These records consist of files maintained in the office of the program director of the United States Marine Mammal Program concerning the administration of the Program.
Records include administrative files; handwritten notes by the program director; general correspondence; research proposals; records of an international conference; newsletters;
reports; copies of legislation concerning marine mammal protection; and publications, newspaper clippings, and miscellany.
Correspondents include Suzanne M. Contos; William E. Evans; Charles O. Handley, Jr.; Kenneth S. Norris; Clayton E. Ray; G. Carleton Ray; William E. Schevill.
The United States Marine Mammal Program was established in 1969 by the United States National Committee of the International Biological Program (USNC/IBP) and the International
Marine Mammal Working Group of the International Biological Program.
In 1964 the International Council of Scientific Unions, a nongovernmental organization, created a Special Committee for the International Biological Program (SCIBP) whose
theme was the "Biological Basis for Productivity and Human Welfare." Programs focusing on this theme were developed by SCIBP and were operational from 1967 to 1972, with a
later extension to 1974. Participation by the United States government in the International Biological Program began in 1965 when a National Academy of Sciences' ad hoc committee
recommended the formation of USNC/IBP.
USNC/IBP's activities were coordinated by the National Science Foundation, which also provided most of the funding. Support funds were also contributed by the Atomic Energy
Commission, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Smithsonian Institution, and private industry. In 1967, USNC/IBP
began a study of marine mammals that finally resulted in the formation of the United States Marine Mammal Program.
The United States Marine Mammal Program was directed by an eleven-member Marine Mammal Council (MMC) appointed by the United States Marine Mammal Working Group. The Council,
in turn, named a four-member Executive Committee to oversee daily operations; an office was set up in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Members
of the Executive Committee included Program Director G. Carleton Ray of The Johns Hopkins University; Kenneth S. Norris of The Oceanic Institute, Hawaii; Charles O. Handley
of the Smithsonian Institution; and William E. Schevill of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The program director also served as a member of the International Marine Mammal
Working Group. As overseer of the Program, the MMC served as a catalyst for marine mammal studies by aiding in developing a Marine Mammal Study Center at the Smithsonian for
the study of fossil and recent mammals; publishing The Marine Mammal Newsletter; sponsoring marine mammal conferences; cooperating with other phases of the United States
International Biological Program; and coordinating existing and new research through its Integrated Research Program. By providing information needed for the rational international
management of marine mammals, the Marine Mammal Program emphasized the opportunity for ecological studies rather than those having an economic or political basis.
Other related activities of the Council included assisting and advising the United States Congress on marine mammal affairs following the introduction of bills and resolutions.
Several Council members also testified before Congressional committee hearings.
On June 30, 1974, the United States' participation in the International Biological Program was officially terminated when funding from the National Science Foundation ceased.
This series consists of research proposals submitted for financial support by scientists to the Marine Mammal Council. Also included are correspondence and the Council's
evaluations of most of the proposals.
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7229, Records