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Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection

Creator:
Mundel, Marvin Everett, 1916-1996 (industrial engineer)  Search this
Names:
A.O. Smith Company  Search this
Aji-no-moto Corporation  Search this
Albert Trostel and Sons  Search this
Aluminum Goods Manufacturing Comp  Search this
American Colortype  Search this
American Institute of Industrial Engineers  Search this
Asian Productivity organization  Search this
Barbar and Coleman  Search this
Bridgestone  Search this
Briggs and Stratton  Search this
Buffalo China Company  Search this
Cindahy Brothers Company  Search this
College of Technology Birmingham, England  Search this
E.I. DuPont De Nemours  Search this
Gardner Board and Carton Company  Search this
Hamilton Manufacturing Company  Search this
Herbst Shoe Manufacturing Company  Search this
Japan Productivity Center  Search this
Japanese Management Association  Search this
Kanaki Gear Plant  Search this
Kanebo Spinning Co.  Search this
Kawasake Dockyard  Search this
Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Comp  Search this
Milwaukee Dental Research Group  Search this
Milwaukee Gas Company  Search this
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.  Search this
Nihon Denso  Search this
Nippon Electric Company  Search this
Nippon Kokan Tsurumi  Search this
Pillsbury Mills  Search this
Purdue University  Search this
S.C. Johnson and Son  Search this
Society for the Advancement of Management  Search this
Stephan A. Young Company  Search this
Sumitomo  Search this
Walgreen's  Search this
Western Printing and Lithography Corp  Search this
Westover Engineers  Search this
Yanmar Diesel Engine Company  Search this
Deming, Edwards  Search this
Gambrell, C.B.  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (36 boxes)
75 Motion picture films
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion picture films
Photographs
Field notes
Motion photographs
Diagrams
Loop films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Transparencies
Correspondence
Charts
Place:
United States Navy Long Beach Naval Shipyard
United States Rock Island Arsenal
Date:
1937-1996
Summary:
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel, a well-known expert in the field of work management and productivity enhancement.
Scope and Contents:
The Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection contains correspondence, reports, data, notes, publications, books, charts, certificates, awards, writings, photographs, films and videos that document the life and career of Marvin Mundel and demonstrate his work practices and teaching techniques.

The collection is organized chronologically into eleven series: Biographical Materials, Writings, Industrial Engineering, Work Methods, Purdue University, Time and Motion Study, Government Work, Japanese Consulting, Asian Productivity Organization, Dupont Case Study, and Films and Videos. While the years in each series may overlap, the separation of series demonstrates the evolution of Mundel's work and teachings. Photographs can be found throughout the collection. Information about the film and video series is located in Appendix A.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996, consists of documentation about Mundel and his career. The series contains bibliographies and curriculum vitae, correspondence, documentation on his memberships in Industrial Engineering groups, photographs, and certificates.

Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994, brings together Mundel's papers, speeches, books, and publications. When possible, the writings are arranged chronologically. The remaining writings are arranged by topic. This series should not be considered a definitive bibliography of Mundel's writings.

Series 3, Industrial Engineering, 1954-1995, combines Mundel's research with correspondence to and from other Industrial Engineers. It also includes Mundel's contributions to the Encyclopedia Britannica on "Industrial Engineering," "Work Measurement," and "Memomotion."

Series 4, Work Methods, undated, contains documents such as forms, office procedure manuals, visual aids, and printed matter about office equipment that offer insight into Mundel's work methods and innovative methods of making his own office more efficient.

Series 5, Purdue University, 1951-1957, documents his teaching career at the Industrial Engineering Department as well correspondence from his trip to England where he taught classes on industrial engineering.

Series 6, Time and Motion Study, 1952-1984, includes notes, data, printed matter, correspondence, charts, and photographs from his consultant work for various companies. This series contains seven subseries: Subseries 1, Consulting Work, 1954-1966; Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960; Subseries 3, Course work, undated; Subseries 4, Equipment, undated; Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984; Subseries 6, Memberships, 1970-1977; and Subseries 7, Research, 1957.

