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Plan of Civilization

Alternate Title:
Benjamin Hawkins and the Creek Indians
William Augustus Bowles at his Trading Post on Chattahoochee River in Florida
Artist:
Unidentified Artist  Search this
Sitter:
Unidentified Group  Search this
Possibly:
Benjamin Hawkins  Search this
Formerly identified as:
William Augustus Bowles, 22 Oct 1763 - 23 Dec 1805  Search this
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
Sight: 90.2 × 125.1cm (35 1/2 × 49 1/4")
Type:
Painting
Date:
c. 1800
Topic:
Exterior\Landscape\Rural  Search this
Nature & Environment\Animal\Dog  Search this
Container\Basket  Search this
Nature & Environment\Water\River  Search this
Vehicle\Wheelbarrow  Search this
Tool\Shovel  Search this
Tool\Plow  Search this
Architecture\Building\House\Wigwam  Search this
Human Figures\Baby  Search this
Human Figures\American Indian  Search this
Nature & Environment\Vegetable\Corn  Search this
Architecture\Village  Search this
Benjamin Hawkins: Male  Search this
William Augustus Bowles: Male  Search this
William Augustus Bowles: Military\Army\Officer\British  Search this
William Augustus Bowles: Natural Resources\Adventurer  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
Owner: Greenville County Museum of Art
Website: gcma.org/
Object number:
SSSA2315
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Catalog of American Portraits
Data Source:
Catalog of American Portraits
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4a8620b92-60d6-405b-ad63-b2445687c238
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_SSSA2315

9. View of Village from High Street, Orange

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3 1/2 in x 7 in; 8.89 cm x 17.78 cm
Object Name:
stereograph
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Orange
Date made:
1860s-1890s
ID Number:
2012.3033.0754
Nonaccession number:
2012.3033
Catalog number:
2012.3033.0754
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-4bc4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1899874
Online Media:

30. Mechanic Street, Orange

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3 1/2 in x 7 in; 8.89 cm x 17.78 cm
Object Name:
stereograph
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Orange
Date made:
1860s-1890s
ID Number:
2012.3033.0755
Nonaccession number:
2012.3033
Catalog number:
2012.3033.0755
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-4bc5-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1899875
Online Media:

24. L. Kilburn's Chair Shop, Orange

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3 1/2 in x 7 in; 8.89 cm x 17.78 cm
Object Name:
stereograph
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Orange
Date made:
1860s-1890s
ID Number:
2012.3033.0756
Nonaccession number:
2012.3033
Catalog number:
2012.3033.0756
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-4bc6-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1899876
Online Media:

29. Depot from Stone Bridge, Orange

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 3 1/2 in x 7 in; 8.89 cm x 17.78 cm
Object Name:
stereograph
Place made:
United States: Massachusetts, Orange
Date made:
1860s-1890s
Subject:
Bridges  Search this
ID Number:
2012.3033.0757
Nonaccession number:
2012.3033
Catalog number:
2012.3033.0757
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-4c65-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1899877
Online Media:

The International Negro Workers' Review Vol. 1 No. 1

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Issued by:
International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers, founded 1928  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 9 1/16 x 6 5/16 in. (23 x 16 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place made:
Hamburg, Germany, Europe
Place depicted:
Russia, Asia
South Africa, Africa
North Africa, Africa
Liberia, West Africa, Africa
Caribbean, North and Central America
Gambia, West Africa, Africa
Nigeria, West Africa, Africa
England, Europe
Date:
1931
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
United States--History--1919-1933  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.20
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd584084f60-d31b-4449-a5a0-8f7ca61e1490
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.20
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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The Negro Worker Vol. 1 No. 10-11

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 5/8 x 5 7/8 in. (21.9 x 15 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Liberia, West Africa, Africa
Cuba, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central Africa, Africa
Russia, Europe
Belgium, Europe
Date:
1931
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
United States--History--1919-1933  Search this
Violence  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.38
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd53043c35d-3a95-4798-b47f-ff5637765af5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.38
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  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 1 No. 10-11</I> digital asset number 1
  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 1 No. 10-11</I> digital asset number 2

