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Indian biography, or, An historical account of those individuals who have been distinguished among the North American natives as orators, warriors, statesmen, and other remarkable characters / by B.B. Thatcher ; in two volumes

Title:
Thatcher's Indian biography, with engravings
Thatcher's Lives of the Indians in two volumes
Indian biography
Historical account of those individuals who have been distinguished among the North American natives as orators, warriors, statesmen, and other remarkable characters
Author:
Thatcher, B. B (Benjamin Bussey) 1809-1840  Search this
Ill:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Former owner:
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe 1793-1864 DSI  Search this
Mason, Otis T. 1838-1908 DSI  Search this
Engraver:
Gimber & Dick  Search this
Subject:
Red Jacket (Seneca chief) ca. 1756-1830  Search this
Physical description:
2 v., [2] leaves of plates : ill. (engravings), port. ; 16 cm
Type:
Biography
Portraits
Date:
1832
Topic:
History  Search this
Call number:
E89 .T36 1832
E89.T36X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_233509

Don Quixote ?, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Type:
Paintings
Topic:
Literature--Character--Don Quixote  Search this
Literature--Cervantes--Don Quixote  Search this
Control number:
IAP 70080992
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_127865

View from West Point, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Type:
Paintings
Topic:
Landscape--New York--West Point  Search this
Control number:
IAP 62090117
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_104129

Marmion and de Wilton, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Adam A. Weschler & Son Washington District of Columbia 20004
Date:
1880
Topic:
Literature--Character--Marmion  Search this
Literature--Character--De Wilton  Search this
Literature--Scott--Marmion  Search this
Landscape--Time--Night  Search this
Control number:
IAP 62170734
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_106514

Seascape with Lighthouse, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Date:
1869
Topic:
Disaster--Storm  Search this
Waterscape--Coast  Search this
Architecture exterior--Lighthouse  Search this
Control number:
IAP 83330044
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_204776

Robert E. Lee, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Subject:
Lee, Robert E  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Date:
1852-1855
Topic:
Portrait male--Bust  Search this
Occupation--Military--General  Search this
Control number:
IAP 83400289
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_205504

Landscape, (painting)

Painter:
Kensett, John Frederick 1816-1872  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
National Academy of Design 1083 Fifth Avenue New York New York 10128
Date:
Mid 19th c
Topic:
Landscape--Forest  Search this
Control number:
IAP 36270829
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_44473

Thomas J. Rodman, Bvt Brig Gen (1818-1871), (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Subject:
Rodman, Thomas J  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
United States Department of the Army West Point Museum West Point New York 10996 Accession Number: 4505
Date:
1875
Topic:
Portrait male--Waist length  Search this
Occupation--Military--Brigadier General  Search this
Control number:
IAP 38470106
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_50814

Dr. Walter V. Wheaton, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889 (possibly by)  Search this
Subject:
Wheaton, Walter V  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
United States Department of the Army West Point Museum West Point New York 10996 Accession Number: A-9188
Topic:
Portrait male--Bust  Search this
Occupation--Medicine--Doctor  Search this
Control number:
IAP 38470149
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_50857

Red Jacket, Chief of Senecas, (painting)

Painter:
Eastman, Seth 1808-1875  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889 (copy after)  Search this
Subject:
Red Jacket  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor
Culture:
Indian  Search this
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
James Jerome Hill Reference Library St. Paul Minnesota
Date:
1852
Topic:
Ethnic--Seneca  Search this
Portrait male  Search this
Control number:
IAP 81100159
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_189348

Castle on a River, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Medium:
Watercolor on paper
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
National Gallery of Art Fourth Street & Constitution Avenue, N.W Washington District of Columbia 20565
Topic:
Architecture exterior--Castle  Search this
Landscape--River  Search this
Control number:
IAP 08260436
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_40507

Nathaniel Platt Bailey (1809-1891), (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Subject:
Bailey, Nathaniel Platt  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
New-York Historical Society 170 Central Park West New York New York 10024 Accession Number: 1953.325
Date:
1859
Topic:
Portrait male--Bust  Search this
Control number:
IAP 36360068
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_44691

Robert Walter Weir (1803-89): Self-Portrait, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Subject:
Weir, Robert Walter  Search this
Medium:
Oil
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
New-York Historical Society 170 Central Park West New York New York 10024
Date:
Ca. 1860-65
Topic:
Portrait male--Self Portrait  Search this
Portrait male--Bust  Search this
Occupation--Art--Artist  Search this
Control number:
IAP 36361437
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_46052