Subseries 1, Consulting work, 1954-1966, contains correspondence and data from the corporations that hired Mundel as a consultant. Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960, the contains letters to and from people with diverse interests in time and motion study. Many people wrote to Mundel asking for advice with projects. Visual aids and handouts make up Subseries 3, Course work. In order to create memomotion, Mundel needed to refine certain electrical and motor parts on the cameras and projectors with which he worked. Subseries 4, Equipment, undated, have brochures on many different kinds of motors and switches. Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984, contains most of the documentation that relates directly to films and video cassettes in this collection. Mundel was active in many organizations related to industrial engineering that shared his interests in time and motion study. Finally, copies and clippings make up the research subseries, 1957.

Series 7, Government Work, 1952-1971, documents Mundel's work for the government, from his work at Rock Island Arsenal to seminars for NASA. This series contains correspondence, data, reports, course work, visual aids, and photographs. The consulting work is arranged in a chronological manner and, in some instances, alphabetically.

Series 8, Japanese Consulting, 1959-1987, documents Mundel's consulting work for Japanese corporations. The files are arranged alphabetically by company and contain research, data, charts, notes, reports, and correspondence about each manufacturing firm. His notebooks and trip files give insight into his cultural understanding of Japanese firms and his teaching practices. Of special interest are the notebooks that contain photographs and firsthand experiences of adapting to Japanese culture and understanding Japanese work practices.

Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994, consists of year and country files of Mundel's seminars throughout the Far East. The course work, notes, visual aids, reports, and photographs demonstrate Mundel's shift in emphasis from work measurement to managerial organization. This series also contains books published by the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) that give a context to Mundel's work and writings.

Series 10, Dupont Case Study, 1978-1984, contains correspondence, data, notes, reports, research, and visual aids concerning one of the many American companies where Mundel consulted. Dupont was selected because of its prominence in the American business world.

Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973, is comprised of 16mm films and 1⁄2" VHS videocassette tapes. The bulk of the series is 16mm films. The films relate to the documents in Series 6: Time and Motion Studies. There are six subseries: Rating Films, 1939-1973; Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959; Multi-Image Loops, circa, 1956-1958; Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962; Travel Films, circa 1955-1958 and Papers, undated.

Films are labeled either OF, RF, OV, or RV, for Original Film, Reference Film, Original Video, and Reference Video, respectively. [Example: For "676.24 OF Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc, circa 1960 (REF. FILM 676.24 and REF. VIDEO 676.70)," 676 is the collection number; 24 is the item number; OF means original film; "Roll Edge on Sheet Metal Disc" is the title; 1960 is the date followed by any reference copies. In this case there are both a reference film and a reference video. The Archives Center will eventually have reference copies for all of the films. for researchers to view.

Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973, represents Mundel's work with rating or pace films. This technique films a worker doing a repetitive work unit and allows trained motion study analysts to establish time standards. These films show a wide variety of jobs held by both men and women, American workers and Japanese workers. There are three groups of films:

Demonstration Rating Films: These films have the same format as titles with 10 scenes of workers doing a work unit at different paces. The films are arranged according to Mundel's numerical system and retain the original titles. These films should be projected at 1000 frames per minute.

Poultry Rating Films: These are rating films that Mundel did for the USDA and the Consumer Protection Programs.

Miscellaneous Films: These are Mundel's rating films for Tung Sol, ASF, Woods Veterans Hospital, and Montfort. There is also a rating film taken by an English company.

Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959, includes memomotion examples that were incorporated into instructional films. Memomotion is a filming technique created by Mundel. Time and motion analysts film a non-repetitive or extended crew activity at one frame per second and then project the film at normal speed. In this manner, the analyst can record a longer work period at a fraction of the cost and be able to analyze the film much more quickly. Memomotion is often used in conjunction with work flow diagrams.

Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958, combines seven of Mundel's multi-image loops onto one film core. The films display twelve images of rating films at the same time. The worker in each image is working at a different pace (fastest in the top left-hand corner and the slowest in the bottom right-hand corner). Time and motion study analysts could watch the loops for as long as they needed to get an idea of what the range of paces for a certain job could be. The loops were disassembled and spliced together for preservation and viewing purposes.

Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962, includes Mundel's attempts to educate others about his filming techniques and overall industrial engineering themes. The films teach ways to improve productivity through motion studies, how to make memomotion films, and the College of Technology, Birmingham, England's method of making microscope slides.

Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958, includes films that combine Mundel's love for travel and different cultures with film documentation of Japanese seminars.

Subseries 6, Papers, undated, contains papers directly related to the films. Of importance are the rating sheets which associate different percentages of efficiency to the paces in the film.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into eleven series.

Series 1, Biographical Materials, 1953-1996

Series 2, Writings, 1937-1994

Subseries 1, Books, 1942-1994

Subseries 2, Papers, 1959-1989, undated

Subseries 3, Publications, 1937-1993, undated

Subseries 4, Speeches, undated

Subseries 5, University of Iowa Studies, 1938-1940

Series 3, Industrial Engineering, 1954-1995

Series 4, Work Methods, undated

Series 5, Purdue University, 1951-1957

Series 6, Time and Motion Study, 1952-1984

Subseries 1, Consulting Work, 1954-1966

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1956-1960

Subseries 3, Course Work, undated

Subseries 4, Equipment, undated

Subseries 5, Film, 1952-1984

Subseries 6, Memberships-Industrial Management Society, 1970-1977

Subseries 7, Research, 1957

Series 7, Government Work, 1952-1971

Subseries 1, General, 1955-1967, undated

Subseries 2, Rock Island Arsenal, 1952-1958

Subseries 3, Consulting, 1959-1971

Subseries 4, Seminars, 1963-1969

Series 8, Japanese Consulting, 1959-1987

Subseries 1, Consulting, 1961-1980

Subseries 2, Correspondence, 1959-1980

Subseries 3, Keio University, 1960-1961

Subseries 4, Memberships, 1959-1987

Subseries 5, Notes, undated

Subseries 6, Photographs, undated

Subseries 7, Scrapbooks, 1960-1965

Subseries 8, Seminars, 1959-1967

Series 9, Asian Productivity Organization, 1973-1994

Subseries 1, Annual Reports, 1973-1994

Subseries 2, Books, 1985-1989

Subseries 3, General, 1976-1995, undated

Subseries 4, Seminars, 1973-1989

Subseries 5, Presentation Album of Jakarta Seminar, 1973

Series 10, DuPont Case Study, 1978-1984

Series 11, Films and Videos, circa 1939-1973

Subseries 1, Rating Films, circa 1939-1973

Subseries 2, Memomotion Films, circa 1948-1959

Subseries 3, Multi-Image Loops, circa 1956-1958

Subseries 4, Instructional Films, circa 1939-1962

Subseries 5, Travel Films, circa 1955-1958

Subseries 6, Papers, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Marvin Everett Mundel, born April 20, 1916, was a major figure in the fields of industrial engineering and time and motion studies. He is known particularly for his consulting work, seminars and teaching, as well as numerous publications based on his expertise in work management and productivity enhancement. He began his engineering career in 1936 with a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from New York University (1936), followed by an M.S. and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering earned in 1938 and 1939, respectively, from the State University of Iowa.

In the late 1930s and 1940s, work measurement studies were considered the state-of-the-art method for improving industrial production. Mundel continued and built upon the achievements of pioneers Frank and Lillian Gilbreth during his teaching career at both Bradley and Purdue Universities. He also conducted seminars at Marquette University Management Center and the University of Wisconsin's Extension Center in Milwaukee. In addition to his American teaching career, Mundel was a visiting professor at both the University of Birmingham in England and Keio University in Tokyo, Japan.

In 1952, Mundel started a consulting firm which aided corporations and governments in either work measurement consulting or, later in his career, industrial engineering consulting. His first clients were United States government agencies that wanted to gain control over lost revenue or manpower. His position from 1952 to 1953 at the Rock Island Arsenal in Illinois, as the first Director of the Army Management Engineering Training Program, transformed management techniques in the Army.

