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The Proclamation of Emancipation by the President of the United States, to take effect January 1st, 1863

Written by:
President Abraham Lincoln, American, 1809 - 1865  Search this
Published by:
John Murray Forbes, American, 1813 - 1898  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 3 1/4 x 2 1/8 in. (8.3 x 5.4 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Date:
1862
Topic:
African American  Search this
Emancipation  Search this
Law  Search this
Slavery  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.40
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Exhibition:
Slavery and Freedom
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 3, C3 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd53cfb0cb1-4ae9-4a81-b6ff-84246e819e49
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.40
Online Media:

Carte-de-visite of Sojourner Truth

Photograph by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
James Caldwell, American, ca. 1844 - unknown  Search this
54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, American, 1863 - 1865  Search this
Medium:
albumen and silver nitrate on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Mount): 4 x 2 1/2 in. (10.2 x 6.4 cm)
Type:
cartes-de-visite
albumen prints
portraits
Date:
1863
Topic:
African American  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Families  Search this
Motherhood  Search this
Photography  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
United States Colored Troops  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2012.46.11
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd57d415807-3415-4928-9b85-6e3452551f70
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.46.11
Online Media:

Black Military and Anacostia Forts during the Civil War

Creator:
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Collection Creator:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 sound recording (audio cassette)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Place:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
1977
Scope and Contents:
To a group of children, Bob Gibbs talked about the Civil War, military service, and notable Black regiments. He also explained the role of Anacostia during the Civil War years, specifically the forts in Anacostia.
Education program. Audio only. Poor audio quality. Dated 19770330.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Armed Forces  Search this
African American soldiers  Search this
Fortification  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Citation:
Black Military and Anacostia Forts during the Civil War, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.09-023, Item ACMA AV001357
See more items in:
Museum Events, Programs, and Projects, 1967-1989
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-09-023-ref265

Frederick Douglass Home

Creator:
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Frederick Douglass Memorial Home  Search this
United States.. Army. Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, 54th (1863-1865)  Search this
Brown, John, 1800-1859  Search this
Bruce, Blanche Kelso, 1841-1898  Search this
Cardozo, Francis Lewis, 1837-1903  Search this
Douglass, Anna Murray, -1882  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Douglass, Helen, 1838-1903  Search this
Garrison, William Lloyd, 1805-1879  Search this
Langston, John Mercer, 1829-1897  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Sewall, May Wright, 1844-1920  Search this
Twain, Mark, 1835-1910  Search this
Collection Creator:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
1 sound recording (cartridge, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Narration
Place:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Talbot County (Md.)
New Bedford (Mass.)
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
Rochester (N.Y.)
United States
England
Date:
1973
Scope and Contents:
Narrator provides an overview of abolitionist Frederick Douglass' life, work, and spirit from his birth as a slave in Talbot County, Maryland to his death in Washington, D.C. Douglass' experiences with racial prejudice and segregation as well as his involvement in the Underground Railroad and civil rights movements, including women's rights, are explored. Douglass lived in New Bedford (Mass.), Rochester (N.Y.), the neighborhood of Anacostia in Washington, D.C., and England, where he fled for two years after writing "The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass" in 1845. Douglass and his son Frederick Jr. recruited black men for the Civil War while his sons Lewis and Charles joined the 54th Massachusetts Regiment. While championing many reform causes, Douglass worked alongside William Lloyd Garrison, John Brown, Blanche Kelso Bruce, John Mercer Langston, Francis Cardozo, and May Wright Sewall.
Narration. Part of ACM Museum Events, PR, and Ceremonies Recordings. AV002692-1 and AV002692-2: same content. AV002692-1: sound beeps throughout recording. Dated 19731201.
Biographical / Historical:
Frederick Douglass Memorial Home was built between 1855 and 1859 for John Welsh Van Hook, an architect from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in Uniontown (also known as Anacostia). In 1877, Frederick Douglass purchased the home and 9 3/4 acres of land, which he named Cedar Hill. Over several years, Douglass purchased additional land and converted the home into a 21 room mansion. In 1900, Douglass' second wife, Helen Pitts Douglass, urged U.S. Congress to charter the Frederick Douglass Memorial and Historical Association, which received the property in 1903 upon Helen's death. On September 5, 1962, the Frederick Douglass estate became a part of the National Park Service. Groundbreaking ceremonies for a visitor center were held in September 1980. The visitor center opened to the public in February 1982. Douglass' home and estate became a National Historic Site in 1988 and underwent several restorations between 1922 and 2007.;Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) was born into slavery on Maryland's Eastern Shore but fled north in 1838 to settle in Massachussetts. He soon became an abolitionist in the antislavery movement, and by the mid-1840s his commanding eloquence in offering firsthand testimony to the oppressions of slavery had transformed him into one of the movement's most persuasive spokesmen. Douglass' reforming zeal remained strong all his life. After the Civil War put an end to slavery, he continued to be a leading defender of the rights of African Americans during Reconstruction.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV002692-2
General:
Title transcribed from physical asset.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American abolitionists  Search this
Abolitionists  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Civil rights leaders  Search this
Antislavery movements  Search this
Civil rights movements  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Underground Railroad  Search this
Racism  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Historic sites  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Narration
Collection Citation:
Anacostia Community Museum Programs and Projects, 1967-1989, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.09-023, Item ACMA AV002692-1
See more items in:
Museum Events, Programs, and Projects, 1967-1989
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-09-023-ref514

