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Archives Center Ethnic Imagery Collection

Collector:
Music, Sports and Entertainment, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Culture and the Arts, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Culture and the Arts, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Music, Sports and Entertainment, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Seller:
Tom's Hoard House  Search this
Tom's Hoard House  Search this
Extent:
0.05 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertising
Advertising cards
Postcards
Stereographs
Trade cards
Date:
1889 and undated
Scope and Contents:
Advertising, postcards, trade cards, and stereographs, depicting African Americans in stereotypical or demeaning ways.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Provenance:
Collected from various donors and vendors by the Division of Music, Sports and Entertainment (now the Division of Culture and the Arts). Donors include Richard E. Ahlborn and Alice M. Miles; vendors include Tom's Hoard House.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Race discrimination  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology) in advertising  Search this
Ethnic relations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising
Advertising cards
Postcards
Stereographs
Trade cards
Citation:
Archives Center Ethnic Imagery Collection, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1138
See more items in:
Archives Center Ethnic Imagery Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1138

[Coon Chicken Inn map and list of locations with cartoon logo of grinning, winking blackface porter]

Collector:
Graham, Maxon  Search this
Creator:
Coon Chicken Inn  Search this
Names:
Sambo (Fictitious character)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Graham, Adelaide  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (12 in. x 18-3/16 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Maps
Advertisements
Ephemera
Date:
[undated.]
Scope and Contents:
Map on one side, cartoon face on the other; device folds in the center.
Local Numbers:
AC1153-0000001.tif (AC Scan No.: face with restaurant list)

AC1153-0000002.tif (AC Scan No.: map)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cookery (Chicken)  Search this
Caricatures and cartoons  Search this
Blackface entertainers  Search this
Cookery (Chicken)  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Racism  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps -- 20th century
Advertisements
Ephemera
Collection Citation:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers, 1913-1973, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers / Series 4: Coon Chicken Inn Scrapbooks / 4.1: Scrapbook One / Pages 1 and 2, promotional folder, inside spread and outside spread; die-cut for shape of smiling face logo
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1153-ref920
Online Media:

[Coon Chicken Inn : Advertisement for Coon Chicken Inn and John Maxson [sic] and his Club Cotton [sic] Merry-Makers

Advertiser:
Graham, Maxon  Search this
Collector:
Graham, Maxon  Search this
Creator:
Graham, Adelaide  Search this
Names:
Sambo (Fictitious character)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Graham, Adelaide  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (scrapbook page, Silver gelatin on paper., 17-1/2 in. x 22-5/16 in.)
Type:
Archival materials
Advertisements
Clippings
Ephemera
Place:
Seattle (Wash.)
Salt Lake City (Utah)
Date:
[1934.]
Scope and Contents:
"Coming direct from the Coon-Chicken / Club Cotton at Seattle, Wash."
Local Numbers:
AC1153-0000003.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Racism  Search this
Cookery (Chicken)  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Ephemera
Collection Citation:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers, 1913-1973, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers / Series 4: Coon Chicken Inn Scrapbooks / 4.1: Scrapbook One / Page 6, advertising poster, undated; photograph of first Coon Chicken Inn, Salt Lake City,
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1153-ref921

[Coon Chicken Inn : Black-and-white photoprints on scrapbook page]

Collector:
Graham, Maxon  Search this
Graham, Adelaide  Search this
Creator:
Coon Chicken Inn  Search this
Names:
Diamond Match Co.  Search this
Sambo (Fictitious character)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Graham, Adelaide  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (scrapbook page, Silver gelatin on paper, mounted on paper scrapbook page., 22-1/2 in. x 17-3/4 in.[incorrect])
Container:
Box 4, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Ephemera
Photographs
Place:
Seattle (Wash.)
Date:
[1929.]
Scope and Contents:
5 photographs: 3 exterior views of the restaurant with automobiles parked around it, including 2 daylight views and 1 night view, a restaurant interior, and a restaurant delivery vehicle with the blackface image on the side. At the right is a document, a copy of an order for matchbooks, advertising the restaurant, to the Diamond Match Company.
Local Numbers:
AC1153-0000005.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Matches  Search this
Cookery (Chicken)  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Racism  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Photographs -- 1920-1930 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers, 1913-1973, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers / Series 4: Coon Chicken Inn Scrapbooks / 4.1: Scrapbook One / Page 21, Seattle restaurant and Club Cotton, circa 1934; receipt for order of matchbooks,
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1153-ref922

