Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
32865 documents - page 1 of 500Result pages are truncated to 500.

Edmund Snow Carpenter papers

Creator:
Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011  Search this
Names:
De Menil, Adelaide  Search this
Flaherty, Robert Joseph, 1884-1951  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
McLuhan, Marshall, 1911-1980  Search this
Schuster, Carl, 1904-1969  Search this
Extent:
26.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Iglulik Eskimos  Search this
Inuit  Search this
Inuit--Canada  Search this
Inuit--Greenland  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Canada
Greenland
New Guinea (Territory)
Papua New Guinea
Date:
circa 1938-2011
Summary:
Edmund Snow Carpenter (1922-2011) was an archaeologist and visual anthropologist who worked extensively with the indigenous peoples of the Canadian Arctic as well as Papua New Guinea. With his colleague and close collaborator Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), he laid the groundwork for modern media theory. Carpenter is also known for his work as an ethnographic filmmaker and as a collector of Paleo-Eskimo art. The Papers of Edmund Carpenter, circa 1938-2011, document the research interests and projects undertaken by Carpenter in the fields of cultural anthropology, ethnographic filmmaking, media theory, archaeology, and indigenous art.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Edmund Carpenter, 1940-2011, document the research interests and projects undertaken by Carpenter in the fields of cultural anthropology, ethnographic filmmaking, media theory, archaeology, and indigenous art. Specific research projects and interests documented are: his 1950s fieldwork among the Aivilik Inuit in the Canadian Arctic as well as his studies into Inuit concepts of space, time, and geography; his partnership and collaboration with media theorist Marshall McLuhan and his ethnographic studies of Papua New Guinean tribal communities; his early-career archaeological digs at Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) burial mounds in Sugar Run, Pennsylvania, as well as later archaeological interest in Arctic peoples, Siberia, and the Norwegian artifact dubbed the "Norse Penny"; his reflections on the disciplines of anthropology and media studies; his editing and completion of the work of art historian Carl Schuster at the Museum der Kulturen (Museum of Ethnology) in Basel, Switzerland; his editing of The Story of Comock the Eskimo, as told to Robert Flaherty; and his museum exhibitions compiled on the topics of surrealist and tribal art. The collection also documents Carpenter's correspondence with fellow scholars, ethnographers, filmmakers, and colleagues; his published writings; and elements of his personal life, such as obituaries and personal photographs.

Materials in this collection include artifact and burial records; correspondence; drawings and illustrations; essays; interviews and oral histories; inventories and catalogues; manuscripts and drafts, and fragments of drafts; maps; memoranda and meeting minutes; notes, notebooks, and data analysis; obituaries and memorials; photographic prints, slides, and negatives, including personal photographs and portraits; proposals and plans for museum exhibits; reports; resumes and bibliographies; reviews; and sound recordings on CD-Rs and audio cassettes. Additional materials include books and book chapters; journal copies and journal excerpts; magazine, newspaper, and article clippings and excerpts; museum and gallery catalogues, brochures, and guides; pamphlets; and reprints. A portion of the material collected here consist of consolidated research into specific topics, gathered from archival repositories, museums, correspondence, and published works. This material consists of research reprints and archival reference photocopies and photographic prints from various repositories.

Items worthy of special mention in this collection include: annotated draft chapters from Marshall McLuhan's seminal work on media theory, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (Series 2); a 1957 letter from e. e. cummings to Carpenter, written in verse (Series 3); an undated thank-you note addressed to "Sadie" from Helen Keller (Series 3); and a transcript of an interview of Carpenter by his former student, Harald Prins (Series 2).

Audiovisual material in this collection is currently undergoing processing.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into the following 7 series:

Series 1. Fieldwork and drafts, 1940-2011 (bulk 1940-1959)

Series 2. Research and project files, 1940-2011

Series 3. Correspondence, circa 1938-2011

Series 4. Publications and lectures, circa 1942-circa 2006

Series 5. Personal, 1942-2011

Series 6. Film and visual material (in-process)

Series 7. Writings by others, 1960-2009, undated
Biographical Note:
Edmund Snow Carpenter (1922-2011) was an archaeologist and visual anthropologist who worked extensively with the indigenous peoples of the Canadian Arctic and Papua New Guinea. With his colleague and close collaborator Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), he laid the groundwork for modern media theory. Carpenter is also known for his work as an ethnographic filmmaker and as a collector of Paleo-Eskimo art.

Born in 1922 in Rochester, New York, Edmund (nicknamed "Ted") Carpenter served in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II before receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1950 under Frank Speck for work on Iroquoian prehistoric archaeology. Carpenter began teaching at the University of Toronto in 1948 while simultaneously working as a programmer for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). In the 1950s, he undertook fieldwork in the Canadian Arctic among the Aivilik (an Inuit Igloolik subgroup). This fieldwork resulted in several publications in the field of cultural anthropology, including Time/Space Concepts of the Aivilik (1955), Anerca (1959), and Eskimo (1959, republished as Eskimo Realities in 1973).

Also in the 1950s, Carpenter began a working relationship with media theorist Marshall McLuhan. Together, they received a Ford Foundation grant (1953-1955) for an interdisciplinary media research project into the impact of mass communications and mass media on culture change. Carpenter and McLuhan's partnership resulted in the Seminar on Culture and Communication (1953-1959) and the journal series Explorations. In 1957, Carpenter was the founding chair in the interdisciplinary program "Anthropology and Art" at San Fernando Valley State College (now California State University, Northridge). There, he collaborated with Bess Lomax Hawes and other colleagues in the production of several ethnographic films, including Georgia Sea Island Singers about Gullah (or Geechee) songs and dances. During this period, Carpenter worked with McLuhan on the latter's seminal book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). The article published as "Fashion is Language" in Harper's Bazaar under McLuhan's name (1968) was actually written by Carpenter. It was later published in book form under Carpenter's name, with the title They Became What They Beheld (1970).

In 1969, Carpenter took a research professorship at the University of Papua and New Guinea sponsored by the government of Australia. Alongside photographer Adelaide De Menil (whom he would later marry), he applied many of the ideas about media literacy and culture change to indigenous communities of Papua New Guinea. These activities led to developments in the field of media ecology, as well as the publication of Carpenter's best-known work, Oh, What a Blow the Phantom Gave Me! (1976).

Carpenter taught intermittently at various universities throughout his career, including Fordham University, the University of California-Santa Cruz, Adelphi University, Harvard University's Center for Visual Anthropology, the New School for Social Research, and New York University. He spent eight years associated with the Museum of Ethnology in Basel, Switzerland (1973-1981), editing art historian Carl Schuster's research.