BMI Archives Confederate Sheet Music Collection

Collector:
Broadcast Music, Inc.  Search this
Attributed name:
Cramer, Edward M.  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Broadsides
Sheet music
Date:
1860-1868
Summary:
This collection contains sheet music themed in support of the Confederacy. Many pieces were printed within the Confederate States of America during the Civil War (1861-1865). It also contains one Confederate bond and early twentieth century facsimiles of Confederate broadsides from the Chicago Historical Society.
Scope and Contents:
Originally titled the Edward M. Cramer Confederate Sheet Music Collection in honor of Cramer, president of the music rights organization BMI from 1968-1987, this collection contains sheet music produced within the Confederate States of America, before and after the Civil War.

Series 1, Sheet Music, 1860-1868, undated, contains single sheet songs arranged alphabetically by title as well as compilations. The compilations are filed alphabetically under the song title most identified with the Confederacy. For instance, the reel "Molly Gardner" is in a collection of reels entitled Jerdon's Reels but found under the title "Molly Gardner".

Series 2, Ephemera, 1863, undated, contains one Confederate States bond and twentieth century facsimiles from the Chicago Historical Society of a variety of Confederate broadsides.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1, Sheet Music, 1860-1868, undated

Series 2, Ephemera, 1863, undated
Biographical / Historical:
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the South used music as propaganda and inspiration to both the Confederate forces and the civilian population. After the war the music conjured up memories of the "Lost Cause" and those unfortunate soldiers who did not return home. Subject matter for songs was wide-ranging and drew from both domestic and military themes. Even though cut off from the music publishing houses of the northern states, the South was very active in publishing music within the boundaries of the Confederacy. Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee were reported to be the most active publishing centers, with the cities of Augusta, Georgia; Columbia, South Carolina; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Mobile, Alabama also publishing sheet music. Much of this music was published on inferior grades of paper, and even though the cover engraving tended to be excellent at the beginning of the war, by war's end the covers were fairly plain and devoid of color or elaborate decoration.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980s (AC0300)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Broadcast Music, Incorporated (BMI), 2011.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
War Between the States, 1861-1865  Search this
Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Communications  Search this
Genre/Form:
Broadsides
Sheet music -- 19th century
Citation:
BMI Archives Confederate Sheet Music Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1258
See more items in:
BMI Archives Confederate Sheet Music Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1258
Online Media:

Carrie Bell [sheet music]

Lyricist:
Capers, W.C., Capt.  Search this
Composer:
Von La Hache, Theo  Search this
Publisher:
Blackmar & Bro. (Augusta, Ga.)  Search this
Donor:
Broadcast Music, Inc.  Search this
Collection Collector:
Broadcast Music, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 11.6" x 9.3".)
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Sheet music
Place:
Augusta (Ga.)
Georgia -- 19th century
Confederate States of America
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Date:
1861
Scope and Contents:
Published by Blackmar & Bro. Stamped "The Flowers Collection."
Local Numbers:
AC1258-0000057-1.jpg (AC Scan)

AC1258-0000057-2.jpg (AC Scan)

AC1258-0000057-3.jpg (AC Scan)
Collection Restrictions:
This collection is open for research use.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Love  Search this
Civil war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music -- 1860-1870
Collection Citation:
BMI Archives Confederate Sheet Music Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
BMI Archives Confederate Sheet Music Collection
BMI Archives Confederate Sheet Music Collection / Series 1: Sheet Music / "Carrie Bell"
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1258-ref911
Online Media:

Website Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Associates  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic records
Web sites
Place:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Date:
2011
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of six websites of the Smithsonian Associates as they existed on July 6, 2011. Included is the main website for the Smithsonian Associates as well as websites for the Art Collectors Program, Civil War Studies, the Discovery Theater, the Masters of Arts in the History of Decorative Arts, and Smithsonian Sleepovers.

