries 4.4: TV game development documentation, 1966-1968

Series 5: Sanders Associates, Transitron, and Van Norman Industries, 1952-2003

Series 6: Product Development Documents, 1974-2015

Series 7: Product Guides and Technical Support, 1943-2011

Series 8: Legal and Patent Documents, 1966-2014

Series 9: Writings and Notes, 1946-1999

Series 10: Miscellaneous, 1961-2012

Series 11: Correspondence, 1983-2014

Series 12: Publicity and Awards, 1979-2015
Biographical / Historical:
Ralph H. Baer (1922-2014) was born in Germany and immigrated to the United States with his family in 1938. A graduate of the National Radio Institute (1940), Baer worked as a radio technician in the New York City area, servicing all types of home and auto radios. During World War II, Baer served in the United States Army, one year stateside, and two years in Europe. He was assigned to Military Intelligence and became an expert on military small arms. Baer returned to the United States with eighteen tons of foreign small arms for use in exhibits at Aberdeen, Maryland; Springfield, Massachusetts Armory; and Ft. Riley, Kansas.

After the war, Baer attended the American Television Institute of Technology in Chicago, graduating with a BS in television engineering. In 1949, Baer joined a small electro medical equipment firm, Wappler, Inc., as their chief engineer. He designed and built surgical cutting machines, epilators, and low frequency pulse generating muscle-toning equipment. In 1951, Baer moved to Loral Electronics of Bronx, New York as a senior engineer, designing power line carrier signaling equipment for IBM. During 1952-1956, Baer worked at Transitron, Inc., in New York City as a chief engineer and later as vice president. In 1956, Baer joined Sanders Associates in Nashua, New Hampshire building airborne radar components. He became manager of the Electronic Design Department at Sanders and eventually Division Manager and Chief Engineer for Equipment Design. Baer retired in 1987.

At Sanders in 1966, Baer began an independent project experimenting with ways for consumers to interact with standard home television sets. Development of interactive TV Game (TVG) ideas became a company-supported project continued by Baer and assisted by William H. Harrison and William T. Rusch (download the TV Game chronology prepared by Ralph Baer in 2006). By mid-1967, ping pong videogames were played inside Sanders, patent disclosures were applied for, and hardware was designed. Baer and his associates called the devices they were developing "boxes" and numbered the various versions one through seven. In 1971, Magnavox became Sanders Associates's first videogame licensee. Between 1972 and 1975, Magnavox produced and sold over 700,000 units of Odyssey, a set of games played on its television receivers. Atari became a licensee in 1976 after the first of many lawsuits won by Sanders in pursuit of patent infringements.

During his tenure at Sanders and thereafter, Baer was a prolific inventor. His creations included many electronic toys and games and other consumer electronic products. Among the better known products based on Baer's work are Milton Bradley's Simon, Galoob's Smarty Bear Video, and Kenner's Laser Command. In 2004 President George W. Bush awarded Baer the National Medal of Technology.

Baer married Dena Whinston in 1952 and they had three children, James, Mark, and Nancy. Ralph Baer died on December 6, 2014, at the age of 92.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Ralph H. Baer Innovative Lives Presentation, August 15, 2009 (AC1179)

The presentation documents a moderated conversation about Baer's life and work. Baer reenacts, with his partner William Harrison, the first time he played "Odyssey," the first home video game for the consumer market, which he invented, and answers questions from the audience. Materials include original video (born digital), master videos, and reference videos.

Materials at Other Organizations

Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Archives of Play at The Strong

Ralph H. Baer Papers, 1968-2010 inclusive; 1975-1998 bulk

The Ralph H. Baer papers are a compilation of correspondence, game designs, drawings, notes, reference materials, photographs, product descriptions, digital videos, schematics, electronic components, and manuals utilized by Ralph H. Baer throughout his lengthy career in the toy and game industry. The bulk of the materials are from 1975 through 1998.

U.S. Ordnance Museum, Fort Lee, Virginia

Materials consist of data on foreign small arms brought back from Europe in 1946 by Ralph H. Baer.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Medicine and Science holds artifacts related to this collection including early video game prototypes and TV Game products.

TV Game Unit #1 (TVG#1); 1966; vacuum tube spot generator with Heathkit IG-62 Generator (See Accession 2006.0102.01)

Heathkit IG-62; used with TVG #1 (See Accession 2006.0102.02)

TV Game Unit #2 (TVG #2), aka the "Pump Unit," 1967; large aluminum chassis with wooden "pump" handle (See Accession 2006.0102.03)

TV Game Unit #7 (TVG#7), aka "Brown Box," 1967/1968; prototype for Magnavox Odyssey (See Accession 2006.0102.04)

Cardboard program cards for use with Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.05)

Lightgun, 1967/1968; game accessory for Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.06)

TV Game Unit #8, 1968; "de/dt" (velocity responsive) ballgame chassis for use with Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.07)

Magnavox Odyssey (Model ITL200) video game unit, 1972; with all accessories in the original carton (See Accession 2006.0102.08)

Milton-Bradley Company SIMON handheld microprocessor-control game, 1978 (See Accession 2006.0102.09)

Ideal Toy Company MANIAC microprocessor-control game, 1979, in original box with game instructions (See Accession 2006.0102.10)

Golf Game accessory, 1968; golf ball mounted on joystick handle for use with Brown Box (See Accession 2006.0102.11

"Brown Box" programming card, target shooting, 1967 (See Accession 2006.0102.12)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Ralph H. Baer in 2003.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution.
Topic:
Books  Search this
Firearms  Search this
Games  Search this
Litigation  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Machine guns  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Weapons  Search this
Video games  Search this
Toys -- 20th century  Search this
Television -- History  Search this
Rifles  Search this
Pistols  Search this
Military intelligence  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Audiocassettes
CD-ROMs
Diagrams
Drawings -- 1940-1950
Interviews -- 2000-2010
Videotapes
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Sketches
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- 20th century
Oral history -- 2000-2010
Notes
Manuals -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Ralph H. Baer Papers, 1943-2015, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0854
See more items in:
Ralph H. Baer Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0854
Online Media:

Clarence D. Brenner World War II V-Mail Collection

Creator:
Brenner, Clarence D.  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1942-1945.
Scope and Contents note:
V-mail and related ephemera: letters, envelopes, printed material promoting the use of V-mail, printed information about how V-mail worked, a photograph of a V-mail station, targets for microfilming, labels for shipping, and microfilm roll boxes.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
V-mail was a mailing system, using microfilm, provided to World War II soldiers by the U.S. Army Signal Corps. It was encouraged and promoted because regular mail consumed cargo space.
Related Archival Materials:
The History of Photography Collection, National Museum of American History, has additional V-mail materials and examples. Call 202-357-2059 for further information.
Provenance:
Gift.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Microphotography -- History  Search this
Postal service  Search this
V-mail  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Clarence D. Brenner World War II V-Mail Collection, 1942-1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0571
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0571

Herbert M. Faust Papers

Creator:
Crocker, Judith A.  Search this
Faust, Herbert M. (salesman, manager)  Search this
Names:
Curtis Publishing Company.  Search this
Mutual Broadcasting Company.  Search this
Saturday Evening Post.  Search this
United States. War Production Board.  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Correspondence
Market surveys
Scrapbooks
Place:
Kansas
Sabetha (Kansas)
Date:
1918-1949.
Summary:
Papers relate to Mr. Faust's diverse career, including information on advertising in the 1920s, including two marketing studies from 1920 1922 of Sabetha, Kansas; his War Production Board experience, 1943-1944, which demonstrates the magnitude of that operation, its contribution to the war effort, and the extensive involvement of the American public in the salvage effort; and correspondence relating to his employment with and retirement from the Mutual Broadcasting Company, 1945-1948. These papers constitute a personal record of a successful career which reached its peak with important wartime civilian service.
Scope and Contents note:
These papers all relate to Mr. Faust's career and readily divide into three series: (1) his years with the Curtis Publishing Company, 1918 1943, which contains information on advertising in the 1920s; (2) his War Production Board experience, 1943 1944, which demonstrates the magnitude of that operation, its contribution to the war effort, and the extensive involvement of the American public in the salvage effort; and (3) correspondence relating to his employment with and subsequent retirement from the Mutual Broadcasting Company, 1945 1948. Some of his other papers undoubtedly became part of the final records of both the Curtis Publishing Company and the War Production Board. Mr. Faust's papers constitute a personal record of a successful career which reached its peak with important wartime civilian service.
Arrangement:
Divided into 3 series: 1) Curtis Publishing Company, 1918-1943; 2) War Production Board, 1943-1944; 3) Mutual Broadcasting Company, 1945-1948.
Biographical/Historical note:
Herbert M. Faust spent more than 24 years with the Curtis Publishing Company, from 1918 to 1943. Starting as a salesman in Chicago for Country Gentleman, a magazine published by Curtis, he later became manager of the Cleveland office of the Saturday Evening Post, manager of Curtis' Detroit Advertising Branch, and then manager of the New York Advertising Branch. His final position with the company was as Advertising Manager.

He left Curtis in September 1943 to join the War Production Board as a "dollar a year" man but was quickly transferred to the Federal payroll. The function of the War Production Board was to exercise general direction over the war procurement and production programs of all Federal departments and agencies. Mr. Faust served as Director of the Salvage Division of the War Production Board. During his tenure, there was a very heavy emphasis on paper salvage and much of the material in his papers relates to it.

In November 1944, Mr. Faust left the War Production Board to assume a position as manager of the central division of the Mutual Broadcasting System in Detroit, Michigan. He was employed there until his resignation in January 1949, following which he and his wife moved to California.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Judith A. Crocker, July 1, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Broadcasting -- 1940-1950  Search this
advertising  Search this
Marketing  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Market surveys
Scrapbooks -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Herbert M. Faust Papers, 1918-1949, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0397
See more items in:
Herbert M. Faust Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0397

The Herbert M. Bratter Collection

Source:
Numismatics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Bratter, Herbert Max, 1900-1976 (economist)  Search this
Names:
International Monetary Fund  Search this
Former owner:
Numismatics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (60 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Bulletins
Place:
China
Date:
1890s-1975
Summary:
The papers document the working files and home movies of Herbert M. Bratter, a financial specialist, and his professional career. The materials consist of biographical materials (academic and military records), press releases, newspaper clippings; daily, weekly and monthly releases from government agencies; clippings from the Congressional Record on monetary matters such as silver and gold; topical files covering a range of monetary subjects; publications, including writings about the Bretton Woods Conference, scrapbooks, and moving image including home movies.
Scope and Contents:
These papers are the working files of a financial specialist from his professional life. They consist of some biographical materials (school and military service records) topical files, press releases, newspaper clippings, daily, weekly and monthly releases from government agencies such as the press summaries of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the Department of Commerce and that agency's Far Eastern Financial Notes, Federal Reserve Board Notes, and periodic releases of the Bank for International Settlements. There are extensive clippings from the Congressional Record on monetary matters and particularly on silver and gold when these were subjects of legislative interest, a number of congressional committee reports and congressional hearings.

Also included are many clippings from The Economist and a number from Business Week. Newspaper clippings are most frequently from the New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, Washington Post, Washington Star, and Wall Street Journal. During several periods of intense activity relating to silver, Bratter also used a clipping service. There are some clippings from English language papers in other countries and a few in the language of the country.