In addition to his teaching and research, Carpenter, with his wife Adelaide De Menil, collected tribal art, eventually amassing the largest private collection of Paleo-Eskimo art in the United States. In the 1990s and early 2000s, Carpenter curated various exhibitions on art and visual culture, including the Menil Collection's Witness to a Surrealist Vision and the Musée du Quai Branly's Upside Down (later reconstructed at the Menil Collection). In later years, Carpenter resumed his archaeological interest in Arctic peoples, researching and collaborating on the Zhokhov Island Mesolithic site in the Russian Arctic with Russian scientists from the Institute for the History of Material Culture and archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.

Carpenter died on July 1, 2011 at his home in New York.

Sources consulted:

"Edmund Snow Carpenter." https://edmundsnowcarpenter.com/about

Grimes, William. "Edmund Carpenter, Archaeologist and Anthropologist, Dies at 88." The New York Times. 2011 July 7. https://www.nytimes.com

Prins, Harald E. L. and John Bishop. "Edmund Carpenter: Explorations in Media and Anthropology." Visual Anthropology Review 17:2 (Fall-Winter 2001-2002): 110-140.

Chronology

1922 September 2 -- Born in Rochester, New York

circa 1940-1941 -- Archaeological field work, Sugar Run mounds, Pennsylvania

1942-1946 -- Served in the United States Marine Corps

1948-1957 -- Anthropology Department, University of Toronto

circa 1950 -- Began work for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)

1950 -- Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania (Anthropology)

1950s -- Fieldwork among the Aivilik Inuit

1953-1959 -- Ran the Seminar on Culture and Communication with Marshall McLuhan

1957-1967 -- "Anthropology and Art" program at San Fernando Valley State College (California State University, Northridge)

1967-1968 -- Schwitzer Chair, Fordham University (with Marshall McLuhan)

1968-1969 -- Carnegie Chair in Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz

1969-1970 -- Research Professor, University of Papua and New Guinea

1973-1981 -- Associated with the Museum of Ethnology in Basel, Switzerland for Carl Schuster papers project

circa 1989-2005 -- Collaboration regarding Zhokov Island archaeological site

2011 July 1 -- Died in East Hampton, New York
Separated Materials:
Film and video recordings are retained by the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA) as the Edmund Carpenter-Adelaide de Menil Collection (HSFA 2004-04). Once processing is complete, they will be described in the following finding aid in Series 6.
Provenance:
The Edmund Snow Carpenter papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in 2017 by Adelaide de Menil on behalf of the Rock Foundation.
Restrictions:
The Edmund Snow Carpenter papers are open for research.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice. Please contact the archives for information on availability of access copies of audiovisual recordings. Original audiovisual material in the Human Studies Film Archives may not be played.

Digital media in the collection is restricted for preservation reasons.

Access to the Edmund Snow Carpenter papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Cartography  Search this
Ethnographic films  Search this
Indigenous art  Search this
Inuit art  Search this
Menil Collection (Houston, Tex.)  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Paleo-Eskimos  Search this
Visual anthropology  Search this
Citation:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2017-27
See more items in:
Edmund Snow Carpenter papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2017-27
Online Media:

On the Trail of Wild Wolves

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service Podcasts  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/x-m4v
Uploaded:
Tue, 28 Feb 2012 12:00:00 EST
Topic:
Exhibition  Search this
See more episodes:
Smithsonian Channel Presents Women in Science
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service Podcasts
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_ea4c5cafcd1907541abf11bb136b4d72

Edward and Thelma Frazier Winter papers, 1908-1973

Creator:
Winter, Edward, 1908-1976  Search this
Winter, Thelma Frazier, 1903-1977  Search this
Subject:
Rowan, Edward Beatty  Search this
Olmsted, Anna Wetherill  Search this
Butler, Joseph G. (Joseph Green),  Search this
Head, Matthew  Search this
Gregory, Waylande  Search this
Topic:
Enamel and enameling  Search this
Women sculptors  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8629
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210809
AAA_collcode_wintedwa
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210809

New York Artists Equity Association records, 1920-2012

Creator:
New York Artists Equity Association  Search this
Subject:
Marinoff, Elaine  Search this
Steinbaum, Bernice  Search this
Gross, Chaim  Search this
Simon, Sidney  Search this
O'Hanlon, Richard E. (Richard Emmett)  Search this
Cherry, Denny Winters  Search this
Stirton, Laura  Search this
Laufman, Sidney  Search this
Walker, Hudson D. (Hudson Dean)  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Mandel, Howard  Search this
Carswell, Mary  Search this
Newman, Elias  Search this
Diener, Bert  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Kramer, Hilton  Search this
Gillespie, Dorothy Muriel  Search this
Phillips, Renée  Search this
Gussow, Alan  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen  Search this
Poroner, Palmer  Search this
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Zaleski, Jean  Search this
Facci, Domenico Aurelio  Search this
Fiene, Ernest  Search this
Lipsky, Eleanor  Search this
Sloan, John French  Search this
Karp, Ivan C.  Search this
Goulet, Lorrie H.  Search this
Fuller, Sue  Search this
Sandler, Irving  Search this
Kertess, Klaus  Search this
Gussow, Roy  Search this
Bibro, Denise  Search this
Golub, Leon  Search this
Waterson, Harry  Search this
Ashford, Doug  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Brodski, Judith  Search this
Hayter, Stanley William  Search this
Kotik, Charlotte  Search this
Cohen, Jean  Search this
Rothschild, Lincoln  Search this
Wayne, June Claire  Search this
Kroll, Leon  Search this
Babin, Angela  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Searles, Charles Robert  Search this
Teller, Susan  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Berger, Ted  Search this
Bolotsky, Marvin  Search this
Morris, George L. K. (George Lovett Kingsland)  Search this
Smart, Bill  Search this
Phillips, Helen  Search this
Hall, Nan  Search this
Hasen, Burt  Search this
Reeves, Ruth  Search this
deLisser, Carolyn  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Marxer, Donna  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Avery, Frances  Search this
Concholar, Dan  Search this
Millman, Edward  Search this
Art Bank (U.S.)  Search this
Artists Welfare Fund  Search this
Broome Street Gallery  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Video recordings
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9541
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211741
AAA_collcode_nyarteqa
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211741
Online Media:

Frank K.M. Rehn Galleries records, 1858-1969, bulk 1919-1968

Creator:
Frank K.M. Rehn Galleries  Search this
Subject:
Marsh, Felicia Meyer  Search this
Speicher, Eugene Edward  Search this
Young, Mahonri Mackintosh  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O.  Search this
Russo, Alexander  Search this
Hopper, Jo N. (Josephine Nivison),  Search this
Henri, Robert  Search this
Cuthbert, Virginia  Search this
Chappell, Warren  Search this
Brook, Alexander  Search this
Dasburg, Andrew Michael  Search this
McFee, Henry Lee  Search this
Spruance, Benton  Search this
Sparhawk-Jones, Elizabeth  Search this
Hawthorne, Charles Webster  Search this
Tucker, Allen  Search this
Kroll, Leon  Search this
Bartlett, Frederic Clay  Search this
Melchers, Gari  Search this
Phillips, Duncan  Search this
Spalding, John T.  Search this
Orton, J. Robert  Search this
Poor, Henry Varnum  Search this
Mangravite, Peppino Gino  Search this
Marsh, Reginald  Search this
Pepper, Charles Hovey  Search this
Cherry, Denny Winters  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin  Search this
Bellows, George  Search this
Strater, Henry A.  Search this
Gellatly, John  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
James, Alexander  Search this
Clancy, John  Search this
Tucker, Richard Derby  Search this
Cook, Howard Norton  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Art, Modern  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9193
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211388
AAA_collcode_franrehg
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Art Movements and Schools
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211388
Online Media:

Karl E. Fortess taped interviews with artists, circa 1963-1985

Creator:
Fortess, Karl E. (Karl Eugene), 1907-1993  Search this
Subject:
Penney, James  Search this
Kahn, Wolf  Search this
Sample, Paul Starrett  Search this
Greene, Balcomb  Search this
Avery, Sally Michel  Search this
Thon, William  Search this
Pattison, Abbott Lawrence  Search this
Lockspeiser, Mary  Search this
Melcarth, Edward  Search this
D'Arcangelo, Allan  Search this
Hudson, Gary Van Voorhees  Search this
Alexander, F. O. (Franklin Osborne)  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter  Search this
Klitgaard, Georgina  Search this
Kupferman, Lawrence Edward  Search this
Motherwell, Robert Burns  Search this
Knaths, Karl  Search this
Palmer, William C. (William Charles)  Search this
Weinberg, Elbert  Search this
Ferber, Herbert  Search this
Prohaska, Ray  Search this
Mandel, Howard  Search this
Adler, Samuel  Search this
Groth, John  Search this
Candell, Victor  Search this
Gross, Chaim  Search this
Leslie, Alfred  Search this
Simon, Sidney  Search this
Callahan, Kenneth L.  Search this
Reich, Murray  Search this
Greenwood, Marion  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Baber, Alice  Search this
Schreiber, Georges  Search this
Pittman, Hobson Lafayette  Search this
Brooks, James  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell  Search this
Ossorio, Alfonso A.  Search this
Marantz, Irving  Search this
Moy, Seong  Search this
Boghosian, Varujan  Search this
Kingman, Dong  Search this
Alcalay, Albert  Search this
Burlin, Paul  Search this
Nakian, Reuben  Search this
Cherry, Denny Winters  Search this
Berger, Jason  Search this
Dehner, Dorothy  Search this
Blanch, Arnold  Search this
Engle, Harry  Search this
Rickey, George  Search this
Kallem, Henry  Search this
Sternberg, Harry  Search this
Levi, Julian E. (Julian Edwin)  Search this
Opper, John  Search this
Schwartz, Henry  Search this
De Diego, Julio  Search this
Angeloch, Robert  Search this
Baumbach, Harold  Search this
Manso, Leo  Search this
Orsini, Robert  Search this
Bell, Leland  Search this
Vytlacil, Vaclav  Search this
Laning, Edward  Search this
Jenkins, Paul  Search this
Passlof, Pat (Patricia)  Search this
Wilson, John Woodrow  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
Mazur, Michael  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Jules, Mervin  Search this
Mattson, Henry E (Henry Elis)  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen  Search this
Martin, Fletcher  Search this
Parker, Raymond  Search this
Blume, Peter  Search this
Magafan, Ethel  Search this
Picken, George  Search this
Marcus, Marcia  Search this
De Creeft, José  Search this
Murch, Walter Tandy  Search this
Neel, Alice  Search this
Hoener, Arthur  Search this
Gibran, Kahlil  Search this
Solman, Joseph  Search this
Soyer, Isaac  Search this
Yarde, Richard  Search this
Rivers, Larry  Search this
Koch, John  Search this
Kaz, Nathaniel  Search this
Grippe, Peter J.  Search this
Armitage, Kenneth  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Eichenberg, Fritz  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Neustadt, Barbara  Search this
Lee, Doris  Search this
Florsheim, Richard A.  Search this
Lipton, Seymour  Search this
Blackburn, Robert Hamilton  Search this
Demetropoulos, Charles  Search this
King, William Dickey  Search this
Romano, Umberto Roberto  Search this
Floch, Joseph  Search this
Harmon, Lily  Search this
Schrag, Karl  Search this
Pachner, William  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C.  Search this
Laderman, Gabriel  Search this
Marsicano, Nicholas  Search this
Sander, Ludwig  Search this
Lechay, James  Search this
Soyer, Raphael  Search this
Pike, John  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph  Search this
Pineda, Marianna  Search this
Katz, Alex  Search this
Breinin, Raymond  Search this
Morgan, Maud Cabot  Search this
Cherry, Herman  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier  Search this
Dodd, Lamar  Search this
Weeks, James  Search this
Ernst, Jimmy  Search this
Levine, Jack  Search this
Citron, Minna Wright  Search this
Glaser, Milton  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph  Search this
Lassaw, Ibram  Search this
Cusumano, Stefano  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault  Search this
Dehn, Adolf Arthur  Search this
Fine, Perle  Search this
Laufman, Sidney  Search this
Swan, Barbara  Search this
Chavez, Edward Arcenio  Search this
Stoltenberg, Donald  Search this
Tovish, Harold  Search this
Haeberlin, Carolyn  Search this
Vehara, Carole  Search this
Heliker, John Edward  Search this
Summers, Carol  Search this
Kroll, Leon  Search this
Poons, Larry  Search this
Taylor, John  Search this
Crampton, Rollin McNeil  Search this
Morris, Kyle Randolph  Search this
Scarlett, Rolph  Search this
Dobkin, Alexander  Search this
Kepes, George  Search this
Rosati, James  Search this
Cote, Alan A.  Search this
Baskin, Leonard  Search this
Hurwitz, Sidney  Search this
Nivola, Costantino  Search this
Steinberg, Hedda  Search this
Busa, Peter  Search this
Metcalf, Conger A.  Search this
Preusser, Robert O. (Robert Ormerod)  Search this
Maril, Herman  Search this
Brook, Alexander  Search this
Hopper, Jo N. (Josephine Nivison),  Search this
Toney, Anthony  Search this
Vickrey, Robert  Search this
Muench, John  Search this
Lasker, Joe  Search this
Kaplan, Joseph  Search this
Solomon, Hyde  Search this
Russo, Alexander  Search this
Crawford, Ralston  Search this
Hale, Robert Beverly  Search this
Matsubara, Naoko  Search this
Abeles, Sigmund  Search this
Moffett, Ross E.  Search this
Loew, Michael  Search this
Moss, Ben Frank  Search this
Philipp, Robert  Search this
Townley, Hugh  Search this
Rose, Herman  Search this
Aach, Herbert  Search this
Merkin, Richard  Search this
Frasconi, Antonio  Search this
Lee-Smith, Hughie  Search this
Milton, Peter Winslow  Search this
Bearden, Romare  Search this
Bourgeois, Louise  Search this
Ponce de Leon, Michael  Search this
Pickens, Alton  Search this
Barnet, Will  Search this
Kienbusch, William Austin  Search this
Cox, Jan  Search this
Petrov, Dimitre  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Kay, Reed  Search this
Bromberg, Manuel  Search this
Dodd, Betty  Search this
Woodruff, Hale Aspacio  Search this
Bishop, Isabel  Search this
Christ-Janer, Albert  Search this
Pearlstein, Philip  Search this
Mason, Emily  Search this
Hillsmith, Fannie  Search this
Leiber, Gerson August  Search this
Lewis, Norman  Search this
Polonsky, Arthur  Search this
Golub, Leon  Search this
Bohlen, Nina  Search this
Finkelstein, Louis  Search this
Held, Alvin Jacob  Search this
Brandt, Warren  Search this
Peterdi, Gabor  Search this
Birmelin, Robert  Search this
Small, Hannah  Search this
Bolotowsky, Ilya  Search this
Solomon, Syd  Search this
Schwartz, Manfred  Search this
Castellón, Federico  Search this
Plate, Walter  Search this
Soyer, Moses  Search this
Schmidt, Katherine  Search this
Kallem, Herbert  Search this
Blanch, Lucile Lundquist  Search this
Tam, Reuben  Search this
Neuman, Robert S. (Robert Sterling)  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert  Search this
Morris, George L. K. (George Lovett Kingsland)  Search this
White, Charles  Search this
Chaet, Bernard  Search this
Sokole, Miron  Search this
Eshoo, Robert  Search this
Stone, Sylvia  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Browning, Colleen  Search this
Wilson, Reginald  Search this
Biddle, George  Search this
Vicente, Esteban  Search this
Chasteen, Ancil  Search this
Margo, Boris  Search this
Freilicher, Jane  Search this
Moller, Hans  Search this
Steffen, Bernard J.  Search this
Gikow, Ruth Levine  Search this
Sievan, Maurice  Search this
Katzman, Herbert  Search this
Resnick, Milton  Search this
Reisman, Philip  Search this
Botkin, Henry  Search this
Wilson, Sol  Search this
Stamos, Theodoros  Search this
Prestopino, Gregorio  Search this
D'Arista, Robert  Search this
Alston, Charles Henry  Search this
Georges, Paul  Search this
Edwards, Ethel  Search this
Graziani, Sante  Search this
Hovannes, John  Search this
Redein, Alex  Search this
Lucioni, Luigi  Search this
Cox, Gardner  Search this
Isenburger, Eric  Search this
Sanders, Joop A.  Search this
Salemme, Lucy  Search this
Andrews, Benny  Search this
Stasik, Andrew  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13399
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216518
AAA_collcode_fortkarl
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_216518