The main Smithsonian Associates website includes a general overview of its continuing education programs and serves as a portal to the websites of its programs. The Art Collectors Program website provides guidance on purchasing art and offers program-commissioned artwork for sale. The Civil War Studies website uses photographs, articles, and trivia to provide historical information about the Civil War and provides links to Civil War programs and tours offered by the Resident Associate Program and Smithsonian Journeys. The Discovery Theater website provides information about its children's shows. The Masters of Arts in the History of Decorative Arts website is hosted by George Mason University, the Smithsonian Associates' partner in the program, and provides information about the program, coursework, degree requirements, faculty, and student research. The Smithsonian Sleepovers website provides information about overnight programs for children at the National Museum of Natural History. Materials are in electronic format.
Topic:
Web sites  Search this
Museums -- Educational aspects  Search this
Museums -- Public relations  Search this
Art appreciation  Search this
Children’s theater  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Continuing education  Search this
Genre/Form:
Electronic records
Web sites
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 11-225, Smithsonian Associates, Website Records
Identifier:
Accession 11-225
See more items in:
Website Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa11-225

Website Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Associates  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic records
Web sites
Place:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Date:
2004
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of nine external websites of The Smithsonian Associates as they existed on March 23, 2004. The main domain links to nine sub-domains, each with its own URL. The subdomains include Civil War Studies, Discovery Theater, Kite Festival, Resident Associates, Smithsonian Journeys, Smithsonian Study Tours, Young Benefactors, Voices of Discovery, and Scholars in the Schools. Information in the websites include event calendars and descriptions, class descriptions, activities for local SI associates, an adult learning center on Civil War Studies, and outreach websites designed to make SI scholars available to schools throughout the country. Materials are in electronic format.
Topic:
Web sites  Search this
Museums -- Educational aspects  Search this
Travel  Search this
Genre/Form:
Electronic records
Web sites
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 05-141, Smithsonian Associates, Website Records
Identifier:
Accession 05-141
See more items in:
Website Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa05-141

Civil War Propaganda Scrapbooks

Topic:
Military
Donor:
Campbell, Jean H.  Search this
Names:
Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889  Search this
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cartoons (humorous images)
Date:
1861 - 1861
Summary:
This collection contains three scrapbooks filled with Civil War propaganda primarily from the North's perspective. The scrapbooks include illustrated envelopes as well as clippings from envelopes, magazines, and almanacs.
Scope and Contents:
Three scrapbooks, into which propagandistic cartoons and images have been pasted. Many of the images are on envelopes, and the entire envelopes are pasted into the books. In other cases, images are clipped out and pasted in. With just three exceptions, the items in the scrapbooks are pro-Union and anti-Confederate. Few items are dated but the dates that are included are all 1861. Many of the items are patriotic, and contain images of the US flag, refer to the Constitution, praise Lincoln and various Union generals, or contain inspirational poetry. Most indicate confidence in an eventual Union victory, depict Lincoln, Union generals and Union soldiers as fearsome and heroic. Many others lampoon Jefferson Davis, with images depicting him, or Southerners in general, as the Devil or as one of various animals. Many violent images are included, some showing Jefferson Davis being executed.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks, 1861
Biographical / Historical:
In the early years of the Civil War, pictorial envelopes were produced by printing companies, in both the North and the South. Other images came from sources such as almanacs and popular magazines. Propaganda in general was used to enhance morale among the soldiers and citizens that lived in the North and South. It helped spread the goals of both sides in simple terms that were exaggerated, dark, or even comical.

Northern printing companies created a profitable business, primarily printing envelopes that focused on preserving the Union. In the South, the propaganda and envelopes centered around the Confederate flag and what it stood for, but this was not continued at a steady rate throughout the war. Because they lacked manufacturing, the Confederacy was forced to import paper as well as ink from the North and England. This became a large problem for them when the North established the blockade, isolating the South from their usual imports. Ultimately, the North created more envelopes and designs than the South since it did not rely on imports to produce them.

