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Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Baking Powders

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (consisting of 5 boxes, 1 map folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
circa 1809-1940
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Baking Powders forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of advertising cards, bills/receipts, printed advertisements, book marks, cook books, labels, pamphlets, and recipe books, scattered correspondence on letterhead stationery from manufacturers and distributors of baking powders. These companies also tended to sell other products including bakers' supplies, spices, coffee, teas, cream of tartar, cigars, tobacco, gloss starch, laundry bluing, soap powder, baking soda, soap, corn starch, phosphate of calcium, powdered gelatin and other shelf groceries. The B. T. Babbitt Company located in New York distributed a number of pamphlets and printed advertisements containing reproductions of popular paintings by American artist including Paul de Longpre, Virginia Janus, Percy Moran and J. L. Ferris. Larger size reproductions could be obtained by sending the company trade marks from their products. Other manufacturers such as Edward Canby offered free libraries to their customers. Some of these companies are also in other subject categories such as chemicals, baking soda, patent medicine, images children, art, women, nature scenes, and courtship scenes.

Publications include two pamphlets. Both pamphlets were articles which appeared in the Pharmaceutical Record. "Baking Powders, An Essay on their Composition and Action" (April 1, 1887) was written by George Holland and "Baking Powders" (June 1, 1888) written by C. V. Petraeus discuss the physical qualities of baking powders. H. D. Thatcher & Company also published a pamphlet on the same subject titled "How to Test Baking Powder, Illustrated and Explained for the Practical Use not Only of the Scientist but for the Common People and the Ordinary Cook, with Descriptions of Thatcher's Sugar of Milk Baking Powder and Selected Cooking Recipes "(1890).

Materials are organized alphabetically by name of company. There are three folders of material grouped by type: labels, related pamphlets and miscellaneous items. Miscellaneous items consist of advertising cards with no company to identify manufacturer or dealer.
General:
The following is a list of brand names for various baking powder products. The names that appear on this list are a compilation of those found on materials in the vertical document boxes. It is not a complete list of all the brand names for baking powders. The list is intended to assist researchers in locating desired materials when only the brand name is known.

Brand Name Index

Brand Name -- Manufacturer

Acme -- Lange, Grabe & Baird

Cap Sheaf -- DeLand & Company

Champion -- Johnston Brothers

Chemical -- Deland

Craig's -- Hannum, H.B. & Company

Crown -- Dieter, J.F. & Company

Czar -- Steele & Emory

Enterprise -- Bacon, Stickney & Company

Excelsior -- Redheffer & Stuart

Forest City -- Vouwie Brothers

Gold Medal -- Taylor, J. Monroe

Golden Sheaf -- Henkel Brothers

Golden Shield -- Monroe County Chemical Company

Good Luck -- Chicago Chemical Works

Horsford' s -- Humford Chemical Works

I.C. -- Jacques Manufacturing Company

Imperial Grown -- Anthony, J.B. & Company

International -- Queen City Chemical Company

K.C. -- Jacques Manufacturing Company

Kenton -- Potter Parlin & Company

Knickerbocker -- Stitt, [Wmin?]

Luther's -- Benjamin, L.O. & Company

Miles -- Larzelere, James H.

Morning Glory -- Feeny, G.S.

None Such -- Hanford, Geo G.

Oriole -- Queen City Chemical Company

Patapsco -- Smith, Hanway & Company

Peerless -- Marde

Pure Gold -- Newman, S.A.

Safe & Reliable -- Granger & Company

Sea Foam -- Jones, Gantz & Company

Silver Star -- Gandy, Edward

Snow -- Boston Relish Company

Sun Flower -- Fahnestock Company

Trust -- Burns & Reed

Unrivaled -- Spracues, Warner & Griswold

Victor -- Boos & Holbrook

Windsor -- Kegeler, H. Chas.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Baking Powders is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Baking powder  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.BakingPowders
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Baking Powders
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-bakingpowders

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Telegraph

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
3.48 Cubic feet (consisting of 7.5 boxes, 1 folder, 3 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, 1 object, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
1863-1903
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Telegraph forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Telegraph is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Telegraph, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Telegraph
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Telegraph
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-telegraph
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
9.09 Cubic feet (consisting of 17.5 boxes, 1 folder, 19 oversize folders, 12 map case folders, 3 flat boxes (1 full, 2 partial), plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Date:
1851-1965
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: World Expositions forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This material consists primarily of guide books, souvenir books, catalogs, brochures, maps, general images, lithographs, advertising cards, postcards, commemorative stamps, tickets and correspondence created for the World's Fairs. A few trade catalogs (Chicago, 1893), magazines, bubble gum cards (Chicago, 1933-1934) and photographs are also included in the materials. One remarkable item in the world exposition's material is a "peephole" paper toy viewer from the New York 1939-1940 fair.

The amount of material for each fair varies widely. Most of the fairs including Paris 1855, Lausanne 1857, Boston 1883-1884, Bordeaux 1895, Philadelphia 1899, Milan 1906, Albuquerque 1908 and Seattle 1962 have very little information. The Philadelphia 1876 and Chicago 1893 expositions, however, contain a substantial amount of material. A number of expositions are not included among the materials. The container list indicates which fairs the Archives Center has information on in this collection.

A number of the expositions were given a nickname, mostly as a result of the architecture dominating the fair. Examples of those nicknames include the White City (Chicago 1893), the Magic City (Omaha 1898), the Rainbow City (Buffalo 1901), the Ivory City (St. Louis 1904), the Jewel City (San Francisco 1915), and Treasure Island San Francisco 1939-1940).