Harry Bowden papers, 1922-1972

Creator:
Bowden, Harry, 1907-1965  Search this
Subject:
McNeil, George  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Onslow-Ford, Gordon  Search this
Hobbs, Fredric  Search this
Weston, Brett  Search this
Weston, Edward  Search this
Post, George Booth  Search this
Reinhardt, Adolph Dietrich Friedrich  Search this
Steichen, Edward  Search this
Smith, Hassel Wendell  Search this
Krasner, Lee  Search this
Campbell, Charles  Search this
Johnson, Robert E. (Robert Emory)  Search this
Hirsch, Hy  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Hofmann, Hans  Search this
Schevill, James Erwin  Search this
Huxley, Aldous  Search this
Bransom, Paul  Search this
White, Minor  Search this
American Abstract Artists  Search this
Topic:
Photography, Artistic  Search this
Painting, Abstract  Search this
Painters  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6780
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208906
AAA_collcode_bowdharr
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Photography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208906

Jerry Bywaters papers, [ca. 1900-1979]

Creator:
Bywaters, Jerry, 1906-1989  Search this
Subject:
Head, Matthew  Search this
Hurd, Peter  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew  Search this
Nicholson, Ben  Search this
Goodrich, Lloyd  Search this
Dobie, J. Frank (James Frank)  Search this
Bellows, Emma Louise Story  Search this
Staub, John F.  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
Hertzog, Carl  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Lea, Tom  Search this
D'Harnoncourt, Rene  Search this
Albright, Ivan  Search this
Barr, Alfred H.  Search this
Mayor, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt)  Search this
Cisneros, José  Search this
Cullinan, Nina J.  Search this
Kimball, Fiske  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Dallas Art Association  Search this
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Architects  Search this
Art patrons  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5444
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211288
AAA_collcode_bywajerr
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Lives of American Artists
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Art Theory and Historiography
Architecture & Design
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211288

The White Pasture

Artist:
Willard Metcalf (1858-1925)  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
H x W: 66.1 x 73.7 cm (26 x 29 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
United States
Date:
1917
Topic:
landscape  Search this
winter  Search this
snow  Search this
United States  Search this
American Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number:
F1917.249a-b
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3b26a40c9-2e01-4182-877d-fecf12ea059f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1917.249a-b