Winfield Scott, Bvt. Lt. Gen. (1786-1866), (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Subject:
Scott, Winfield  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings-Replica
Paintings
Owner/Location:
United States Department of the Army West Point Museum West Point New York 10996 Accession Number: A-9059
Date:
1856
Topic:
Portrait male--Waist length  Search this
Occupation--Military--Lieutenant General  Search this
Control number:
IAP 38470112
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_50820

Sylvanus Thayer, Bvt. Brig. Gen. (1785-1872), (painting)

Painter:
Annunciata, Nicola  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889 (copy after)  Search this
Subject:
Thayer, Sylvanus  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings-Copy
Paintings
Owner/Location:
United States Department of the Army West Point Museum West Point New York 10996 Accession Number: 10,507
Topic:
Portrait male--Knee length  Search this
Occupation--Military--Brigadier General  Search this
Control number:
IAP 38470174
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_50882

Taking the Veil, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Yale University Art Gallery 1111 Chapel Street New Haven Connecticut 06520 Accession Number: 1900.49
Date:
1863
Topic:
Figure group  Search this
History--Italy  Search this
Architecture interior--Civic  Search this
Ceremony--Holiday  Search this
Control number:
IAP 07261866
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_38620

John Ferguson Weir, (painting)

Painter:
Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889  Search this
Subject:
Weir, John Ferguson  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
National Academy of Design 1083 Fifth Avenue New York New York 10128
Topic:
Portrait male--Bust  Search this
Occupation--Art--Painter  Search this
Control number:
IAP 36270900
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_44544

Weir family papers

Creator:
Weir family  Search this
Names:
McGuigan, John F., Jr. (John Fuller)  Search this
McGuigan, Mary K.  Search this
Perry, Edith Weir, 1875-  Search this
Weir, John F. (John Ferguson), 1841-1926  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden, 1852-1919  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter, 1803-1889  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1809-circa 1961
bulk 1830-1920
Summary:
The papers of the prominent New York and Connecticut Weir family of artists measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1809-circa 1961, with the bulk of the material dating from 1830-1920. The papers are a collection of correspondence and photographs that constitute a small but vivid record of the influence and relationships of this family of Hudson River School, landscape, and miniature painters. Correspondence consists primarily of letters to painter John Ferguson Weir when he was director of the Yale School of Fine Arts, with scattered letters to his daughter Edith Weir (Perry), and a small amount of correspondence of Robert Weir, his daughter Carrie M. Mansfield, son-in-law Lewis William Mansfield, and Julia Bayard. Letters to John F. Weir are from many late-19th century artists, as well as actors, poets, lawyers, scholars, and clergymen, often concerning arrangements for visiting lectures at the school. Photographs are of Robert Walter Weir, Susan Bayard Weir, Julian Alden Weir, and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of the prominent New York and Connecticut Weir family of artists measure 0.8 linear feet and date from 1809-circa 1961, with the bulk of the material dating from 1830-1920. The papers are a collection of correspondence and photographs that constitute a small but vivid record of the influence and relationships of this family of Hudson River School, landscape, and miniature painters. Correspondence consists primarily of letters to painter John Ferguson Weir when he was director of the Yale School of Fine Arts, with scattered letters to his daughter Edith Weir (Perry), and a small amount of correspondence of Robert Weir, his daughter Carrie M. Mansfield, son-in-law Lewis William Mansfield, and Julia Bayard. Letters to John F. Weir are from many late-19th century artists, as well as actors, poets, lawyers, scholars, and clergymen, often concerning arrangements for visiting lectures at the school. Photographs are of Robert Walter Weir, Susan Bayard Weir, Julian Alden Weir, and artwork.

There are approximately 275 letters to John Ferguson Weir, some of which enclose sketches, photographs, and printed writings. The letters of Hudson River School artists including Frederic Edwin Church, Thomas Cole, Sanford Robinson Gifford, Jervis McEntee, and Worthington Whittredge, capture a sense of the intense ties those artists felt to the landscape and to each other. Often the correspondents mention their fellow artists in their letters in personal as well as professional terms, writing of family, friendships, visits to each other's homes, practical arrangements for delivering, retrieving, and exhibiting artwork, and their shared artistic aspirations, successes, and disappointments.

