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National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

2005.0112- Rosebud Indian Land Sale document

Creator:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Linear feet
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota [Rosebud Sioux]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1929 December 5
Scope and Contents:
Leaf out of a newspaper describing a Rosebud Indian Land Sale held on December 5, 1929. This was found inside a Sioux Tobacco bag made sometime between 1880 and 1890. The bag has catalog number 26/5468 (265468) and can be found in NMAI's ethnographic collections. It was then used as inspiration for a lithographic print "Trust and Loss" by Dyani White Hawk Polk. The print is now in NMAI's modern and contemporary arts collection with catalog number 26/9784 (269784).
Provenance:
The tobacco bag was given to William J. Sheehan (Director of the Defense Department Office of Economic Adjustment) by McCarthy Nowlin (Deputy Directory of the Defense Department Office of Economic Adjustment) in the 1970s; given to NMAI by William J. Sheehan's wife, Kathleen Sheehan, in 2005, on behalf of William J. Sheehan, McCarthy Nowlin, and herself.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); General Manuscripts and Ephemera collections, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
General Manuscripts and Ephemera collections
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-998-ref1

Hidatsa Delegation photographs in Washington, DC and New York City

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Photographer:
Miller, Kenneth C., 1901-1974  Search this
Sinclair, David  Search this
Source:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Former owner:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Names:
Drags Wolf  Search this
Foolish Bear  Search this
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Franklin Delano), 1882-1945  Search this
Extent:
56 Photographic prints
18 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Place:
New York (State) -- New York City -- Photographs
Date:
1938 January
Summary:
Photographs of the Hidatsa Delegation at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in New York, City and visiting the White House in Washington, D.C. for the repatriation of a Water Buster Bundle in 1938. Hidatsa Delegation members included elders Drags Wolf and Foolish Bear.
Scope and Contents:
The Hidatsa Delegation photographs in Washington, DC and New York City include photographic prints and negatives made in January 1938. The photographs in Washington, DC, shot on January 13, were made by photographers from the Bureau of Indian affairs. These include images of Minitari (Hidatsa) elders Foolish bear and Drags Wolf with their interpreter Arthur Mandan and Bureau staff members John Herrick, F.W. LaRoche in the BIA offices; Studio portraits of Foolish Bear and Drags Wolf in traditional dress; as well as images of the delegation visiting with President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the White House. Photographs in New York City were shot by either David Sinclair or Kenneth C. Miller before and during the repatriation ceremony at the Museum of the American Indian on January 14, 1938. In addition to the delegation members several MAI staff and board members were photographed including George Heye, Edwin K. Burnett, Thomas Roberts, Louis Bishop, and George Heye's wife at the time, Jessica Standing Heye, among others. Photographs which display the contents of the bundle have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity. For the photographs made by Miller, who was on staff at the time, we have both the negatives (possibly original) and the photographic prints.
Photographic prints: P12888-P12927, P37470-P37485. Negatives: N21505-N21522.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
During the 1930s, a terrible drought parched the Plains. In North Dakota, members of the Hidatsa Water Buster Clan asked George Gustav Heye, director of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation to return a medicine bundle important in ceremonies to bring rain. Heye was initially reluctant to part with the bundle, which he acquired in 1927, twenty years after the son of the clan's bundle-custodian sold it to a Presbyterian missionary. When the press and government officials showed interest in the clan's request, Heye changed his mind.

In 1938, two Hidatsa elders, Drags Wolf and Foolish Bear, traveled east to collect the medicine bundle. Their first stop was Washington, D.C., where they met President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The next day, the Hidatsa attended a ceremony in New York, where they gave Heye a powder horn and war club in exchange for the medicine bundle.