After his employment at Rock Island, Mundel began a series of consultant roles with corporations eager to standardize labor practices and make production more efficient. From 1953 to 1963, Mundel conducted time and motion studies at various manufacturing companies and developed techniques to measure work units. His most important contribution to the field of time and motion study was the development of memomotion, a stop-action filming technique used to determine time standards for work tasks.

Following his refinements of time and motion study, Mundel took his expertise to Japan where he offered his consultant services to various Japanese manufacturing firms during the 1960s. His interests evolved from time and motion studies to include work management and overall management organization consulting. During the 1960s and 1970s, Mundel also returned to government consulting in the United States with these new techniques, in offices such as the Bureau of the Budget and United States Department of Agriculture. This period marked an important evolution in Mundel's career, from time and motion study to work measurement and then to industrial consulting. Mundel was among the first consultants to export American management techniques to Japan, and, in his later career, to other Asian countries. He became an integral part of the Asian Productivity Organization, a group that helped developing Asian countries learn how to increase productivity. His seminars sought to provide corporations and governments with efficient management techniques so that Asia would become a strong economic center. Mundel was sensitive to cultural differences as well as varied methods of management and standards of productivity.

Mundel won the Gilbreth Award in 1982. He continued conducting seminars and writing books and articles well into the 1980s, until failing health prevented him from traveling. When Mundel died in 1996, he was well respected in the field of industrial engineering for his many contributions.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Archives Center at the National Museum of American History by Marvin Mundel's wife, Takako Mundel, in January, 1999.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hospitals -- Materials management  Search this
Food processing plants  Search this
Industrial productivity -- measurements  Search this
Industrial films  Search this
Government consultants -- Asia -- Japan  Search this
Government productivity -- Japan  Search this
Machine shops  Search this
Slaughtering and slaughter-houses  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Punched card systems -- Machinery  Search this
Steel founding  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Plant layout  Search this
Diesel motor industry  Search this
Meat -- Packing  Search this
Shipbuilding industry  Search this
Meat inspection  Search this
Meat industry and trade  Search this
Pharmaceutical industry  Search this
Materials handling  Search this
Poultry -- Inspection  Search this
Dental offices  Search this
Box making  Search this
Greeting cards industry  Search this
United States Department of Agriculture  Search this
Refuse collection  Search this
Poultry industry  Search this
Shoe industry  Search this
Dental instruments and apparatus  Search this
Methods engineering  Search this
Industrial engineering -- 1930-2000  Search this
Chronophotography  Search this
Drafting table  Search this
Organizational effectiveness  Search this
Industrial management  Search this
Work measurement  Search this
Motion study  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Field notes
Motion photographs
Diagrams
Loop films
Motion pictures (visual works)
Transparencies
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Charts
Citation:
Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection, 1937-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0676
See more items in:
Marvin E. Mundel Industrial Engineering Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0676
Online Media:

Red-hot iron flowing from blast furnace, ready for making into pig-iron and steel--Pittsburg. 5520 interpositive

Topic:
PENNSYLVANIA
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Local Numbers:
RSN 26708
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.51 [114].
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1900-1910 -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Iron -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Railroads -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26705-26809
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24467

Steel Works, Pittsburg--beam of red-hot iron in rolling mill, drawn out 90 feet long. 5523 interpositive

Topic:
PENNSYLVANIA
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (4" x 5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh (Pa.)
Local Numbers:
RSN 26709
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.51 [114].
Similar to RSN 20463.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1900-1910 -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Iron -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Laborers -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26705-26809
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24468

Steel Works, Homestead--famous source of dirt and dollars. [Active no. 5524 : non-stereo interpositive.]

Topic:
PENNSYLVANIA
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 4".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Homestead (Pa.)
Pennsylvania
Local Numbers:
RSN 26710
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.51 [114].
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center. A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1900-1910 -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Iron -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Railroads -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Trains -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 26705-26809
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref24469

Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs

Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
11 Cubic feet (28 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (tm)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Type c color prints
Chromogenic processes
Place:
Canada -- Industry -- 1940-1980
Date:
circa 1930-2002
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes Arthur d'Arazien's professional work in industrial photography from the late 1940's through about 1981; personal creative photography and other types of professional work were retained by Mr. d'Arazien or placed elsewhere. Thus this collection is a very cohesive, unified body of work, which documents primarily American (and some Canadian) business and industry during a period of expansion a golden age of American industry. Although it represents the photographer's creative and artistic style and skill, the subject matter is appropriate to the National Museum of American History from several viewpoints the visual documentation of industry and technology, as well as advertising, public relations, and business history.