Veronique Greenwood, "Civil War Envelopes are Works of Art – And Propaganda," National Geographic, December 10, 2015. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/12/151210-civil-war-envelopes-art-propaganda-artifacts/.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Jean H. Campbell, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Propaganda  Search this
Flags -- United States  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Patriotism  Search this
Executions and executioners  Search this
Devil  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartoons (humorous images)
Citation:
Civil War Propaganda Scrapbooks, 1861, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1372
See more items in:
Civil War Propaganda Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1372
Online Media:

Website Records

Creator::
Smithsonian Associates  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic records
Place:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Date:
2013
Descriptive Entry:
This accession consists of four websites maintained by the Smithsonian Associates as they existed on April 5, 2013.

The main Smithsonian Associates website includes a general overview of its continuing education programs and serves as a portal to the websites of its programs.

The Art Collectors Program website provides guidance on purchasing art and offers program-commissioned artwork for sale.

The Civil War Studies website uses photographs, articles, and trivia to provide historical information about the Civil War and provides links to Civil War programs and tours offered by the Resident Associate Program and Smithsonian Journeys.

The Discovery Theater website provides information about its children's shows.

Materials are in electronic format.
Topic:
Web sites  Search this
Museums -- Educational aspects  Search this
Museums -- Public relations  Search this
Art appreciation  Search this
Children's theater  Search this
Genre/Form:
Electronic records
Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 13-250, Smithsonian Associates, Website Records
Identifier:
Accession 13-250
See more items in:
Website Records
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sia-fa13-250

Diary of Lieutenant John Freeman Shorter

Written by:
Lieutenant John Freeman Shorter, American, 1842 - 1865  Search this
Subject of:
Martin Robison Delany, American, 1812 - 1885  Search this
55th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, American, 1863 - 1865  Search this
George Thompson Garrison, American, 1836 - 1904  Search this
Medium:
leather, graphite on paper, ink
Dimensions:
H x W x D (2014.118.1a Closed): 5 × 3 9/16 × 13/16 in. (12.7 × 9 × 2.1 cm)
H x W x D (2014.118.1a Open): 5 × 9 1/4 × 13/16 in. (12.7 × 23.5 × 2.1 cm)
H x W (2014.118.1b): 8 × 4 15/16 in. (20.3 × 12.5 cm)
H x W (2014.118.1c): 8 3/4 × 2 1/2 in. (22.2 × 6.4 cm)
Type:
diaries
Place used:
South Carolina, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Ohio, United States, North and Central America
Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1865
Topic:
African American  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Communication  Search this
Free communities of color  Search this
Men  Search this
Military  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
United States Colored Troops  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift from the Liljenquist Family Collection
Object number:
2014.118.1a-c
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Collection title:
Liljenquist Family Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Exhibition:
Slavery and Freedom
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse 3, C3 053
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd55bc18b76-d263-4fee-b6b3-075932e4f73e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.118.1a-c

Sanford Robinson Gifford papers

Creator:
Gifford, Sanford Robinson, 1823-1880  Search this
Names:
Bierstadt, Albert, 1830-1902  Search this
Whittredge, Worthington, 1820-1910  Search this
Extent:
0.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Place:
Europe -- description and travel
Egypt -- description and travel
Date:
1840s-1900
circa 1960s-1970s
Summary:
The papers of landscape painter Sanford Robinson Gifford, date from the 1840s through 1900, and circa 1960s-1970s. The bulk of the papers fall between 1855-1881; material from the circa 1960s-1970s consists of photographic copy prints for which the Archives does not have the originals. The small collection measures 0.9 linear feet of scattered documentation of Gifford's life, primarily extensive biographical accounts of his travels in the mid 1850s and late 1860s in the form of bound letters to his father. These serve as detailed journals of his impressions of Europe and the Middle East, the development of his painting, and his relationships with other artists such as Albert Bierstadt and Worthington Whittredge. The collection also contains sketches by Gifford, printed material including catalogs of Gifford's paintings, and photographs of Gifford and others.
Scope and Content Note:
The collection dates from the 1840s through 1900, and circa 1960s-1970s with the bulk of the material falling between 1855-1881. Material from circa 1960s-1970s consists of photographic copy prints of original photographs from the mid to late 1800s for which the Archives does not own the originals. The papers measure 0.9 linear feet and provide detailed documentation of the life of Hudson River School landscape painter, Sanford Robinson Gifford, during the mid 1850s and late 1860s. The papers contain extensive accounts of Gifford's travels in 3 bound volumes of typewritten letters from Gifford to his father. These letters serve as travel journals and provide extensive and vivid descriptions of Gifford's work and experiences in Europe and the Middle East, and document his relationships with a variety of other artists, including Alfred Bierstadt and Worthington Whittredge, during this period.