The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6

Published by:
The Negro Worker, 1928 - 1937  Search this
Edited by:
George Padmore, Trinidadian, 1903 - 1959  Search this
Subject of:
Communist International, 1919 - 1943  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 8 7/8 x 6 5/16 in. (22.5 x 16 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
South Africa, Africa
Guyana, Caribbean, South America
Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean, South America
Jamaica, Caribbean, North and Central America
Liberia, West Africa, Africa
Kenya, Africa
Place made:
Hamburg, Germany, Europe
Date:
1932
Topic:
African American  Search this
International affairs  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
United States--History--1919-1933  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the family of Dr. Maurice Jackson and Laura Ginsburg
Object number:
2010.55.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Memorabilia and Ephemera-Political and Activist Ephemera
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5dfd877c2-c600-4962-995e-594a795e9f8c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.55.6
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6</I> digital asset number 2
  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6</I> digital asset number 3
  • View <I>The Negro Worker Vol. 2 No. 6</I> digital asset number 4

The Ride of Paul Revere

Designer:
Grant Wood, (American, 1891–1942)  Search this
Producer:
Associated American Artists, (New York, New York, USA)  Search this
Manufacturer:
Riverdale Drapery Fabrics  Search this
Medium:
Medium: cotton Technique: printed
Type:
printed, dyed & painted textiles
Textile
Object Name:
Textile
Designed in:
USA
Date:
1952
Credit Line:
American Textile History Museum Collection
Accession Number:
2017-24-3
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum Collection
Textiles Department
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/kq438038116-ca73-46d9-b5d6-d3f74ab4a345
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:chndm_2017-24-3

Anne Ryan papers

Creator:
Ryan, Anne, 1889-1954  Search this
Names:
McFadden, Elizabeth  Search this
Extent:
3.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Travel diaries
Diaries
Photographs
Drawings
Date:
circa 1905-1970
Summary:
The papers of New York-based painter, printmaker, collagist and writer Anne Ryan measure 3.8 linear feet and date from circa 1905 to 1970. The papers document her career as an artist and writer in New York, New Jersey and Spain through biographical material, correspondence, diaries and journals, writings, printed material, photographic material and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York-based painter, printmaker, collagist and writer Anne Ryan measure 3.8 linear feet and date from circa 1905 to 1970. The papers document her career as an artist and writer in New York, New Jersey and Spain through biographical material, correspondence, diaries and journals, writings, printed material, photographic material and artwork.

Biographical material includes a mixture of legal and financial records as well as other personal documents. There are account books, art inventories, biographical statements, estate papers, exhibition lists, price lists, loan and consignments records, bills and receipts, banking and tax records, assorted travel documents, and other miscellaneous items.

Correspondence is with editors, museums, galleries, family and friends. Many of the letters have typed transcriptions that go along with the original handwritten correspondence. There is also correspondence with Anne Ryan's daughter, Elizabeth McFadden.

There are six diaries, journals, and travel diaries. The diaries and journals describe progress on artwork and writing, as well as daily appointments and activities.

Writings consists of notes, notebooks, poetry and manuscripts. The bulk of the series consists of handwritten and typescript drafts of books, short stories and essays. There are a few items written by others.

Printed material includes exhibition announcements, catalogs, clippings and magazines. Most of the periodicals include essays and stories written by Ryan. There are some printed materials such as postcards, travel brochures and clippings from Ryan's time in Spain.

Two family albums and photographs depict Anne Ryan, family, friends, colleagues, artwork, exhibition installations and houses.

