1 Item (Photographs : ca 3100 prints and negatives)
1 Item (Maps and illustrations )
United States -- Archeology
Bc53, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico -- Archeology
Chaco Canyon (N.M.) -- Archeology
Colorado -- Archeology
Arizona -- Archeology
New Mexico -- Archeology
Agate Basin, Wyoming -- Archeology
Scope and Contents:
This collection of Rober's papers and photographs is almost excluvely concerned with his scientific fieldwork and resulting publications. It is not complete; for example, there is little in the photographs concerning his work at Agate Basin in Wyoming (though some related site forms are part of the records of the River Basin Surveys). Apparently, some of the series that form the records of the RBS began as Roberts's own files and were simply continued once his interest turned to the administration of the RBS. For instance, there is correspondence concerning Robert's work in New Mexico among the RBS correspondence series. The file of correspondence in manuscript 4851 is a miscellany with few letters from any one correspondent.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr. studied history and English at the University of Denver and after receiving his B.A.worked briefly as a journalist. Entering graduate school at Denver he was influenced by Etienne Bernadeau Renaud and, later, Jean Allard Jeacon. Although his studies toward a master's degree were in political science, he carried out archeological work among ruins in the Piedra-Pagosa region of the San Juan River valley in southwestern Colorado and became an instructor in archeology at the University of Denver. In 1923, he became an assistant curator at the Colorado State Museum.
Robert's formal training in archeology came through subsequent studies at Harvard University, where he received a Ph.D. in 1927. While a student, he worked during the summers of 1925 and 1926 for Neil Merton Judd on expeditions to Chaco Canyon. Judd offered him the opportunity to study pottery sequences, expanding upon work already carried out successfully for the Piedra region. From his work under Judd, Roberts produced his dissertation. The work also led to a permanent appointment as an archeologist with the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology in 1926.
For some time after this, Roberts continued to work primarily among ruins in the Southwest. In 1927, he conducted excavations at Shabik'esche Village in Chaco Canyon and carried on excavations at Kiathuthlunna on the Long H Ranch in eastern Arizona. In 1930, he excavated in the Village of the Great Kivas on the Zuni reservation and, in 1931-1933, worked along the Whitewater River in eastern Arizona and at a site near Allantown, Arizona. For the University of New Mexico Field School in 1940-1941, Roberts directed expeditions to the Bc-53 site in Chaco Canyon.
Throughout this work Roberts's primary interest was "the early structure and sequences of Southwestern culture." This led to Roberts's ultimate interest in the problem of early man in America. He was asked to inspect the discoveries at the original Fosom site in 1927, and over time became convinced of an error in contemporary thinking about the relatively recent arrival of humans in the New World. He was increasingly drawn to study the problem and particuarly after 1933, devoted most of his field work to it. Between 1934 and 1940, he worked at Lindenmeier, a Folsom campsite in northern Colorado. In 1941, he excavated the Mons site near the Peaks of Otter in Virginia, though failing to find expected remains of early man. In the same year, he worked at a Folsom site at San Jon, New Mexico, and, in 1942, another Folsom site in the Agate Basin in Wyoming. In 1943--again in connection with this interest in early man--he carried out a reconnaissance of the Clear Fork of the Brazos River in Texas. In addition, Roberts inspected other sites in Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming, Nebraska, and Saskatchewan.
Roberts also worked briefly with other interests. In 1932, he served as an advisor to the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., in its excavation at Chichen Itza and Uxmal in the Yucatan. In 1933-1934, he conducted a Civil Works Administration expedition to excavate mounds in the Shiloh National Military Park in Tennessee. In 1956-1960, he was on the advisory council for the National Park Service's Wetherill Mesa Project.
In the administration of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Roberts became the assistant chief under Matthew Williams Stirling in 1944. In 1946, he became, in addition, the director of the BAE's River Basin Surveys, a salvage archeological program concerned with areas where the federal government was planning dams and reservoirs. In 1947, he became the associate director of the BAE and, in 1958, its director. In addition to these duties and his scientific work, Roberts served as American representative to the League of Nations' International Conference of Archeologists at Cairo in 1937 and as representative on the International Commission for Sites and Monuments in 1939-1942. During World War II, he was involved with the Ethnogeographic Board, an organization that provided liaison between federal war agencies and the scientific community. For the board, Roberts prepared a survival manual and a volume on Egypt and the Suez Canal that was issued as one of the Smithsonian's War Background Studies. For several years later in his life, Roberts was also on the National Council for Historical Sites and Buildings. He also served the Smithsonian on committees concerned primarily with personnel.
Outside official duties, Roberts represented the American Anthropological Association on the National Research Council in 1935-1949. In 1936, he was president of the Anthropological Society of Washington and, in 1944, vice president of the AAA. In 1949, he became president of the Washington Academy of Sciences. A founding member of the Society for American Archaeology and a member of the committee that drafts its constitution and bylaws, Roberts served that organization as president in 1950. In 1952, he became a vice president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The photographic negatives are in special storage and require advance notice to view.
