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Charlene Hodges Byrd collection

Creator:
Byrd, Charlene Hodges, 1929-2009  Search this
Names:
Morgan State College  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Cummings, Ida R. (Ida Rebecca), 1868-1958  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Grimké, Francis J. (Francis James), 1850-1937  Search this
Hodges, Joyce Ethel Cummings, 1903-1971  Search this
Shimm, Erminie F. (Erminie Florence), 1867-1936  Search this
Shimm, Sarah A., 1843-1885  Search this
Thomas, Elizabeth N. (Elizabeth Nelson), d. 1932  Search this
Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915  Search this
Extent:
43 Linear feet (35 document boxes and 39 oversize boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
circa 1750-2009
bulk 1880-1960
Summary:
The Charlene Hodges Byrd collection measures 43 linear feet, and dates from circa 1750-2009, with the bulk of the material dating from 1880-1960. The collection documents the personal life and professional career of Charlene Hodges Byrd, an African American teacher from Washington, D.C., along with material for several related families from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. Family members prominently represented include Sarah A. Shimm, teacher and essayist under the name Faith Lichen; her daughters Erminie F. Shimm and Grace E. Shimm Cummings, both teachers; and Byrd's mother, Joyce Ethel Cummings Hodges, also a teacher. Correspondence and writings chiefly discuss family life, religion, race, education, and the relationship with Frederick Douglass and his family. The collection is arranged in 10 series: Biographical Material, Correspondence, Writings, Subject Files, Financial and Legal Records, Printed Material, Volumes, Memorabilia, Textiles, and Photographs.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1. Papers related to biographical and family histories of the Byrd, Cummings, Davage, Dews, Hodges, Shimm, Spruill, and Thomas families. Material includes family trees; school diplomas and certificates; programs; awards; marriage and divorce papers; funeral documents; and obituaries.

Series 2: Chiefly letters from family and friends regarding family news, financial matters, school, work, neighborhood affairs, church events, travel and the weather. The majority of the letters are addressed to Charlene Hodges Byrd, Grace E. Shimm Cummings, Ida R. Cummings, Elizabeth Dews Hodges, Joyce Ethel Cummings Hodges, Erminie F. Shimm, Sarah A. Shimm, and Elizabeth N. Thomas. Other correspondence includes letters from Booker T. Washington, Bessye Beardon, Charlotte Davage, Amelia Douglass, and Harrell S. Spruill. There are also a number of greeting cards, postcards, and empty envelopes.

Series 3. Writings include essays, speeches, papers written for school, teacher's notebooks, and a diary of Erminie F. Shimm, 1903. Topics include education, Frederick Douglass, religion, race, Africa, and the temperance movement.

Series 4. Subject files on Charlene Hodges Byrd's involvement with Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority; Book Lovers of Charleston, West Virginia, a women's book club organized in 1923; Church Women United radio program; and The Links, Inc., a volunteer service organization. The papers on Liberia relate to missionary work, and were probably gathered by Erminie F. Shimm; and the Shimm-Thomas Collection are papers related to the deposit and later return of family items housed as a collection at Morgan State College.

Series 5. The financial and legal records include invoices and receipts, bank books, real estate tax assessments, deeds, and wills. There is also material related to the estate of Erminie F. Shimm.

Series 6. Printed materials includes books, pamphlets, newspapers, newsletters, clippings, invitations and programs. The books and pamphlets are chiefly school yearbooks and newspapers and other texts related to religion, politics, music, and poetry. Also included is a copy of Frederick Douglass's autobiography and a printed copy of his speech "The Race Problem." The clippings include obituaries, articles about Charlene Hodges Byrd and her husband Charles R. Byrd, essays by Sarah A. Shimm under the name Faith Lichen, and articles on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. The invitations and programs are primarily for school graduations, weddings, social events, and funerals. Other printed material includes newsletters; business cards; calling cards; postage stamps, chiefly from Liberia; and blank postcards. The binder on Frederick Douglass was prepared by Byrd and her goddaughter for the West Virginia School Studies Fair, and includes copies of Byrd family artifacts.