The World Expositions tend to have a theme or celebrate a special event. "The Age of Steam" was the theme for the first world exposition, held in London in 1851. In 1876, the Philadelphia exposition celebrated a century of American independence. The common name was the "Philadelphia Centennial." The Chicago 1893 fair celebrated the 400th anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America and was referred to as the "World's Columbian Exposition." The Omaha exposition in 1898 is known as the "Invitation to Renewed Expansion of the West." Buffalo's theme in 1901 was "All Americas Exposition", demonstrating the cultural, commercial and technical progress of the Western Hemisphere. Expanding the West was the theme for the St. Louis fair in 1904 to celebrate the lOOth anniversary of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France. In 1915, San Francisco celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal. American independence was celebrated again in Philadelphia in 1926 marking 150 years. Chicago's fair in 1933-1934 was called "A Century of Progress" it was incorporated as a city in 1833. The exposition in New York in 1939-1940 had two themes: "Building a World for Tomorrow" in 1939 and "For Peace and Freedom" in 1940. San Francisco's world's fair in 1939-1940 also had two themes: "Dawn of a New Day" in 1939 and "Fun in the Fourties" in 1940. The theme for New York's exposition in 1964-1965, "Peace Through Understanding", celebrated the 300th anniversary of the naming of New York by the British and the 15th anniversary of the United Nations in New York City.

Researchers interested in women's history will find little information on that subject. Most of the expositions had a Women's building, however, there are only a few items referring to them in this collection. Such materials include a book from the Philadelphia 1876 fair which discusses women's work. Another book from the Chicago 1893 fair examines the art and handicraft in the Women's building. A pamphlet also from the Chicago fair contains the official minutes of the Board of Lady Managers.

The materials in boxes one through seventeen are organized in chronological order by the name of the location of the fair. A number of manufacturers and distributors of various products created advertising for the expositions. Such materials remain with those created about the fair. A photocopy of product advertising has been filed in the appropriate subject category in the Warshaw Collection. Box eighteen contains miscellaneous items that could not be identified with a particular exposition. Such materials include photographs, advertising cards and souvenir books.

Other collections in the Archives that relate to world expositions are the Orth and Zimm collections. The Edward J. Orth Memorial Archives of the New York World's Fair 1939-1940 primarily documents the general organization of the New York fair and specific national or corporate pavilions. Holdings include advertising and promotional literature, press kits, maps and official guides, photographs and brochures. Additional material includes scrapbooks, photo album, diaries, postcards and posters. Among the personal papers of Mr. Orth are correspondence and copies of the newsletter, Exposition Collectors and Historians Organization (ECHO). ECHO was organized by Mr. Orth in 1976 for collectors and historians of world's fairs and disbanded upon his death. This collection is stored off site. Researchers are requested to make an appointment to use the materials. The Zimm Collection contains materials from a number of the world's fairs. These materials are also stored off site and researchers will need to make an appointment.

Materials in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History that relate to the world's fairs can also be found in its Library. The Library has both primary and secondary sources. All of the primary materials have been microfilmed. The library also contains a comprehensive collection of secondary sources on the expositions. Among the secondary sources is a publication The Book Fairs, Materials about World's Fairs, 1834-1916, in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries (1992).

Special collections (Dibner Library) contains about thirty very rare items from various world expositions mostly dating from the 1851 fair and those occurring in the 1880s. Such items are mostly coffee table books created about the fairs. All items can be searched in SIRIS (Smithsonian Institution Research Information Service.) located in the library or the Archives Center's reference room. Researchers will need to contact the Dibner library to make an appointment to see original materials.

The Museum's curatorial divisions hold a number of three dimensional objects relating to the fairs. For information on the objects researchers should contact the divisions.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
World Expositions is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.World
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world
Online Media:

Thomas Evance Receipt Book

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Evance, Thomas, -1777  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Receipts
Date:
1753-1775
Scope and Contents:
A book of receipts for payments made by Thomas Evance to various individuals for purchases and payment of debts.

Items listed include:

A Mahogany Bedstead

A dark Bay Horse

64 1/2 l (?) Loaf Sugar

House Rent

Rum

Mahogany Table and Silver punch ladle

Hams and Sugar

Citron and lot of Books

33 Barrels Rice

Breeches pattern and 6 pair cotton hose

Cutt Bob Wigg

Riding chair

3 Cord wood for Building a Brick Chimney

29 lbs. rice

2 lbs. pitch

Bag Herrings

Black horse

Roan horse

Madeira

One Ton Coal

For freight of 32,000 shingles

For wages due [me as] overseer to [his] plantation at Santee

For Two Negro's [sic] sent up this year

For Paving [his] yard- finding Bricks

4 Windsor chairs

For a fence between him (Thomas Evance) and Mr. Porcher

For one years hire -as overseer to his (Thomas Evance) plantation at Wambaw.

(?S.C.)

For one year's Gazette

For 50 Bushels corn

For freight and 2 passages to Santee for 2 barrels Old Antigua Rum
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Evance Evance was a merchant in Charles Town, South Carolina. He cited the Papers of Henry Laurens, 2:212n., as the source of the information.
Restrictions:
The collection is too fragile for viewing; contact Archives Center staff for details.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Plantations  Search this
Slavery -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts -- 18th century
Receipts -- 18th century
Citation:
Thomas Evance Receipt Book, 1754-1774, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0289
See more items in:
Thomas Evance Receipt Book
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0289

George W. Ludington Collection

Creator:
Turrell, Orlando B.  Search this
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Caldwell, Edwin  Search this
Camby, Henry B.  Search this
Ludington, George W., (bank cashier)  Search this
Ludington, Harrison  Search this
Ludington, B. L.  Search this
Ludington, Charles H.  Search this
Ludington, Sam  Search this
Ludington, Sims  Search this
Ludington, James  Search this
Ludington, Nelson  Search this
Names:
Bank of Kent  Search this
Caldwell and Company  Search this
H. Ludington & Company  Search this
Lathrop, Ludington & Company  Search this
Savings Bank of Caldwell, Whitney, and Company  Search this
U.S. Appraisers Office  Search this
Extent:
0.66 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Date:
1817-1889
Summary:
Letters and memoranda written by Ludington family members to George Ludington, cashier of the Bank of Kent, Ludingtonville, New York.
Scope and Contents:
The Collection consists almost entirely of letters and business memoranda received by George Ludington. The major correspondents are his six brothers. Additional correspondents include other family members, friends and business associates. The documents are in varying states of physical preservation. A few fragments lack the originator's name or date.