In 1977, twenty years after Heye's death, museum curators came upon a wooden box, stored in a stairwell. Inside were items that belonged with the medicine bundle. It is unclear if the contents had become separated from the bundle or were deliberately set aside. The items were later returned to the Hidatsa.

https://americanindian.si.edu/exhibitions/infinityofnations/george-heye.html#plains-plateau
Provenance:
Photographs shot at the Museum in New York City were wither donated by David Sinclair in 1938 or created by Kenneth C. Miller, a museum staff member at the time. The photographs shot in Washington, DC, were donated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1938.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some photographs are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Repatriation of American Indian material  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Hidatsa Delegation photographs in Washington, DC and New York City, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.057
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-057

Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records

Creator:
Hunter, Dwight  Search this
American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association  Search this
Superneau, Regina  Search this
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
Names:
American Indian Tribal Court Clerks Association  Search this
Great Lakes Intertribal Council -- justice  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of Justice  Search this
United States. Department of Labor  Search this
Extent:
96.5 Linear feet (55 Paige boxes of unprocessed material. 96 Hollinger boxes of processed material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Proposals
Project files
Minutes
Correspondence
Date:
circa 1949-1999
Summary:
These records, located in the Cultural Resources Center at NMAI, contain organizational records from ARROW, Inc. and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA). Included in this collection are both processed and unprocessed materials relating to the work conducted by these two organizations providing educational, financial and legal assistance to Native American communities.
Scope and Contents:
Virtually all the records in this collection concern projects undertaken by Arrow, Inc., and most are projects whose sponsorship was shared with the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association. Included are porposals, reports, relevant correspondence, and training materials. Most of these projects had been supported by the Department of Justice Legal Enforcement Assistance Administration, United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, and United States Department of Labor.
Arrangement note:
Records of Arrow, Inc., including (1) Industrial Park in Indian Areas; (2) supplemental scholarship assistance, 1961-1974; (3) monthly scholarship assistance, 1970-1972; (4) material concerning Crimial Court Procedures Manual: A Guide for American Indian Court Judges; (5) automatic diagnotic computer project, 1970; (6) Operation Mainstream; (7) social services case studies;

Records of the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association, including (8) family law/child welfare projects, circa 1974-1985; (9) American Indian court judges training project, circa 1971-1980; (10) criminal law training program, circa 1975-1984; (11) long-range planning study, 1976-1979; (12) court clerk training program, circa 1978-1983; (13) linkages for indian child welfare programs; (14) parenting program; (15) Indian child welfare training, 1982-1983; (16) child welfare act of 1978; (17) model court development project; (18) civil law training project; (19) Dwight Hunter's Portland area needs assessment; (20) technical proposal, 1981; (21) Warm Springs tribal court manual; (22) research grant, 1970-1971; (23) juvenile law and juvenile delinquency training project, 1971-1972; (24) resource directory/social services, 1977; (25) Regina Superneau correspondence; (26) international year of the child; (27) joint training sessions, NAICJA and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, Albuquerque, 1979; (28) criminal justice development project for the Great Lakes Intertribal Council, Inc.; (29) studies for American Indian Court Judges; (30) justice and the American Indian project; (31) reference material

The Unprocessed Matrial from Arrow, Inc. is unnaranged. It is still in its original shipping order.
Biographical/Historical note:
Arrow, Inc. ("Americans for Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs," frequently ARROW, Inc.) was initially known as the National Congress of American Indians Fund. It was incorporated in April 1949 under the laws of the District of Columbia by three trustees--Ruth M. Bronson, D'Arcy McNickle, and N.B. Johnson. Its founding was prompted by the involvement of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) in alleviating the suffering of certain Southwestern tribes brought by a particularly harsh winter. Since the NCAI was engaged in political activities, its donors could not receive tax deductions for their contributions. In contrast, the NCAI Fund was dedicated to charitable and educational work among American Indians and was initially granted tax exempt status. Thus, its donors could receive tax benefits for contributions in spite of the fact that the Fund was regarded as an arm of the NCAI, itself essentially a political lobbying organization.

In time, questions arose about the close connection between the NCAI and the NCAI Fund and caused considerable anxiety for Fund officers since it potentially threatened the tax status. In October 1949, desire for greater distance from NCAI led to the adopition of the name Arrow, Inc. In truth, however, the close connections with the NCAI continued, for the NCAI business committee had the power to appoint and remove Arrow trustees. In 1952, NCAI abolished its business committee; and, with the approval of NCAI's officers, Arrow took the opportunity to eliminate references to NCAI from its bylaws. Nevertheless, close cooperation still continued for many years.