The photographs include black and white negatives and prints from the negatives, as well as color negative and transparency materials, up to 8" x 10" in size. Probably the majority of the transparencies were made in the large size. The black and white materials include pictures of d'Arazien at work some made by famous Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt, a colleague at the Famous Photographers School. A number of Dye Transfer prints mounted on illustration board were made by master color printer Don Browning.

In addition to frequently extensive caption information on all of d'Araziens original envelopes and enclosures, many enclosures for color negatives and transparencies bear d'Arazien labels with technical information or instructions for color printing, such as filter pack designations and local printing controls. These enclosures therefore have been retained in the collection, although usually they are not of archival quality.

Of secondary significance are 62 large color prints, mostly Type C, with a few Cibachromes, which were made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes. Most were made either by K & L laboratories, New York City (stickers on back) or Eastman Kodak professional laboratories, Rochester, N.Y., and have been wet mounted to non archival Masonite. At the time of acquisition, several had faded and/or changed color. These are available for research and exhibition purposes, but are not expected to survive as long as the original transparencies.

The collection contains Mr. d'Arazien's files of printed materials. These include reproductions which indicate how his photographs were used by clients. Included are annual reports, promotional pieces, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other biographical items.

Series 1: Professional industrial photographs.

Photographs document primarily American business and industry (including some taken in Canada). Black-and-white negatives with prints from these negatives, also color negative and transparency materials. Most transparencies are 8" x 10". The photographs demonstrate the photographer's reputation as a master of dramatic lighting and the coordination of large-scale, complex industrial setups in factories, steel mills, and even outdoor settings. Also 65 color prints, mostly Type C with a few Cibachromes, made from the original transparencies for exhibition purposes, mostly wet-mounted to Masonite. Black-and-white photographs include pictures of d'Arazien at work--some by Life magazine photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt.

Series 2: D'Arazien's files of printed materials, some of which include photomechanical reproductions of his work, indicating how the photographs were used by clients; also annual reports, magazine tearsheets from advertising and editorial uses, and other promotional items, in addition to biographical materials.

2007 addendum: Transparencies, slides, prints and negatives of additional photographs by Arthur d'Arazien, including industrial subjects as well as travel, architectural, agricultural, portrait, art, still life and personal photographs. Also included are miscellaneous papers, mostly relating to d'Arazien's photographic work.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Paper Documents

Subseries 1.1: Publications and Reproductions.

Subseries 1.2: Photographer's Labels, Envelopes, Etc.

Series 2: Photographs

Subseries 2.1: Color Phototransparencies

Subseries 2.2: Color Photonegatives and Color Photoprints

Subseries 2.3: Black and White Photonegatives and Photoprints

Subseries 2.4: Color Photoprints: Enlargements Mounted on Masonite

Material is arranged in each sub-series primarily by client names, in alphabetical order.

Series 3: Oversize prints
Biographical / Historical:
Arthur d'Arazien began his photographic career as an assistant to a famous theatrical photographer, documenting Broadway shows. A distinctive emphasis on dramatic lighting in his later work suggests the heavy influence of the theater. He did fashion and commercial photography, as well as photographing the 1939 World's Fair, for Underwood & Underwood Illustration Studios, East 44th St., New York City, in 1938 1939. He was described in a U.S. Camera Annual article as Aan architect whose interest in photography has caused him to make a profession of it.

D'Arazien taught aerial photography for the U.S. Air Corps Technical Training Command at Lowry Field, Denver, during World War II. He began his career in industrial photography with the De Laval Separator Company, New York City. His energy and creativity led to assignments which often were judged too difficult for lesser photographers. His growing reputation as an industrial photographer kept pace with the dynamic growth of the industrial and technological activities he was photographing during the 1950s through the 1980s.