The bulk of the correspondence is dated in the years just prior to and during the Civil War. The primary subject matter is business dealings, mainly financial transactions involving extension of loans by George Ludington, their servicing and repayment. Some correspondence relates to merchandise purchases and to dealings in commodities, primarily grain but also including cotton and lumber. There are numerous references to local "currencies" (the notes of banks, often of uncertain security) and to the credit-worthiness of individuals.

The letters often refer to matters of personal and family interest and include revealing comments on military aspects of the Civil War (particularly the draft and the then legal practice of paying substitutes for military duty.) One Ludington brother served in the Union Army and was seriously wounded. There are references to difficulties with Indian tribes in Illinois and Minnesota. A description of a disastrous railroad accident is included.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Family correspondence, 1848-1889

Series 2: Other correspondence, 1817-1889

Series 3: Certificates of Deposit, 1862-1863
Biographical / Historical:
George Ludington was a banker who lived in Ludingtonville, Putnam County, New York. Four of his brothers were in the lumber manufacture and merchandising and other businesses in the Midwest. Another brother was in the import/export trade in New York City.

James Ludington was a lumber dealer of Milwaukee and occasionally Bloomington, (Indiana?). Most of his letters deal with financial relations with George Ludington and his bank. The amounts mentioned were large for those times, and James seemed to be equal in status to George, frequently offering advice on business matters. He was clearly in debt to George over the period covered by the correspondence, 1856-1864.

Nelson Ludington was a lumber manufacturer and dealer in Chicago, also in a debtor relationship to George Ludington. His letters expressed strong criticism of the conduct of Civil War operations.

Charles H. Ludington was a senior partner in Lathrop, Ludington and Company, an import/export firm in New York City.

Harrison Ludington was a senior partner of H. Ludington & Co., lumber merchants of Milwaukee and later mayor of that city (1872-1876) and governor of Wisconsin (1876-1878).

Sims Ludington, apparently the youngest brother of George, was a lumber merchant in Winona, Minnesota. He served in the Union Army and was seriously wounded in 1863.

Sam Ludington, based on a single letter in 1856, was apparently poorly educated with uncertain employment.

Other family members represented in the correspondence were B.L. Ludington (relationship uncertain), employed in the U.S. Appraisers Office, New York City, and a cousin, Henry B. Camby, New York City. One brief note indicates he may have been in the apparel business.

Non-family correspondents include the following:

Orlando B. Turrell, an employee of Caldwell and Co., a bank in St. Paul, Minnesota and later the cashier of the Marine Bank of that city. His letters, often lengthy and spanning 1857-1864, are mostly concerned with financial transactions and general business conditions in Minnesota but are written in a friendly style with many personal references.

Edwin Caldwell, a senior partner of the Savings Bank of Caldwell, Whitney and Co., St. Paul, Minnesota. His letters, written between 1857 and 1859, are primarily business-related, and are concerned with loan transactions for George Ludington's bank. However, there are numerous personal comments, reflecting a somewhat adversarial relationship with Ludington.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

The State Historical Society of Wisconsin's holdings include the papers of Harrison Ludington, one of the Luddington brother's and a correspondent in this collection.
Provenance:
The collection was purchased from Augusta Warshaw, widow of Isadore Warshaw, in 1971.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Exports -- 19th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- 19th century  Search this
Local finance -- 19th century  Search this
Draft resisters -- 19th century  Search this
Draft -- 19th century  Search this
Commercial products -- 19th century  Search this
Cashiers -- 19th century  Search this
Money -- 19th century  Search this
Bankers  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Lumber trade -- 19th century  Search this
finance -- 19th century  Search this
Substitute soldiers, Civil War  Search this
Indian relations  Search this
International trade -- 19th century  Search this
Imports -- 19th century  Search this
Commodities -- 19th century  Search this
Hiring of war substitutes, Civil War  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 19th century
Citation:
George W. Ludington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0135
See more items in:
George W. Ludington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0135

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1,150 Cubic feet (approximately. Series 1 contains approximately 1108 cubic feet consisting of approximately 2050 boxes, approximately 326 oversize boxes, and map case material. Additional material in Series 2-4 is unquantified. With also, some digital images of select collection materials.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Letterheads
Advertisements
Maps
Business ephemera
Calendars
Trade cards
Broadsides
Ephemera
Stationery
Advertising cards
Sheet music
Photomechanical prints
Sales catalogs
Chromolithographs
Place:
business ephemera -- Adirondack Mountains (N.Y.)
Albany (N.Y.)
Date:
circa 1708-1977
Scope and Contents:
The Warshaw Collection consists of approximately 1,150 cubic feet of material currently contained in approximately 2,050 vertical document boxes, approximately 326 flat oversize boxes, 34 map case drawers of oversize materials, 56 volumes of photographic photo prints, 17 boxes of 4 x 5 color transparencies and black and white photonegatives, 11 boxes of stereographs, and a videodisc. It consists of a large body of business ephemera. Ephemera is used to refer to the transient everyday items which are usually printed on paper however in some cases fabric, leather and wood have been used. This material is manufactured for a specific limited use and then meant to be thrown away. The collection also contains samples of ephemera that were meant to be saved for a short period of time and discarded later such as stock certificates. This material dates from the late eighteenth century to about 1977, but the bulk of the material is late from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

The largest advertising history collection in the Archives Center, the Warshaw Collection is organized into five major categories: I. Business Ephemera -- - Vertical Files, II. Business Ephemera - - Oversize, III. Other Collection Divisions, IV. Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers and V. Photographic Reference Materials. Scope and content notes and a detailed description of the contents for all of these divisions are found in the following sections of the register.