Many of the letters are responses from lawyers, scholars, clergymen, writers, and educators in reply to Weir's requests to speak at the Yale School of Fine Arts. Taken together the letters, which often go beyond routine matters to extend to more personal affairs, reveal the warm esteem in which Weir was held, not only in his capacity as director of the school but as an artist and a friend. The letters, such as those from Laura Hills, Lucia Fairchild Fuller, Adele Herter, and Candace and Dora Wheeler, also document the Weir family's friendships with and encouragement of women artists, at a time of limited support for women in the arts. Also of note are letters from actors Edwin Booth and Joseph Jefferson, who were both friends of John F. Weir.

Letters of Robert Weir and extended Bayard and Mansfield family members relate primarily to family affairs. Photographs of Julian Alden Weir, Robert W. Weir, and Susan Bayard Weir include professional portraits and candid family shots, as well as photographs of two sketches of Julian Alden Weir and two miscellaneous photos of artwork.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of the collection, the Weir family papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
The New York and Connecticut Weir family of artists included painter and West Point professor Robert Walter Weir (1803-1889), his sons John Ferguson Weir (1841-1926) and Julian Alden Weir (1852-1919), and granddaughter Edith Weir (Perry) (1875-1955).

Julian Alden Weir was a renowned American Impressionist painter and a founding member of "The Ten," a loosely allied group of American artists dissatisfied with some of the established professional art organizations of the time who exhibited their work as a unified group. He also taught at the Women's Art School of the Cooper Union in New York.

John Ferguson Weir became acquainted with many of the rising young artists of his day when he took a room in the Tenth Street Studio in his early twenties and developed proficiency in landscape and still life painting. Like his brother, he then studied art abroad and returned to become director and later dean of the School of Fine Arts at Yale University from 1869-1913.

John Ferguson Weir married Mary Hannah French in 1866. Their daughter, Edith Weir Perry, was a noted miniature painter who studied under Lucy Fairchild Fuller.
Related Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds the microfilm (Reels 70-71, 125-126, 577) for the Julian Alden Weir papers, 1869-1966, including correspondence (mostly typed transcripts); scrapbooks; photographs; sketches; notebooks and scrapbooks and clippings compiled by Dorothy Weir Young in preparation for her book, The Life and Letters of J. Alden Weir (1960, Yale University Press).

Additional Weir family records are held by the Yale University Archives. The records form part of the material previously lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming by Reverend DeWolf Perry, and described above as separated materials.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming by Reverend DeWolf Perry. Included on reels 529-531 are correspondence of John Ferguson Weir, much of it with his brother Julian Alden Weir, with his future wife which he wrote while serving in the Civil War, and with artists; 77 letters, 1823-1881, of Robert W. Weir with members of the Congress and War Dept. regarding commissions, and with artists and others, including Horatio Greenough, William Page, Thomas Cole, William Cullen Bryant, and George P. Morris; a pocket diary of John F. Weir, 1860, with occasional poems and sketches; 2 sketchbooks, and 71 drawings, watercolors, and oils by John F. Weir; 3 sketchbooks and 165 original drawings, lithographs, watercolors and oils by Robert Weir; 4 portraits of John F. by others; sheet music with words and lithograph on the cover by Robert; 81 photographs of John and Robert, family, and work; exhibition material of Robert; a list of John F. Weir's paintings with prices; drafts of Robert W. Weir, Artist by Irene Weir (1947); and a typescript of a biography of John F. Weir by his daughter, Edith Weir (Perry); genealogical material; and clippings. Reel 533 includes a typescript of "The Story of My Life: The Inner Life of a Human Soul," by Mary French Weir, ca. 1920 (94 p.), and a typescript of a biography of her mother, Clara Miller-French, ca. 1920 (28 p.). Reel 565 contains family correspondence, 1866-1927, of Mary French Weir; an excerpt from the French family genealogy; and an obituary of Mary French Weir written by her daughter Edith Weir Perry. Reel 936 contains a sketchbook, 1826, by Robert Weir, of figures, statues, and buildings in Rome done while a student. The drawings are in pencil, ink wash, and pen and ink. (111 p.); reel 949 contains three sketchbooks, 1869-1902, by John F. Weir, done in watercolor, pencil and ink wash. (69 p.), of landscapes, figures, and heads of individuals in Italy, Switzerland, Dordricht, Holland, and France.