Starting in 1952, Arrow was an autonomous organization managed by a board of directors appointed by its members. Operating largely through grants and donations, Arrow used some of its funds to finance a publications program, including a newsletter called Arrow or, in a latter-day interpretation of ARROW as an acronym, American for the Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs. Most monies, however, went into a wide variety of education and charitable projects. In the year 2000 Arrow, Inc. closed its doors.

A project undertaken by Arrow to improve tribal courts led directly to establishing the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA) in 1968. This ongoing organization, now with membership represeting almost all Indian Court judges, not only grew out of an Arrow activity but continued a close association with Arrow. only sharing executive director with Arrow as well as sponsorhsip of its projects with Arrow. Generaly, such projects involved educational activities designed to raise the standards and professionalism of Indian courts. In 1980, the National American Indian Court Clerks Association was established as an auxiliary of AITCJA.
Provenance:
The first two record groups in this collection, The Records of Arrow, Inc. and the Records of the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association were transferred from the National Anthropological Archives to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2007. The unprocessed materials from Arrow, Inc. were donated directly from Arrow, Inc. in 2001 following the closure of the organization.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
American Indians -- Operation Mainstream  Search this
Child welfare -- American Indian  Search this
American Indians -- legal system  Search this
Warms Springs -- court manual  Search this
American Indians -- scholarships  Search this
Family law -- American Indian  Search this
Parenting -- American Indian  Search this
Juvenile law -- American Indian  Search this
Genre/Form:
Proposals
Project files
Minutes
Correspondence
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.013
See more items in:
Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-013

Mrs. Bonita La Beaux Fite [and] Preimeaux Family, 1968

Creator:
Landes, Ruth 1908-1991  Search this
Subject:
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States Office of Indian Affairs Pawnee Agency  Search this
Physical description:
1 photographic print : black & white ; 11.5 x 7 centimeters
Culture:
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Indians of North America Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Place:
Anadarko (Okla.)
Date:
1968
Local number:
Image ID landes_photo_friends_family_38
See more items in:
Ruth Landes' friends and family 1930-1980s
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_287213

Eugene O. Leonard photograph collection relating to Pocatello and Fort Hall, Idaho

Collector:
Leonard, Eugene O.  Search this
Publisher:
Albertype Co.  Search this
Cardinell-Vincent Co.  Search this
Detroit Photographic Co.  Search this
Detroit Publishing Co.  Search this
H.G. Zimmerman & Co.  Search this
J.L. Robbins Co.  Search this
Newman Postcard Co.  Search this
The Rotograph Co.  Search this
Union Pacific Railroad Company  Search this
Van Ornum Colorprint Co.  Search this
Andrews, Wesley  Search this
Mitchell, Edward H.  Search this
Tammen, Harry Heye, 1856-1924  Search this
Thayer, Frank S.  Search this
Photographer:
Bennett's Lightning Portraits  Search this
Eastman Kodak Company  Search this
Hedum and Bishop  Search this
Newcomb Bros.  Search this
Rodgers and Newing  Search this
Todd Photograhic Co.  Search this
William L. Koehne Studio  Search this
Ahuja, D. A.  Search this
Cobb, George N.  Search this
Gifford, Benjamin A.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
McEvoy, J. J.  Search this
Rise, Carl H., 1888-1939  Search this
Rothrock, George H.  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Vroman, A. C. (Adam Clark), 1856-1916  Search this
Weitfle, Charles, 1836-1921  Search this
Wrensted, Benedicte, 1859-1949  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Fort Hall Agency  Search this
Leonard, Robert M. (photo album compiler and donor)  Search this
Extent:
4 Glass positives
6 Prints and postcards (photogravure)
1 Tintype
100 Negatives (circa, glass)
220 Copy prints (circa)
9 Prints and postcards (cyanotype)
99 Items (99 photomechanical prints and postcards, halftone, color halftone, collotype, photgravure)
1,000 Negatives (circa, nitrate)
734 Photographic prints (circa, silver gelatin, albumen, and platinum (including photographic postcards and cabinet cards))
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass positives
Prints and postcards
Tintypes
Negatives
Copy prints
Photographic prints
Postcards
Photographs
Place:
Soda Springs (Idaho)
Yellowstone National Park
Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Idaho)
Pocatello (Idaho)
Shoshone Falls (Idaho)
Date:
circa 1880-1920
Scope and Contents note:
Unbound album pages (labeled A through Q) with photographs documenting the people and culture of the Pocatello-Fort Hall area, including Native Americanss (particularly Shoshone-Bannock tribes), agency employees, and missionaries. Included are images of encampments, Sun Dance ceremonies, the Fort Hall Agency, Indian schools and churches, the Run for Fort Hall Lands on June 17, 1902, the War Bonnett Roundup at Idaho Falls, Shoshone Falls and other natural features and landscapes, a large number of street and aerial views of Pocatello, A. L. Cook's drug store in Pocatello, and members of the Cook family. In addition, there are photographs of Nez Perce, Hopi, San Juan, and Navaho Indians, and one image of the Lapps Indians at Port Townsend, Washington. A large number of the photographs were made by Benedicte Wrensted.