Series 1: Business Ephemera, circa 1724-1977, makes up the largest portion of the collection. It is divided into 538 subject and geographic categories created by Mr. Warshaw and is contained in 2,050 vertical document boxes. Materials include vast numbers of advertising cards, scraps, stock cards, trade catalogs, price lists, menus, pamphlets, labels, lithographs, photographs, business letterheads, bills, receipts, greeting cards, post cards, calendars, printed advertisements, periodicals, newspaper clippings, broadsides, shipping documents, handbills, premiums, promotional items, announcements, business cards, packaging and point of purchase displays.

II. BUSINESS EPHEMERA - - OVERSIZE FILES, ca. 1850-1960, consists of approximatley 326 flat oversize boxes and 34 map case drawers of materials. Materials include posters, newspapers, point of purchase displays, packaging, printed advertisements, periodical illustrations, lithographs, labels, shipping documents, promotional items, trade catalogs, pattern sheets, maps, art reproductions, fashion design drawings, membership certificates and price lists. The material is organized by the same subject and geographical categories as materials in the vertical document boxes.

III. OTHER COLLECTION DIVISIONS, ca. 1790-1957, represents a significant accumulation of one type of material rather than a mix of various types of ephemera. Materials generally relate to one subject. Most of the material is stored in flat oversize boxes. Materials include cinema lobby cards, fire insurance maps, photographs and scrapbooks of liquor and wine labels.

IV. ISADORE WARSHAW PERSONAL PAPERS, ca. 1917-1966, consists of three document boxes of materials relating to how Mr. Warshaw maintained the collection as a business. Most of this material is correspondence sent to him in response to his research inquiries. A smaller portion of the material is printed advertisements and circulars created by Mr. Warshaw to advertise his services and the collection. Magazine articles, letterhead stationery and photographs make up the remainder of the material.

V. PHOTOGRAPHIC REFERENCE MATERIAL, consists of photographs, slides and transparencies of items found in the collection. These materials were created for a number of purposes. Some were created in response to requests by researcher for images to be used in publications, exhibitions, and for other purposes. Others were created as a quick reference source for researchers. Several thousand photographic images from the Warshaw Collection were also transferred to an experimental videodisc by the Institution's Office of Photographic and Printing Services (OPPS). The videodisc is available for viewing on equipment in the Archives Center.

Use of the prints, slides, and videodisc reduces wear and tear on the collection, permits rapid searching through many images, and assures the researcher - - in most cases that a photographic negative of transparency already exists, and that copies can be reproduced relatively quickly and inexpensively. Searching the collection's photographic reproductions is especially appropriate for researchers who want to see general images of subjects such as "women in advertising" or an advertisement from a particular year.

The Warshaw Collection originally contained books, three-dimensional objects and food crate labels. Those books that did not directly relate to the collection were transferred to the Smithsonian Libraries. Remaining publications are stored in the Business Ephemera-Vertical Files document boxes within the appropriate subject category.

Mr. Warshaw collected three-dimensional objects to illustrate packaging, to convey information about product content, shape and size, and to document advertising in three-dimensional forms. Such items included hair product packaging, games, patent medicine containers, cosmetics, tobacco tins, food containers, and liquor bottles. There were also a number of objects, mostly made of glass, tin, and wood, including trays and stained glass signs advertising products such as patent medicine, tobacco, phonographs, refrigerators, stoves, hair products, meat, agricultural tools and implements, whiskey, bakery goods, and beer. Some of these objects were framed. All these objects have been transferred to the appropriate divisions in the Museum. Information on the locations of these items can be obtained in the Archives Center reference room.

Food crate labels were once an important advertising device. Used to develop loyalty to particular growers, these labels were appealing because of the commercial artwork. Some of the labels were mounted on wood. These labels also were transferred to a curatorial unit. The un-mounted labels are in the "foods" section of the Business Ephemera - - Vertical Files.

Research Strengths and Limitations

The strength of the Warshaw Collection lies in its size, its variety, and its extraordinarily rich visual imagery. These images illustrate how Americans perceived themselves or wished to be perceived, how they saw others, their work patterns, their recreation habits, and other aspects of American culture from the late eighteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. They provide an alternative source to written and printed historical materials, sometimes conveying information about values and practices not otherwise documented. These images stand as a powerful reminder that the origins of modern, visual mass communications go much farther back than the invention of television.

Most of the imagery, of course, is a vision of American life as seen through the eyes of advertising agencies and of the businesses they represented. Researchers working with the collection find it an especially rich source for examining the dynamic relationship between advertising and American culture over the centuries.

There are some problems, however, interpreting American culture through these materials. Most of the advertisements in the collection represent Anglo-American mainstream culture. African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and members of other ethnic groups are only occasionally depicted in the advertisements. Much of this imagery is stereotypical and fails to recognize ethnic groups as consumers. Despite these limitations the ethnic imagery offers penetrating insights into American culture and its changing values and tastes. The Archives Center's Ethnic Imagery Project has identified thousands of items within the Warshaw Collection, and in other Center collections, which depict race and ethnicity. The Project also is seeking to expand the range of such imagery within the Center's collections to provide a better rounded view of how Americans see themselves and each other.