Robert Vogel, former Curator of Mechanical and Civil Engineering for the National Museum of American History, wrote that d'Arazien: ...became internationally known for his dramatic color views of the American industrial scene at a time when our industry can be said to have been at the height of its powers....He was commissioned by the giants of steel, paper, chemicals, machinery, transportation, automobiles, mining, metal refining, textiles, and the other heavy (and medium) industries. ...He developed a number of special techniques for obtaining the grand, sweeping views that became his trademark, including multiple exposures to achieve dramatic lighting effects, elaborate lighting setups involving multiple flashes from several vantages employing a number of assistants intercommunicating by radio, complex arrangements with transportation lines and the various departments of the subject organization to produce the desired juxtaposition of elements in the photograph, and the like. His MO was anything but that of simply walking onto the scene and snapping the shutter; for many of his breathtaking views he appears to have been more producer and impresario than photographer.

Arthur d'Arazien describes the growth of his spectacular style as an eager response to new subjects, challenges, and photographic materials:

...knowing that color was the coming thing in corporate advertising, I pursued that line. I did lots of experimenting; every assignment gave me an opportunity to try something new, such as combination day and night exposures on a single sheet of film, multiple flash bulbs to light large interiors, multiple exposures on the same film, such as...moving objects ...automobiles, trains...to build up excitement in a picture. Colored gels to change colors. I even used old fashioned flash powder to light ...steel mills, because there were no flashbulbs powerful enough to light these dark, cavernous interiors: this idea was borrowed from the Air Corps night time aerial photography with magnesium flash powder.

A skilled painter and metal sculptor as well as photographer, d'Arazien came from a family of artists. His photographs were made primarily on assignment from industrial corporations for advertising, editorial, and public relations purposes, but have been exhibited and collected as works of art in the Smithsonian Institution (Division of Photographic History), the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Museum. His work was included in the Photography in the Fine Arts exhibitions organized by Ivan Dimitri, and he was a founding faculty member of the Famous Photographers School, Westport, Connecticut, in the early 1960's.

D'Arazien married Margaret Scott and has two sons. He had a studio in Waterside Plaza, New York, and made his home in New Canaan, Connecticut, until moving to Naples, Florida, upon his retirement in 1988. The collection was brought to the Smithsonian's attention by his son Steven, and was donated to the Archives Center before this move. In anticipation of this gift, Mr. d'Arazien spent several months inspecting his collection, eliminating duplicate and technically unsuccessful images, and captioning photographs.

Sources American Aces, U.S. Camera Annual 1939. Clipping in scrapbook no. 1, box 24, first page.

Robert M. Vogel, memorandum, undated, but written after a December 1987 visit to d'[Arazien's home. In Archives Center collection control file.

Letter to the author, 26 February 1992, in collection control file.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Arthur d'Arazien, December 24, 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the majority of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- Canada  Search this
Industry -- Photographs -- 1940-1980 -- United States  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Agriculture -- Photographs -- 20th century  Search this
Travel -- Photographs -- 1930-2000  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film
Photographs -- Chromogenic -- 1900-2000
Dye destruction process
Photographic prints
Transparencies
Cibachrome (TM)
Tear sheets
Color negatives
Color prints (photographs)
Dye destruction photoprints
Silver-dye bleach process
Photographs -- Color prints -- 20th century
Type C color prints
Chromogenic processes
Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0314
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0314
Online Media:

Steel at Twilight: Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation [chromogenic color transparency]

Photographer:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Client:
Jones & Laughlin  Search this
Collection Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8 x 10".)
Type:
Archival materials
Chromogenic processes
Photographs
Transparencies
Date:
1949
Scope and Contents:
Photograph taken at the Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Local Numbers:
01031401a (AC scan)
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Chromogenic processes
Photographs -- 1900-2000 -- Chromogenic
Transparencies
Collection Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs / Series 2: Photographs / 2.1: Color Phototransparencies / Jones and Laughlin Steel,at twilight, 1951, 1964, 1968 (21) [357].
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0314-ref1177

