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[American Air Force pilot in front of a fighter plane] [cellulose acetate photonegative]

Photographer:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Tuskegee Airmen  Search this
Subseries Creator:
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on cellulose acetate film sheet, 2.5" x 2.5".)
Container:
Box 77
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Washington (D.C.) -- African Americans
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
African American Air Force pilot in front of the star portion of a fighter plane. No ink on negative, no edge imprint.
Subseries Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Subseries Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Fighter pilots  Search this
African American pilots  Search this
Pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Subseries Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives
Scurlock Studio Records, Subseries 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin Negatives / 4.1: Black-and-White Silver Gelatin negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s04-01-ref2634
Online Media:

Tuskegee Airmen, reception

Series Creator:
Scurlock, Robert S. (Saunders), 1917-1994  Search this
Scurlock, Addison N., 1883-1964  Search this
Custom Craft  Search this
Scurlock Studio (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Scurlock, George H. (Hardison), 1919-2005  Search this
Container:
Box 55, Folder 63
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1991
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Series Rights:
When the Museum purchased the collection from the Estate of Robert S. Scurlock, it obtained all rights, including copyright. The earliest photographs in the collection are in the public domain because their term of copyright has expired. The Archives Center will control copyright and the use of the collection for reproduction purposes, which will be handled in accordance with its standard reproduction policy guidelines. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Scurlock Studio Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Scurlock Studio Records, Series 1: Black and White Photographs
Scurlock Studio Records, Series 1: Black and White Photographs / 1.1: Clients Black and White Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0618-s01-ref6589

Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection

Topic:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation
Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum -- Exhibitions  Search this
Extent:
13.38 Cubic feet (11 legal document boxes, 1 shoe box (5 x 8 inches), 6 records center boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1917-2000
bulk 1981-1986
Summary:
This collection consists of background material collected in support of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" (opened in 1982) and its companion book (published 1983) by curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano, a related symposium, educational materials, and a travelling version of the exhibit. The collection contains photographs and textual materials used in the exhibit and book, internal correspondence and memoranda, and a large amount of material gathered for research purposes but not used in any "Black Wings" production.
Scope and Contents:
The core of the collection covers activities of American Black aviators between 1917 and 1981, from Eugene Bullard's service as a pilot in World War I through the first Black astronauts assigned to the Space Shuttle program in the early 1980s. Curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano and other Museum staff collected and generally grouped materials to fit the four chronological sections of the "Black Wings" exhibit and related book, with a strong emphasis on the stories of individual people.

Headwinds (1917-1939) covers pioneer fliers such as Bullard and Bessie Coleman; Black aviation activities in the Chicago and Los Angeles areas; early aviators and organizers including William J. Powell, Willa Brown, and Cornelius Coffey; and long distance flights by James Herman Banning and Thomas C. Allen, and C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson and Dr. Albert E. Forsythe.

Flight Lines (1939-1945) includes the 1939 flight of Dale L. White and Chauncey E. Spencer to Washington, D.C.; the Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPT); the start of training of Black military pilots at Tuskegee Army Air Field during World War II; and training of the all-Black 477th Bombardment Group. This section and the next include U.S. Army Air Force documents and photography, and materials obtained from individual Tuskegee Airmen.

Wings for War (1943-1945) covers the experiences of the men of the 99th Fighter Squadron and later the 322nd Fighter Group, all-Black fighter units which participated in the Allied campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy during World War II, and their commander, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Era of Change (1945-1981), including many materials from the U.S. armed forces and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), covers the desegregation of the armed forces; military pilots' participation in the Korean and Vietnam wars (featuring William Earl Brown, Jr.; Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr.; Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.); general aviation (John W. Green, Jr.; Neal Loving); commercial aviation (Perry H. Young, Jr.; James O. Plinton, Jr.); and the U.S. space program, including not just the first Black astronauts (Guion S. Bluford, Jr.; Ronald E. McNair; Frederick D. Gregory; Charles F. Bolden) but many other NASA professional men and women from Project Mercury through the beginning of the Space Shuttle era.

Most of the material was photocopied from other sources such as books, newspapers, periodicals, and other archival collections, but many copy photographs and anecdotes were obtained from the aviators themselves (or their families), particularly those active in the 1930s and 1940s. The collection also contains internal Museum documents, notes, and memoranda regarding the development and implementation of the various "Black Wings" productions, including portions of exhibit scripts, book manuscripts, ephemera, and Museum photography taken at the exhibit opening and the symposium. Photographic formats include prints, copy prints, 4 x 5 inch black and white copy negatives and color transparencies, and 35mm copy slides. Quality of the photography is often fair to poor, as the copies are several generations removed from the original images.