There are few indications in the collection of consumer response. The materials mostly consist of end products, what customers received. Testimonials and celebrity endorsements are among the materials but do not constitute a large portion of it, nor do they appear in every subject category. There is also little documentation on the success or failure of advertisements. Evidence about advertisers' decisions to use specific advertisements is extremely rare.

There is no complete history of any one company represented in the collection. For many of the businesses, the material consists of fragments of the advertising materials created to sell their products or services. Biographical information on founders or the early developments of the company may be included on letterhead stationery or bills and receipts but not always. Occasionally one finds company publications that discuss the history of the business. These were usually produced for anniversaries and more often for larger companies that had existed for a long time, such as Proctor & Gamble.

Most of the businesses represented in the Collection were east of the Mississippi River. This is probably due to the collecting possibilities for Mr. Warshaw. It also may be due to the concentration of many industries in this region.

Despite its limitations, the Warshaw Collection is the most heavily used collection in the Archives Center. Researchers in the Collection often find information unavailable elsewhere. Researchers in the Collection have included academic historians, Smithsonian curatorial staff , and outside museum staff interested in the collection for exhibition purposes. Smithsonian Shops buyers and others interested in motifs for licensed products, collectors and hobbyists find the collection a rich source for such research.
Series 1: Business Ephemera:
Dates -- circa 1544-1988

Contents -- Series 1: Business Ephemera1.1: Subject Categories1.2: Geographical Categories
Series 2: Other Collection Divisions:
Dates -- circa 1850-1957

Contents -- Series 2: Other Collection Divisions2.1: Business Records [Obsolete as of 2017]2.2: Cinema Lobby Cards2.3: Fire Insurance Maps2.4: Liquor and Wine Labels and Advertisements2.5: Photographs2.6: Stereographs2.7: Sheet Music2.8: Rewards and Wanted Posters
Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers:
Dates -- circa 1917-1966

Contents -- Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers3.1: Correspondence3.2: Secondary Writings about Warshaw and the Collection3.3: Business Materials3.4: Miscellaneous
Series 4: Photographic Reference Material:
Dates -- undated

Contents -- Series 4: Photographic Reference Material4.1: Photoprints4.2: 35mm color slides4.3: Color transparencies4.4: Videodisc
Arrangement note:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Biographical / Historical:
The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana is the result of the foresight and energy of Isadore Warshaw. Warshaw believed that the history of America was closely tied to the history of American business. He observed, however, that the business community often looked to the future rather than the past and tended not to retain historical company records. As a result, a number of businesses had no coherent record of their past. Warshaw realized that these records could be of value one day.

"Sonny" Warshaw, as he was known to family and friends, was born June 12, 1900 and reared in Albany, New York, the second youngest of ten children of Rubin and Ray (Mackler) Warshaw. Although he received little formal education, he started in business as a book scout in 1915 searching for rare publications for dealers and collectors. Later he became a rare book dealer and collector himself. His hobbies included sketching and painting, and several pieces of this self-taught artist's work were exhibited in local banks.

Warshaw's interest in collecting business ephemera began in 1928 when an important event inspired him. In the process of searching for books, he often ran across various pieces of ephemera. In these posters, labels, ledgers, invoices, calendars, business cards, correspondence on letterhead stationery, and advertising cards, he could see the romantic side of big business. One day he ran across an invoice signed by John Forsythe, founder of a New York haberdashery, and sent it to the store. In reponse, he received a thank-you note along with an invitation to select six shirts in appreciation for the item he found. This combination of events encouraged Warshaw to begin a lifelong mission. He opened an office at 61 Columbia Street in Albany, New York, announcing to the business community that he had their history and would make it available.

In 1942, Isadore Warshaw moved from Albany to New York City where he opened an office at 752 West End Avenue. In 1944, he married Augusta Levy, a former buyer for a group of women's ready-to-wear shops in Miami, Florida. They had no children. A portion of their apartment was used as an office where Mrs. Warshaw handled all the correspondence. The Warshaws lived with the fear of a fire destroying the collection because this was their sole source of income. Insurance companies informed them that in order to insure the collection, each piece would have to be counted. As a result, the collection was never insured. A fire did occur once in the building but only a small portion of their vast holdings suffered from smoke damage.

Warshaw spent a great deal of time at the New York Public Library, museums, and historical societies, gathering ideas and information relating to his business pursuits. He never referred to his time spent researching and collecting as a hobby. As his business began to grow, he relied on as many as forty scouts across the country to hunt for material. He acquired material from companies going out of business, buildings about to be demolished, garage sales, auctions, antique shows, stamp dealers and collectors, old safes, small country merchants, and bookstores. He also advertised in catalogues for the book industry throughout the country.

Warshaw's approach at first was to purchase pieces of Americana in hope of finding a buyer. He mailed thousands of advertisements to his five hundred corporate clients. Rejected items went to a brownstone building that he referred to as his warehouse. Warshaw later discovered that there was more profit in renting materials or selling reproduction rights to the very materials he had once carted away. Companies rented objects or entire packaged displays to commemorate anniversaries, for sales conventions, annual reports, trade shows, lectures, and window displays. A few of his major clients included Johnson & Johnson, Kaiser Steel Company, the Riegel Paper Company, the American Can Company, and the Western Electric Company. Reward posters and gold-rush prints were used as props for TV westerns.

Warshaw used the collection to do various kinds of research for a number of businesses. Sometimes he investigated the history of a firm to supply it with founding dates. He found evidence of expansion and product diversification in various documents in the collection. For example, company records showed that Procter and Gamble began as a soap and candle manufacturer before it expanded to a wide variety of products.

Warshaw also had clients outside the business community. Members of the legal profession relied on his collection for various purposes. Lawyers contacted him when they wanted to convert personal property from estates to cash, and he also served as an expert witness, providing evidence in disputes involving trademarks, copyrights, and slogans.

