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Crawford W. Long Collection

Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Names:
Edward VII, King  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1897
Summary:
The collection documents Crawford W. Long's use of sulphuric ether on a patient. The materials include glass plate negatives, correspondence, printed documents, and photprints.
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes five publications: a biographical sketch; personal recollections of a contemporary pharmacist, together with correspondence and documentation of Long's priority in the use of ether; a paper read before the Johns Hopkins Historical Society; the proceedings in Statuary Hall when Crawford Long's statue was unveiled; and a memorial to Dr. Long published by the University of Pennsylvania.

Also included are an original letter (dated December 3, 1911) from Dudley W. Buxton to Mrs. Taylor, Dr. Long's daughter, regarding a paper he had read before the Royal Academy of Medicine, and glass plate photonegatives and one film negative, with corresponding photographic prints, of a number of letters attesting to Dr. Long's use of sulphuric ether as an anaesthetic on approximate or specific dates.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Crawford Williamson Long was born November 1, 1815, in Danielsville, Georgia, the son of James and Elizabeth Ware. He was a studious boy who entered Franklin College (now the University of Georgia) at fourteen and graduated in 1835, second in his class. After teaching one year he began to read medicine, first under a preceptor, later at Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky, and finally at the University of Pennsylvania, where he received a degree in 1839.

Following eighteen months in New York, where he gained a reputation as a skillful surgeon, he began to practice in Jefferson, a village in Jackson County, Georgia. In August 1842, Dr. Long married Caroline Swain, the niece of Governor David Lowry Swain of North Carolina.

During the early 1840's laughing gas was the subject of much discussion and a number of demonstrations of its effects on volunteers. In January, 1842 several of Long's friends induced him to let them have a nitrous oxide frolic. No nitrous oxide was available but Long offered sulphuric ether as a substitute, explaining to his friends that it was equally exhilirating and as safe as nitrous oxide. After observing that the young men who had inhaled the sulphuric ether did not experience pain, Dr. Long decided to test its ability to produce insensitivity in his practice.

On March 30, 1842, Dr. Long administered sulphuric ether to James Venable and removed a small tumor from his neck. This was the first recorded surgical procedure using inhalation anaesthesia. On June 6 he removed another tumor from Venable's neck and on July 3 amputated a boy's toe. By September Long had performed eight operations using ether as the anaesthetic. This experience with ether was not published until December, 1849 as a result of the controversy over W. T. G. Morton's claim to priority in its discovery. At that time Dr. Long described his first five operations using ether in a paper in the Southern Medical and Surgical Journal under the title "An Account of the First Use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in Surgical Operations."

In 1850 Crawford Long moved to Athens, Georgia, where he immediately acquired a large surgical practice. He died there on June 16, 1878. In 1910 an obelisk was erected to his memory in Athens and in 1926 Georgia placed his statue in Statuary Hall in the Capitol in Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
The collections was donated by Mrs. Frances Long Taylor in 1921.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Physicians  Search this
Medical sciences  Search this
Anesthesia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0120
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0120

Photonegatives

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
17 Glass negatives
1 Negatives (photographic)
Container:
Box 3
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Negatives (photographic)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref19

Negatives (glass and film)

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass negative (14" x 17")
Container:
Box 2
Type:
Archival materials
Glass negatives
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref20

Crawford W. Long. Proceedings in Statutary Hall of the United States Capitol upon the Unveiling and Presentation of the Statue of Crawford W. Long by the State of Georgia. Senate Document No. 160. Washington, D.C.

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
1 Book
Container:
Box 1, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Books
Date:
1926
Scope and Contents:
Paperbound book, 69 pp.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref12

Foy, George, M.D. Crawford Williamson Long, M.D. The Discoverer of Ether Anaesthesia. A Biographical Sketch.

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
1 Document
Container:
Box 1, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1903
Scope and Contents:
Book bound in blue leather, 17 pp. Reprinted from Janus. undated, but autographed by Foy on first page, 8 June 1903. S.I. accession no. 66216. With exhibit label stating that this is one of three copies which were bound in limp blue leather, and stamped in gold for presentation to King Edward VII, because of his interest in anesthesia.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref13

Jacobs, Joseph, Phar. D. Dr. Crawford W. Long. The Distinguished Physician Pharmacist. Atlanta, Georgia.

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
1 Book
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Books
Date:
1919
Scope and Contents:
Booklet, 47 pp. U.S.N[ational] M[useum] Cat. No. M 1095, Acc. No. 66216.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref14

University of Pennsylvania. Memorial to Dr. Crawford W. Long...An Account of the Ceremonies... Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
1 Book
Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Books
Date:
1912 April
Scope and Contents:
Bulletin reprint, 15 pp. (Reprint from Old Penn), April 1912. U.S.N[ational] M[useum] Cat. No. M 1089, Acc. No. 66216.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref15

Young, Hugh H. "Long, the Discoverer of Anaesthesia. A Presentation of His Original Documents," The Johns Hopkins Historical Bulletin, 77-78.

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
1 Document
Container:
Box 1, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Date:
1897
Scope and Contents:
Reprint, 22 pp. (August September 1897). U.S.N.M. Cat. No. 1086
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref16

Photoprints, from glass plate and film negatives

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Extent:
17 Photographic prints
Container:
Box 1, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
copies of letters relating to the use of ether as an anaesthetic by Dr. Long, attesting to the approximate or specific date of its use. Location of original letters unknown.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref17

Original letter from Dudley W. Buxton to Mrs. Taylor, Dr. Long's daughter, regarding a paper he read before the Royal Academy of Medicine

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
3 December 1911
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref18

De Laperrier

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 8
Box 2, Item 7
Box 2, Item 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1854
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref26

Mary E. Mare

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1846
1854
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref27

James E. Hayes

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1854
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref28

Thurmond

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1853
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref29

Dr. Groves

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref30

Dr. Long

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref31

Stapler

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1853
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref33

Rawls

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref34

Camak

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1878
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref35

J.M. Venable

Collection Creator:
Taylor, Frances Long, Mrs.  Search this
Long, Crawford Williamson, Dr., 1815-1878  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Item 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1842
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Crawford W. Long Collection, 1841-1926, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Crawford W. Long Collection
Crawford W. Long Collection / Negatives (glass and film)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0120-ref36

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