Also found are materials Ann Ryan used to make artwork, such as engraved metal plates for prints, engraved woodcuts for woodblock prints, and handmade stencils. Some drawings are also included.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as seven series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1920-circa 1970 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1922-1968 (Box 1; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Diaries and Journals, 1924-1942 (Boxes 1-2; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, circa 1923-circa 1954 (Boxes 2-3; 1.4 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1925-1970 (Boxes 3-4; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographic Material, circa 1905-circa 1954 (Boxes 4-5; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1930-circa 1954 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Anne Ryan (1889-1954) was a painter, printmaker, collagist, graphic artist and author who primarily worked in New York City, but also in New Jersey and Spain.

Anne Ryan was born in Hoboken, New Jersey in 1889. She attended St. Elizabeth's Academy and College. She married lawyer William J. McFadden and had three children – William, Elizabeth and Thomas. They lived in Newark, New Jersey and divorced in 1923. Ryan often went to Greenwich Village in New York City and was something of a fixture in the arts and literary community. In 1925 she published a book of poetry, Lost Hills, and her novel Raquel was also published around this time.

Around 1931, Ryan moved to Spain and lived there for roughly four years, mostly in Mallorca and Ibiza, though she traveled to Paris as well. She then returned to New York City and moved into 124 West Fourth Street, which was occupied by many artists and writers. She opened a restaurant called The Hearthstone in the building's basement.

Ryan began painting around 1938. Artist Hans Hofmann lived nearby and visited her studio to provide encouragement, telling her to pursue her own course artistically and not to seek formal instruction. Ryan's first exhibition was in 1941. During this time she joined the printmaking studio Atelier 17 run by British artist William Stanley Hayter who had fled from Paris, France due to World War II. Thanks to the studio, Ryan befriended many European expatriate artists and started making woodblock prints and engravings.

In 1948, Ryan saw an exhibition of collages by Kurt Schwitters that inspired her to begin creating collages herself. During her late career, she made hundreds of collages and had multiple exhibitions at Betty Parsons Gallery in New York City. Ryan was also a prolific writer and many of her short stories and travel essays were published in magazines and periodicals. She died in 1954 in Morristown, New Jersey.
Provenance:
The Anne Ryan papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in 1971 by Elizabeth McFadden, Anne Ryan's daughter.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Topic:
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- Spain  Search this
Collagists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Collagists -- Spain  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- Spain  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Printmakers -- Spain  Search this
Women artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists -- Spain  Search this
Genre/Form:
Travel diaries
Diaries
Photographs
Drawings
Citation:
Anne Ryan papers, circa 1905-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.ryananne
See more items in:
Anne Ryan papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-ryananne

Hugo Gellert papers

Creator:
Gellert, Hugo, 1892-1985  Search this
Names:
American Artists' Congress  Search this
Art of Today Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artist's Committee of Action (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artists Coordination Committee (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Artists Council  Search this
Artists for Victory, Inc.  Search this
Committee to Defend V.J. Jerome  Search this
Hungarian Word, Inc.  Search this
National Society of Mural Painters (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Derkovits, Gyula, 1894-1934  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Fast, Howard, 1914-  Search this
Fiene, Ernest, 1894-  Search this
Gellert, Ernest  Search this
Gellert, Lawrence, 1898-1979  Search this
Gottlieb, Harry, 1895-  Search this
Gropper, William, 1897-1977  Search this
Kent, Rockwell, 1882-1971  Search this
Lie, Jonas, 1880-1940  Search this
Refregier, Anton, 1905-  Search this
Reisman, Philip, 1904-  Search this
Sequenzia, Sofia  Search this
Extent:
6.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
1916-1986
Summary:
The papers of graphic artist, muralist, and activist Hugo Gellert measure 6.9 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1986. They document his career as an artist and organizer for the radical political left through an interview, legal papers, financial records, family papers, artifacts, correspondence, writings, organizational records, extensive printed materials (many of them illustrated by Gellert), photographs, and artwork.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of graphic artist, muralist, and activist Hugo Gellert measure 6.9 linear feet and date from 1916 to 1986. They document his career as an artist and organizer for the radical left through an oral interview conducted by Sofia Sequenzia, legal papers, financial records, family papers, artifacts, correspondence, writings, organizational records, clippings, exhibition catalogs, various printed materials illustrated by Gellert, pamphlets, periodicals, mass mailings, photographs, and artwork.