Loaned materials were returned to the donor and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Photographs were given to the Archives of American Art in 2019 by Mary and John McGuigan, Jr. Letters to John Ferguson Weir were donated by Harold O. Love in 1961. Material on reels 529-531, 533, 565, 936 and 949 was lent for microfilming 1973-1975 by Rev. DeWolf Perry, grandson of John F. Weir. He also donated two photographs in 1975. The donor and date of acquisition of the manuscript draft of Julian Alden Weir's biography are unknown.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Landscape painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Miniature painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Women painters  Search this
Hudson River School  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Citation:
Weir family papers, 1809-circa 1961. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.weirweir
See more items in:
Weir family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-weirweir
Additional Online Media:

Macbeth Gallery records

Creator:
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Names:
Hartley, Marsden, 1877-1943  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Macbeth, Robert W. (Robert Walker), 1884-1940  Search this
Macbeth, William, 1851-1917  Search this
McIntyre, Robert G. (Robert George), b. 1885  Search this
Stuart, Gilbert, 1755-1828  Search this
Weir, Robert Walter, 1803-1889  Search this
Extent:
131.6 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Daguerreotypes
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
1947-1948
1838-1968
bulk 1892-1953
Summary:
The Macbeth Gallery records provide almost complete coverage of the gallery's operations from its inception in 1892 to its closing in 1953. Through extensive correspondence files, financial and inventory records, printed material, scrapbooks, reference and research material, and photographs of artists and works of art, the records document all aspects of the gallery's activities, charting William Macbeth's initial intention to lease his store "for the permanent exhibition and sale of American pictures" through over sixty years of success as a major New York firm devoted to American art. The collection measures 131.6 linear feet and dates from 1838 to 1968 with the bulk of the material dating from 1892 to 1953.
Scope and Content Note:
The Macbeth Gallery records provide almost complete coverage of the gallery's operations from its inception in 1892 to its closing in 1953. The records document all aspects of the gallery's activities, charting William Macbeth's initial intention to lease his store "for the permanent exhibition and sale of American pictures" through over sixty years of success as a major New York firm devoted to American art. The collection measures 131.6 linear feet and dates from 1838 to 1968 with the bulk of the material dating from 1892 to 1953.

The gallery's correspondence files form the core of the collection and illuminate most aspects of American art history: the creation and sale of works of art, the development of reputations, the rise of museums and art societies, change and resistance to change in the art market, and the evolution of taste. Ninety-five feet of correspondence house substantial and informative letters from dozens of important American painters and sculptors, including older artists and younger contemporaries of the gallery in its later years. There are also letters from collectors, curators, other galleries, and critics.

The financial files found in the collection offer insight into the changing economic climate in which the gallery operated. They include information ranging from the details of individual sales and the market for individual artists, to consignment activities and artist commissions, to overviews of annual sales. This information is augmented by the firm's inventory records and the photographs of artwork with their accompanying records of paintings sold. The inventory records provide details of all works of art handled by the gallery, both sold and unsold, and the buyers who purchased them; the photographs of artwork include images of artwork sold with accompanying sales information.

The highlight of the gallery's printed material is the publication Art Notes. Although published only until 1930, Art Notes provides an excellent and detailed view of the gallery's exhibition schedule and the relationship of the gallery owners with many of the artists whose work they handled. It was a house organ that also provided a running commentary on events in the art world. The gallery's 19 fragile scrapbooks, maintained throughout the firm's history, provide further coverage of activities through exhibition catalogs and related news clippings. Printed material from other sources provides a frame of reference for activities in the art world from the mid-19th to the mid-20th-centuries and includes an almost complete run of the rare and important pre-Civil War art publication The Crayon.

Reference files record the interest which the gallery owners took in the work of early portrait painters and in later artists such as George Inness and Winslow Homer. Together with the immense volume of correspondence with buyers and sellers of paintings by the great portraitists and the Hudson River School found in the gallery's correspondence files, these records are still useful sources of information today and underscore the deep interest that the Macbeths and Robert McIntyre took in 18th and 19th-century American art.

The photographs of artists found here are a treasure trove of images of some of the major figures of the 19th and 20th-centuries. There are photographs of artists such as Chester Beach, Emil Carlsen, Charles Melville Dewey, Frederick Carl Frieseke, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, George Inness, Maurice Prendergast, and Julian Alden Weir, many of them original prints and the majority of them autographed.