The albums were compiled by Robert Leonard, Eugene O. Leonard's son, who also made copy prints of many of the photographs and negatives. They include flyers, newspapers, envelopes, and other scraps collected by Leonard.
Biographical/Historical note:
Eugene O. Leonard (1884-1964) moved to Pocatello, Idaho, in 1893 to live with his aunt, the widow of A. L. Cook and owner of the Cook building and drugstore. Leonard attended Weiser College and Academy (now College of Idaho), Whitman College, and Northwestern University. He acquired degrees in phamacy and pharmaceutical chemistry from Northwestern University, and a degree in assaying studies from the Chicago College of Chemistry. After graduation from the College in 1908, Leonard returned to Pocatello to manage the Cook Drug Store until 1918. He worked as Pocatello City Chemist and set up the College of Pharmacy at Idaho State College, where he also taught and served as dean (1918-1954). In the 1930s, Leonard obtained a MS and PhD from Utah State University. Possibly encouraged by his collector aunt, Leonard established a collection of Native material culture objects and documentations, including artifacts and these photograhs, based on his interest in the Shoshoni and Bannock tribes at nearby Fort Hall.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 92-3
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The Idaho Museum of Natural History at Idaho State University holds artifacts collected by Eugene O. Leonard.
The Bannock County Historical Museum in Pocatello holds the Leonard Family Papers, 1893-1917.
Restrictions:
Original nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing. Many have associated prints.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pharmacy  Search this
Sun Dance  Search this
Schools  Search this
Camps  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Postcards
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 92-3, Eugene O. Leonard photograph collection relating to Pocatello and Fort Hall, Idaho, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.92-3
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-92-3
Online Media:

Robert M. Farring Jr. photographs of Native American delegations

Creator:
Faring, Robert M. Jr  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61 Prints (silver gelatin)
169 Polaroid prints (color)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Ute  Search this
Coeur d'Alene  Search this
Sauk  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Uintah Ute  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Makah  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Vietnamese  Search this
Nooksack  Search this
Yavapai  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Sisitonwan Dakota (Sisseton Sioux)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Shawnee  Search this
French  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Washoe (Washo)  Search this
Muskogee (Creek)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Osage  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Yanktonnai Nakota (Yankton Sioux)  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Umatilla  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Colville  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Lummi  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Apache  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Choctaw  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Polaroid prints
Photographs
Date:
1967-1971
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting tribal delegates, probably made by Robert M. Farring during tribal group visits to the Bureau of Indian Affairs Washington office. Many of the photographs were originally mounted in notebooks with identification of pictured individuals and their affiliations.
Biographical/Historical note:
Robert M. Farring, Jr. is an employee in the Tribal Operations office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, DC.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 85-21
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of Native American delegations can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 4286, MS 4638, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 90-1, and the BAE historical negatives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Delegations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 85-21, Robert M. Farring Jr. photograph collection of Indian delegations, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.85-21
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-85-21