Regular bulletins of major banks in this and other countries are included among the papers. There are copies of articles by Mr. Bratter, occasional correspondence, and several reports from commercial attaches at U.S. embassies in the Far East. Correspondence is filed in the relevant subject matter folder. The papers include a number of handwritten notes, most of them memoranda to himself on phone calls or face to face conversations with governmental or congressional staff and members of Congress.

While not complete, the material spans a period when the monetary and fiscal policies of the United States were of major economic and political importance, an era of worldwide depression, a period when a number of countries including the United States abandoned the gold standard, the years of the Second World War and the establishment of agencies such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. It is complete enough to be useful for doctoral dissertations on several subjects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.

The series are organized in the manner in which they were received by the Archives Center: by subject matter and geographically by country. The topical files, political files, and geographical files are arranged alphabetically.

Some folders were incorrectly labeled and some material was not turned over to the Archives Center. For example, the folders relating to world currency omit World Currency I and III. The Guide to Manuscript Collections, 1978, in describing the Bratter collection states, "They also concern the Committee for the Nation to Rebuild Prices and Purchasing Power, a 1930's monetary propaganda group." No such material has been located among the papers. Two brief references to such a group were noted. It is mentioned in the folder on Walter Lippmann in Series 2 and in a Saturday Evening Post article by Raymond Moley in Series 2.

Series 1A, Biographical Materials, 1914-1975

Series 1, Topical Files, 1930-1974

Series 2, Political Files, 1930-1967

Series 3, Laws, Orders and Releases, 1933-1939

Series 4, Economists' National Committee on Monetary Policy, 1933-1970

Series 5, Geographical (by country), 1919-1968

Series 6, Publications, 1933-1962

Series 7, Scrapbooks, 1922-1969

Series 7A, Postcards, 1918-1972

Series 8, Moving Image, 1936-1961
Biographical / Historical:
Herbert Max Bratter, an economic and financial specialist, was born in New York City, January 22, 1900 and died in San Antonio, Texas, February 19, 1976. Fluent in six languages, Mr. Bratter became an internationally known expert on gold and silver.

Mr. Bratter was educated at City College, New York (1917 1919) and Columbia University (1919 1921). After several positions with private firms, and a period in the early twenties as a statistician in the Chinese Government Bureau of Economic Information, he became an economic analyst for the U.S. Department of Commerce and later for the U.S. Department of the Treasury (1929 1935) and was a member of the American Economic Mission to the Far East (1935). At both Commerce and Treasury "following" silver was one of his official responsibilities. He returned to the private sector and an economics research post with Loomis Sayles & Company, a Massachusetts investment company (1935 1937) and later was in private practice as an economic consultant in Washington, D.C.

The author of more than 125 magazine and newspaper articles and pamphlets, Bratter was also the Washington correspondent and a regular contributor to Banking from 1939 to 1974. Bratter was firmly opposed to any government or monetary action to support the silver industry and in complete disagreement with the Silver Purchase Act. Several members of the Senate consulted him as an expert on silver during periods of legislative debates on pending silver legislation. His publications include The Price of Silver (1930), Japanese Banking (1931), and Silver Market Dictionary (1933).
Provenance:
Donated to the National Numismatics Collection, National Museum of the History of Technology by Herbert M. Bratter in the 1960s. Additional materials donated by Julia Rapoza, granddaughter of Herbert M. Bratter, in August 2004 and April 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Banking  Search this
Economics  Search this
Gold standard  Search this
Money  Search this
Gold  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Silver  Search this
World Bank  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Bulletins
Citation:
Herbert M. Bratter Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0137
See more items in:
The Herbert M. Bratter Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0137

Basil Lee Rowe Collection

Creator:
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Names:
Pan American World Airways, Inc.  Search this
West Indian Aerial Express  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Rowe, Basil Lee  Search this
Extent:
5.35 Cubic feet (5 document boxes, 4 flat boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Date:
1917-1973
bulk 1930-1968
Summary:
Basil Lee Rowe (1896-1973) enjoyed a long and successful career in aviation, initially as a military exhibition pilot, barnstormer, air racer, charter operator, flight instructor, aircraft salesman, and rumrunner, before moving to the West Indies to start an airline, the short-lived West Indian Aerial Express, bought out by Pan American Airways in 1928. Rowe became a pioneering senior pilot for Pan Am, flying with them for 28 years before his retirement in 1956. This collection includes scrapbooks, photo albums, memorabilia, and first day covers, in addition to the draft manuscript for Rowe's 1956 autobiography, Under My Wings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of Rowe's pilot's log books covering his career from 1927 to 1956, assorted periodicals, cartoons featuring Rowe, scrapbooks and photo albums assembled by Rowe (featuring newspaper clippings, photographs, and ephemera), several draft manuscripts of Rowe's 1956 autobiography Under My Wings, and first day air mail postal covers collected by Rowe.
Arrangement:
Materials in this collection are grouped into series by format. See individual series Scope and Content notes for details on arrangement within that series. Note that with the exception of the chronologically arranged flight log books, Rowe did not appear to organize his materials in any particular order.
Biographical / Historical:
Basil Lee Rowe, born February 10, 1896, grew up in the small town of Shandaken, New York, in the Catskill Mountains. He began his flying career in 1914 as an apprentice to aviator Turk Adams after seeing Adams fly at a local county fair. Impatient to become a military pilot, Rowe arranged to join the Royal Canadian Air Force, but was sidelined by a ruptured appendix before he could get to Canada. By the time Rowe had recovered, the United States had entered World War I and Rowe was able to join the Aviation Section of the U. S. Army Signal Corps; he was sent to Texas. During the Third Liberty Loan drive, Rowe was assigned to a group of fliers who were to give exhibition flights; after his discharge, he used his savings to buy a used Avro biplane and barnstormed around the East Central United States, using Hadley Field (New Brunswick, New Jersey) as his home field. Rowe soon bought a second aircraft, hired pilot William S. "Bill" Wade, and moved his base of operations to the Aeromarine Base at Keyport, near Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Rowe prospered through the early 1920s, and his troupe the "Rowe Fliers" (including at various times wingwalkers Bill Stacy and Marguerite L. "Peggy" Roome) toured the eastern US giving exhibition flights and passenger rides. In the winter, Rowe moved his operation to Florida, and, with a rebuilt Curtiss Seagull, ferried passengers eager to escape Prohibition from Miami to Nassau, Bahamas--with a bit of rumrunning on the side. Back in New Jersey, Rowe formed the Chamberlin-Rowe Aircraft Corporation with fellow aviator Clarence Chamberlin to buy and resell Army surplus aircraft; the short-lived business went bust in 1924 when the government finished selling off its aircraft. Rowe, a talented racing pilot, kept busy from 1924 through 1926 on the racing circuit, winning numerous prizes.

