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The true Billingsgate Fishmonger [greeting card]

Collector:
Norcross Greeting Card Company (New York (N.Y.))  Search this
Collection Collector:
Norcross, Arthur Dickinson, d. 1968  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Extractive Industries  Search this
Rust, Fred Winslow, 1877?-1949  Search this
Rust Craft Greeting Card Company (Dedham (Mass.))  Search this
Collection Designer:
Tuck, Raphael, fl. 1880s  Search this
Prang, Louis, fl. 1880-1900  Search this
Chase, Ernest Dudley, fl. 1920s  Search this
Collection Manufacturer:
Norcross Greeting Card Company (New York (N.Y.))  Search this
Rust Craft Publishers (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 9.6" x 6.7".)
Container:
Box 29, Folder Vinegar
Type:
Archival materials
Vinegar valentines
Greeting cards
Valentines
Date:
Circa 1890
Scope and Contents:
Vinegar valentine, with image of a man selling fish.
Local Numbers:
AC0058-0000053.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fish vendors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Vinegar Valentines
Greeting cards
Valentines
Collection Citation:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Norcross Greeting Card Collection
Norcross Greeting Card Collection / Series 2: Antique Greeting Card Collection / 2.1: Greeting Cards / Valentines, vinegar, comic
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0058-ref2596

Deep-Dish Dialogue: A Better Deal for Food Workers

Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2020-11-09T21:00:46.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
American History  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_wX7sexVC9lw

1946 Quiriguá - Guatemala

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-07-12T19:12:19.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
See more by:
HSFAFilmClips
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
YouTube Channel:
HSFAFilmClips
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Ib-GzvJzK7I

1958 Guatemala City Part 1 - Guatemala

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2013-07-31T06:51:43.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
See more by:
HSFAFilmClips
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
YouTube Channel:
HSFAFilmClips
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_IcBVgifX2dc

ERA NOW

Affiliated union:
National Organization for Women  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 14 1/2 in x 22 1/4 in; 36.83 cm x 56.515 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Used:
United States: District of Columbia
Date made:
1978
Used date:
July 9, 1978
Subject:
Equal Rights Amendment  Search this
History, Women's, Equal Rights  Search this
Women's History  Search this
Women's Rights  Search this
Women's History  Search this
Protest and Civil Disobedience  Search this
March, Rally, Demonstration, or Other  Search this
Related event:
ERA March  Search this
Credit Line:
Unknown Vendors
ID Number:
1978.0944.10.a
Catalog number:
1978.0944.10.a
Accession number:
1978.0944
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Princeton Posters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-b194-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1132905

ERA NOW

Affiliated union:
National Organization for Women  Search this
Measurements:
overall: 14 1/2 in x 22 1/4 in; 36.83 cm x 56.515 cm
Object Name:
Poster
Used:
United States: District of Columbia
Date made:
1978
Used date:
July 9, 1978
Subject:
Equal Rights Amendment  Search this
Women's History  Search this
Women's Rights  Search this
Women's History  Search this
History, Women's, Equal Rights  Search this
Protest and Civil Disobedience  Search this
March, Rally, Demonstration, or Other  Search this
Related event:
ERA March  Search this
Credit Line:
Unkown Vendors
ID Number:
1978.0944.10.b
Catalog number:
1978.0944.10.b
Accession number:
1978.0944
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Princeton Posters
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b4-467d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1132906

Market Day: A Family Affair, Tamazunchale, Mexico [black-and-white photoprint]

Photographer:
Joseph, Katherine  Search this
Collection Creator:
Joseph, Katherine  Search this
Hertzberg, Suzanne  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (7-7/8" x 10".)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Tamazunchale (Mexico)
Mexico -- 20th century
Date:
1941
Arrangement:
Box No. 5.
Local Numbers:
AC0944-0000076.tif (AC Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Gloves required with unprotected photographs.
Collection Rights:
Copyright held by donor. Written permission required prior to obtaining reproductions. Consult with Archives Center staff for contact information. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Family -- Mexico  Search this
Markets -- Mexico  Search this
Streets -- Mexico  Search this
Vendors and purchasers -- Mexico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Katherine Joseph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Katherine Joseph Papers
Katherine Joseph Papers / Series 3: Photographic Prints / 3.3: Mexico / Mexico (market scenes)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0944-ref575

The Stansbury Company

Collection Donor:
Stansbury, Jacqueline  Search this
Collection Creator:
Stansbury, Benjamin H., 1935-1996  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1966-1994
bulk 1978-1990
Scope and Contents:
The Stansbury Company was formed in 1973 by Benjamin H. Stansbury. His company provided product development services from concept to production. This series consists of company organizational materials such as check lists, time cards, salary information, and a procedural manual for how the company operates. Many of the company materials contain forms such as cost estimates for labor and components, vendor reference check guide, invoices, work order changes, project design criteria objectives, and the standard terms and conditions agreement. Potential clients would complete forms such as the idea evaluation and disclosure agreement.