Copies of images of Caddo Indians, structures, and artifacts and excavations of Caddo sites. The collection includes copies of 19th century photographs by William S. Soule and photographs of excavations by the Arkansas Archeological Survey, circa 1972.
Pictures of Record, Inc. publishes scholarly annotated images, largely for use in teaching. The set on "Late Caddo Culture (Caddo III-V)" was annotated by Frank F. Schambach and Ann M. Early of the Arkansas Archeological Survey. According to Schambach and Early, "In 1200, the Caddo on the southwest edge of the Eastern woodland not only retained, but elaborated disappearing Mississippian traits. Temple mounds were in use in 1692 and the great ceramic tradition reached a peak around 1700."
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R86-18
Copy slides made by Pictures of Record, Inc., copyright 1985.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs of Caddo Indians by William Soule can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4659, Photo Lot 3912, and Photo Lot 24.
Additional photographs of Caddo Indians can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 25, Photo Lot 76, MS 4558, MS 3302, MS 4659, and the BAE historical negatives.
Caddo artifacts can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accessions 001317, 257511, 113605, E432918-0, 374095, and 358176.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Copy slides in this collection that represent photographs not held by the National Anthropological Archives are for reference only.
Enclosing photographs of pictographs in Pecos country, Val Verde County, Texas
Biographical / Historical:
Initial letter of Lendewig to Fewkes, May 8, 1914, and Fewkesʹ reply of May 16, in Smithsonian Institution-Bureau of American Ethnology correspondence files, 1/59. Of the photographs he says, "Now, the No. 1 is of a group, taken from a distance, while No. 2 is from a very short distance, (from the point X in No. 1) thus giving a part of No. 1 on a much larger scale. This was done to give a better view of the peculiar long necked animal in the center of No. 2."
United States. Work Projects Administration Search this
Alabama -- Archeology
Arizona -- Archeology
Georgia -- Archeology
Missouri -- Archeology
Mississippi -- Archeology
Nebraska -- Archeology
North Carolina -- Archeology
Oklahoma -- Archeology
Pennsylvania -- Archeology
South Dakota -- Archeology
Tennessee -- Archeology
Scope and Contents:
Reports on archaelogical excavations by the W.P.A. in the states of Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin, Wyoming.
The reports are mainly accounts for a given month or quarter and usually concern several sites. They are filed alphabetically by state and chronologically within states. Monthly reports precede quarterly reports. Reports concerning more than one year are filed under the earliest year. Note: Within bound volumes the earliest reports are usually at the back.
Each form includes person or organization, who submitted data; site name, location, ownership, protection needed, are nature of site, surface indications, reason for recommending preservation, and remarks.
Associated lists, correspondence and notes: List of archaeological sites in Alabama, compiled by the Alabama Museum of Natural History. 1934. Typescript document 23 pages with cover letter from David L. DeJarnette, Curator, to A.E. Demaray, National Park Service, Sept. 26, 1934. Typescript letter signed 1 page. Also typed copy of same, 29 pages with two carbon copies, 58 pages. Memorandum from Neil M. Judd to M.W. Stirling regarding transferral of the questionnaires from the Division of Archaeology to the BAE. Dec. 26, 1935. Typescript letter signed 1 page.
Slip found with questionnaires, "National Resources Board questionnaires on archaeological sites worthy of Federal preservation."
Arranged by State
Biographical / Historical:
Memorandum from Neil M. Judd, U. S. N. M. Division of Archaeology, to M. W. Stirling, BAE, and slip accompanying questionnaire (see following card) indicate that the questionnaires were sent out the National Resources Board (NRB) in order to identify those archaeological sites most wothy of preservation by the Federal Government. The questionnaires were turned over to Judd by the NRB, and Judd turned them over to Stirling.
Includes a student paper by Mary Chandler titled "The Archaeological Development of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico," notes by Strong on Utah, Strong's(?) notes on "Southwestern Archaeology," a paper by C.W. Weiant on "Observations on Texas Archaeology," Chaco conference notes (1939), a manuscript by Carling Malouf entitled "Pueblo Political Organization" (1947), a student paper by Joan Howson entitled "History in the Zuni Valley" (1939), an outline for a course on Indians of the greater Southwest, a student paper by Marjorie Lismer on "Evidences of Pueblo-like Cultures on the Eastern Periphery" (1939), and a photograph of petroglyphs.
The William Duncan Strong papers are open for research.
Access to the William Duncan Strong papers requires and appointment.
William Duncan Strong papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Virginia Drew Watson was a cultural anthropologist best known for her work in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Her papers attest to a variety of interests related to culture and culture change, drawing on resources both archaeological and ethnographic. This collection contains catalogs, correspondence, drawings, field notes, grant proposals, manuscripts, maps, photographs, publications, reports, and slides. The majority of the field work relates to her work in Papua New Guinea, both with her husband (James B. Watson) and with J. David Cole, but there are also materials related to her work in Brazil.