By the end of 1926, at the age of thirty, Rowe felt that he had reached a turning point in his life. Dismayed by the increase in US government regulation of aviation, Rowe moved his operations to the West Indies, settling in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. With Bill Wade, Rowe rapidly established a business flying charters around the country, with flights to neighboring Haiti and Puerto Rico. In June 1927, with financial backing provided by sugar industry businessmen and the government of the Dominican Republic, Rowe founded West Indian Aerial Express (abbreviated variously as WIAE or WIAX) to provide airline service between Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, hoping to be well positioned to bid on future US foreign air mail routes. With this in mind, Rowe returned to the Unites States and purchased a Fairchild FC-2W floatplane (christened "La Niña") and a larger Keystone K-47 Pathfinder trimotor (the former "American Legion," r/n NX179, rebuilt by the Keystone factory following a crash in April 1927 and rechristened as "Santa Maria"). To his dismay, Rowe was forced to acquired a US transport pilot license in order to be allowed to fly the "Santa Maria" back to Santo Domingo; he hired Canadian pilot Cy Caldwell to ferry "La Niña." On the way south in mid October 1927, Rowe found himself and his two aircraft in Florida just as Pan American Airways (PAA), which had been successful in obtaining a temporary contract to deliver mail from the US to Cuba, found itself without any aircraft able to fly out of their Key West, Florida, field to fulfill the contract before it expired. PAA struck a deal with Rowe to lease "La Niña" (piloted by Caldwell) to fly the first Pan American Airways flight on October 19, 1927.

With its two new aircraft, West Indian Aerial Express started regularly scheduled twice-weekly flights on December 1, 1927, between Cuba, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico, later extending the routes to St. Thomas and St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands. On June 30, 1928, WIAX filed a bid with the US government for air mail service on the route from Key West to Puerto Rico, but was outmanuevered by the more politically-savvy Pan American Airways which won the contract. A final crippling blow was dealt to WIAX in September 1928 when a severe hurricane hit their base in San Juan, Puerto Rico, destroying "La Niña" and two older Waco biplanes. Rowe made his last flight in the "Santa Maria" on September 20, 1928, before turning the aircraft over to Pan American. On October 16, 1928, PAA purchased WIAX, with Rowe becoming PAA's senior pilot.

During his first ten years with Pan Am, Rowe flew a record number of hours and surveyed most of the new air routes through the Caribbean to Central and South America, several times flying with Charles Lindbergh. When the US entered World War II, Rowe was assigned to Pan Am's Africa and Orient Division to serve with the US Army Air Forces Air Transport Command on their supply route across the South Atlantic and Africa to India and China (the "Cannonball Run"). His wife, Florence May Sharp, whom Rowe had married in 1930, served as an aircraft spotter during the war. During the Korean Conflict, Rowe was once again pressed into service, and was transferred to Pan Am's Pacific Division to fly transpacific supply routes and medical evacuation flights. May's early death in 1943 left Rowe a widower at his retirement from Pan Am in 1956. At their Coral Gables, Florida, home he wrote his autobiography, Under My Wings (The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., New York, 1956) and remained active as a tennis instructor until his death on October 28, 1973.
Related Materials:
See related collection Basil Lee Rowe First Day Air Mail Covers, NASM.XXXX.0487.
Provenance:
Basil Lee Rowe, gift, 1969; United States Air Force Museum, transfer, 1973; NASM.XXXX.0019
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Logs (records)
Scrapbooks
Publications
Citation:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0019, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0019
See more items in:
Basil Lee Rowe Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0019
Online Media:

WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots

Creator:
Haydu, Bernice Falk  Search this
Names:
Avenger Field -- Sweetwater, TX  Search this
United States. Army Air Forces  Search this
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
Women Airforce Service Pilots (U.S.)  Search this
Cochran, Jacqueline  Search this
Haydu, Bernice Falk  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet ((1 flatbox) (1 slim legal document box))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Songbooks
Photographs
Date:
1942-1944
Summary:
This collection, compiled by Bernice Falk Haydu, a former WASP 44-7, contains original photographs, photocopies of photographs, class rosters, graduation data, copies of certification, a WASP songbook, an original Miss Fifinella color sketch by Walt Disney, and other related material. The photographs are all captioned with information from Mrs. Cliff Deaton, Chief Staff Executive Officer of the WASPs at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas. The material has been grouped in a binder under the following subheadings: Avenger Field; Life on Base; Wishing Well: Flight Training School; Physical Education and Marching; Graduations; VIPs; and a Miscellaneous file.
Scope and Contents:
This collection compiled by Bernice Falk Haydu, a former WASP 44-7, contains original photographs, photocopies of photographs, class rosters, graduation data, copies of certification, a WASP songbook, an original Miss Fifinella color sketch by Walt Disney, and other related material. The photographs are all captioned with information from Mrs. Cliff Deaton, Chief Staff Executive Officer of the WASPs at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, TX. The material has been grouped in a binder under the following subheadings: Avenger Field; Life on Base; Wishing Well: Flight Training School; Physical Education and Marching; Graduations; VIPs; and a Miscellaneous file.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots Collection is arranged in its original order.
Biographical / Historical:
The WASPs (Women's Airforce Service Pilots) learned to fly US Army Air Corps aircraft during WWII. Jacqueline Cochran was director of the 1074 women who earned wings and flew 60 million miles for the US Army Air Corps between November 17, 1942 and December 7, 1944. From light aircraft, the WASPs advanced quickly to fly every air corps aircraft in use at the time. With the exception of aerial gunnery and formation flying, these women received the same training as the male pilots. WASPs ferried planes, towed targets, flew tracking, simulated bombing missions, performed radio control, flight tested aircraft, gave instrument instruction and performed many other duties. Their work allowed more men to participate in aviation combat roles.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Bernice Falk Haydu, Gift, 1989, 1989-0123, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Aerial operations  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Women and the military  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Miss Fifinella (Fictitious character)  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Songbooks
Photographs
Citation:
WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots, Acc. NASM.1989.0123####, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1989.0123
See more items in:
WASPs Binder: Pictures of Life and Training of the Women's Air Force Service Pilots
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1989-0123
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Robert Winokur