The majority of the materials in this series consist of subject files for projects that Stansbury worked on the files are arranged alphabetically and contain photographs, slides, notes, advertisements, news clippings, sketches, drawings and printed materials. Product literature for many of the companies that contracted with Stansbury for his design services is found throughout this series. The files for Ronco-related products such as the Egg Scrambler, Smokeless Ashtray, and battery tester can be found in this series. Other Ronco-related materials are found in series 9.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin H. Stansbury Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Benjamin H. Stansbury Collection, 1959-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1350, Series 8
See more items in:
Benjamin H. Stansbury Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1350-ref13

Ronco Teleproducts, Inc.

Collection Donor:
Stansbury, Jacqueline  Search this
Collection Creator:
Stansbury, Benjamin H., 1935-1996  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1978 - 1980
Scope and Contents:
This series contains materials related to Stansbury's work with Ronco. The materials include work orders, press kit (1980), and the product line vendor documentation which includes project schedule sheets.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin H. Stansbury Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Benjamin H. Stansbury Collection, 1959-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1350, Series 9
See more items in:
Benjamin H. Stansbury Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1350-ref267

Ronco product line vendor documentation

Collection Donor:
Stansbury, Jacqueline  Search this
Collection Creator:
Stansbury, Benjamin H., 1935-1996  Search this
Container:
Box 13, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1979 March 12
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Benjamin H. Stansbury Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Benjamin H. Stansbury Collection, 1959-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Benjamin H. Stansbury Papers
Benjamin H. Stansbury Papers / Series 9: Ronco Teleproducts, Inc.
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1350-ref270

Field photos: Patty's week with Mau Mau

Collection Creator:
Karp, Ivan  Search this
Container:
Box 34, Folder 10-12
Box 38, Roll 11-12
Box 39, Roll 10, 12
Type:
Archival materials
Prints
Negatives
Date:
circa 1969-1971
Scope and Contents:
Includes images of Patricia, Karp, and Iteso women performing domestic and agricultural work; musicians playing instruments at Akoboit; and market vendor.
Collection Restrictions:
Recommendations that Karp wrote for his colleagues and students are restricted until 2061.

Access to the Ivan Karp papers requires an appointment.
Collection Citation:
Ivan Karp papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ivan Karp papers
Ivan Karp papers / Series 4: Photographs / 4.1: Iteso
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2013-30-ref666

Financial Records

Collection Creator:
MacRae, Elmer Livingston, 1875-1953  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Linear feet (Box 1)
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1912-1916
Scope and Contents:
Financial records related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS) operating expenses and the Armory Show include sales lists of artwork, receipts, invoices, payroll, shipping and transportation invoices, rescinded dues, four cashier's journals, two ledgers, a receipt book, a checkbook, and bills for office supplies, printing, publicity, and photography, among other things. A lot of the materials, such as the "Lexington File" bills, are directly related to the exhibition, but a lot of the general AAPS financial and business records are also scattered throughout the series.
Arrangement:
This series is arranged alphabetically by document type, also the contents of several folders - such as different kinds of bills and invoices - are often alphabetical by vendor as a reflection of the original order upon receipt at the archives.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the American Association of Painters and Sculptors, 1899-circa 2013, bulk 1912-1916. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.macrelme, Series 5
See more items in:
Elmer Livingston MacRae papers related to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-macrelme-ref80

Brazil: Bahian blacks and candomblé (3 of 3)

Collection Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Collection Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Extent:
293 Prints
Container:
Box 62
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Prints
Date:
1938-1939
Scope and Contents:
-1938 October 30 (31 prints): Photos of Villa Flaviana, Flaviana's family and ogan, houses near Villa Flaviana, street vendors, Edison Carniero and doctor at psychiatric hospital in Brotas

-1938 November 21 (37 prints): Photos of Dique, views from a launch, and Edison Carniero

-1938 December (2 prints): Photographs of portrait of Aninha and house of Manoel, chief drummer at Gantois

-1939 January 1 (68 prints): Lavagem do Bonfim festival (Washing of the Church of Our Lord of Good Ending) and festival of Bom Jesus dos Navegantes. Views of churches, procession, dolls, crowds, filhas of Joãozinho da Goméia, and priestesses. Also photos of Edison Carneiro and duplicate prints of Martiniano and his wife

-Capoeira, wrestling (106 prints). Also one photo of Gantois

-Idalice's presente (8 prints). Offering ceremony of Idalice, Candomblé de Angola priestess, to Iemanjá. The ceremony was financed by Landes and Edison Carneiro. See Landes's field notebook "Brazil XVII"

-Miscellaneous and unidentified (41 prints). Edison Carniero, Landes, Bahiana dolls, views of Sugar Loaf Mountain in Rio de Janeiro. Also photos from Idalice's offering ceremony to Iemanjá

(Digital surrogates: landes_photographs_brazil)
Collection Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Ruth Landes papers / Series 6: Graphic Materials / 6.2: Photographs
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1991-04-ref729

Vendor register marks and trademarks

Collection Creator:
Mergenthaler Linotype Co.  Search this
Container:
Box 174, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1982
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Social Security numbers are present and have been rendered unreadable and redacted. Researchers may use the photocopies in the collection.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Mergenthaler Linotype Company Records, 1886-1997, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Mergenthaler Linotype Company Records
Mergenthaler Linotype Company Records / Series 10: Sales Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0666-ref4259