Series 7. Autograph books, guest books, and scrapbooks. The autograph book of Grace E. Shimm Cummings includes autographs from Amelia Douglass, Lewis B. Douglass, Charles R. Douglass, W. H. Clair, and Francis J. Grimke. The scrapbook of Grace E. Shimm Cummings and Erminie F. Shimm consists primarily of clippings, and was assembled from an old teacher's book with a student registration and punishment pages still intact at the back.

Series 8. Miscellaneous items in the collection including artwork, a coin purse, a piece of handwoven cloth belonging to Catherine Nelson's great grandmother, and leather hair curlers.

Series 9: The textiles are chiefly christening gowns, children's garments, and an apron. Several garments belonged to Joyce Ethel Cummings Hodges, Charlene Hodges Byrd, and Elizabeth N. Thomas. There is also a doll that belonged to Amelia Douglass's niece, Kitty Cromwell.

Series 10. Photographs include pictures of Charlene Hodges Byrd, Joyce Ethel Hodges Cummings, Frederick Douglass, Elizabeth Dews Hodges, Charles Gilmor Cummings, Grace E. Shimm Cummings, Erminie F. Shimm, and other friends and relatives of the Byrd, Hodges, Cummings, Douglass, and Shimm families. Subjects are primarily portraits and candids, along with some wedding, baby, and school pictures. While some of the photographs are annotated, many of the individuals are unidentified. Included are vintage photographs, cabinet cards, cartes-de-visites, tintypes, daguerreotypes, and negatives.
Biographical / Historical:
The Shimm, Thomas, Cummings, Hodges, Davage, and related African American families chiefly lived in Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. Numerous family members worked as teachers, barbers, or in the service industry. They were active in local churches and service organizations, and had established friendships with local church leaders as well as with Frederick Douglass and his family.

The Shimm and Thomas families were located in Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. The Thomas family can be traced back to Philip Nelson, who owned property in Leesburg, Virginia and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Family genealogical papers list Nelson as a descendent of British Admiral Horatio Nelson. This lineage, however, is not supported in publically available family histories of Horatio Nelson. Philip Nelson and his wife Araminta had five children: Catherine (b. 1805?), William, Levi (b. 1820?), Henrietta, and Grayson.

Catherine Nelson married Elias E. Thomas (b. 1816?) of Virginia in 1840. They wed in Philadelphia and had five children: Levi Nelson (b. 1841), Sarah (1843-1885), Edward (b. 1844), Elizabeth (1848-1932), and Charles (b. 1851).

Sarah Thomas married William Y. Shimm (b. 1841), a barber in Reading, Pennsylvania, on July 26, 1863. They had 2 daughters, Erminie (1867-1936) and Grace (1865-1910). The Shimms lived in Pennsylvania and Ohio, but had moved to Washington, D.C., around 1871. Sarah was a teacher and a writer who published under the name "Faith Lichen." Her writings, primarily essays and commentaries about race and politics, were printed in several newspapers including The National Republican, The Celtic Weekly, The People's Advocate, and The Sunday Morning Gazette.

Sarah's sister Elizabeth was also a teacher in Maryland. Her brother Charles was a lawyer in Washington, D.C., and a graduate of the first class at Howard University's law school.

Erminie and Grace Shimm became teachers in the Washington, D.C., public school system. Erminie was active in her church and supportive of missionary work in Liberia. Grace married Charles Gilmor Cummings, a pastor in Alexandria, Virginia, on July 9, 1902. They had one daughter, Joyce Ethel (1903-1971), and second child in 1905 who died in infancy. Grace died in 1910 of heart failure. After her death, Grace's sister Erminie and Charles's family helped raise Joyce Ethel in Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland.