Interviewee:
Winokur, Robert, 1933-  Search this
Interviewer:
Riedel, Mija, 1958-  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Alfred University -- Students  Search this
Helen Drutt Gallery  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (U.S.)  Search this
North Texas State University -- Faculty  Search this
Tyler School of Art -- Faculty  Search this
Tyler School of Art -- Students  Search this
Babu, Victor, 1936-  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Ferguson, Ken, 1928-  Search this
Giacometti, Ignazio  Search this
Hamada, Shōji, 1894-1978  Search this
Hay, Dick  Search this
Klee, Paul, 1879-1940  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Levy, Marge  Search this
Minter, Myrna  Search this
Notkin, Richard  Search this
Randall, Theodore, 1914-1985  Search this
Reitz, Don, 1929-2014  Search this
Rhodes, Daniel, 1911-1989  Search this
Schulman, Norman, 1924-  Search this
Staffel, Rudolf, 1911-2002  Search this
Vavrek, Ken  Search this
Voulkos, Peter, 1924-2002  Search this
Wildenhain, Marguerite  Search this
Wood, John, 1922-2012  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (Sound recording: 7 sound files (5 hr., 35 min.))
159 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
2011 July 23-24
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Robert Winokur conducted 2011 July 23 and 24, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Winokur's home and studio, in Horsham, Pennsylvania.
Robert speaks of his mother earning an award for her artwork; his father and other family members being Communists and having to distance himself in being identified with them; his mother making ceramic jewelry while his father was working as a welder at Cramps Shipyard in Philadelphia during World War II; feeling like he had an attention deficit disorder of some kind, which prevented him from doing well in school, so he took ceramics classes in high school to bring his grades up; starting in painting at the Tyler School of Art, finishing in sculpture, clay, and ceramics; appreciating the Abstract Expressionist work of Franz Kline; of the opinion that one learns art by doing and that the teachers are there to direct you only; feeling that he did not have the freedom to experiment with clay as he wished at Alfred University, School of Art and Design for fear of being compared to Peter Voulkos; his first job teaching at North Texas State University in Denton, Texas; teaching in Peoria, Illinois for a year; beginning Cape Street Pottery in Ashfield, Massachusetts; when he began salt firing and working more in sculptural forms; his work influenced by Abstract Expressionism, Paul Klee, Willem de Kooning, Ignazio Giacometti, Zen master calligraphers, Peter Voulkos, and others; feeling that the computer cannot, as of yet, produce the quality of art that humans can through repetition; that the process of creating is more important than the subject; starting his 30-year teaching career at Tyler School of Art in 1966; that students today are approaching ceramics conceptually and academically rather than through a relationship with the material; the beginning of NCECA [National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts]; and how he enjoys making what he wants to, now that he is retired. Robert also recalls Rudolf Staffel, John Wood, Ted Randall, Daniel Rhodes, Shoji Hamada, Marguerite Wildenhain, Ken Ferguson, Norm Schulman, Victor Babu, Myrna Minter, Don Reitz, Helen Drutt English, Richard Notkin, Dick Hay, Marge Levy, and Ken Vavrek.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Winokur (1933- ) is a ceramist in Horsham, Pennsylvania. Mija Riedel (1958- ) is an independent scholar in San Francisco, California.
General:
Originally recorded as 7 sound files. Duration is 5 hr., 35 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Ceramic jewelry  Search this
Ceramicists -- Pennsylvania -- Interviews  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Communism  Search this
Painting -- Study and teaching  Search this
Sculpture -- Study and teaching  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.winokr11
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-winokr11