With the exception of the "The Eight" and a few of their contemporaries, an important aspect of art history, the modernist movement, is generally represented in the Macbeth Gallery records only in a negative form as the three successive proprietors of the gallery showed very little interest in this area. Nevertheless, the collection is a highly significant source of information on many of the major and minor figures in American art in the period after 1890.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1838-1968 (Box 1-95, 163-164, OV 165; 96.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Financial and Shipping Records, 1892-1956 (Box 96-110; 11.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Inventory Records, 1892-circa 1957 (Box 111-113; 3.0 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1838-1963 (Box 114-119, 162; 5.0 linear feet)

Series 5: Scrapbooks, 1892-1952 (Box 120-130; 3.3 linear feet)

Series 6: Reference Files, 1839-1959 (Box 131-132; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 7: Miscellaneous Files, 1912-1956 (Box 133-134; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, circa 1880-circa 1968 (Box 135-161; 12.1 linear feet)
Historical Note:
The Macbeth Gallery was established in 1892 by William Macbeth, a Scotch-Irish immigrant who had spent ten years with the print dealer Frederick Keppel before he opened his doors to the art-buying public at 237 Fifth Avenue in New York. Despite the prevailing interest in foreign art at that time, particularly in that of the Barbizon and Dutch schools, Macbeth was determined to dedicate his gallery to "the permanent exhibition and sale of American pictures, both in oil and water colors."

Although some of the gallery's earliest exhibitions were of work by European artists, the business soon became the only gallery in continuous operation to keep American art permanently on display. In the January 1917 issue of Art Notes, Macbeth recounts those early days remembering that "The opening of my gallery......was a rash venture under the existing conditions, and disaster was freely predicted." Nevertheless, he struggled through the financial crisis of 1893 and persisted with his devotion to American art; slowly the market for his pictures grew more amenable.

Macbeth moved to more spacious quarters at 450 Fifth Avenue in 1906 and two years later undertook what was to become the major event in the gallery's early history: the 1908 exhibition of "The Eight," featuring work by Arthur B. Davies, Willam J. Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, and John Sloan. "The Eight" were an unlikely combination of social realists, visionaries and impressionists eager to challenge the dominating influence of the National Academy. The exhibition received an immense amount of publicity and instantly entered into art history as a successful assault on tradition.

Despite the splash that the exhibition made and its implications for the future of American art, nothing that the gallery did subsequently indicated that Macbeth intended to capitalize on its significance. It is true that Macbeth supported many artists later considered leaders in American art when the public would pay no attention to them because of their modernist tendencies; Arthur B. Davies, Paul Dougherty, Maurice Prendergast, Theodore Robinson, and F. Ballard Williams all held their first exhibitions at his gallery. Nevertheless, neither Macbeth nor the gallery's two successive proprietors, Robert G. McIntyre (William's nephew) and Robert Macbeth (William's son), who joined the gallery in 1903 and 1906 respectively, ever developed a true interest in modern art. The November 1930 issue of Art Notes summarizes their collective disdain for modernism, stating: "We believe that, by and large, modern art is amusing. We are heretical enough to believe that much of it was started for the amusement of its creators and that no one was more surprised than they when it was taken seriously by a certain audience to whom the bizarre and the unintelligible always makes an appeal." So while the Macbeths and McIntyre cetainly championed American artists and insisted they deserved as much recognition as the Europeans, their deepest and most abiding interest was undoubtedly the established artists of the 18th and 19th-centuries and those of the early 20th-century who continued in a more conservative style. Artists such as Emil Carlsen, Charles Harold Davis, Frederick C. Frieseke, Robert Henri, Winslow Homer, Chauncey F. Ryder, Abbot Handerson Thayer, J. Francis Murphy, A. H. Wyant were the gallery's bread and butter.

When William Macbeth died in 1917 Robert Macbeth took up the reins with the assistance of Robert G. McIntyre . Although they incorporated the business as William Macbeth, Inc., in 1918 the gallery continued to be known, as it always would be, simply as Macbeth Gallery. Macbeth and McIntyre continued to show work in the same vein as the elder Macbeth. They concentrated primarily on oil paintings at this time, having found by the 1920s that "oils are all that our gallery owners will buy," though they also exhibited an occasional group of watercolors and pastels in addition to bronzes and other sculpture by contemporary American artists such as Chester Beach and Janet Scudder.