American Heritage, Life, and other publications wishing to illustrate articles found graphics in the collection. Warshaw swapped items with local libraries and historical societies. Joseph N. Kane used the collection to document information for his book, Famous First Facts. Commenting on the many uses of his collection, Warshaw stated:

I have been fortunate. As a collector of things that now document the rapid growth of industry, I have been able to find wide use for my collection. People are beginning to realize that while the romance of war, fashion and science, for instance, is well preserved in swords, wax dolls, and fascinating models...the romance of business in the form of ledgers, sample books, posters, and tin cans tends to perish in debris. Now people come to me to illustrate histories and to get pictures of things as they were.

As Warshaw aged, he began to look for a buyer for the collection. Ralph M. Hower, at one time a professor of business at Harvard, recommended that the collection be purchased and indexed by the Baker Library at Harvard's Business School. He regarded it as a wealth of evidence on such topics specialization, diversification, and integration of business firms and the location of trade and industry.

Discussions about the Warshaw Collection among the staff of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (then the Museum of History and Technology) began in 1961. The primary reason for the Museum's interest in purchasing the collection was to prevent the dispersal of a unique resource that could never be assembled again. In the opinions of Smithsonian staff, it provided evidence of things that could be found nowhere else.

Although negotiations for buying the collection and bringing it to the Museum began in 1966, the collection was not actually purchased and transported to the Museum until August 1967. Warshaw had moved his business several times and at the time of the sale, it was located in three rooms on the second floor of 270 West 96th Street in New York. Packing the collection took four days and it was transported to Washington by two tractor trailers.

When the collection arrived at the Museum, it consisted primarily of advertising ephemera. There were also a number of three-dimensional objects, including shoes, clothing, jewelry, furs, ashtrays, coffee and tobacco tins, carpets, patent medicines, cosmetics, hair products, paperweights, whiskey bottles, and food packages. The collection was divided into hundreds of subject headings created by Warshaw. Some of Warshaw's personal papers revealing his business transactions were included, as well as advertisements used by Warshaw to solicit business from manufacturers and retailers. Most of the rest of Warshaw's own papers were destroyed by Mrs. Warshaw when she left New York in 1973.

Following the sale of the collection to the Museum, Warshaw found himself unable to relinquish his life's work. He continued to do research for a number of old clients, relying on such sources as the public library, historical societies, collectors, and dealers in this type of material. In the process he acquired additional material. The volume of this portion of the collection was equal to the size of a station wagon. It was offered to the Museum by Mrs. Warshaw in 1971, and Museum staff went to the New Jersey home of Mrs. Warshaw's brother to pick up the new collection in November 1971.

Curators from the Museum were encouraged to spend time with the collection after its arrival to determine its content in their subject areas. At that time the collection was stored in shirt boxes. Efforts were made to put the materials in vertical document boxes, keeping them in the subject categories created by Warshaw. As time went on, it was clear that the method used by Warshaw was not adequate for research use. Warshaw located materials by hunch rather than by system and there was little cross-referencing in the collection. Not only was it inaccessible to outside researchers, but many of the objects were fragile and required more protection than they had in their original storage containers.

When the Archives Center was established in 1982, it was intended to be a repository for documents and other archival material in the Museum, assuring proper storage and a place where researchers could come to use collections.

The Warshaw Collection was one of the greatest concerns of the Archives Center because of its heavy use. In 1983 the Archives Center and the Division of Conservation worked together to develop a plan to integrate archival principles with conservation methods and techniques, thus taking the first steps in creating a re-housing project.

The first part of the re-housing project began with a survey of the collection to analyze content and condition of the materials. Faith Zieske, a conservator, conducted the survey. She chose a standard statistical analytical method, randomly using 70 vertical document boxes as samples, to analyze the entire collection. Zieske consulted both the Library of Congress Preservation Office and the conservation staff of the Folger Shakespeare Library. A plan was then developed for implementing the survey. After examining the results of the survey, Zieske developed a phased plan for reorganizing and preserving the collection.

Conservation technician Carolyn Long and museum specialist Lorene Mayo began the pilot project in the summer of 1983, testing recommendations made in the survey. During this period Long wrote guidelines for handling the collection. Long and Mayo also developed new storage containers for housing objects of unusual shape.

As the re-housing project developed, finding aids were created for the processed portions of the collection. This was a crucial step that allowed staff and researchers to find items without actually going through the collection. Archives Center staff continue to develop means of making the collection more accessible to researchers who come to the Museum to use the collection, as well as to increase awareness of the existence of the collection in the research community outside the Museum.

List of Sources

"Cashing In On Old Office Records." Business Week, (December 6, 1958).

"A Glimpse at Industrial Advertising of the 80's." Industrial Marketing, (February 1946).

Interview by Vanessa Broussard-Simmons with Mrs. Augusta Levy Warshaw and Correspondence in Control File for Warshaw Collection.

Kahn, Joseph. "Trademark Detective: The Colorful Past of American Business is the 'Beat' of a Sleuth Who has Pioneered a New Kind of History." The Rotarian, ( December 2, 1957) .

Kramer, A. Stanley. "What's Old on Madison?" Madison Avenue. (March 1961).

Menuez, Caroline Bird. "There's Gold in Your Attic." Esquire, (1946).
General:
Several specific companies or proprietors repeatedly appear in various subseries of this collection. These records were dispersed through many subseries and prior arrangement efforts, including those done by the collector as well as post-acquisition staff, which focused on a category or business name of the vendors rather than retaining the record source original provenance and order. As of 2016, there is not a plan to cull through the collection and reconstitute such records, however if such an effort was made, it would likely result in reasonably comprehensive business records for several entities. A few have been noted here but an exhaustive survey of the collection in regards to the this trend of dispersal has not been conducted.