Additional records provide scattered documenation of other periods of Gifford's life. Letters refer to his travels in the American west and his Civil War service and its effect on his painting. Printed material includes clippings and exhibition catalogs, and includes a catalogue of his paintings published by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1881. Artwork by Gifford includes sketches by the artist and prints, engravings and paintings by various others. Original photographs date from 1856-1900 and include images of Gifford during the Civil War. Copyprints for which the Archives does not own the originals date from the circa 1960s-1970s and include two images of a family home in Hudson, New York, where Gifford had a studio in the mid 1860s, a portrait photograph of Gifford, and an image of Gifford on the Hayden expedition.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 4 series:

Series 1: Letters, 1855-1874 (Box 1; 3 volumes, 1 folder)

Series 2: Printed Material, circa 1850s-1881 (Box 2; 4 folders)

Series 3: Artwork, circa 1840s-circa 1870s (Box 2, OV 3; 4 folders)

Series 4: Photographs and Copy Prints, 1856-circa 1900, circa 1960s-1970s (Box 2, 5, OV 4; 11 folders)
Biographical Note:
Sanford Robinson Gifford was born in Greenfield, New York, in 1823. He attended Brown University from 1842-1844 and moved to New York City in 1845 where he studied drawing, perspective and anatomy under the direction of the British watercolorist and drawing-master, John R. Smith. He also studied the human figure in anatomy classes at the Crosby Street Medical college and took drawing classes at the National Academy of Design. In 1846 he visited the Berkshire Hills and the Catskill Mountains, sketching from nature. "These studies," he wrote to O. B. Frothingham in 1874, "together with the great admiration I felt for the works of Cole developed a strong interest in landscape art, and opened my eyes to a keener perception and more intelligent enjoyment of nature. Having once enjoyed the absolute freedom of the landscape painters life I was unable to return to portrait painting."

The American Art Union bought and showed some of Gifford's first pictures in 1847. In 1851 he was elected an associate, and in 1854 an academician, of the National Academy of Design.

Gifford traveled widely to sketch landscapes for future paintings, recording his experiences in letters to his father which he intended would "serve the double purpose of letter and journal, and be an economy of time." He requested that his father number the letters sequentially and keep them together.

In the summer of 1855 Gifford visited England, Scotland and Paris, where he spent the winter of 1855 transforming his English and Scottish sketches into paintings. In the fall of 1856 he rented a studio in Rome and, over the course of the winter, painted pictures that reportedly pleased him "pretty well," including Lake Nemi. During the spring of 1857, Gifford spent time with fellow artists Worthington Whittredge, William H. Beard and Albert Bierstadt before leaving Rome in May with Bierstadt for a walking tour of southern Italy, where they planned to reconnect with Whittredge and Beard. Gifford ended his European tour with a visits to Innsbruck, Munich, Vienna, Prague, Dresden, Berlin and Paris, before returning to the United States at the end of the summer.

On his return Gifford rented studio Number 19 in the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City, which he retained until his death. Over the next few years he also made frequent summer trips to various northeastern locales including the Catskills, the Adirondacks, the Green Mountains in Vermont, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, Maine and Nova Scotia.

Gifford served in New York's Seventh Regiment when it marched to the defense of Washington in April 1861, and again in 1862 and 1863. Several paintings resulted from this experience, including Sunday Morning at Camp Cameron (1861), Bivouac of the Seventh Regiment at Arlington Heights, Virginia (1861) and Camp of the Seventh Regiment, near Frederick, Maryland, in July 1863 (1864).

In 1868 Gifford returned to Europe, again visiting London and Paris, where he met with friends Jervis McEntee and his wife. He then spent the summer visiting the Alps and Sicily before wintering in Rome. In 1869 he traveled to Egypt where he and a small party hired a boat to take them on a two-month voyage from Cairo down the Nile River. Subsequently, Gifford traveled to the Middle East with Alfred Craven via the Suez Canal, where his itinerary included Syria, Jerusalem, Samaria, Damascus, Greece and Turkey. Gifford arrived in Venice in June 1869 and sailed for the United States at the beginning of September.

In 1870 Gifford visited Colorado with Worthington Whittredge and John Frederick Kensett, and accompanied a United States Geological party under Dr. Hayden in the exploration of Wyoming, Utah, and the Colorado Territories. In the summer of 1873 he visited California, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska.