Of the early American painters the Macbeths and McIntyre were particularly interested in colonial portraits and miniatures, especially those painted by prominent artists in the latter part of the eighteenth century such as John Singleton Copley, Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Sully and John Trumbull. In its early years the gallery also handled the work of a few prominent American etchers including Frank W. Benson, Emil Fuchs, Daniel Garber, Childe Hassam and Chauncey F. Ryder. The print department was generally discontinued, however, in the late 1930s although the gallery continued to show prints by contemporaries such as Stow Wengenroth.

In 1924 relative prosperity allowed the gallery to move uptown to 15 East Fifty-seventh Street. When the 1930s brought new financial hardship for the gallery Macbeth and McIntyre took a variety of approaches to boosting sales. In 1930 they decided to hold only group exhibitions throughout the season to the exclusion of one-man shows, and also held some special exhibitions of paintings priced at a hundred dollars each in the hope that they could tempt those "willing to take advantage of a rare chance to secure representative examples of good art at a most attractive price." A move to smaller quarters at 15 East Fifty-seventh Street in 1935 was made with the intention of concentrating their efforts on the work of fewer contemporary artists, while continuing to handle the work of the older Americans they had long supported.

When Macbeth died suddenly and unexpectedly in August 1940 following an operation for appendicitis, McIntyre continued to run the gallery with the assistance of Hazel Lewis. During the 1940s McIntyre and Lewis showed primarily contemporary art in a wide range of media including oil, watercolor, pastel, drawing and sculpture, while continuing, as always, to show the occasional group of 19th-century Americans. The great success of the gallery's later years was undeniably Andrew Wyeth whose first exhibition, held at Macbeth Gallery in 1937, resulted in the sale of all twenty-two paintings cataloged.

Although subsequent Wyeth exhibitions were also successful, McIntyre struggled financially throughout the 1940s and periodically considered liquidating the company. Although "vitally interested" in contemporary art by people such as Robert Brackman, Jay Connaway, Carl Gaertner, James Lechay, Herbert Meyer and Ogden M. Pleissner he found that, for the most part, it did not pay. McIntyre continued operations until 1953 when he decided that doing so for profit was not only a financial burden but also ran contrary to his desire to spend more time devoted to his first love, early American art. When the lease expired on 11 East Fifty-seventh Street in April 1953 McIntyre did not renew it. After closing the gallery's doors he sold art from his New York apartment and from his home in Dorset, Vermont. He officially dissolved William Macbeth, Inc., in 1957.

The history of the Macbeth Gallery is a long and distinguished one with each successive proprietor making a significant contribution to art in America. William Macbeth helped establish an audience and a market for American art when few were willing to give it serious consideration. Robert Macbeth continued to cement the gallery's reputation as one of the leading firms in New York and was instrumental in organizing the American Art Dealers Association. Robert G. McIntyre claimed in a letter to Lloyd Goodrich, dated 22 June 1945, that the thing of which he was most proud was "the share I have had in the formation of the collection of the Addison Gallery of American Art, at Andover, Massacusetts." McIntyre was widely respected in the art community as a dealer, as an adviser to curators, and as a scholar whose research and book on Martin Johnson Heade helped "rediscover" an important American artist. One of his most significant and lasting contributions to the history of art in America, however, was undoubtedly his gift of the gallery's historical records to the Archives of American Art.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American are a small collection of scattered Robert McIntyre's papers and 9 items of William Macbeth's papers. Macbeth Gallery exhibition catalogs are also available in the American Art Exhibition Catalog collection and the Brooklyn Museum Records, both loaned and microfilmed collections.

An extensive collection of Macbeth Gallery exhibition catalogs are also held by the Frick Art Reference Library and the Watson Library of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Provenance:
The bulk of the Macbeth Gallery records were donated and microfilmed in several installments between 1955 and 1966 by Robert G. McIntyre and Estate. Additional Macbeth Gallery printed material was donated by Phoebe C. and William Macbeth II, grandchildren of William Macbeth, in 1974.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Fragile original scrapbooks are closed to researchers.
Rights:
The Macbeth Gallery records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Eight (Group of American artists)  Search this
Art directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists -- United States  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Daguerreotypes
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Macbeth Gallery records, 1838-1968, bulk 1892 to 1953. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.macbgall
See more items in:
Macbeth Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-macbgall
Additional Online Media:

Robert Walter Weir letter to George P. Morris, 1851 October 24

Creator:
Weir, Robert Walter, 1803-1889  Search this
Topic:
Portrait painting  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)21680
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)398433
AAA_collcode_weirrobe
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_398433

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