Monadnock No. 2

Artist:
Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921)  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
H x W: 90.2 x 90.2 cm (35 1/2 x 35 1/2 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
United States
Date:
1912
Topic:
winter  Search this
mountain  Search this
snow  Search this
sun  Search this
United States  Search this
American Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number:
F1913.93a-b
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye36ddb4096-630d-489b-8983-ac2e7989feb4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1913.93a-b

Frostbitten Wood and Field

Artist:
John Francis Murphy (1853-1921)  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
H x W: 76.5 x 91.6 cm (30 1/8 x 36 1/16 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
United States
Date:
1914
Topic:
landscape  Search this
tree  Search this
winter  Search this
United States  Search this
American Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number:
F1915.28a-b
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3685b0478-c5e1-4729-8d14-261276b971ec
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1915.28a-b

Monadnock in Winter

Artist:
Abbott Handerson Thayer (1849-1921)  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
H x W: 90.5 x 90.5 cm (35 5/8 x 35 5/8 in)
Type:
Painting
Origin:
United States
Date:
1904
Topic:
winter  Search this
mountain  Search this
United States  Search this
American Art  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number:
F1904.359a-b
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Related Online Resources:
Google Cultural Institute
See more items in:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Collection
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ye3e1f979ff-de2c-427e-a3bc-7d7388757639
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:fsg_F1904.359a-b

Coffee Drinking in the United States Pan American Coffee Bureau Winter New York

Collection Creator:
Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 11, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1958-1974
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records, 1856-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
See more items in:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records / Series 3: Reference Files / 3.2: Coffee Industry and Others Publishers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0395-ref2606

A Little at a Time, (Winter/Spring) and Three Outstanding Values

Collection Creator:
Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 69, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1933
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records, 1856-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
See more items in:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records / Series 4: Advertising Materials / 4.4: Advertising Portfolios
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0395-ref2731

A Little at a Time, (Winter/Spring) and Three Outstanding Values

Collection Creator:
Hills Bros. Coffee, Inc.  Search this
Container:
Box 84, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1933
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records, 1856-1989, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian.
See more items in:
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records
Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Incorporated Records / Series 4: Advertising Materials / 4.4: Advertising Portfolios
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0395-ref2732

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography

Creator:
Mallery, Garrick, 1831-1894  Search this
Extent:
41.29 Linear feet (22 boxes, 29 folders, 3 mounted drawings, and 3 rolled items)
Note:
Some materials, especially in series 3, are stored in the NAA artwork collection.
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Place:
Oceania
Date:
1849-1902
bulk 1870-1895
Summary:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was an ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology who focused primarily on Native American sign language and pictography. This collection reflects Mallery's research interests and methods. Much of the collection is comprised of correspondence and notes relating to sign language and pictography and is organized chiefly by either the cultural or geographic region to which the material belongs. Bound volumes of several of his publications are included, along with annotated draft copies from collaborators. In the case of Mallery's work on pictography, the collection includes several oversize items including original works and reproductions.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains Garrick Mallery's research and writings as a BAE ethnologist, and is largely comprised of correspondence and preparatory materials for publications on Native American sign language and pictography. The geographic scope of the material is chiefly the present-day United States and Canada, though other areas of the world are represented less comprehensively. Correspondence and research notes include verbal descriptions of signs, sometimes with illustrations included. Bound volumes of Mallery's publications are included, along with annotations from collaborators. In addition, this collection includes notecards, drawings, illustrations, photographs, articles, and art objects. Art objects (mostly oversize) deal chiefly with Dakota winter counts and other artifacts.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 3 series: 1) Research Notes, undated; 2) Materials on Sign Language, 1843-1849, 1873-1894; 3) Materials on Pictographs and Petroglyphs, 1849-1902, undated
Biographical Note:
Garrick Mallery (1831-1894) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania and practiced law in Philadelphia from 1853 until the outbreak of the American Civil War. While serving in the army, he became interested in Native American sign language and pictography, perhaps while performing his duties in frontier areas. After retiring from the military in 1879, Mallery was appointed to the newly created Bureau of American Ethnology as one of its first ethnologists. In his work with the Bureau, Mallery pioneered the study of sign language and pictographs, examining them as a universal human phenomenon with a direct link to spoken language.

In his work, Mallery collected and examined sign language vocabulary from Native American groups throughout the U.S. and Canada and regularly solicited contributions from collaborators. He also related his findings to examples from the wider world, comparing the formation of Native American signs to those in other areas by hearing individuals and by the deaf. Mallery completed several publications on the topic throughout the 1880s, notably Introduction to the Study of Sign language Among the North American Indians (1880), A Collection of Gesture- Signs and Signals of the North American Indians (1880), and "Sign-language among North American Indians Compared with that Among other People and Deaf-mutes," which appeared in the BAE 1st Annual Report (1881).

While most widely known for his work with sign language, Mallery also undertook extensive research into Native American pictography. Like his work with sign language, he both conducted original research and solicited assistance from collaborators. He was especially interested in the representational images in Dakota winter counts and petroglyphs in the United States and throughout the world.

Sources Consulted

Fletcher, Robert. "Garrick Mallery, President of the Philosophical Society of Washington, in 1888." In Brief Memoirs of Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., Who Died October 24, 1894, 3-8. Washington: Judd & Detweiler, 1895.

Fletcher, Robert. "Colonel Garrick Mallery, U.S.A." American Anthropologist 8, no. 2 (1895): 79-80.

Chronology

1831 -- Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on April 25

1850 -- Graduates Yale College

1853 -- Earns LL. B. from the University of Pennsylvania Admitted to the Pennsylvania bar

1853-1861 -- Practices law in Philadelphia

1861 -- Enters the volunteer army of the United States

1862 -- Severely wounded in the battle of Peach Orchard, Virginia Captured and held prisoner at Libby prison in Richmond, Virginia

1866 -- Completes service with volunteer army of the United States Accepts commission in regular army of the United States

1870 -- Marries Helen W. Wyckoff

1879 -- Retires from the United States army due to disability Appointed to the Bureau of American Ethnology

1880 -- Publishes Introduction to the Study of Sign-Language Among the North American Indians as Illustrating the Gesture-Speech of Mankind and A Collection of Gesture-Signs and Signals of the North American Indians With Some Comparisons

1881 -- Publishes "Sign Language Among North American Indians, Compared with that Among Other Peoples and Deaf-Mutes"

1894 -- Dies after a short illness in Washington, D.C., on October 24
Related Materials:
See MS 2322 A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians for more of Garrick Mallery's work on sign language.
Provenance:
MS 2372 was transferred from the Bureau of Ethnology Archives to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
Manuscript 2372 is open for research.