[Coon Chicken Inn : Newspaper advertisement for Coon Chicken Club Cotton, etc., on scrapbook page]

Collector:
Graham, Maxon  Search this
Graham, Adelaide  Search this
Creator:
Coon Chicken Inn  Search this
Collection Creator:
Graham, Adelaide  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Newspaper advertisement)
1 Item (Scrapbook page, 22.747 x 17.122".)
Container:
Box 4, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Clippings
Newspapers
Place:
Seattle (Wash.)
Date:
[1934]
Scope and Contents:
Clipping for grand opening of Club Cotton from Twice-a-Week University District Herald, Seattle, marked 2/20/1934. Other items include: another clipping, a souvenir postcard, and a souvenir opening night menu.
Local Numbers:
AC1153-0000004.tif (AC Scan No.)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Cookery (Chicken)  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Racism  Search this
Restaurants  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings -- 1930-1950
Newspapers
Collection Citation:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers, 1913-1973, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers
Coon Chicken Inn Records and Graham Family Papers / Series 4: Coon Chicken Inn Scrapbooks / 4.1: Scrapbook One / Page 15, newspaper advertisements for Club Cotton in Seattle restaurant, 1934 February; promotional postcards with menus for Club Cotton
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1153-ref923

B. Thomas Smith Minstrel Show Posters

Collector:
Smith, B. Thomas, Jr.  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertising
Posters
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
A collection of posters advertising minstrel shows. The posters feature stereotypical images of black characters.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Provenance:
Collection donated by B. Thomas Smith, Jr., 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Blackface entertainers  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology) in advertising  Search this
Minstrel shows  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Theater  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising
Posters
Citation:
B. Thomas Smith Minstrel Show Posters, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1409
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1409

Picture-book professors : academia and children's literature / Melissa M. Terras

Author:
Terras, Melissa M.  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (304 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Criticism, interpretation, etc
Date:
2018
Topic:
Children's literature--History and criticism  Search this
College teachers in literature  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology) in literature  Search this
Children's literature  Search this
Call number:
PN1009.A1 T47 2018 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1144211

[Calendar or trade card featuring an African-American shoeshine in New York]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Advertiser:
Clarence Brooks and Co.  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper, 3" x 4-3/4".)
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Cartoons (humorous images)
Calendars
Date:
[1885?]
Scope and Contents:
Clarence Brooks and Co. trade card showing two African-American men with an African American shoeshine boy. The boy is pointing to the shoes of one man, who wears a red and yellow suit. Caption: "Elderly gent, 'Why does he want to shine 'em up for nuffin? Spect de little nigger tinks deyd be a big advertisement for him.'"
Arrangement:
Series No. Paint, Box No. 2, Folder No. Brooks/Clarence 2.
Local Numbers:
040060112.tif (AC Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Business Advertising -- Calenders  Search this
Racism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Cartoons (humorous images)
Calendars
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Paints, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Paints
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Paints / 1: Business Records and Marketing Material / B
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-paints-ref611

Unfairly labeled : how your workplace can benefit from ditching generational stereotypes / Jessica Kreigel

Author:
Kriegel, Jessica http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no2016123948 http://viaf.org/viaf/6416147665832960670005/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2016
Topic:
Conflict of generations in the workplace  Search this
Intergenerational relations  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS--Industrial Management  Search this
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS--Management  Search this
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS--Management Science  Search this
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS--Organizational Behavior  Search this
Call number:
HF5549.5.C75
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1137015

Multiculturalism and diversity : a social psychological perspective / Bernice Lott

Author:
Lott, Bernice E http://viaf.org/viaf/66778222/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (184 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
Date:
2010
Topic:
Multiculturalism  Search this
Ethnopsychology  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Call number:
HM1271 .L53 2010 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1125814

Clean and white? - Well I uses David's Prize Soap... [Advertising card.]