Biographical Material includes an audio interview with Gellert; official documents related to memberships, property, and legal matters; financial documents that include bills, receipts, and contracts related to professional activities; papers of Gellert's brothers, Lawrence and Ernest; and artifacts. Correspondence is with other artists, writers, publishers, activists, friends, and family, including Ernest Fiene, Rockwell Kent, Harry Gottlieb, William Gropper, Philip Evergood, Howard Fast, and Jonas Lie. Writings include essays, book projects, notes, and notebooks written by Gellert; and stories and articles by other authors, including typescripts of early twentieth-century Hungarian short stories collected by Gellert.

Organizational Records are related to political and art organizations in which Gellert was an active organizer, officer, and in some cases, a founder. Because of his central role in many of these organizations, records often contain unique documentation of their activities. Records are found for the American Artists Congress, the Art of Today Gallery, the Artists Committee of Action, the Artists Coordination Committee, the Artists Council, Artists for Victory, Inc., the Committee to Defend V.J. Jerome, Hungarian Word, Inc., the National Society of Mural Painters, and other organizations.

Printed materials include a variety of political publications and periodicals with illustrations by Gellert, including New Masses, Art Front, Magyar Szo, and American Dialog; clippings related to his career, exhibition catalogs, political pamphlets, Hungarian literature, and mass mailings received from political organizations. Photographs contain a few personal photographs but are mostly news and publicity photographs, many of which depict prominent Communists and other newsmakers. Artwork includes sketches, drawings, designs, prints, and production elements for Gellert's artwork, as well as prints and drawings by Philip Reisman, Gyula Derkovits, and Anton Refregier.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-1982 (Box 1 and OV 9; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1920-1986 (Boxes 1-2, 8; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, circa 1916-1970 (Boxes 2 and 8; 0.7 linear feet)

Series 4: Organizational Records, circa 1920-1977 (Boxes 3, 8, and OV 9; 1 linear foot)

Series 5: Printed Materials, circa 1920-1986 (Boxes 4-6, 8, and OV 9; 3 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1920-1959 (Boxes 6-7; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1927-1981 (Box 7, OV 10; 0.4 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Graphic artist, muralist, and activist Hugo Gellert was born Hugo Grünbaum in Budapest, Hungary in 1892, the oldest of six children. His family immigrated to New York City in 1906, eventually changing their family name to Gellert.

Gellert attended art school at Cooper Union and the National Academy of Design. As a student, he designed posters for movies and theater, and also worked for Tiffany Studios. A number of student art prizes with cash awards enabled him to travel to Europe in the summer of 1914, where he witnessed the outbreak of World War I, an experience which helped shape his political beliefs. Aesthetically, he was also influenced by a folk revival among Hungarian artists at the time of his trip, and was more impressed, he later said, with the street advertising in Paris than he was with the cubism he saw in the Louvre.

Returning to the United States, Gellert became involved in the Hungarian-American workers' movement, and contributed drawings to its newspaper, Elöre (Forward). He remained involved in Hungarian-American art and activism throughout his life, including membership in the anti-fascist group, the Anti-Horthy League. When members of the fascist Horthy government unveiled a statue of a Hungarian hero in New York in 1928, Gellert hired a pilot and dropped leaflets on the group, a stunt for which he was arrested. In the 1950s, Gellert served as director of Hungarian Word, Inc., a Hungarian-language publisher in New York.