Access to Manuscript 2372 requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Citation:
Manuscript 2372, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2372
See more items in:
MS 2372 Garrick Mallery Collection on Sign Language and Pictography
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2372
Online Media:

William Duncan Strong papers

Creator:
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Names:
Columbia University  Search this
Institute of Andean Research Viru Valley Project  Search this
Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition  Search this
Extent:
64.88 Linear feet (87 boxes; 16 map folders; and 14 boxes of nitrate negatives, which are not included in the linear feet extent measurement)
Culture:
Eskimos  Search this
Arikara Indians  Search this
Naskapi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
North Dakota -- Archeology
South Dakota -- Archeology
Great Plains
Honduras -- Archeology
Labrador (N.L.)
Nebraska -- Archeology
Columbia River Valley
Date:
1902-1965
bulk 1927-1955
Summary:
William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World and was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, where he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.
Scope and Contents:
Strong's papers include correspondence, field notes, diaries, newspaper clippings, teaching notes and student papers, manuscripts of his writings, writings by other authors, papers from the various organizations in which he served, maps, and a considerable number of photographs from his field work. The materials date from 1902 to 1965, with most of the materials being from 1927 to 1955.

Strong's papers reflect his professional life, but there is little personal material. Except for the Rawson-MacMillan Labrador Expedition, there is little information from Strong's years at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. Other than information on field work expenses, there is little light shed on Strong's personal financial situation. There is no personal correspondence with either of his wives and little correspondence with family members, except for his brother, Ronald. Some correspondence from the late 1930s to the early 1940s is not present and its whereabouts is not known. Of special interest is a collection of drawings by Naskapi Indian children collected while Strong was on the Labrador expedition in 1928. Strong collected obituaries, vitae, news articles, and writings on and by other anthropologists. He was an inveterate doodler, and his fascinating creations appear throughout the papers.

Strong also collected materials from other researchers, including Loren Eiseley's 1931 field notes from the Morrill Expedition, Maurice Kirby's 1932 notes on the Signal Butte excavations, notes and drawings from the 1936 Honduras expedition by Alfred V. Kidder II, and the field notebooks kept by Clifford Evans for the 1946 Virú Valley expedition in Peru. Contributed photographs from field expeditions are from A.T. Hill, Waldo Wedel, and John Champe.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 12 series: (1) Miscellaneous personal papers, 1914-1963; (2) Correspondence, 1922-1965; (3) Materials relating to field work, 1921-1963; (4) Miscellaneous research notes, 1917-1960, most undated; (5) Maps and charts, 1902-1949; (6) Drawings by Naskapi Indians and Eskimos, 1910, 1928; (7) Manuscripts of writings, 1922-1962, undated; (8) Writings by other authors, 1902-1961; (9) Papers relating to organizations, 1926-1961; (10) Teaching materials and course work, 1909, 1928-1961; (11) Miscellany, 1902-1961, most undated; (12) Photographs, 1913-1950.
Biographical Note:
William Duncan Strong (1899-1962) was a major figure in American anthropology. His accomplishments were as a field worker in archaeology and ethnology, archaeological theorist, writer, and teacher. He was, furthermore, a leader in anthropological organizations. In 1954, his position in the field was recognized by the award of the Viking Fund Medal for his contributions to archaeology.

William Duncan Strong's early interest was in zoology, but, while an undergraduate at the University of California, he was brought into anthropology under the influence of Alfred Louis Kroeber. He conducted archaeological and ethnological field research in several areas of the New World, including Labrador, southern California, Honduras, and Peru. Strong was the first professionally trained archaeologist to focus on the Great Plains, and it was there that he applied the so-called direct historical method, working from known history in interpreting archaeological sites. His work in all these areas are represented by notebooks, diaries, specimen catalogues, maps, and photographs.

Strong spent the majority of his professional life affiliated with various universities and taught many anthropologists who became influential in their own right. His students included Loren Eiseley, Waldo R. Wedel, Joseph Jablow, Oscar Lewis, John Landgraf, Dorothy Keur, David Stout, Charles Wagley, Eleanor Leacock, John Champe, Albert C. Spaulding, Victor Barnouw, John M. Corbett, Walter Fairservis, and Richard B. Woodbury. Strong preserved the student papers by some of these anthropologists as well as their correspondence with him.

Strong influenced American anthropology by his service in professional societies. He served as president of the American Ethnological Society, the Institute of Andean Research, and the Society for American Archaeology. He was the director of the Ethnogeographic Board (his journal from his tenure as director is in the papers) and chairman of the Committee on Basic Needs of American Archaeology. In this latter capacity, Strong was involved in establishing a program to salvage archaeological sites before they were destroyed by public works. Strong served as the anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs during Franklin Roosevelt's administration and advised on new directions to be taken in Indian Service policy.

Strong died suddenly on January 29, 1962.

Chronology

1899 -- Born January 30 in Portland, Oregon

1917 April-1919 January -- In the United States Navy aboard the U.S.S. South Dakota on convoy duty in the Atlantic Ocean

1922 -- Collected faunal specimens in the Canadian Rockies, Skeena River district, for the University of California Museum of Vertebrate Zoology

1923 -- A.B., University of California Studied Max Uhle's Peruvian archaeological collection Collected faunal specimens, Columbia River, Washington

Winter, 1923-1924 -- Archaeological investigations in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California under the direction of Edwin Winslow Gifford

1924-1925 -- Expedition to study Shoshonean tribes (the Serrano, Cahuilla, Cupeño, and Luiseño) of Southern California (Riverside and San Diego counties) under Alfred Louis Kroeber Archaeological surveys and excavations of three months each in the middle Columbia River Valley in Oregon and Washington

1925 -- Archaeological expedition and collection of faunal specimens in the San Pedro Martir Mountains, Baja California under W. Egbert Schenk

1925-1926 -- Research Assistant, Department of Anthropology, University of California

1926 -- PhD, Anthropology, University of California

1926 July-1929 August -- Assistant Curator of North American Ethnology and Archaeology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

1927 -- An Analysis of Southwestern Society (doctoral dissertation)

1927 June-1928 September -- Anthropologist on the Rawson-MacMillan September, 1928 Subarctic Expedition of the Field Museum Studied Naskapi and Eskimos in Labrador and on Baffin Island