Advertiser:
David's Prize Soap Co. (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (col., 12.5 x 8 cm.)
Container:
Box 2, Folder 6
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Advertising cards
Scope and Contents:
Woman hanging laundry on line while speaking to another woman. Both figures are African American, apparently domestic servants. Both sides of card shown.
Local Numbers:
Ivorydata4 955

030600126 (Scan No.)
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Awards  Search this
Prize contests in advertising  Search this
Domestics  Search this
Soap  Search this
Racism  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Laundry  Search this
Women domestics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising cards
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Soap, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Soap
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Soap / Business Records, Marketing Material, and Other
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-soap-ref629

Ole Zip Coon. [Advertising card.]

Advertiser:
Marsh, C.D.  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, d. 1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (col., 6.5 x 11.5 cm.)
Container:
Box 6, Folder 11
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Advertising cards
Scope and Contents:
Illustration: color cartoon of African American man caught on fence after stealing chickens. For Marsh's "Ivory" Soap, text on verso.
Local Numbers:
245120

Ivorydata4 977

0300600190 (Scan No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Reproduction restrictions due to copyright.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Soap  Search this
Caricatures and cartoons  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Racism  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising cards
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Soap, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Soap
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Soap / Business Records, Marketing Material, and Other
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-soap-ref651

White on black : images of Africa and Blacks in Western popular culture / Jan Nederveen Pieterse

Author:
Nederveen Pieterse, Jan  Search this
Physical description:
259 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm
Type:
Books
In art
Art
Place:
Africa
Date:
1992
Topic:
Blacks in art  Search this
Arts--Themes, motives  Search this
Popular culture  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Call number:
NX653.A35N413 1992X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_432731

Betye Saar : workers + warriors : the return of Aunt Jemima

Title:
Workers + warriors
Workers and warriors
Author:
Saar, Betye  Search this
Michael Rosenfeld Gallery  Search this
Greenville County Museum of Art  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Subject:
Saar, Betye  Search this
Jemima Aunt  Search this
Physical description:
35 p. : col. ill. ; 25 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1998
[1998]
Topic:
Blacks in art  Search this
African Americans in art  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology) in mass media  Search this
Washboards  Search this
Call number:
N40.1.S113 R6 1998
N6537.S2 A4 1998
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_545889

Roger Shimomura : stereotypes and admonitions

Title:
Stereotypes and admonitions
Author:
Shimomura, Roger 1939-  Search this
Lippard, Lucy R  Search this
Greg Kucera Gallery  Search this
Subject:
Shimomura, Roger 1939-  Search this
Physical description:
1 volume : color illustrations ; 14 x 22 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Exhibition catalogs
Date:
2004
©2004
21st century
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology) in art  Search this
Racism in art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_763004

Eskimo Pie Corporation Records

Creator:
Eskimo Pie Corporation.  Search this
Nelson, Christian Kent, 1893-1992  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (31 boxes, 19 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Sheet music
Posters
Photographs
Business records
Legal records
Clippings
Date:
1921-1996
Scope and Contents:
Printed advertisements, photographs (including negatives and slides), sales presentation materials and packaging; patent and legal information, clippings, posters, scripts for radio commercials, sheet music for jingles, etc. Also includes personal papers (correspondence) of Christian Nelson, inventor of the Eskimo Pie.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.
Biographical / Historical:
Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher. The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know--I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day. On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products. In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar. After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related. Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4. Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946. Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company. Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included. Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included. Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream. Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1990 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation. Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1990 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). It also includes video footage of a 1990 production line. Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1. Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters. Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year. Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter. Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events. Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising. Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically. Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film AWho's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods. Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads. Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions. Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included. Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear. Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting. Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information. Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here. Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, television commercials, and little written information on television campaigns. Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections The Division of Cultural History has several objects which are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including: #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)

#78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)

#112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983

#300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)