Jacob House (occasionally with variant spellings), which often account for some of the earliest business record within the Warshaw Business Americana Collection, particularly those documents dating in the 1700s and early 1800s.

Luddington, F.L. ... (see Hardware)

Stemmeler...(see Whiskey...)

[Note to be completed, NB 2016-10-18]
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Provenance:
The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060, was purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Sears, Roebuck & Co. catalogs restricted due to fragile condition. Researchers should consult microfilm in NMAH library for 1880-1983 editions, drawer 692.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Insurance, Fire -- Maps  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Fires -- Insurance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters
Letterheads
Advertisements
Maps
Business ephemera
Calendars
Trade cards
Broadsides
Ephemera
Stationery
Advertising cards
Sheet music
Photomechanical prints
Sales catalogs
Chromolithographs
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060
Online Media:

[Mt. Washington Glass Works advertisement.] [Advertising card]

Advertiser:
Mt. Washington Glass Works (New Bedford, Mass.)  Search this
Names:
Centennial Exhibition (1876 : Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper (card stock), lithograph., 3-3/8" x 5-1/4" (8.6 x 13.3 cm.).)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1876 card folder
Type:
Archival materials
Advertising cards
Trade cards
Lithographs
Date:
ca. 1876
Scope and Contents:
Black-and-white illustration shows two cherubs or putti, one blowing glass, the other working nearby under a curtain, with glass lamps and objects displayed on a table at left. Considerable advertising text on card in several blocks: "...manufacturers of blown[,] pressed & cut glass ware", etc. Sales room at 20 College Place, N.Y. Fading stamp on verso indicates that the company was an exhibitor at the Centennial exhibition: "CENTENNIAL SPACES, / 51 NAVE CENTRE OF MAIN BUILDING, / Also Crystal Fountain. / T 45 SOUTH AVENUE, MAIN BUILDING".
Local Numbers:
(Scan file no.)

AC0060-00001069.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Glassware  Search this
Glass manufacture  Search this
Glass blowing and working -- United States  Search this
Angels  Search this
Putti  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising cards -- 19th century.
Trade cards -- 19th century
Lithographs -- 19th century
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / PHILADELPHIA / Advertising cards and small images
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref553
Online Media:

New Indexed Standard Guide Map of the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, 1893 [map]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Advertiser:
Rand-McNally & Company  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Map (Ink on paper)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Place:
Chicago (Ill.)
Date:
1893
Scope and Contents:
Map of 1893 World's Columbian Exposition from Rand McNally's "Week at the Fair" booklet.
Local Numbers:
040060187.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / CHICAGO
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref555
Online Media:

Pan-American World Exposition, Buffalo 1901 [map]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Publisher:
A.B. Floyd  Search this
Creator:
Pan-American Exposition (1901: Buffalo, N.Y.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Map (Ink on paper)
Container:
Box 10, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Place:
New York (State)
Date:
1901
Scope and Contents:
Map of Pan-American World Exposition Fairgrounds, Buffalo, N.Y. 1901 from World Fair event booklet published by A.B. Floyd.
Local Numbers:
040060188.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / BUFFALO / Souvenir books with general images of the fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref556
Online Media:

[Photographs from Mutual Life Insurance Pan-American 1901 World Exposition [booklet]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Advertiser:
Mutual Life Insurance Company  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper.)
Container:
Box 10, Folder 3
Culture:
Filipinos  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Booklets
Place:
New York (State)
Date:
1901
Scope and Contents:
Photographs from Mutual Life Insurance Pan-American 1901 World Exposition Booklet: one depicts an "Indian Congress," another a constructed Philippine village, and a third an African dance.
Local Numbers:
040060189.tif (AC Scan No.)

040060190.tif (AC Scan No.)

040060191.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Booklets
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / BUFFALO / Souvenir books with general images of the fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref557
Online Media:

Bird Eye's View Map of Louisiana Purchase 1904 World Exposition Fairgrounds [map]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Publisher:
Byrnes Photographic Company  Search this
Creator:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper.)
Container:
Box 11, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
Bird Eye's View Map of Louisiana Purchase 1904 World Exposition Fairgrounds from Official Booklet published by Byrnes Photographic Company.
Local Numbers:
040060192.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
St. Louis (Mo.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS / Souvenir books with photographs, lithographs and general images of the fair
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref558
Online Media:

[Pictures of "Old Negroes" in Virginia from a 1907 Jamestown Exhibition Official Booklet : booklet]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Creator:
Jamestown Ter-centennial Exhibition (1907 : Hampton Roads, Va.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Booklet (Ink on paper)
Container:
Box 12, Folder 3
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Booklets
Date:
1907
Scope and Contents:
Pictures of "Old Negroes" in Virginia from a 1907 Jamestown Exhibition Official Booklet.
Local Numbers:
040060194.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Jamestown (Va.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Booklets
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / JAMESTOWN
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref559
Online Media:

[Jamestown 1907 Exposition Booklet Logo featuring two Native Americans : booklet]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Creator:
Jamestown Ter-centennial Exhibition (1907 : Hampton Roads, Va.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper.)
Container:
Box 12, Folder 8
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Booklets
Date:
1907
Scope and Contents:
Jamestown 1907 Exposition Booklet Logo featuring two Native Americans looking out at a ship coming into the shore where they sit.
Local Numbers:
040060193.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World expositions  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Jamestown (Va.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Booklets
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / JAMESTOWN
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref560
Online Media:

Art Palace [illustrated note card]