1929 -- Married Jean Stevens

1929 August-1931 July -- Professor of Anthropology, University of Nebraska

1929 -- Published The Aboriginal Society of Southern California

1929-1931 -- Director, Archaeological Survey of Nebraska, University of Nebraska

1930 June 11-September 6 -- Excavated at Rock Bluff cemetery site

1931 -- Helped organize the First Plains Conference (held August 31-September 2)

1931-1932 -- Morrill Expedition, central and western Nebraska and North and South Dakota: ethnological investigations of Arikaras at Nishu, North Dakota; excavation at Signal Butte, Nebraska; and excavation at Leavenworth and Rygh village sites in South Dakota

1931 July-1937 August -- Senior Anthropologist, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution

1932 -- Archaeological survey of northeastern Honduras along the Mosquito Coast and the Patuca River, archaeological work on the Bay Islands, and ethnological investigation of Sumu Indians

1933-1934 -- Two Civilian Works Administration archaeological expeditions (five months each) in California in southern San Joaquin Valley, Kern County, at Tulamniu (a Yokuts village) and eastern Chumash area

1934-1937 -- Trustee, Laboratory of Anthropology, Sante Fe

1935 -- Anthropological consultant to the Bureau of Indian Affairs Assistant editor, American Antiquity Published Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras and An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology

1935-1937 -- Member, Committee on State Archeological Surveys, National Research Council

1936 -- Smithsonian Institution-Harvard expedition to northwestern Honduras to the valleys of the Chamelecon and the Ulua Rivers, Naco and other sites

1937-1962 -- Professor, later Chairman, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1937-1938 -- Vice-President, American Anthropological Association

1938 -- Fort Abraham Lincoln (Slant Mandan village) site and Sheyenne-Cheyenne village site excavations in North Dakota

1939 -- Chairman, National Research Council's Committee on Basic Needs in American Archaeology Excavated at Arzberger site in South Dakota and the area between the Chamberlain and Cheyenne Rivers

1940 -- Member, National Research Council's Committee on War Services of Anthropology Expeditions to western Florida and southwestern United States, especially New Mexico Peruvian archaeological survey

1941 -- Chairman, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1941-1942 -- President, American Ethnological Society Peruvian excavations at Pachacamac in the Chancay Valley and the Ancon-Supe excavations

1942? -- Peruvian excavations in the Naxca and Ica Valleys

1942-1944 -- Director, Ethnogeographic Board

1943 -- Published Cross Sections of New World Prehistory Appointed to Loubat Professorship at Columbia University

1945 -- Married Helen Richardson

1946 -- Peruvian excavations, Virú Valley Project National Research Council liaison member of the Committee for the Recovery of Archaeological Remains President, Institute of Andean Research

1948-1949 -- Chairman, Anthropology Section of New York Academy of Sciences

1949 July-August -- Peru-Mexico trip

1950 -- Talking Crow site expedition Excavated at Signal Butte

1952-1953 -- Peruvian expeditions, Nazca and Ica Valleys

1954 -- Awarded the Viking Fund Medal Trip to western United States

1955-1956 -- President, Society for American Archaeology

1962 -- Died January 29

Selected Bibliography

1929 -- Strong, William Duncan. Aboriginal Society of Southern California. Vol. 26, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1929.

1935 -- Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Investigations in the Bay islands, Spanish Honduras. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935. Strong, William Duncan. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. Vol. 93, no. 10, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1935.

1938 -- Strong, William Duncan, Alfred Kidder, II, and A.J. Drexel Pail, Jr. Preliminary Report on the Smithsonian Institution-Harvard University Archeological Expedition to Northwestern Honduras, 1936. Vol. 97, no. 1, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1938.

1943 -- Strong, William Duncan. Cross Sections of New World Prehistory: a Brief Report on the Work of the Institute of Andean Research, 1941-1942. Vol. 104, no. 2, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1943. Strong, William Duncan. Archeological Studies in Peru, 1941-1942. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

1948 -- "The Archeology of Honduras." In The Circum-Caribbean Tribes Vol. 4, Handbook of South American Indians, edited by Julian H. Steward, 71-120. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. 143. Washington: U.S. Government Print Office, 1948.

1952 -- Strong, William Duncan, and Clifford Evans. Cultural Stratigraphy in the Virú Valley, Northern Peru. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952.

For a complete bibliography of Strong's works, see Solecki, Ralph, and Charles Wagley. "William Duncan Strong, 1899-1962," American Anthropologist 65, no. 5 (October 1963): 1102-1111. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00080
Related Materials:
Additional materials in the National Anthropological Archives relating to William Duncan Strong can be found in the records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Handbook of South American Indians, Institute of Social Anthropology, River Basin Surveys, the Society for American Archaeology, and Tulamniu Project (1933-1934); the papers of Ralph Leon Beals, John Peabody Harrington, Frederick Johnson, Frank Maryl Setzler, Ruth Schlossberg Landes, Albert Clanton Spaulding (including information on the Arzberger site), and Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel; Photographic Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File; Photographic Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology-United States National Museum Photographs of American Indians; Photographic Lot 77-80, Portraits of Smithsonian Anthropologists; Photographic Lot 92-35, Ralph S. Solecki Photographs of Anthropologists; Numbered Collections, MS 4821 (records of the Anthropological Society of Washington), MS 4261 (photographs made on a site survey in the Santa Barbara Mountains, California, 1934), MS 4302 (journal covering the 1936 expedition to Honduras), MS 4846 (correspondence between BAE authors and the BAE editor's office), and MS 7200 (original field catalog of Honduran artifacts, 1936); and in the non-archival reference file. There are also materials in the Smithsonian Institution Archives in record units 87 (Ethnogeographic Board), 9528 (Henry Bascom Collins interviews), and 1050102 (papers of T. Wayland Vaughan). In the Human Studies Film Archives there is material on Strong in the video dialogues of Charles Wagley, 1983.
Provenance:
The Strong papers were donated to the archives by Strong's widow, Mrs. Helen Richardson Strong. Most of the arrangements were handled by Ralph S. Solecki, then of Columbia University. He sent the papers to the archives between 1974 and 1979, and there have been small accretions since that time. These accretions came through Richard G. Forbis, Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary; Mildred Mott Wedel and Waldo R. Wedel, Department of Anthropology; and Nan A. Rothschild, Department of Anthropology, Barnard College. Mrs. Strong donated the rights in the unpublished material in the collection to the Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution.
Restrictions:
The William Duncan Strong papers are open for research.