Gifford married in 1877 but in 1880 became ill and died of malarial fever and pneumonia at the age of 58. That same year he was honored with the Metropolitan Museum of Art's first monographic retrospective and a memorial catalogue of his known pictures.
Related Material:
Five sketchbooks were loaned by Vassar College in 1966 and the originals were returned to the donor after microfilming on reel D254.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming (reels D254 and 688) including twenty-one sketchbooks, photographs, passports and certificates, an 1888 European travel diary of Mary Louise Willard, wife of Gifford's nephew, Harold, and a 1966 letter. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Edith Wilkinson first donated the Sanford Robinson Gifford papers in 1955 and 1957. James C. Gifford donated copy prints of photographs in 1964. Five sketchbooks were lent for microfilming by the Vassar College Art Library in 1966 and George and Frances Gifford Cummings donated additional material in 1973. In 1974, sixteen sketchbooks, photographs, and other materials were lent for microfilming by Dr. Sanford Gifford, Gifford's great-nephew.
Restrictions:
The collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website.
Rights:
The Sanford Robinson Gifford papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Works of art  Search this
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Landscape painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Hudson River school of landscape painting  Search this
Landscape painting -- 19th century -- New York (State)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Citation:
Sanford Robinson Gifford papers, 1840s-1900, circa 1960s-1970s. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.giffsanf
See more items in:
Sanford Robinson Gifford papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-giffsanf
Online Media:

The New South, Vol. 1, No. 8 [newspaper]

Topic:
New South, The (Newspaper)
Emancipation Proclamation
Publisher:
Sears, Jos. H.  Search this
Names:
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Container:
Oversize 42, Folder 11
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Newspapers
Place:
Port Royal (S.C.)
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
South Carolina
Date:
1862, Saturday, October 4
Scope and Contents:
4-page newspaper (single sheet, originally folded). Includes text of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, an article about it, and an anti-slavery poem. The paper was extremely pro-Union. Ink signature, "P.M. Farley," at top left, p. 1; with other markings on same page.
Arrangement:
In oversize Box 42, Newspapers, Folder 11. Formerly in Box 8.
Publication:
Port Royal, South Carolina., Jos. H. Sears., 1862, Saturday, October 4
Restrictions:
Available to researchers, but as this item is very fragile, great care must be taken in handling.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Slavery -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newspapers -- 19th century
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Newspapers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Newspapers
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Newspapers / 7: Business Records, Marketing Material, and Other / Newspapers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-newspapers-ref569

Indian Head penny owned by the Dennis family

Produced by:
United States Mint, American, founded 1792  Search this
Subject of:
Dennis Farm Charitable Land Trust, American, founded 2001  Search this
Medium:
copper and nickel
Dimensions:
Diameter: 3/4 × 1/16 in. (1.9 × 0.2 cm)
Type:
money
pennies
Date:
1863
Topic:
African American  Search this
Commerce  Search this
Emancipation  Search this
Families  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of M. Denise Dennis, in honor of the Dennis Family
Object number:
2014.273.7
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Coins and Currency
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd563e358f1-d8e7-4968-bed3-507e1c1d572f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.273.7
Online Media:

Henry Mosler papers

Creator:
Mosler, Henry, 1841-1920  Search this
Names:
Beard, James Henry, 1812-1893  Search this
Dupré, Julien, 1851-1910  Search this
Ferrier, Gabriel, 1847-1914  Search this
Flameng, François, 1856-1923  Search this
Howe, William Henry, 1846-1929  Search this
Hébert, Ernest, 1817-1908  Search this
Partridge, William Ordway, 1861-1930  Search this
Pelouse, L. G., 1838-1891  Search this
Read, Thomas Buchanan, 1822-1872  Search this
Extent:
4.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Illustrated notebooks
Drawings
Sketches
Place:
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Personal narratives
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Journalists
Date:
1856-1929
Summary:
The papers of painter Henry Mosler (1841-1920), who began his career in Cincinnati, Ohio, lived in Germany and Paris for at least 2 decades, and finally settled in New York, measure 4.8 linear feet and date from 1856-1929. The collection documents Mosler's life and career through biographical material, personal and professional letters from members of the military, museums, family, friends and colleagues, writings including an 1862 Civil War diary, personal business records, printed material, artwork and sketchbooks, and photographs of Mosler, his family, colleagues and artwork.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter Henry Mosler (1841-1920), who began his career in Cincinnati, Ohio, lived in Germany and Paris for at least 2 decades, and finally settled in New York, measure 4.8 linear feet and date from 1856-1929. The collection documents Mosler's life and career through biographical material, personal and professional letters from members of the military, museums, family, friends and colleagues, writings including an 1862 Civil War diary, personal business records, printed material, artwork and sketchbooks, and photographs of Mosler, his family, colleagues and artwork.