The last six boxes of the collection (currently unprocessed) consists of material collected circa 2000 by curator Cathleen S. Lewis and Ian Cook (NASM Department of Space History) for a proposed update to the "Black Wings" exhibit. After it became clear that the exhibit was not going to be updated, Lewis transferred the material to the NASM Aeronautics Department, as Hardesty and Pisano were contemplating an update to the Black Wings book. This, too, failed to materialize, and the material was transferred to the NASM Archives in May 2018 to be added to the existing Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection. This series was received by the Museum's Archives Division after the existing collection material had been scanned; it has not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series. The first four roughly chronological series (Exhibit, Book, Educational Outreach, and Symposium) relate to the different "Black Wings" productions, and materials within each series often reflect the four-section groupings detailed in the Scope and Content note. The next series, Research Materials, has four sub-series: Biographical Files (alphabetical by last name), Subject Files and Study Materials (alphabetical by subject), Photographic Negatives, and Photographic Prints and Illustrations. The last series houses later additions to the collection which are currently unprocessed. Materials within folders are predominantly photocopies (xerographs) and often include numerous duplicates, many unlabeled, and in no specific order. Materials relating to an exhibit often include a NASM Exhibits Department reference number (example: SE:13-L73-P58 to P59) indicating the exhibit number (13), label number (L73), and position within the exhibit (P58 to P59). Some materials are not visible online due to copyright restrictions.
Biographical / Historical:
On September 23, 1982, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" opened as part of the existing "Pioneers of Aviation" exhibit located in Gallery 208 of the museum's National Mall Building in Washington, D.C. The exhibit was dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. "Black Wings" encompasses the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both civilian, military, and commercial circles. The exhibit generated much public and media interest, and inspired the Museum to sponsor a symposium on February 25, 1983, entitled "The American Black in Aviation, A Decade of Change: 1939-1949," (working title: "Tuskegee Airmen at War") featuring presentations by historians and U. S. Army Air Forces veterans including Noel F. Parrish (Commander, Tuskegee Army Air Field, 1942-1946), George F. Roberts (Commander, 99th Fighter Squadron, September 1943 to April 1944), and pilots Lewis A. Jackson, Elwood T. Driver, and Louis R. Purnell. In conjunction with the exhibit, the Museum, working with Sid Aaronson Films, Inc., produced a set of sound filmstrip packages designed for elementary and secondary school use. In 1983, the Smithsonian Institution Press published a companion book, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, authored by the exhibit's curators, Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano; a second edition was issued the following year as part of the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight series. A Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES) version of the exhibit began circulating to other museums and venues in June 1983, and a expanded version of the SITES exhibit (featuring additional artifacts, photography, and audio-visual materials) was displayed April 1 to August 5, 1984, at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (later know as the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum) in Washington, D.C. The original NASM "Black Wings" exhibit—with occasional updates—remained on display in the "Pioneers of Flight" gallery (later renamed the "Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery") until 2019 when the gallery was closed due to renovations to the Museum's National Mall Building.
Related Materials:
"Black Wings: African American Pioneer Aviators" NASM Website Collection, NASM.2004.0026 [finding aid not available online]
Provenance:
National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Department of Aeronautics, Transfer, 1993, NASM.1993.0060; additional material transferred from NASM Department of Space History, 2018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
aeronautics, civil  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American women air pilots  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Astronauts  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
United States Air Force  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks -- United States  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Vietnam War  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0060
Online Media:

Symposium

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Symposium, "The American Black in Aviation, A Decade of Change: 1939-1949," [working title: "Tuskegee Airmen at War"], Friday, February 25, 1983, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060, Series 4
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref508

Manuscript, G. L. Washington, "To Insure They Nevel Fail for Lack of Top-Flight Ground Support," 1976

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 1: Exhibit / Research Articles (1 of 2)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref622

Miscellaneous, Tuskegee Airmen, 1940s (1 of 3)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Photographic Prints and Illustrations
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref684

Miscellaneous, Tuskegee Airmen, 1940s (2 of 3)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Photographic Prints and Illustrations
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref685

Miscellaneous, Tuskegee Airmen, 1940s (3 of 3)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Photographic Prints and Illustrations
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref686

Miscellaneous, Tuskegee Airmen, World War II (1 of 4)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Photographic Prints and Illustrations
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref687

Miscellaneous, Tuskegee Airmen, World War II (2 of 4)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Photographic Prints and Illustrations
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref688

Miscellaneous, Tuskegee Airmen, World War II (3 of 4)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Photographic Prints and Illustrations
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref689

Miscellaneous, Tuskegee Airmen, World War II (4 of 4)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 10, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials / Photographic Prints and Illustrations
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref690

Inspired by the Tuskegee Airmen

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-12-03T17:31:42.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ijF7iKEBQv0

Up-Close Look at WWII Aircraft Flown by Tuskegee Airmen

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-01-04T18:05:52.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_2EeaAR3iIJo

Why the Tuskegee Airmen Won Over 850 Medals

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-01-04T18:01:43.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_JMfDro41eLQ

The Tuskegee Red-Tail Angels

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-01-04T19:45:28.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_qMPLpExgkGg

A Tuskegee Airman Who Survived a Shredded Wing in Combat

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-07-15T16:23:04.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_gkszwbNvmT4

Taking the Stage: African American Music and Stories that Changed America

Creator:
National Museum of African American History and Culture  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-01-12T15:28:39.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
See more by:
WatchNMAAHC
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
YouTube Channel:
WatchNMAAHC
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_rChf3a9uyRY

NMAAHC - The Spirit of Tuskegee

Creator:
National Museum of African American History and Culture  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2012-01-20T00:48:30.000Z
YouTube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
See more by:
WatchNMAAHC
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
YouTube Channel:
WatchNMAAHC
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_x92RLLyirwk

WWII and Tuskegee Airmen - STEM in 30

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2016-03-30T16:22:37.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Aeronautics;Flight;Space Sciences  Search this
See more by:
airandspace
Data Source:
National Air and Space Museum
YouTube Channel:
airandspace
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_NETJrO3B7qA

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