Access to the William Duncan Strong papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Citation:
William Duncan Strong papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-28
See more items in:
William Duncan Strong papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-28
Online Media:

Virginia Drew Watson papers

Creator:
Watson, Virginia  Search this
Watson, James B. (James Bennett), 1918-2009  Search this
Cole, J. David, 1941-  Search this
Extent:
8.13 Linear feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Brazil
Papua New Guinea
Mato Grosso (Brazil : State)
Papua New Guinea -- Social life and customs
Papua New Guinea -- Antiquities
Date:
1930-2001
Summary:
Virginia Drew Watson was a cultural anthropologist best known for her work in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Her papers attest to a variety of interests related to culture and culture change, drawing on resources both archaeological and ethnographic. This collection contains catalogs, correspondence, drawings, field notes, grant proposals, manuscripts, maps, photographs, publications, reports, and slides. The majority of the field work relates to her work in Papua New Guinea, both with her husband (James B. Watson) and with J. David Cole, but there are also materials related to her work in Brazil.
Scope and Contents:
The Virginia Drew Watson papers attest to a variety of interests related to culture and culture change, drawing on resources both archaeological and ethnographic. Her work could be conveniently separated into four areas: Brazil, Plains and Caddo Indians, Papua New Guinea ethnographic, and Papua New Guinea archaeology with Cole. This collection contains catalogs, correspondence, drawings, field notes, grant proposals, manuscripts, maps, photographs, publications, reports, and slides. Most of the correspondence is with colleagues doing related work in other museums or universities in the United States or Australia. A small part of the correspondence is with friends, including missionaries, who report relevant information of interest. The collection includes original field notes from Brazil, including notes from a lecture by Radcliffe-Brown in 1943. There are also original field notes from the Tairora, Agarabi, and Gadsup groups in Highland New Guinea. In addition, this collection includes a list of Watson's publications, a copy of most of them, and some reviews.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 5 series: (1) Correspondence, 1930s-2000; (2) Brazil, 1943-1955, 1966; (3) New Guinea, 1949-2000; (4) Manuscripts, 1939-2001; (5) Books/Monographs, 1942-1977, 1997; (6) Slides of PEHNG Archeological Sites, 1965-1973, undated
Biographical Note:
Virginia Drew Watson was born on June 17, 1918, in Tomah, Wisconsin. Her undergraduate work was completed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she received a PhB in Sociology (1940). She conducted graduate work for both AM (1943) and PhD (1965) degrees at the University of Chicago. She was a Fellow of both the American Anthropological Association and the Royal Anthropological Institute.

Virginia Watson's early work was in archaeology, but later she pursued both archaeology and socio-cultural anthropology. She married James B. Watson, a cultural anthropologist, in 1943. During that year they went to Brazil, where Virginia Watson's work was primarily ethnographic among the Cayua Indians of Mato Grosso. On the trip returning from the field to Sao Paulo the Watsons stopped at the archaeological site of Ciudad Real del Guayra. From 1944 to 1945 Watson worked in the Cultural Relations Department of the American Consulate General in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The Watsons made two trips to the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The first, 1954-1955, was funded by the Ford Foundation. Watson focused on socio-cultural aspects of the Tairora and Agarabi groups, and her work resulted in the 1965 publication of her dissertation, "Agarabi Female Roles and Family Structure, a study of socio-cultural change." The Watsons' second Papua New Guinea trip was in 1963-1964. It was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and focused on the Tairora and Gadsup groups. For Virginia Watson, the second trip was partly connected to archaeological work previously carried out by J. David Cole. Due to illness, he was unable to analyze the mass of material (25,000 objects) that he had collected. Watson analyzed the material and produced publications, one of which was in collaboration with Cole.

Virginia Watson often held one or more part-time positions. As a graduate student in 1942, she was a part-time Lecturer in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. On returning from Brazil, the Watsons moved to Oklahoma University in Norman for one year. There, Watson supervised archeology students in sorting and putting in order the university collection of artifacts as well as directing them in the field. From 1948 to 1953 Watson was a Lecturer at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and she also directed students in field work. During the St. Louis years the Watsons spent two summers studying the Anglo-Spanish community in Colorado. From 1957 to 1963 she was a Lecturer at Seattle University and from 1961 to 1971 she was also an Occasional Lecturer at the University of Washington, Seattle. From 1969 to 1989 Watson held the position of Affiliate Curator at the Burke Museum, University of Washington. After she retired, Virginia Watson spent her winters in Florida and her summers in Boulder, Colorado.

Virginia Watson died in 2007.

Sources Consulted

Watson, Virgina Drew. "Curriculum vitae, 2001, For National Anthropological Archives." Virginia Drew Watson papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

"James Watson III." Bangor Daily News, December 10, 2009.

Chronology

1918 -- Born on June 17 in Tomah, Wisconsin

1940 -- Earned PhB in Sociology from University of Wisconsin-Madison

1942 -- Lecturer in archaeology at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

1943 -- Earned AM from University of Chicago Married James B. Watson Field research of the Cayua Indians, Mato Grosso, Brazil

1944-1945 -- Worked in the Cultural Relations Department of the American Consulate General in Sao Paulo, Brazil

1947 -- Special Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Oklahoma, Norman

1948-1953 -- Lecturer in anthropology and archaeology at Washington University in St. Louis

1949-1950 -- Field research of the Anglo-Spanish community, Del Norte, Colorado

1953-1955 -- First field research trip to the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea

1957-1963 -- Lecturer in anthropology at Seattle University

1961-1971 -- Lecturer in anthropology at the University of Washington, Seattle

1963-1964 -- Second field research trip to the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea

1965 -- Earned PhD from the University of Chicago Published dissertation: "Agarabi Female Roles and Family Structure, a study of socio-cultural change"

1969-1989 -- Affiliate Curator of Melanesian Archaeology at the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, University of Washington

2007 -- Died
Related Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives also has the papers of Virginia D. Watson's husband, James Bennett Watson.
Provenance:
Virginia Drew Watson donated her papers to the National Anthropological Archives in 2002.
Restrictions:
The Virginia Drew Watson papers are open for research.

Access to the Virginia Drew Watson papers requires and appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Citation:
Virginia Drew Watson papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2002-12
See more items in:
Virginia Drew Watson papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2002-12

Living on the Edge: Mangroves

Creator:
Smithsonian TMON  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-09-07T15:29:21Z
Topic:
Natural History;Marine biology  Search this
Youtube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
See more by:
MarineGeo
YouTube Channel:
MarineGeo
Data Source:
Smithsonian TMON
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_5ssJzKB6iEA

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By