Oral history interview with Betty Woodman

Interviewee:
Woodman, Betty, 1930-2018  Search this
Interviewer:
Perreault, John, 1937-2015  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Bellagio Study and Conference Center  Search this
Boulder (Colo.).. Parks & Recreation Department  Search this
Centre internationale de recherche sur le verre et les arts plastiques (Marseille, France)  Search this
Europees Keramisch Werkcentrum  Search this
Fabric Workshop  Search this
Girl Scouts of the United States of America  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
School for American Crafts  Search this
University of Colorado -- Faculty  Search this
Brown, Elenita  Search this
Carlson, Cynthia, 1942-  Search this
Hamada, Shōji, 1894-1978  Search this
Higby, Wayne  Search this
Kozloff, Joyce  Search this
Kushner, Robert, 1949-  Search this
Leach, Bernard, 1887-1979  Search this
Serra, Richard, 1939-  Search this
Shark, Bud  Search this
Voulkos, Peter, 1924-2002  Search this
Woodman, George, 1932-  Search this
Extent:
5 Items (Sound recording: 5 sound files (2 hr., 55 min.), digital wav)
69 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
Boulder (Colo.)
India -- description and travel
Mexico -- description and travel
Netherlands -- description and travel
Date:
2003 April 22 and 29
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Betty Woodman conducted 2003 April 22 and 29, by John Perreault, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in New York, New York.
Woodman speaks of frequent moves with her family during her childhood; her father's woodworking skills; gaining an interest in arts and crafts at four when she made a tablecloth with crayon drawings; attending summer camps, including Girl Scout Camp, where she participated in arts and crafts activities; being the first girl to take shop in her middle school; making model airplanes for air raid wardens during World War II; her interest in making functional objects; her introduction to clay and hand-building in high school; attending the School for American Craftsmen in New York City; collaborating with fellow students; her early desire to be a "craftsperson and not an artist"; her work with silk-screen fabric for The Fabric Workshop in Philadelphia and glass at CIRVA in Marseille, France; teaching at the University of Colorado and the City of Boulder Recreation Department; working at the European Ceramic Work Center in Den Bosch, Holland, and the Bellagio Study Center in Italy; her studios in New York, Colorado, and Italy; her travels to India, The Netherlands, and Mexico; living in New Mexico, New York, Colorado, and Italy; her business Roadrunner Pottery in New Mexico with partner Elenita Brown; collaborative projects with Joyce Kozloff, Cynthia Carlson, Bud Shark, Judith Solodkin, and her husband George Woodman; developing a following in New York; how being a woman has affected her work and how she enjoys working with other women artists; the change of market for American crafts; Italian, Greek, and Etruscan influences; teaching experiences; the importance of getting reviews in art magazines; and the strong support from her husband George, a painter. Betty Woodman recalls Lynn Feelyn, Olan Wassen, Bernard Leach, Peter Voulkos, Shoji Hamada, Bob Kushner, Richard Serra, Wayne Higby, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Betty Woodman (1930-2018) was a ceramist from New York, New York. John Perreault (1937- ) is an independent critic and curator from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 5 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 55 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Airplanes -- Models  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Ceramicists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Glass art  Search this
Handicraft -- United States  Search this
Screen process printing  Search this
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Function:
Artists' studios
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.woodma03
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-woodma03

Oral history interview with Tony Vevers

Interviewee:
Vevers, Tony  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Names:
City Center Gallery  Search this
Hans Hofmann School (New York, New York)  Search this
Operation Pied Piper  Search this
United States  Search this
United States. Army  Search this
Yale University -- Students  Search this
Avery, Milton, 1885-1965  Search this
Blagden, Tom  Search this
Calcagno, Lawrence, 1913-  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-1974  Search this
Halvorsen, Elspeth  Search this
Hartung, Hans, 1904-1989  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Keller, Deane, 1901-1992  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Levine, Jack, 1915-2010  Search this
Lippold, Richard, 1915-2002  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Oldenburg, Claes, 1929-  Search this
Pace, Stephen, 1918-2010  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1864-1946  Search this
Vieira da Silva, Maria Helena, 1908-1992  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Zallinger, Rudolph F.  Search this
Extent:
2 Sound cassettes (Sound recording (2 hr., 49 min.), analog)
58 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Provincetown (Mass.)
Date:
1998 July 9-August 25
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Tony Vevers, conducted on August 25, 1998, by Robert F. Brown for the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Provincetown, Massachusetts.
Vevers speaks of being sent by his parents to the United States in 1940; secondary schooling in Madison, Connecticut and at the Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Connecticut (1944); serving in the U.S. Army infantry in Europe, 1944-1946; attending Yale University on the GI Bill and graduating with a BA in painting and drawing, 1950; further art training in Florence, Italy and at the Hans Hofmann School, NYC (1950-1953); his marriage to Elspeth Halvorsen, fellow artist, 1953; his studies in Italy; the unexciting nature of contemporary Italian art; contemporary art in Paris, where Picasso impressed him but work of Hans Hartung and (Marie Elena) Vieira da Silva did not; studying with Hans Hofmann; working at the non-profit City Center Gallery, which was designed to give younger artists exposure through juried exhibitions; and living in poverty in NYC and Provincetown until 1963. Vevers also recalls Tom Blagden, Alfred Stieglitz, Deane Keller, Rudolph Zallinger, Claes Oldenburg, Stephen Pace, Lawrence Calcagno, Hans Hofmann, Milton Avery, Adolph Gottlieb, Jack Levine, Franz Kline, Louise Nevelson, Max Weber, Richard Lippold, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Tony Vevers (1926-2008) was a painter from Provincetown, Massachusetts.
General:
Originally recorded on 2 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 49 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Art, French -- 20th century  Search this
Art, Italian -- 20th century  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- Italy  Search this
Art teachers -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Provincetown -- Interviews  Search this
Poverty  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.vevers98
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-vevers98