Joyce Ethel Cummings Hodges graduated from Morgan College in 1924, and received her master's degree from Howard University in 1931. She taught at Douglass High School in Baltimore from 1924-1964. Joyce Ethel married Charles E. Hodges (1900--975) in 1927 and they divorced in 1953. The couple had one daughter, Charlene (1929-2009).

Charlene Hodges Byrd grew up in Washington, D.C., but attended the Northfield School for Girls in East Northfield, Massachusetts, for high school, graduating in 1946. She received her bachelor's degree from Connecticut College in 1950, and her master's degree in English Language and Literature from the University of Chicago in 1951. She married Charles R. Byrd (1919-2004) in 1952. They had one son in 1954, but he died four days after birth. Byrd soon began a career as a teacher and education administrator, eventually working for Kanawha County Schools in Charleston, West Virginia. She was also active in her local community as a member of the Book Lovers of Charleston, West Virginia; Church Women United; and The Links, Inc.

Charles E. Hodges was born Bridgewater, Virginia, where his father was a minister. He graduated from Morgan College in 1923 and received his master's degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1943. He was a teacher and served as principal of the North Street School in Hagerstown, Maryland. After he and Joyce Ethel divorced in 1953, he married Elizabeth Dews (1913-1999) in 1955.

Elizabeth Dews Hodges, born Elizabeth Virginia Waumbeeka, was adopted by James Edward (1889-1954) and Sarah Virginia Dews (1888?-1964) in Washington, D.C., in 1920. She graduated from Miner Teachers College in 1939, and worked as a teacher in Annapolis, Maryland, at Wiley H. Bates High School for 34 years. She was awarded a medal for her work there by the Freedom Foundation of Valley Forge in 1959. Elizabeth was active in local organizations in Maryland and Washington, D.C., including the SE/NE Friends of the Capitol View Branch Library; Eastern Star Chapter 4; Mount Ephraim Baptist Church; National Museum of Women in the Arts; National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples; and the Columbia Lighthouse for the Blind.

The Davage family is descended from Sidney Hall (b. 1818?) and Charles Davage (b. 1815?). Sidney was a former slave at the Perry Hall mansion in Baltimore, and was manumitted by 1840. She married Charles, a coachman, on April 12, 1842. They had five children: Eliza Jane (1843-1913), Sophia (b. 1847), Charlotte (b. 1849), Charles (b. 1854), and Hester (b. 1845). Their daughter Eliza Jane married Henry Cummings (b. 1830?). They had seven children: Harry Sythe (1866-1917), Charles Gilmor (1870-1924), William (b. 1882), Ida R. (1868-1958), Estelle (1874-1944), Carroll (b. 1875), Francis (b. 1872), and Aaron (1864?-1932).

Harry Sythe Cummings, a lawyer in Baltimore, became the city's first African American City Council member. He was first elected in 1890 and served intermittently until his death in 1917, often working on issues related to education. Cummings also delivered a speech at the Republican National Convention in 1904 seconding the presidential nomination of Theodore Roosevelt. He married Blanche Conklin in 1899, and they had three children: Harry S. Jr. (b. 1905), Lucille (d. 1906), and Louise.

Charles Gilmor Cummings graduated from Drew Theological Seminary in 1898, and was a pastor in Alexandria, Virginia and elsewhere. After the death of his wife Grace in 1910, he married Rosa Catherine Bearden, grandmother of artist Romare Bearden, in 1912.