Creator:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 3-13/16 x 5-9/16 in.)
Container:
Box 11
Type:
Archival materials
Illustrated note cards
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Missouri -- 1900-1910
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
Front depicts image on card and verso contains handwritten note: "Please forward all our mail to 4248 [West] Belle Place, St. Louis Mo."
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001605-1.tif (AC Scan, Front)

AC0060.0001605-2.tif (AC Scan, Back)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in Archives Center display, "Meet Me in St. Louis"--A Year Late: Remembering the Louisiana Purchase at the 1904 World's Fair," 2003.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Architecture -- Missouri -- Saint Louis  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Art -- Missouri -- Saint Louis -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Illustrated note cards
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref561
Online Media:

Liberal Arts Building [illustrated note card]

Creator:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 3-7/8 x 5-3/4 in.)
Container:
Box 11
Type:
Archival materials
Illustrated note cards
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Missouri -- 1900-1910
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
Front depicts image and back contains text and handwritten signature of John [Garpan] Lambert.
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001604-1.tif (AC Scan, Front)

AC0060-0001604-2.tif (AC Scan, Back)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in Archives Center display, "Meet Me in St. Louis"--A Year Late: Remembering the Louisiana Purchase at the 1904 World's Fair," 2003.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Architecture -- Missouri -- Saint Louis  Search this
Genre/Form:
Illustrated note cards
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref562
Online Media:

Educational and Social Economy Building [illustrated note card]

Creator:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 3-7/8 x 5-7/8 in.)
Container:
Box 11
Type:
Archival materials
Illustrated note cards
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Missouri -- 1900-1910
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
Front depicts image and back contains handwritten note: "Dear Mrs. G, Have wished a dozen times that you could be with us. The fair is wonderful and we are having such a good time. Only wish you and pa were along. Love to all and hope your [sic] well. Yours as ever, [Stephen]."
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001603-1.tif (AC Scan, Front)

AC0060-0001603-2.tif (AC Scan, Back)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in Archives Center display, "Meet Me in St. Louis"--A Year Late: Remembering the Louisiana Purchase at the 1904 World's Fair," 2003.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Architecture -- Missouri -- Saint Louis  Search this
Genre/Form:
Illustrated note cards
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref563
Online Media:

Bird's Eye View of World's Fair [illustrated note card]

Creator:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 3-7/8 x 5-7/8 in.)
Container:
Box 11
Type:
Archival materials
Aerial views
Illustrated note cards
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Missouri -- 1900-1910
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
14 Landmarks identified by key: Grand Entrance, Germany's Building, Mines & Metallurgy, Liberal Arts, Cascades, Educational & Social Economy, Manufacturers, Horticultural, Jerusalem, Electricity, Agricultural, Machinery, Varied Industries, Transportation. Front depicts image and contains key. Back is blank with handwritten cataloging number.
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001602-1.tif (AC Scan, Front)

AC0060.0001602-2.tif (AC Scan, Back)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in Archives Center display, "Meet Me in St. Louis"--A Year Late: Remembering the Louisiana Purchase at the 1904 World's Fair," 2003.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Aerial views
Illustrated note cards
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref564
Online Media:

The Singer Pavilion in the Manufactures Building at the St. Louis Exposition [advertisement]

Publisher:
Singer Manufacturing Company  Search this
Names:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 8 x 10 in.)
Container:
Box 11, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Advertisements
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Missouri -- 1900-1910
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
Front depicts image and verso contains text.
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001599-1.tif (AC Scan, Front)

AC0060-0001599-2.tif (AC Scan, Back)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in Archives Center display, "Meet Me in St. Louis"--A Year Late: Remembering the Louisiana Purchase at the 1904 World's Fair," 2003.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS / Lithographs as a souvenir of the Singer Sewing Machine Exhibit
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref565
Online Media:

Discovery of the Mississippi by Marquette A.D. 1673 [advertisement: reproduction of a painting]

Publisher:
Singer Manufacturing Company  Search this
Artist:
Marchand, J.N.  Search this
Names:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Marquette, Jacques, 1637-1675  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 8 x 10 in.)
Container:
Box 11, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Paintings
Advertisements
Place:
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Missouri -- 1900-1910
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
Front depicts image, signed in painting by J.N. Marchand, and back contains text about the discovery of the Mississippi and the Singer Sewing Company.
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001598-1.tif (AC Scan, Front)

AC0060-0001598-2.tif (AC Scan, Back)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in Archives Center display, "Meet Me in St. Louis"--A Year Late: Remembering the Louisiana Purchase at the 1904 World's Fair," 2003.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Paintings -- Reproductions
Advertisements
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS / Lithographs as a souvenir of the Singer Sewing Machine Exhibit
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref566
Online Media:

LaSalle Taking Possession of Louisiana A.D. 1682 [Advertisement, reproduction of painting]

Publisher:
Singer Manufacturing Company  Search this
Artist:
Marchand, J.N.  Search this
Names:
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
La Salle, Robert Cavelier, sieur de, 1643-1687  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 8 x 10 in.)
Container:
Box 11, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Paintings
Advertisements
Place:
Louisiana
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Missouri -- 1900-1910
Date:
1904
Scope and Contents:
Front depicts image of LeSalle taking possession of Louisiana and back contains text about the event and the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Signed J.N. Marchand in painting.
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001596-1.tif (AC Scan, Front)

AC0060-0001596-2.tif (AC Scan, Back)
Exhibitions Note:
Shown in Archives Center display, "Meet Me in St. Louis"--A Year Late: Remembering the Louisiana Purchase at the 1904 World's Fair," 2003.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Paintings -- Reproductions
Advertisements
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: World Expositions / Images, Keepsakes, Promotional Material, Publications, and Other / ST. LOUIS / Lithographs as a souvenir of the Singer Sewing Machine Exhibit
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-world-ref567
Online Media:

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