Gellert's political commitment and art remained deeply intertwined throughout his life, as he continually sought to integrate his commitment to Communism, his hatred of fascism, and his dedication to civil liberties. Throughout the 1910s and 1920s, he contributed artwork to several magazines of the radical left, including Masses and its successors Liberator and New Masses, both of which featured Gellert's artwork on their inaugural issue. Through Masses, he came to know other radicals such as Mike Gold, John Reed, Louise Bryant, Max Eastman, Floyd Dell, Anton Refregier, William Gropper, Harry Gottlieb, Bob Minor, and Art Young, and with them he followed the events of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia with sympathy and growing political fervor.

His brother, Ernest Gellert, also a socialist and activist, was drafted into the military but refused to serve. He died of a gunshot wound under suspicious circumstances while imprisoned at Fort Hancock, New Jersey, as a conscientious objector. Traumatized by this event, Gellert fled to Mexico to avoid conscription. In 1920 to 1922, he taught art at the Stelton School in New Jersey, a radical, utopian community school. He participated in the cultural scene of Greenwich Village, working on set designs, publications, and graphic art for political productions. He founded the first John Reed Club in 1929 with a group of Communist artists and writers including Anton Refregier, Louis Lozowick, and William Gropper. Initially, the group held classes and exhibitions, and provided services for strikes and other working-class activism. Later, John Reed Clubs formed around the country and became a formal arm of the United States Communist Party (CPUSA).

In the late 1920s, Gellert became a member of the National Society of Mural Painters (which, partly due to Gellert's activism in the group, became the Mural Artists' Guild local 829 of the United Scenic Artists Union of the AFL-CIO in 1937. Other members included Rockwell Kent, Anton Refregier, Arshile Gorky, and Marion Greenwood). In 1928, he created a mural for the Worker's Cafeteria in Union Square, NY. Later murals include the Center Theater in Rockefeller Center, the National Maritime Union Headquarters, the Hotel and Restaurant Workers' Union Building, NYC, the interior of the Communications Building at the 1939 World's Fair, and the Seward Park Housing Project in 1961.

In 1932, Gellert was invited to participate in a mural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, and submitted a political mural about the robber barons of contemporary American politics and industry called Us Fellas Gotta Stick Together - Al Capone. The museum attempted to censor the mural, along with the murals of William Gropper and Ben Shahn. Other artists threatened to boycott the exhibition over the censorship and were successful in restoring them to the show.

The cooperation of artists in this controversy foreshadowed a larger protest in 1934, organized by Gellert, Saul Belman, Stuart Davis, and Zoltan Hecht, when Diego Rivera's pro-labor mural was destroyed at Rockefeller Center. After the incident, the group formed the Artists' Committee of Action and continued to fight censorship and advocate for artists' interests and welfare. They also co-published the magazine Art Front with the Artists' Union, a labor organization. Gellert served for a time as editor of Art Front, and chairman of the Artists' Committee of Action.

Gellert was active in producing both art and strategic policy for the cultural arm of the CPUSA, and he worked to mobilize the non-communist left, often referred to as the Popular Front. In 1933 he illustrated Karl Marx's Capital in Lithographs, and in 1935, he wrote a Marxist, illustrated satire called Comrade Gulliver, An Illustrated Account of Travel into that Strange Country the United States of America. Other published graphic works include Aesop Said So (1936) and a portfolio of silkscreen prints entitled Century of the Common Man (1943).

Other artist groups he helped to found and/or run include the American Artist's Congress, a Communist organization founded with Max Weber, Margaret Bourke-White, Stuart Davis, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Harry Sternberg, and others, which held symposia and exhibitions between 1936 and 1942; the Artists' Coordination Committee, an umbrella group of national organizations which sought protections for federally-employed and unionized artists; Artists for Victory, Inc., which formed in 1942 to mobilize artists in support of the war effort; and the Artists' Council, formed after the war to advocate for artists' welfare and employment.