Ida R. Cummings graduated from Morgan College in 1922, and was the first African American kindergarten teacher in Baltimore. She was also active in local organizations, and was president of the Colored Fresh Air and Empty Stocking Circle; chairman of the Woman's Section Council of Defense in Baltimore during the World War, 1914-1918; and president of the Woman's Campaign Bureau of the Colored Republican Voters' League of Maryland.
Provenance:
The Charlene Hodges Byrd collection was donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture by Herbert S. Garten, co-personal representative of the Estate of Charlene H. Byrd, in 2010.
Restrictions:
Access to collection requires appointment.
Rights:
This collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
African Americans -- Maryland  Search this
African Americans -- Photographs  Search this
African American families  Search this
African Americans -- Pennsylvania  Search this
African American newspapers  Search this
African American -- Social life and customs  Search this
African American women journalists  Search this
African Americans -- Education  Search this
African American churches  Search this
African American educators  Search this
African Americans -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Citation:
Charlene Hodges Byrd collection, circa 1750-2009. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.2010.26
See more items in:
Charlene Hodges Byrd collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-2010-26
Online Media:

W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album

Creator:
Hunt, Mary Alice Minear  Search this
Hunt, George Laird  Search this
Fishbaugh, William Arthur  Search this
Minear, A. Bruce  Search this
Source:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Former owner:
Engineering and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Panama Canal (Panama)
Panama -- 1900-1910
Date:
1905-1908.
Summary:
Photograph album of commercially-produced photographs of Panama Canal construction.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consists of a photograph album of 100 commercially produced views of Panama Canal construction. Also included are some views of life in the Canal Zone, including hospitals, villages, street scenes, jungles, cemeteries, animal life, and bullfights. The album was assembled by A. Bruce Minear, who was sent to Panama by President Theodore Roosevelt to develop the YMCA for the men working on the canal. Most photographs are captioned.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series.

Series 1, Photograph Album, 1905-1907
Historical:
On November 18, 1903, the United States and Panama negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which granted the U.S. permission to construct a canal that would join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Construction for the Panama Canal began on May 4, 1904. The large workforce (at its highest population in 1913 it numbered 44,733 men, not including those sick, on leave, or otherwise absent) had a great impact on Panama. As there were not enough amenities to accommodate them when they arrived, they built entire communities, paved streets, improved communication systems, and installed water and sewage systems. Likewise, the railroad was improved for more efficient transportation of supplies, labor, food, and equipment. Much to the credit of Chief Sanitary Officer Dr. William Crawford Gorgas, yellow fever was completely eradicated on the Isthmus and malaria cases greatly reduced. Native villages and towns along the planned construction route were required to relocate.

The first self-propelled, ocean-bound vessel traveled on the canal on January 7, 1914, and the canal was formally opened in August of that year. The Panama Canal construction project was the most expensive construction project in U.S. history to that date, costing $375,000,000.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

W. P. Stine Panama Canal Papers (NMAH.AC.1039)

John Frances Little Panama Canal Scrapbook Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.0708)

Katherine Kingsford Panama Canal Photograph Album (NMAH.AC.1040)

A.R. Van Tassell Photograph Albums (NMAH.AC.1015)
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History's Division of the History of Science and Technology, Engineering and Industry Collections by Mary Alice Minear Hunt and George Laird Hunt, 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Villages -- Panama  Search this
Streets -- Panama  Search this
Hospitals -- Panama  Search this
Jungles -- Panama  Search this
Animals -- Panama  Search this
Bullfights  Search this
Canals -- Panama  Search this
Cemeteries -- Panama  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910
Photograph albums -- 20th century
Citation:
W.A. Fishbaugh Panama Canal Photograph Album, 1905-1908, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1021
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1021
Online Media:

Colin de Land collection

Creator:
De Land, Colin, 1955-2003  Search this
Names:
American Fine Arts, Co.  Search this
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Art Cologne  Search this
Art Forum Berlin  Search this
Biennale di Venezia  Search this
Documenta  Search this
International Art Fair  Search this
Balk, Dennis  Search this
Beckwith, Patterson  Search this
Davey, Moyra  Search this
Dion, Mark, 1961-  Search this
Fend, Peter  Search this
Fraser, Andrea  Search this
Greene, Carol  Search this
Heilmann, Mary, 1940-  Search this
Marks, Matthew  Search this
McDonald, Daniel  Search this
Morris, Paul  Search this
Pierson, Jack, 1960-  Search this
Wadlin, Craig  Search this
Waters, John, 1946-  Search this
Extent:
15.15 Linear feet
0.901 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Video recordings
Date:
1968-2008, bulk 1980-2003
bulk 1980-2003
Summary:
The Colin de Land collection measures 15.15 linear feet and 0.901 GB and dates from 1968 to 2008, with the bulk of the collection dating from the early 1980s through 2003. The majority of the collection consists of photographic material, primarily snapshots, documenting daily life in and around de Land's gallery American Fine Arts, Co., as well as de Land's pesonal life and affairs. There are candid photographs of exhibition openings, day-to-day gallery operations, art fairs, vacations, social gatherings, and New York City street scenes. Also included are some personal objects belonging to de Land and his wife Pat Hearn, as well as two scrapbooks containing items once decorating the walls of de Land's office at American Fine Arts. The collection includes video recordings documenting trips to Cape Cod, Hearn's illness, and occasional art world events.
Scope and Contents:
The Colin de Land collection measures 15.15 linear feet and 0.901 GB and dates from 1968 to 2008, with the bulk of the collection dating from the early 1980s through 2003. The majority of the collection consists of photographic material, primarily snapshots, documenting daily life in and around de Land's gallery American Fine Arts, Co., as well as de Land's pesonal life and affairs. There are candid photographs of exhibition openings, day-to-day gallery operations, art fairs, vacations, social gatherings, and New York City street scenes. Also included are some personal objects belonging to de Land and his wife Pat Hearn, as well as two scrapbooks containing items once decorating the walls of de Land's office at American Fine Arts. The collection includes video recordings documenting trips to Cape Cod, Hearn's illness, and occasional art world events.

The bulk of the collection consists of snapshots, along with their negatives and the envelopes provided by commercial photographic printers. The envelopes are sometimes annotated. The photographs, not typically identified by photographer, were taken by de Land, Hearn, and gallery employees, artists, and visitors. Most of the snapshots provide a candid record of life within de Land's circle, and not formal documentation of gallery exhibitions.

The figures in this collection often occupied blurred boundaries between artist, gallery employee, critic, and friend. Many of the photographs include AFA staff, including Daniel McDonald, Patterson Beckwith, and Craig Wadlin. Also of note are photos showing AFA artists, including John Waters, Mark Dion, Andrea Fraser, Moyra Davey, Dennis Balk, Peter Fend, and Jack Pierson.

In addition to life within the gallery, de Land's cameras also documented a larger art world of the era, candidly showing openings at other galleries, art fairs such as Art Basel, Art Cologne, and the Berlin Artforum, as well as festivals including the Venice Biennale and Documenta, many of which included AFA artists. There is some documentation of the Gramercy International Contemporary Art Fair and The Armory Show. The photographs frequently include de Land and Hearn's friends and fellow art dealers Paul Morris, Matthew Marks, and Carol Greene. Some images include artists that showed at Pat Hearn Art Gallery, such as Mary Heilmann. Collectors, celebrity visitors to the gallery, and critics also occasionally appear in the photographs. There is one 1968 photograph of de Land's mother and a small number of 1970s images of both de Land and Hearn.

In addition to the snapshots, there are a variety of other photographic formats, including digital, in the collection. The contents of the slides are of similar nature to the snapshots. The contact sheet binders offer some formal exhibition installation documentation, but are not exhaustive.

The collection also includes film and video footage. Thirty-five reels of Super-8 motion picture film primarily documents frequent vacations to Cape Cod, as well as the final stages of Hearn's illness and subsequent death. The 31 DV-mini cassettes include similar content, and some footage of opening receptions and other art world events.