Oral history interview with Bob Stocksdale

Interviewee:
Stocksdale, Bob, 1913-2003  Search this
Interviewer:
Mayfield, Signe  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Extent:
52 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2001 February 16-March 21
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Bob Stocksdale conducted 2001 February 16-March 21, by Signe Mayfield, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Berkeley, California.
Stocksdale speaks of his childhood growing up on a rural farm and learning from watching and experiencing; his early education in a one room schoolhouse; how he learned to whittle as a child; buying his first lathe for twenty-seven dollars and fifty cents; his job at a furniture factory called Caswell Runyan Factory; life through the depression; joining the Conscientious Objector's camp during World War II; working for the Civilian [Citizen's] Conservation Corps; his acquaintance with Helen Weinnemore, the director of Winnemore's Arts and Crafts in Columbus, Ohio; how he received wood while in the CO camp; his visits to museums in the city; his trend of signing and dating his bowls; becoming a member of the International Wood Collector's Society; developing tools with Jerry Glaser; two stores he sold items at, Gump's in San Francisco and Fraser's in Berkeley; different collectors including Bob Anderson, who he considers a legend; his exhibitions and how they have evolved; his travels to England with Kay his wife; the difficulty in establishing a price for his bowls; the change in American craft throughout his lifetime; the many types of wood he uses, which come from all over the world; the importance of wood as a means of expression; his first date with Kay and her influence upon his work; different curators he's worked with; the pieces he has within his home; and his current exhibition Bob Stocksdale: Eighty-Eight Turnings at the Museum of Craft and Folk Art in San Francisco. Stocksdale also recalls Fran McKinnon, Forrest Merrill, Walker Weed, David Pye, James Prestini, David Ellsworth, Art Carpenter, Griff Okie, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Bob Stocksdale (1913-2003) was a woodworker from Berkeley, California. Signe Mayfield (1942-) is a curator at the Palo Alto Cultural Center in Palo Alto, California.
General:
Originally recorded on 6 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 9 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hr., 41 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Conscientious objectors -- World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Turning -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Turning -- Technique  Search this
Woodworkers -- California -- Berkeley -- Interviews  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.stocks01
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stocks01

Oral history interview with Victor D. Spark

Interviewee:
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David), 1898-1991  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Names:
Duveen-Graham (Gallery)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
New York University -- Students  Search this
United States. Marine Corps  Search this
Wildenstein Galleries  Search this
Duveen, Albert  Search this
Duveen, Joseph Duveen, Baron, 1869-1939  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
Knoedler, Roland F., 1856-1932  Search this
Wildenstein, Felix, 1883-1952  Search this
Extent:
3 Items (Sound recording: 3 sound files (1 hr., 59 min.), digital, wav)
55 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1975 August 5
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Victor D. Spark, conducted August 5, 1975, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, at Spark's New York City apartment.
Spark speaks of his early schooling at Townsend Harris Hall and NYU; his experience in the Marine Corps during World War II; working in his father's hotel business; the economic difficulties for art dealers during the Great Depression; apprenticing in galleries and working as a small art dealer; changes in the mid-century American art market; the differences between the art market for modern and contemporary art and that of older art. Spark also recalls Maxim Karolik, Edith Halpert, the gallerists Duveen, Knoedler, Wildenstein, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Victor D. Spark (1898-1991) was an art dealer from New York, New York.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 3 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 59 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.spark75
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-spark75

Oral history interview with Merryll Saylan

Interviewee:
Saylan, Merryll B., 1936-  Search this
Interviewer:
Adamson, Glenn  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
American Association of Woodturners  Search this
California State University, Northridge -- Students  Search this
International Turned Objects Show (1988 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
University of California, Los Angeles -- Students  Search this
Wood Turning Center (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Woodstock School of Painting  Search this
Blunk, J. B., 1926-2002  Search this
Cooper, Michael Jean  Search this
Evans, Ralph  Search this
Foy, George  Search this
Fredell, Gail  Search this
Glaser, Jerry  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin, 1938-2016  Search this
Maruyama, Wendy, 1952-  Search this
Rapp, Joanne  Search this
Stocksdale, Bob, 1913-2003  Search this
Stubbs, Del  Search this
Weir-Quiton, Pamela  Search this
Extent:
7 Items (Sound recording: 7 compact discs (6 hr., 9 min.), digital, 2 5/8 in.)
116 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
England -- description and travel
France -- description and travel
Guatemala -- Description and Travel
Hong Kong -- Description and Travel
Japan -- Description and Travel
Philippines -- Description and Travel
Date:
2006 May 20-June 5
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Merryll Saylan conducted 2006 May 20-June 5, by Glenn Adamson, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at the Victoria & Albert Museum, in London, England.
Saylan speaks of her childhood in Los Angeles, California; her early musical education in piano and viola; memories of World War II; her family's political views during the Cold War; meeting her first husband at UCLA; dropping out of school to move to Virginia and Georgia in fulfillment of her husband's military service; experiencing anti-Semitism in Georgia; the challenges of her eldest son's speech problems; traveling to France, Japan, Guatemala, Hong Kong and the Philippines; her interest in Japanese culture; completing her B.A. in design at UCLA and her M.A. in studio art at California State University, Northridge; anti-Vietnam sentiment on campus; early interests in environmental design; her second husband and his friends; her interest in furniture and woodworking; differing approaches to woodworking on the east and west coasts; her views on feminism and working women; her use of color and texture in woodworking; teaching experiences; popular perception of her work; receiving a grant to go to England and her involvement with English and German woodturners; the lack of collector interest in her work; forced absences from working because of illnesses; serving on the boards of the American Association of Woodturners and The Woodturning Center; her involvement in the International Turned Objects Show, the Sculpture Objects & Functional Art Biannual Exposition, and the International Turning Exchange; her thoughts on future work. Saylan also recalls George Foy, Bob Stocksdale, Michael Cooper, Pamela Weir-Quiton, Joanne Rapp, J.B. Blunk, Marvin Lipofsky, Gail Fredell, Wendy Maruyama, Ralph Evans, Del Stubbs, Jerry Glaser, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Merryll Saylan (1936- ) is a wood artist from San Rafael, California. Glenn Adamson (1972- ) is a museum professional, in London, England.
General:
Originally recorded on 7 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 6 hr., 9 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Topic:
Decorative arts  Search this
Environmental engineering  Search this
Feminism  Search this
Furniture making  Search this
Furniture making -- Study and teaching  Search this
Turning -- Study and teaching  Search this
Women artists -- California -- Interviews  Search this
Woodwork  Search this
Woodworkers -- California -- Interviews.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.saylan06
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-saylan06