Bill Wyrick photographs of dedication of Cheyenne and Arapaho Museum and Archives

Creator:
Wyrick, Bill  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Branch of Land Operations  Search this
Extent:
12 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1977
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting the dedication of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Museum and Archives in Canton, Oklahoma on May 13, 1977. There are also images of a sign for Cheyenne and Arapaho Recreational Park and of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Marina on Canton Lake.
Biographical/Historical note:
Bill Wyrick worked in the Soil and Moisture Conservation Unit (SMC) Cartographic Section, Concho, Oklahoma, of the Branch of Land Operations of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 78-44
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 78-44, Bill Wyrick photographs of dedication of Cheyenne and Arapaho Museum and Archives, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.78-44
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-78-44

MS 3653 Letters addressed to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, from Indian Agents

Creator:
Commissioner of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
98 Pages
Culture:
Apache  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Oto  Search this
Mescalero Apache  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Kootenai (Kutenai)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1890
Scope and Contents:
Replies to correspondence (circular letter) sent to various Indian Agencies relative to marriage customs among the various Indian tribes. The tribes represented are: Flathead, Kalispel, Kootenai, Mescalero Apache, Navaho, Oto, Pend d Oreille, and Shoshoni.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3653
Topic:
Marriage and family -- Flathead  Search this
Marriage and family -- Kalispel  Search this
Marriage and family -- Kootenai  Search this
Marriage and family -- Mescalero Apache  Search this
Marriage and family -- Navaho  Search this
Marriage and family -- Oto  Search this
Marriage and family -- Pend d Oreille  Search this
Marriage and family -- Shoshoni  Search this
Navaho  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Otoe  Search this
Kutenai  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 3653, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3653
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3653

MS 2932 Notes on sign language and miscellaneous ethnographic notes on Plains Indians

Creator:
Scott, Hugh Lenox, 1853-1934  Search this
Dunbar, John Brown, 1841-1914  Search this
He Dog  Search this
Red Feather  Search this
Whirling  Search this
Addressee:
Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947  Search this
Names:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Bruguiere, Johnnie, 1849-1898  Search this
Petalesharo, 1797-1836  Search this
Extent:
4 Boxes
2,736 Items (2,736 pages)
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Osage  Search this
Apache  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Minitari (Hidatsa)  Search this
Cree  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Bannock  Search this
Ute  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Lenape (Delaware)  Search this
Slave  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Sarsi Indians  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
White River Ute (Yampa)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Northwest Coast  Search this
Kootenai (Kutenai)  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1934
Scope and Contents:
Much of this material is relevant to the Dakotas. Includes: miscellaneous notes on Dakota history, bands, and sign for "Dakota," Autograph Document. Approximately 100 pages. (Box 2); account of the Battle of Little Big Horn by He Dog, Red Feather, and Whirling, Autograph Document. 7 pages. (Box 3); "The Custer Battle with the Sioux, Autograph Document. 10 pages. (Box 3); notes on sign language in general, its history and distribution, Autograph and Typescript Document, 1 box (Box 4).
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2932
Local Note:
manuscript document
Topic:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Sign language  Search this
Marriage and family -- Berdache  Search this
Weapons -- bow  Search this
Dance -- calumet  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Rituals, formulas and ceremonies  Search this
Zoology -- Buffalo  Search this
Dance -- grass  Search this
War -- Battle of Little Bighorn  Search this
Medicine  Search this
Names, place  Search this
Dance -- Ghost dance  Search this
Religion -- soul, concept of  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Navaho  Search this
Shoshone  Search this
Ute  Search this
White River (Parusanuch and Yampa)  Search this
Lenape  Search this
Assiniboin  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Plains Apache  Search this
Blackfoot  Search this
Sarcee  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Kootenai  Search this
Kutenai  Search this
Blackfeet  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 2932, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2932
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2932
Online Media:

Printed and processed materials

Collection Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan, 1903-1988  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Collection Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Container:
Box 30
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
-Robert L. Bee, "Potawatomi peyotism: the influence of traditional patterns," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, v. 22 (1966), pp. 194-205 (printed item annotated)