#451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990

#588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989

#594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997
Separated Materials:
Related artifacts housed in the Division of Culture and the Arts.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Dave Clark, Eskimo Pie Corporation, July 12, 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright and trademark restrictions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Polar bear in art  Search this
Ice cream industry -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Ice cream industry  Search this
Ethnic imagery  Search this
advertising -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Sheet music -- advertising
Posters
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1890-1920
Business records -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Legal records
Clippings
Citation:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records, 1921-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0553
See more items in:
Eskimo Pie Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0553
Online Media:

[Page of a photograph album : six black-and-white photoprints]

Creator:
Moody, Edgar  Search this
Collection Director:
Daniel, Pete  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (10.5" x 8".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Place:
Hollandale (Miss.)
Date:
ca. 1950-1960
Scope and Contents:
Copy photograph of album page containing photographs of farming in Hollandale, Mississippi; photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
AC0773-0000018.tif (AC Scan)
General:
In Box 32, Folder 6.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Agriculture -- 1930-1950 -- Mississippi  Search this
Farm tractors -- 1930-1950 -- Mississippi  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 1930-1950
Collection Citation:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records / Series 3: Photographic Prints and Slides / 3.1: Photographs / 89-10763/89-10796
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0773-ref1646

[Page of a photograph album : copy photograph]

Creator:
Moody, Edgar  Search this
Collection Director:
Daniel, Pete  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (10.5" x 8".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Place:
Hollandale (Miss.)
Date:
[ca. 1930-1950]
Scope and Contents:
Copy photograph of album page containing seven black-and-white photographs. The original photographs show a riding horse, mules, and farming in Hollandale, Mississippi. One photograph is dated 1939. Photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
AC0773-0000016.tif (AC Scan)
General:
In Box 32, Folder 5.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Agriculture -- 1930-1950 -- Mississippi  Search this
Mules -- 1930-1950 -- Mississippi  Search this
Horses -- 1930-1950 -- Mississippi  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1930-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Photograph albums -- 1950-1960
Collection Citation:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records
Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records / Series 3: Photographic Prints and Slides / 3.1: Photographs / 89-10736/89-10762
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0773-ref1647

MS 2589 Miscellaneous maps used by Mooney

Collector:
Mooney, James, 1861-1921  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Maps
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Showing sections of Alabama, D.C., Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, North Carolina, South Carolina; also legend, geological map of Kiowa Range.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2589
Local Note:
"Kiowa range= "Range of Kiowa tribe"-Published in 17th AR. See also 2905, 2912, Same ?
Topic:
Geology -- geologic map of "Kiowa range"  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Alabama  Search this
D. C., Washington  Search this
Tennessee  Search this
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Arkansas  Search this
Nebraska  Search this
Oklahoma  Search this
North Carolina  Search this
South Carolina  Search this
Genre/Form:
Maps
Citation:
Manuscript 2589, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2589
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2589

Mammy's Song [sheet music]

Topic:
Ethnic Imagery Project, Archives Center
Composer:
Ware, Harriet  Search this
Lyricist:
Portor, Laura Spencer  Search this
Publisher:
John Church Company  Search this
Series Creator:
DeVincent, Sam, 1918-1997  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper.)
Container:
Box 76, Folder J. Mammys
Culture:
African Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sheet music
Date:
1910
Scope and Contents:
Lyrics and cover to Mammy's Song. Words by Laura Spencer Portor, music by Harriet Ware. Images of white child being embraced by an African American "mammy" and rabbits or hares.
Local Numbers:
040300156.tif (AC Scan No. for front cover)

040300157.tif (AC Scan No. for page 3)

040300158.tif (AC Scan No. for page 4-5)

040300159.tif (AC Scan No. for page 6-7)
Publication:
Cincinnati, Ohio., The John Church Company,, 1910
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Stereotypes (Social psychology)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sheet music
Series Citation:
The Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 3: African-American Music
Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, Series 3: African-American Music / 3.4: Songs about African-American/Vocal Ragtime / Mammy, songs about, A - MA
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0300-s03-ref1097

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