Gellert maintained his loyalty to the Communist party throughout the post-war period despite growing disillusionment in the Popular Front over the actions of Josef Stalin, and despite the intense anti-communist crusades in the late 1940s and 1950s. He was investigated by the House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and was nearly deported. He spent a number of years during this period in his wife's native Australia. Returning to the United States in the early 1950s, he threw his efforts into the defense of others who faced prison, deportation, and the blacklist following the HUAC hearings. He established The Committee to Defend V.J. Jerome in 1951 when Jerome, the cultural commissioner of CPUSA, was convicted under the Smith Act. The writer Dorothy Parker was the group's treasurer.

In 1954, Gellert established the Art of Today Gallery in New York City with Rockwell Kent and Charles White to provide an exhibition venue for blacklisted artists. Exhibitions included Maurice Becker, Henry Glintenkamp, Harry Gottlieb, Kay Harris, and Rockwell Kent. Gellert served as the gallery's secretary until it closed in 1957.

In the 1960s until his death in 1985, Gellert continued his activism through involvement in grassroots political organizations. Unlike many of his radical contemporaries, Gellert lived to see the revival of some of the ideas of the progressive era of the thirties in the countercultural years of the late 1960s and early 1970s. There were retrospectives of his work in Moscow in 1967 and in his native Budapest in 1968, and he appeared in Warren Beatty's film Reds in 1981.

Sources used for this essay include James Wechsler's 2003 dissertation "The Art and Activism of Hugo Gellert: Embracing the Spectre of Communism," his essay "From World War I to the Popular Front: The Art and Activism of Hugo Gellert," ( Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts number 24, Spring 2002), and Jeff Kisseloff's biographical essay for the 1986 Hugo Gellert exhibition at the Mary Ryan Gallery.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are an oral history with Hugo Gellert from 1984, a recording of a lecture Gellert gave at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1985, and additional records of Artists for Victory, Inc., 1942-1946.

The Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives at New York University holds additional papers of Hugo Gellert.
Provenance:
A portion of the papers were donated in 1970 by Hugo Gellert. Additional papers were donated by Gellert and his wife, Livia Cinquegrana, in 1983 and 1986.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Hugo Gellert papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Artists' writings  Search this
Politics in art  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Graphic artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Hugo Gellert papers, 1916-1986. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.gellhugo
See more items in:
Hugo Gellert papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gellhugo
Online Media:

Cherokee Days 2019 – Traditional Dance 4

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2019-05-13T18:26:45Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_GCAgoeYgY-o

The Artistry and History of Aleutian Islands Bentwood Hats

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2011-10-08T18:43:35Z
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianNMNH
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianNMNH
Data Source:
National Museum of Natural History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_bmhSelrkFEk

IAIA College Students Conduct Research at the NMAI

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2015-02-11T20:58:47Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_4_zv0C7-PmQ

Amateur films from Mexico, 1935-1941

Creator:
Archives of American Art  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2012-08-16T13:41:54Z
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAAA
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAAA
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_8KTI6nKaebI

Greenland Video: The Daily Life in Niaqornat

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2010-02-23T19:06:43Z
Youtube Category:
Pets & Animals  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianMagazine
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianMagazine
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_AFZHvyXbvZQ

Flory Jagoda Trio - Sephardic Music

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2013-02-06T14:20:45Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_IBJbAAKUFOY

The Legendary Uli Women of Nigeria

Creator:
National Museum of African Art  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2015-01-21T20:23:09Z
Topic:
Art, African  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAfricanAr
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAfricanAr
Data Source:
National Museum of African Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_JfJ8KwEF2jI

In the Groove: Jazz Portraits by Herman Leonard

Creator:
National Portrait Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-10-28T14:04:44Z
Topic:
Portraits  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
NatlPortraitGallery
YouTube Channel:
NatlPortraitGallery
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_LcISix6SAFI

Colombia Dispatch Video: Palenque: A Piece of Africa in Sout

Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2010-02-23T18:55:15Z
Youtube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianMagazine
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianMagazine
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Nx4A_dLnXak

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