Scope and Contents:
The Virginia Drew Watson papers attest to a variety of interests related to culture and culture change, drawing on resources both archaeological and ethnographic. Her work could be conveniently separated into four areas: Brazil, Plains and Caddo Indians, Papua New Guinea ethnographic, and Papua New Guinea archaeology with Cole. This collection contains catalogs, correspondence, drawings, field notes, grant proposals, manuscripts, maps, photographs, publications, reports, and slides. Most of the correspondence is with colleagues doing related work in other museums or universities in the United States or Australia. A small part of the correspondence is with friends, including missionaries, who report relevant information of interest. The collection includes original field notes from Brazil, including notes from a lecture by Radcliffe-Brown in 1943. There are also original field notes from the Tairora, Agarabi, and Gadsup groups in Highland New Guinea. In addition, this collection includes a list of Watson's publications, a copy of most of them, and some reviews.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
This collection is arranged in 5 series: (1) Correspondence, 1930s-2000; (2) Brazil, 1943-1955, 1966; (3) New Guinea, 1949-2000; (4) Manuscripts, 1939-2001; (5) Books/Monographs, 1942-1977, 1997; (6) Slides of PEHNG Archeological Sites, 1965-1973, undated
Virginia Drew Watson was born on June 17, 1918, in Tomah, Wisconsin. Her undergraduate work was completed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she received a PhB in Sociology (1940). She conducted graduate work for both AM (1943) and PhD (1965) degrees at the University of Chicago. She was a Fellow of both the American Anthropological Association and the Royal Anthropological Institute.
Virginia Watson's early work was in archaeology, but later she pursued both archaeology and socio-cultural anthropology. She married James B. Watson, a cultural anthropologist, in 1943. During that year they went to Brazil, where Virginia Watson's work was primarily ethnographic among the Cayua Indians of Mato Grosso. On the trip returning from the field to Sao Paulo the Watsons stopped at the archaeological site of Ciudad Real del Guayra. From 1944 to 1945 Watson worked in the Cultural Relations Department of the American Consulate General in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The Watsons made two trips to the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The first, 1954-1955, was funded by the Ford Foundation. Watson focused on socio-cultural aspects of the Tairora and Agarabi groups, and her work resulted in the 1965 publication of her dissertation, "Agarabi Female Roles and Family Structure, a study of socio-cultural change." The Watsons' second Papua New Guinea trip was in 1963-1964. It was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and focused on the Tairora and Gadsup groups. For Virginia Watson, the second trip was partly connected to archaeological work previously carried out by J. David Cole. Due to illness, he was unable to analyze the mass of material (25,000 objects) that he had collected. Watson analyzed the material and produced publications, one of which was in collaboration with Cole.
Virginia Watson often held one or more part-time positions. As a graduate student in 1942, she was a part-time Lecturer in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. On returning from Brazil, the Watsons moved to Oklahoma University in Norman for one year. There, Watson supervised archeology students in sorting and putting in order the university collection of artifacts as well as directing them in the field. From 1948 to 1953 Watson was a Lecturer at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and she also directed students in field work. During the St. Louis years the Watsons spent two summers studying the Anglo-Spanish community in Colorado. From 1957 to 1963 she was a Lecturer at Seattle University and from 1961 to 1971 she was also an Occasional Lecturer at the University of Washington, Seattle. From 1969 to 1989 Watson held the position of Affiliate Curator at the Burke Museum, University of Washington. After she retired, Virginia Watson spent her winters in Florida and her summers in Boulder, Colorado.
Virginia Watson died in 2007.
Watson, Virgina Drew. "Curriculum vitae, 2001, For National Anthropological Archives." Virginia Drew Watson papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
"James Watson III." Bangor Daily News, December 10, 2009.
1918 -- Born on June 17 in Tomah, Wisconsin
1940 -- Earned PhB in Sociology from University of Wisconsin-Madison
1942 -- Lecturer in archaeology at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
1943 -- Earned AM from University of Chicago Married James B. Watson Field research of the Cayua Indians, Mato Grosso, Brazil
1944-1945 -- Worked in the Cultural Relations Department of the American Consulate General in Sao Paulo, Brazil
1947 -- Special Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the University of Oklahoma, Norman
1948-1953 -- Lecturer in anthropology and archaeology at Washington University in St. Louis
1949-1950 -- Field research of the Anglo-Spanish community, Del Norte, Colorado
1953-1955 -- First field research trip to the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea
1957-1963 -- Lecturer in anthropology at Seattle University
1961-1971 -- Lecturer in anthropology at the University of Washington, Seattle
1963-1964 -- Second field research trip to the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea
1965 -- Earned PhD from the University of Chicago Published dissertation: "Agarabi Female Roles and Family Structure, a study of socio-cultural change"
1969-1989 -- Affiliate Curator of Melanesian Archaeology at the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, University of Washington
2007 -- Died
The National Anthropological Archives also has the papers of Virginia D. Watson's husband, James Bennett Watson.
Virginia Drew Watson donated her papers to the National Anthropological Archives in 2002.
The Virginia Drew Watson papers are open for research.
Access to the Virginia Drew Watson papers requires and appointment.
No restrictions. All requests for duplication and use must be submitted in writing and approved by the Smithsonian Institution Archives. Contact SIA Reference Staff for further information (email firstname.lastname@example.org)
Smithsonian Institution Archives
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