Flower vendor display

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1905
Collection Restrictions:
Access to original images by appointment only. Researcher must submit request for appointment in writing. Certain items may be restricted and not available to researchers. Please direct reference inquiries to the Archives of American Gardens: aag@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
Archives of American Gardens encourages the use of its archival materials for non-commercial, educational and personal use under the fair use provision of U.S. copyright law. Use or copyright restrictions may exist. It is incumbent upon the researcher to ascertain copyright status and assume responsibility for usage. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by Archives of American Gardens.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Historic gardens postcard collection.
See more items in:
Historic Gardens Postcard collection
Historic Gardens Postcard collection / Series 1: Postcards by location / New York -- Unidentified
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Gardens
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aag-ptc-ref135

Food vendors, markets, Lower East Side, New York City

Collection Photographer:
Davies, Diana, 1938-  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print (black and white)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.

Permission for the duplication or publication of items in the Diana Davies Photograph Collection must be obtained from the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections.
Collection Rights:
Copyright restrictions apply. Please contact the archives staff for further information.
Collection Citation:
Diana Davies photographs, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.DAVIE, File FP-DAVI-BWPR-0020
See more items in:
Diana Davies photographs
Diana Davies photographs / Series 12: New York City Scenes
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-davie-ref746

Eskimo Pie Corporation Records

Creator:
Eskimo Pie Corporation.  Search this
Nelson, Christian Kent, 1893-1992  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (50 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Sheet music
Posters
Photographs
Business records
Legal records
Clippings
Date:
1921-1996
Scope and Contents:
Printed advertisements, photographs (including negatives and slides), sales presentation materials and packaging; patent and legal information, clippings, posters, scripts for radio commercials, sheet music for jingles, etc. Also includes personal papers (correspondence) of Christian Nelson, inventor of the Eskimo Pie.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biographical / Historical:
Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher. The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know--I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day. On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products. In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar. After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related. Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4. Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946. Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company. Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included. Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included. Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream. Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1990 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation. Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1990 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). It also includes video footage of a 1990 production line. Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1. Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters. Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year. Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter. Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events. Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising. Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically. Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film AWho's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods. Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads. Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions. Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included. Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear. Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting. Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information. Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here. Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, television commercials, and little written information on television campaigns. Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections The Division of Cultural History has several objects which are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including: #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)

#78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)

#112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983

#300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)

#451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990

#588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989

#594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts housed in the Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dave Clark, Eskimo Pie Corporation, July 12, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Polar bear in art  Search this
Ice cream industry -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Sheet music -- advertising
Posters
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Legal records
Clippings
Citation:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records, 1921-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0553
See more items in:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0553
Online Media:

Engineering Department Records

Collection Donor:
Nickse, Hugo  Search this
Johnson, Hanford  Search this
Steinway, Henry Ziegler  Search this
Collection Creator:
Comstock, Cheney and Co.  Search this
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1964 - 1964
Scope and Contents:
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT RECORDS, 1964, consist of customer files, interoffice correspondence, vendor files, and miscellaneous files. They are a complete one year sample, chosen at random, of the Engineering Department records from a period of Pratt, Read's high postwar productivity. The customer files are arranged alphabetically by name of company or individual to whom Pratt, Read supplied actions, keyboards, or components. Several major piano and organ companies are included, such as Aeolian American, Janssen, Kimball, Lowrey, and Sohmer & Company. The files consist of specifications, drawings, memos, and schedules for production. The interoffice correspondence is that sent or received by A. W. Nordquist, Chief of the Manufacturing Engineering Section. This correspondence deals with personnel questions, changes in specifications, customers' orders, and other routine matters. The vendor files are correspondence, catalogues, price quotations, and other information sent to A. W. Nordquist from various supply houses. Nordquist's miscellaneous files cover a variety of topics, including inventories of shipments made to the company's Central, S. C., plant; plans for plastic spray on key coverings; personnel notices; the safety program; plastic key production schedules; and other engineering issues. Also of interest is a file of drawings supplied to British Piano Actions, Ltd.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records, 1839-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0320, Subseries 3.11
See more items in:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records
Pratt, Read Corporation Records / Series 3: Pratt, Read and Company, Pratt, Read and Company, Inc., and Pratt-Read Corporation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0320-ref262

Vendor Files, 1964

Collection Donor:
Nickse, Hugo  Search this
Johnson, Hanford  Search this
Steinway, Henry Ziegler  Search this
Collection Creator:
Comstock, Cheney and Co.  Search this
Pratt, Read and Company  Search this
Container:
Box 59
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records, 1839-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Pratt, Read Corporation Records
Pratt, Read Corporation Records / Series 3: Pratt, Read and Company, Pratt, Read and Company, Inc., and Pratt-Read Corporation / 3.11: Engineering Department Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0320-ref391

Leo Baekeland Diary Volume 29

Author:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (6.0" x 3.5")
Container:
Box 20, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Diaries
Date:
1920 February 27- 1920 April 12
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Family -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries -- 20th century
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Leo H. Baekeland Papers / Series 4: Diaries
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref318
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