Biographical material includes passports for Mosler's travel during the Civil War and to the American West in 1875-1876, as well as identification cards and awards from Mosler's years in Germany and Paris, including the Ordre National Légion d'Honneur awarded to him in 1892.

Letters record Mosler's service as an aide-de-camp for the Army of Ohio and his activities as an artist correspondent for Harper's Weekly from 1861-1863 in the Western Theater of the Civil War. However, the bulk of the letters document Mosler's career from the 1880s onward. Found are letters from museums, art associations, government agencies including the Minsistere de l'Instruction Publique et des Beaux-Arts, and colleagues in Europe and the United States including artists James Henry Beard, Julien Dupré, Gabrier Ferrier, Ernest Hébert, William Henry Howe, William Ordway Partridge, and Leon Germain Pelouse, among others. There are also scattered letters from Mosler.

Writings and notes include an 1862 Civil War diary and two illustrated notebooks from 1862 and 1863 containing sketches, and travel and financial notes. Also found are two biographical accounts of Mosler's career and poems by various authors, many inspired by Mosler's paintings.

Personal business records include an account book documenting Mosler's income and expenses from 1869-1878 and 1886-1892, and Library of Congress copyright certificates for four of Mosler's pictures.

Printed material documents Mosler's career in the United States and Europe through news clippings, a brochure, and an exhibition catalog for an 1897 exhibition of his paintings at Galleries of Pape Bros.

Artwork and sketchbooks include six sketches and an engraving by Mosler, and two books containing sketches by Mosler and other artists including James Henry Beard. The series also contains one ink drawing each by Leon Germain Pelouse and E. Hillery.

Photographic material includes albums and individual photographs of Mosler in his studio and with others including his immediate and extended family, and students. Also found are photos of artists including Gabriel Ferrier, Ernest Hébert and Thomas Buchanan Read, Brigadier General R. W. Johnson and opera singers Emma Nevada Palmer and Renée Richards. Photographs of artwork are primarily found in 2 oversized albums dedicated by Mosler to his children, Edith Mosler and Gustave Henry Mosler respectively.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1863-1892, 1921 (Box 1, OV 10; 4 folders)

Series 2: Letters,1861-circa 1920 (Boxes 1-2; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1860-circa 1900 (Boxes 2-3, 6; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1869-1905 (Box 3; 4 folders)

Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1860s-1929 (Box 3; 10 folders)

Series 6: Artwork and Sketchbooks, 1856-1917 (Box 4, OVs 10-11; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographic Material, 1860-circa 1910 (Boxes 5-9, BV 12; 2.0 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Henry Mosler (1841-1920) worked primarily in Ohio, New York City, and Europe as a painter of portraits and scenes of rural life in Europe. Mosler served as an artist correspondent for Harper's Weekly during the Civil War.

Born in Silesia (Poland) in 1841, Henry Mosler immigrated to New York City with his family in 1849. In the early 1850s the family moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where Mosler received art instruction from James Henry Beard, becoming an accomplished portrait painter and an active participant in the Cincinnati art scene.

Following the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, Mosler became an artist correspondent for Harper's Weekly, documenting the Western Theater in Kentucky and Tennessee. He served as a volunteer aide-de-camp with the army of Ohio from 1861-1863 and was present at the engagement at Green River, and "present and under fire" at the battles of Shiloh and Perryville.

Immediately thereafter, Mosler relocated to Dusseldorf for two years and attended the Royal Academy, followed by six months in Paris where he studied with painter Ernest Hébert. In 1866 Mosler returned to Cincinnatti where his portraits and genre scenes enjoyed growing popularity.

In 1875 Mosler traveled to Munich and two years later settled in Paris from where he enjoyed critical and financial success both in Europe and in the United States. Mosler was known for his genre paintings of peasant life in rural Brittany and he became a regular participant in Salon exhibitions and won honorable mention in the Salon of 1879, when his painting Le Retour, became the first work by an American artist to be purchased by the French government. In 1888 he won the gold medal at the Paris Salon and in 1892 he was made chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur and officier de l'Académie.

Mosler returned to the United States temporarily during this period, including a trip in 1885-1886 to visit the West and collect material for paintings of Native American life.