-United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Social and economic survey of Potawatomie jurisdictions, 1975 (bound multilith)

-James A. Clifton, "Potawatomi," draft of chapter for Handbook of the North American Indians, ed. by William C. Sturtevant, v. 12, Northeast, ed. By Bruce G. Trigger (mimeograph)

-__________, "Sociocultural dynamics of the Prairie Potawatomi drum cult," prepared for Plains anthropologist, v. 14 (1969) (mimeograph)
Collection Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Ruth Landes papers / Series 2: Research Materials / 2.17: Potawatomi
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1991-04-ref582

Robert J. Havighurst Papers 1939-1954

Creator:
Havighurst, Robert J 1900 -  Search this
University of Chicago Committee on Human Development  Search this
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Indian Personality, Education, and Administration Research Project  Search this
Correspondent:
Arthur, Grace  Search this
Benedict, Ruth 1887-1948  Search this
Gonzales, Clara  Search this
Janke, Lester  Search this
Leighton, Dorothea Cross 1908-  Search this
Thompson, Laura 1905-2000  Search this
Physical description:
13 linear feet
Culture:
Zuni Indians  Search this
Hopi Oraibi Polacca  Search this
Navaho Navaho Mountain Ramah Shiprock  Search this
Dakota Pine Ridge Kyle Wanblee  Search this
Papago Topawa Hickiwan Gu Vo  Search this
Sia  Search this
Indians of North America Southwest, New  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Zia Indians  Search this
Type:
Psychological tests
Date:
1939-1954
Topic:
Arthur Point Preference Test  Search this
Stewart s Emotional Response Test  Search this
Free drawing test  Search this
Restrictions & Rights:
Most of the collection is restricted to protect the confidentiality of data concerning subjects of tests and interviews
See more items in:
Robert J. Havighurst Papers 1939-1954
Data Source:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_87755

No-Tin

Artist:
Thomas Mann, born Allentown, PA 1947  Search this
Sitter:
NO-TIN  Search this
Medium:
silver, copper, brass, nickel, Plexiglas, and color photocopy
Dimensions:
5 7/8 x 3 x 1/2 in. (14.9 x 7.6 x 1.3 cm)
Type:
Decorative Arts-Jewelry
Crafts
Date:
1993
Topic:
Ethnic\Indian  Search this
Homage\Catlin, George  Search this
Portrait male\bust  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Lloyd E. Herman, founding director and director emeritus of the Renwick Gallery (1971-1986)
Object number:
1997.72.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Renwick Gallery
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk75811cf07-9d43-49ce-b18c-1ef08b5c0d1e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1997.72.1

Tok'Acou

Artist:
Thomas Mann, born Allentown, PA 1947  Search this
Sitter:
Tok'Acou  Search this
Medium:
silver, copper, brass, nickel, Plexiglas, and color photocopy
Dimensions:
5 1/2 x 3 1/4 x 1/2 in. (14.0 x 8.3 x 1.3 cm)
Type:
Decorative Arts-Jewelry
Crafts
Date:
1993
Topic:
Ethnic\Indian  Search this
Object\weapon\sword  Search this
Homage\Catlin, George  Search this
Portrait male\bust  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Lloyd E. Herman, founding director and director emeritus of the Renwick Gallery (1971-1986)
Object number:
1997.72.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Renwick Gallery
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7e8b070a2-d14d-456c-8a2a-d0e935772c73
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1997.72.2

L'Tetan

Artist:
Thomas Mann, born Allentown, PA 1947  Search this
Sitter:
L'Tetan  Search this
Medium:
silver, copper, brass, nickel, Plexiglas, and color photocopy
Dimensions:
5 x 3 1/4 x 1/2 in. (12.7 x 8.3 x 1.3 cm.)
Type:
Decorative Arts-Jewelry
Crafts
Date:
1993
Topic:
Ethnic\Indian  Search this
Dress\accessory\jewelry  Search this
Homage\Catlin, George  Search this
Portrait male\bust  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Lloyd E. Herman, founding director and director emeritus of the Renwick Gallery (1971-1986)
Copyright:
© 1993, Thomas Mann
Object number:
1997.72.3
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Renwick Gallery
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7658beda1-4f79-4e69-8c8e-9987dd64ef67
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1997.72.3