Most of the official gallery records are missing, most likely lost in the frequent floods in the gallery basement. Two scrapbooks include material that was often photographed on the walls surrounding de Land's desk at AFA. Additional artifacts include one small painting by artist Charles Clough, inscribed to Hearn, a baseball hat frequently worn by de Land and appearing in many of the snapshots, and one page of an autographed calendar.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 4 series:

Series 1: Photographic Material, 1968-2003, bulk 1980-2003 (14 linear feet; Box 1-14, 0.901 GB; ER01)

Series 2: Scrapbooks, circa 1980s-2003 (0.2 linear feet; Box 19)

Series 3: Video and Film Recordings, circa 1980-2003 (1.1 linear feet; Box 15, 16, 18)

Series 4: Artifacts, 1988-2008 (0.3 linear feet; Box 14, 17, 19)
Biographical / Historical:
Colin de Land (1955-2003) was a gallery owner whose New York City spaces challenged traditional modes of exhibition and art dealing.

Raised in Union City, New Jersey, de Land came to the art world from an academic background, having studied philosophy and linguistics at New York University. In 1984, de Land opened Vox Populi, a largely unrenovated space in the East Village, at 511 East 6th Street. The gallery showed experimental work by emerging artists, including the enigmatic John Dogg, thought to be a collaboration between de Land and artist Richard Prince.

In 1986, De Land opened his longest standing gallery, American Fine Arts, Co. (AFA), in the same space previously occupied by Vox Populi. The gallery moved to SoHo in 1988, first to 40 Wooster Street then to 22 Wooster Street in 1993. During the late 1990s, as most SoHo galleries moved to Chelsea, AFA remained a mainstay of the downtown arts scene. De Land's wife, Pat Hearn, whom he married in 1999 after over a decade together, was also a well known art dealer. Her gallery, Pat Hearn Art Gallery, also moved from the East Village to SoHo, later becoming one of the first to set down roots in Chelsea.

Known for his eccentric fashion and unorthodox business style, de Land cultivated a culture of experimentation within the AFA community. He typically hired young art students or recent graduates, often nurturing their own artistic careers. Along with a group of Cooper Union graduates, many of whom worked at the gallery, he founded the artist collective Art Club 2000. De Land often showed artists working in hybrid media, for example film and photography or music and installation. He was especially interested in ecological and environmental art, as well as work that took as its subject exhibition practice and the act of creating art. He often staged large thematic group shows. Artists who showed at the gallery included Mark Dion, John Waters, Andrea Fraser, Moyra Davey, Dennis Balk, Peter Fend, Tom Burr, James Welling, Mariko Mori, Dan Graham, Jessica Stockholder, Alex Bag, Christian Philipp Muller, and Jack Pierson.

In 1994, de Land and Hearn, along with gallerists Matthew Marks and Paul Morris, established the Gramercy International Contemporary Art Fair. Fashioned after the tradition of inexpensive hotel art fairs, four galleries were invited to exhibit artwork in rooms of the Gramercy Park Hotel, to be sold in a cash and carry model. The fair became an annual event, branching out to other cities, including Miami and Los Angeles, and growing significantly in size in New York. It later became known as The Armory Show.

De Land often carried a point-and-shoot camera and kept several on hand in the gallery. He documented opening receptions, art world social gatherings, concerts, and day-to-day happenings and invited visitors to the gallery and employees to do the same.

After Hearn's death from liver cancer in 2000, de Land became involved with Kembra Pfahler, the performance artist and leader of the rock band The Voluptuous Horror of Karen Black. De Land took over Hearn's Chelsea gallery, operating it as a second location of AFA. Following his own struggle with cancer, de Land passed away in 2003. AFA remained open, closing at the end of 2004 with a tribute group exhibition to de Land.
Related Materials:
The archival gallery records of Colin de Land's art gallery American Fine Arts, Co. as well as the gallery records of the Pat Hearn Gallery are available at the Center for Curatorial Studies at Bard College in New York. The gallery records there also include a fair amount of de Land's personal papers. Bard also acquired de Land's and Hearn's personal library.
Provenance:
The Colin de Land papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in 2008 by Dennis Balk, an artist represented by American Fine Arts, Co. and a close friend of de Land.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings and born-digital records in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Motion pictures (visual works)
Video recordings
Citation:
Colin de Land papers, 1968-2008, bulk 1980-2003. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.delacoli
See more items in:
Colin de Land collection
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-delacoli
Online Media:

Thomas B. Clarke letters from or about Homer Dodge Martin

Creator:
Clarke, Thomas B. (Thomas Benedict), 1848-1931  Search this
Names:
Macbeth, William, 1851-1917  Search this
Martin, Homer Dodge, 1836-1897  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1893-1897
Summary:
The Thomas B. Clarke letters from or about Homer Dodge Martin measure 0.2 linear feet and date from 1893-1897. Twenty-two letters from Martin to art collector and patron Thomas B. Clarke, document Martin's work, his financial struggles, and his physical and mental condition in the last 5 years of his life. Additional letters to and from others further illuminate Martin's relationship with Clarke and provide insight into his financial affairs and the increasingly favorable market for the painter's work just prior to and following his death in 1897.
Scope and Content Note:
This collection measures 0.2 linear feet, including 22 letters from Homer Martin to art patron Thomas Clarke, and dates from 1893-1897. Since Martin kept no diaires or sales ledgers himself, the letters are invaluable in understanding his painting, financial struggles, and his physical and mental condition in the last 5 years of his life. Additional letters from Martin's son, Ralph, his wife, Elizabeth, and gallery owner William Macbeth, and a letter from Martin to his friend Montgomery Schuyler, further illuminate Clarke's activities as a dealer and patron of Martin's work, and provide insight into Martin's financial affairs and the increasingly favorable market for the painter's work just prior to and following his death in 1897.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 1 series:

Series 1: Thomas B. Clarke Letters From or About Homer Dodge Martin, 1893-1897 (Box 1; 9 folders)
Biographical Note:
Thomas Benedict Clarke (1848-1931) was a New York prosperous merchant who began collecting American art in the 1870s. Over the course of the next 20 years he actively traded, loaned, and sold artwork through dealers in New York City, outlets in Worcester, Cincinnati and St. Louis, and with artists. He also shared his collection through public and private exhibitions in New York and elsewhere. He earned praise from the critics for being the foremost patron of American painters during the late 1800s and was praised by many painters for his attention to American artists at a time when they considered themselves neglected or ignored.

Hudson River School painter Homer Dodge Martin (1836-1897) was one of the artists for whom Clarke acted as patron. Martin studied briefly with James Hart and spent his summers during the 1860s sketching in the Adirondacks, the Catskills and the White Mountains and then painted landscapes from the sketches he made at his studio in New York City's Tenth Street Studio Building.

In 1876 he took his first trip to Europe and from 1882-1886 lived in Normandy, France. There he was influenced both by the Barbizon school of painting and the Impressionists and his painting took on darker, more melancholy tones.

By 1887 Martin had returned to New York and in 1893 moved to St. Paul, Minnesota. During the 1890s Martin was plagued by ill health and financial struggles. A dead optic nerve in one eye and a cataract in the other, left him close to blindness when he died in February 1897. At the time of his death two of his greatest paintings, Westchester Hills (circa 1887) and Harp of the Winds (1895), remained unsold and another, Adirondack Scenery (1895) had been bought by Clarke for circa $400.

In 1890, Clarke had dissolved his dry-goods partnership, Clarke & King, and announced that he would no longer deal in American pictures except as an agent for George Inness. Clarke opened a showroom known as "Art House" in 1891 on Fifth Avenue in New York City, and began dealing primarily in Oriental porcelains and Greek antiquities. The Martin letters are one source of evidence that Clarke did, however, continue to deal in American art as a private agent through Macbeth Gallery and others. A letter written on Clarke's behalf to Martin dated April 17, 1896, stated that he had contacted Samuel P. Avery on Martin's behalf, and suggested that he consign his paintings to Avery, rather than having Clarke promote them himself.