Oral history interview with Eleanor Sayre

Interviewee:
Sayre, Eleanor A.  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Names:
Ashmolean Museum  Search this
Bryn Mawr College -- Students  Search this
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Harvard University -- Students  Search this
Lyman Allyn Museum  Search this
Museo del Prado  Search this
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design. Museum of Art  Search this
Yale University. Art Gallery  Search this
Ames, Winslow  Search this
Constable, W. G. (William George), 1887-1976  Search this
Edgell, George Harold, b. 1887  Search this
Forbes, Edward Waldo, 1873-1969  Search this
Goya, Francisco, 1746-1828  Search this
Hofer, Philip, 1898-1984  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
King, Georgiana Goddard, 1871-1939  Search this
Rathbone, Perry Townsend, 1911-2000  Search this
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, 1606-1669  Search this
Rosenberg, Jakob, 1893-  Search this
Rossiter, Henry P. (Henry Preston), b. 1885  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph), 1878-1965  Search this
Seybolt, George Crossan, 1914-1993  Search this
Sizer, Theodore, 1892-1967  Search this
Swarzenski, Hanns, 1903-1985  Search this
Washburn, Gordon B. (Gordon Bailey), 1904-1983  Search this
Wilson, Woodrow, 1856-1924  Search this
Extent:
213 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Place:
Philippines -- History -- Japanese occupation, 1942-1945
Spain -- History -- 1939-1975
Date:
1993 April 19-1997 January 10
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Eleanor Sayre conducted 1993 April 19-1997 January 10, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Sayre talks about her early childhood in Williamstown and Cambridge, Mass.; her family background; visits to the White House with her maternal grandfather, Woodrow Wilson; living abroad while her father was in government service in Bangkok, then Siam (now Thailand), Paris, and Switzerland, with extensive recollections of her brothers and schooling in Europe.
Attending Winsor School in Boston; her mother's death; her years at Bryn Mawr College, including her switch to art history from political science; Georgianna Goddard King as an influential teacher; an internship under Laura Dudley at the Fogg Art Museum's Print Room and the lasting effect of this experience.
Being a graduate student in fine arts at Harvard and the importance of Edward Forbes and Paul Sachs as teachers; her decision not to pursue a PhD; working with Jakob Rosenberg; helping to get young Jews out of Europe; her position as assistant for exhibitions at Yale University Art Gallery under Theodore Sizer; the trauma of her father's internment by the Japanese in the Philippines, where he was High Commissioner and his rescue; and her decision to turn down a military intelligence job in order to work with German Jewish refugees.
Her brief tenure at Lyman-Allyn Museum, Conn., under Winslow Ames; her years in the education department under Lydia "Ma" Powel at the Museum of Art of the Rhode Island School of Design with Gordon Washburn as director; and working closely with Heinrich Schwartz on prints and drawings.
The liberal tradition of her father's wealthy family; her father; being brought to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston by its curator of prints, Henry Rossiter and on the charming collector and benefactor, Maxim Karolik; MFA curator of paintings, William George Constable; and George Harold Edgell, MFA director.
The collector, Philip Hofer, who by putting his Goya proofs on loan at the MFA, led to Sayre's life-long study of the artist; her research on Goya in Spain; raising of a large sum from Boston businesses to purchase Hofer's prints for the MFA, and the MFA's eminence by the 1960s in Goya's graphic work; the disgusting repression of dissent in Franco-era Spain; Goya's passionate self-assertion, which is what principally attracted Sayre to his work, and his conceptual process and method of work.
Earlier years at the MFA, Boston, including the accessibility of the print department's study rooms; Edwin J. Hipkiss, curator of American decorative arts; the Christmas poetry and prints exhibitions designed as profound learning experiences for a broad public; and being chosen as successor to Rossiter; and further comments on Maxim Karolik.
W.G. Russell Allen and other collectors who gave their collections to the MFA; her efforts to effectively present art to the broad public; her methods of appealing to the public coalescing at the MFA in 1989 with the "Goya and the Spirit of the Enlightenment" exhibition; and an exhibition of the work of Beatrix Potter.
Spain under the dictator, Francisco Franco; her first study in Spain of Goya's drawings and her urging the Prado Museum to conserve its drawings; the Prado's director, F. Sanchez-Canton; her research on prostitution at the Ministry of Justice; being decorated for her recommending the preservation of Goya's art and the marvelous private collections of Goya in Spain; and her obsession with interpreting the meaning of Goya's work.
The MFA, Boston, under the directorship of Perry Rathbone, who wanted many more people involved than had his predecessor, George Harold Edgell, who ran it like a Boston Brahmin Club; Rathbone's accomplishments; his downfall and that of his assistant (and curator of European decorative arts and sculpture) Hanns Swarzenski in bringing a so-called Raphael into this country by irregular means, which led to Rathbone and Swarzenski's firing by George Seybolt, the trustee president; Rathbone's reluctance to hire women curators and Sayre's finally becoming curator of prints and drawings in 1967; her philosophy as curator; on Hanns and Brigitte Swarzenski as dear friends; her exchange of positions with the curator of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, where she put their valuable but neglected print collection in order.
The exhibition and catalog, "Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher," (1969) in collaboration with the Pierpont Morgan Library; general views on exhibitions; co-authoring the exhibition catalog "Goya and the Spiris of Enlightenment" (1989); her contributions to Goya research; her current research and writing on Goya's Capaprichos print series; and her satisfaction in having spent her career in art museums.
Biographical / Historical:
Eleanor A. Sayre (1916-2001) was a curator and art historian from Boston, Mass.
General:
Originally recorded on 8 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 15 digital wav files. Duration is 11 hrs., 21 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Printmakers  Search this
Topic:
Art historians -- Interviews  Search this
Jewish refugees -- Germany  Search this
Museum curators -- Massachusetts -- Boston -- Interviews  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Germany -- Refugees  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Personal narratives, American  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.sayre93
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-sayre93

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