Shauhaunapotinia

Artist:
Thomas Mann, born Allentown, PA 1947  Search this
Sitter:
SHAU-HAU-NAPO-TINIA  Search this
Medium:
silver, copper, brass, nickel, Plexiglas, and color photocopy
Dimensions:
4 7/8 x 2 7/8 x 1/2 in. (12.4 x 7.3 x 1.3 cm)
Type:
Decorative Arts-Jewelry
Crafts
Date:
1993
Topic:
Figure\fragment\hand  Search this
Ethnic\Indian  Search this
Homage\Catlin, George  Search this
Portrait male\bust  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Lloyd E. Herman, founding director and director emeritus of the Renwick Gallery (1971-1986)
Object number:
1997.72.4
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Renwick Gallery
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7f311de10-e7a5-40c9-bfe2-8e3a44b5f26d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1997.72.4

Nesouaquoit

Artist:
Thomas Mann, born Allentown, PA 1947  Search this
Sitter:
NE-SOU-A-QUOIT  Search this
Medium:
silver, copper, brass, nickel, Plexiglas, and color photocopy
Dimensions:
4 1/2 x 4 5/8 x 1/2 in. (11.4 x 11.7 x 1.3 cm)
Type:
Decorative Arts-Jewelry
Crafts
Date:
1993
Topic:
Ethnic\Indian  Search this
Dress\accessory\jewelry  Search this
Homage\Catlin, George  Search this
Portrait male\bust  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Lloyd E. Herman, founding director and director emeritus of the Renwick Gallery (1971-1986)
Object number:
1997.72.5
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Renwick Gallery
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7b6aba5c4-1f1a-4ac4-b4fe-f61ea7a81c08
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1997.72.5

Nowaykesugga

Artist:
Thomas Mann, born Allentown, PA 1947  Search this
Sitter:
NO-WAY-KE-SUG-GA  Search this
Medium:
silver, copper, brass, nickel, Plexiglas, and color photocopy
Dimensions:
5 1/8 x 3 x 1/2 in. (13.0 x 7.6 x 1.3 cm.)
Type:
Decorative Arts-Jewelry
Crafts
Date:
1993
Topic:
Ethnic\Indian  Search this
Portrait male\bust  Search this
Homage\Catlin, George  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Lloyd E. Herman, founding director and director emeritus of the Renwick Gallery (1971-1986)
Object number:
1997.72.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Renwick Gallery
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7af42d6eb-5322-48c3-b862-f59f6e979c57
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1997.72.6

Dr. H. K. Wilson collection of photographs and manuscript material from Tuba City

Collector:
Wilson, H. K. (Henry Kirke), 1874-1947  Search this
Names:
Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919  Search this
Extent:
56 Prints (silver gelatin)
16 Pages (Manuscript material :)
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Pages
Photographs
Place:
Arizona
Tuba City (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1913-1916
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs depicting Bureau of Indian Affairs employees and their families, Agency and Reservation buildings, and Navajo students at the Tuba City Indian School. The collection also includes an image of Theodore Roosevelt in Tuba City and images of Apache people, Moencopi Hopi village, and Hopi dances, including the Butterfly, Corn, and Snake Dance. Photographs were originally mounted on black paper in a photo album; they were later removed and placed in a "magnetic" album with added captions, possibly by the donor.

The collection also includes an account by Dr. Wilson describing fears of a Navajo uprising against the agency following the shooting of a Navajo suspect by two white policemen in 1916. There are also are eight issues of "The Tuba Times," a "newspaper" published by Dr. Wilson's daughter Rachel and two friends, Norine and Hugh Williams, in 1914. Additionally, there is a segment of a map from 1969.
Biographical/Historical note:
Dr. Henry Kirke Wilson (1874-1947) was appointed by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs as the physician for the Western Navajo Agency located in Tuba City, Arizona.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 81-20
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Hopi dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 81-20, Dr. H. K. Wilson collection of photographs and manuscript material from Tuba City, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.81-20
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-81-20

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

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