In January 1899 Clarke announced that he would dispose of his American pictures at auction following a week long exhibition at the American Art Association. In February 1899, 7 of the 10 Homer Martin paintings in Clarke's possession were sold at that auction, including Adirondack Scenery for $5500. Within two years of his death, Martin's Harp of the Winds was acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In addition to the Metropolitan Museum, Martin's work can be found in other important American museums including the Addison Gallery of American Art, the Albany Institute of History and Art, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. He became a member of the National Academy of Design in 1874 and was one of the founders of the Society of American Artists.
Related Material:
The James Stillman letters relating to Homer Dodge Martin have also been digitized and are available online via the Archives of American Art's website. Additional material relating to Homer Dodge Martin, including correspondence with Thomas B. Clarke and Elizabeth Martin, can be found in the Macbeth Gallery records at AAA.
Provenance:
Most of the letters were donated by Charles Feinberg in 1957. Four additional letters were given to the Archives by Irving Burton in 1967.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Thomas B. Clarke letters from or about Homer Dodge Martin are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art patrons -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Citation:
Thomas B. Clarke letters from or about Homer Dodge Martin, 1893-1897. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.clartbhm
See more items in:
Thomas B. Clarke letters from or about Homer Dodge Martin
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-clartbhm
Online Media:

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Creator:
National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2009-06-03T16:23:23Z
Topic:
Postal service;Letter mail handling;Stamp collecting  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNPM
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_BNFVwa5HWc4

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Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2017-02-21T14:41:17Z
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianGlobal
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SmithsonianGlobal
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution
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edanmdm:yt_CB1xtY-MTdM

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Creator:
National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2020-07-28T20:10:12Z
Topic:
Postal service;Letter mail handling;Stamp collecting  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNPM
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National Postal Museum
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edanmdm:yt_W3xdJSCnksw

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Creator:
National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2010-08-12T22:12:32Z
Topic:
Postal service;Letter mail handling;Stamp collecting  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNPM
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNPM
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ZGZYolv0KgY

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Creator:
Anacostia Community Museums Collections and Research  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2019-05-07T16:54:51Z
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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Anacostia_Community_Museums
YouTube Channel:
Anacostia_Community_Museums
Data Source:
Anacostia Community Museums Collections and Research
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt__HIYU5TsUHU

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Creator:
National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2009-06-03T16:25:43Z
Topic:
Postal service;Letter mail handling;Stamp collecting  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNPM
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNPM
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
EDAN-URL:
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Creator:
Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2012-12-20T19:43:11Z
Topic:
American History  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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LemelsonCenter
YouTube Channel:
LemelsonCenter
Data Source:
Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_umZ2Bsr0usI

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Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2010-02-23T20:49:07Z
Youtube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
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SmithsonianMagazine
Data Source:
Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_1h_32Us1L34

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Creator:
National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2011-09-08T20:01:12Z
Topic:
Postal service;Letter mail handling;Stamp collecting  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNPM
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNPM
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_OrYwtoOcnEY

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Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2018-02-02T18:38:49Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_Td--OkcSO3k

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Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2013-09-26T21:37:33Z
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Education  Search this
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SmithsonianMagazine
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Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
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Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2016-11-02T22:35:28Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_o03hDFRqPZg

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Creator:
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2010-02-23T20:25:52Z
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianMagazine
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SmithsonianMagazine
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Smithsonian Magazine
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ruP0-cxRsJM

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Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2018-01-18T21:19:56Z
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianNMAI
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_yPEuQNp0nII

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Creator:
National Museum of American History  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2017-12-08T19:42:34Z
Topic:
American History  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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SmithsonianAmHistory
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianAmHistory
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_0w5oH0CepdQ

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Creator:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2011-08-08T22:26:40Z
Topic:
Art, Asian  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
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FreerSackler
YouTube Channel:
FreerSackler
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_CijiYxZh1qQ

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