In 1894 Mosler returned to the United States and settled in New York, where he became a popular teacher and an active participant in the New York art scene. In 1895 he was made an associate member of the National Academy of Design, and in his last decades took up landscape painting during summers in the Catskill mountains, and produced genre paintings depicting scenes from colonial and rural life. Mosler continued to enjoy widespread popularity until his death in 1920.
Provenance:
The bulk of the collection was donated to the Archives of American Art by J. F. McCrindle, a great-grandson of Mosler, in 1976 and 1977, having been previously lent to AAA for microfilming. A photograph album was donated in 1993 by Paul M. Hertzmann, a dealer who acquired it through purchase. Additional materials were donated in 2008 and 2009 by McCrindle via John T. Rowe, president and CEO of the Joseph F. McCrindle Foundation.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Henry Mosler papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Expatriate painters -- France -- Paris  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Illustrated notebooks
Drawings
Sketches
Citation:
Henry Mosler papers, 1856-1929. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.moslhenr
See more items in:
Henry Mosler papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-moslhenr
Online Media:

Pair of stars and stripes slippers attributed to Elizabeth Keckley

Attributed to:
Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley, American, 1818 - 1907  Search this
Owned by:
Gideon Welles, American, 1802 - 1878  Search this
Medium:
fiber , leather and thread
Dimensions:
L x W: 10 1/4 × 3 in. (26 × 7.6 cm)
Type:
slippers
Place made:
United States, North and Central America
Date:
ca. 1865
Topic:
African American  Search this
Business  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Craftsmanship  Search this
Free communities of color  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
Slavery  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2018.35.2.1ab
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Clothing-Historical
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd524340fb0-0fd6-43e0-8608-eca7c9b11a26
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2018.35.2.1ab

Carte-de-visite portrait of Sojourner Truth

Created by:
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Photograph by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
Sojourner Truth, American, 1797 - 1883  Search this
Medium:
albumen and silver on photographic paper with cardboard
Dimensions:
H x W: 4 1/8 × 2 1/2 in. (10.5 × 6.4 cm)
Type:
cartes-de-visite
albumen prints
portraits
Place captured:
United States, North and Central America
Date:
1864
Topic:
African American  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Identity  Search this
Justice  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Social reform  Search this
Suffrage  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2018.17.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e0a0394a-2fd2-4b91-b2d7-a7b13bd42b20
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2018.17.12
Online Media:

Cabinet card of Gideon Welles

Photograph by:
Mathew Brady, American, 1822 - 1896  Search this
Subject of:
Gideon Welles, American, 1802 - 1878  Search this
Medium:
albumen and silver on photographic paper on cardboard
Dimensions:
H x W (Image): 4 1/2 × 3 7/16 in. (11.5 × 8.8 cm)
H x W (Sheet): 6 5/16 × 4 1/8 in. (16.1 × 10.5 cm)
Type:
cartes-de-visite
portraits
Place made:
United States, North and Central America
Date:
1860-1878
Topic:
African American  Search this
Government  Search this
Military  Search this
Politics (Practical)  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2018.35.2.4
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58c1213ed-08a6-47ae-a636-d5954dcfda44
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2018.35.2.4
Online Media:

Letter from Mary Jane Hale Welles to Gideon Welles

Written by:
Mary Jane Hale Welles, American, 1817 - 1886  Search this
Received by:
Gideon Welles, American, 1802 - 1878  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W (Open): 7 15/16 × 10 in. (20.2 × 25.4 cm)
H x W (Closed): 7 15/16 × 4 15/16 in. (20.2 × 12.6 cm)
Type:
letters (correspondence)
Place made:
Bellefonte, Centre County, Pennsylvania, United States, North and Central America
Date:
August 15, 1863
Topic:
African American  Search this
Correspondence  Search this
Families  Search this
Parenthood  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2018.35.2.5
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5583eb572-9d3b-4720-9095-d49bf57d993b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2018.35.2.5
Online Media:

Letter from Secretary Gideon Welles to his son Thomas

Written by:
Gideon Welles, American, 1802 - 1878  Search this
Received by:
Thomas Gideon Welles, American, 1845 - 1892  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W (Open): 7 × 8 15/16 in. (17.8 × 22.7 cm)
H x W (Closed): 7 × 4 7/16 in. (17.8 × 11.2 cm)
Type:
letters (correspondence)
Place made:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
March 5, 1865
Topic:
African American  Search this
Correspondence  Search this
Families  Search this
Fatherhood  Search this
United States--History--Civil War, 1861-1865  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2018.35.2.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd55b0e358b-b105-4a2b-9662-31f93c7b17f4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2018.35.2.6
Online Media:

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