[Jones & Laughlin ad campaign: staged image of a classroom with molten metal pouring in the background, Aliquippa, 1960 : chromogenic color transparency]

Photographer:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Advertiser:
Jones & Laughlin  Search this
Collection Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8" x 10".)
Type:
Archival materials
Chromogenic processes
Photographs
Transparencies
Place:
Pennsylvania
Aliquippa (Pa.)
Date:
1960
Scope and Contents:
Platform has woman and two children, with teacher's desk and student furniture. 360-B in white ink on film.
Local Numbers:
AC0314-0000004.tif (Scan No.
General:
From Box 8, folder 6.
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Classrooms  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Chromogenic processes
Photographs -- 1900-2000 -- Chromogenic
Transparencies
Collection Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs / Series 2: Photographs / 2.1: Color Phototransparencies / Classroom with teacher and children (2 versions)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0314-ref1180

[Jones & Laughlin ad campaign: staged image of a household kitchen and family, with a ribbon of molten metal flowing in background, Aliquippa, 1960 : chromogenic color transparency]

Photographer:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Advertiser:
Jones & Laughlin  Search this
Collection Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8" x 10".)
Type:
Archival materials
Chromogenic processes
Photographs
Transparencies
Date:
1960
Scope and Contents:
Set, photographed from a high angle, shows five figures and a dog. 360-A in white ink on film.
Local Numbers:
AC0314-0000005.tif (Scan No.
General:
From Box 8, folder 6.
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Kitchens  Search this
Family -- 1940-1960  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Chromogenic processes
Photographs -- 1900-2000 -- Chromogenic
Transparencies
Collection Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs / Series 2: Photographs / 2.1: Color Phototransparencies / Classroom with teacher and children (2 versions)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0314-ref1181

[Jones & Laughlin ad campaign: staged image of a family at the beach : chromogenic color transparency]

Photographer:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Advertiser:
Jones & Laughlin  Search this
Collection Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8" x 10".)
Container:
Box 8, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Advertising
Chromogenic processes
Photographs
Date:
1960
Scope and Contents:
Includes children with sparklers, with molten metal sparks in background, Aliquippa, Pa. Set includes beach umbrella, with parents, boy and girl in bathing suits. 360-E in white ink on film.
Local Numbers:
AC0314-0000007.tif (Scan No.
General:
From Box 8, folder 6.
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Supermarkets  Search this
Bathing suits  Search this
Beaches  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising
Chromogenic processes
Photographs -- 1900-2000 -- Chromogenic
Collection Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs / Series 2: Photographs / 2.1: Color Phototransparencies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0314-ref273
Online Media:

[Jones & Laughlin ad campaign; staged image of a grocery check-out with factory in background, Aliquippa : chromogenic color transparency]

Photographer:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Advertiser:
Jones & Laughlin  Search this
Collection Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8" x 10".)
Container:
Box 8, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Advertising
Chromogenic processes
Photographs
Date:
1960
Scope and Contents:
Set includes three female shoppers and cashier at counter, with two children observing. Customer at cash register wears red shorts. "360-C" in white ink on film.
Local Numbers:
AC0314-0000006.tif (AC Scan No.)
General:
From Box 8, folder 6.
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Shopping  Search this
Factories -- 20th century  Search this
Shorts (Clothing)  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1940-1980  Search this
Supermarkets  Search this
Grocery trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising
Chromogenic processes
Photographs -- 1900-2000 -- Chromogenic
Collection Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs / Series 2: Photographs / 2.1: Color Phototransparencies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0314-ref274
Online Media:

[Jones & Laughlin ad campaign: automobiles in studio, Aliquippa, Pa. : chromogenic color transparency]

Photographer:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Advertiser:
Jones & Laughlin  Search this
Collection Creator:
d'Arazien, Arthur  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (8" x 10".)
Container:
Box 8, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Chromogenic processes
Photographs
Transparencies
Advertising
Place:
Pennsylvania
Aliquippa (Pa.)
Date:
1960
Scope and Contents:
Image of a staged traffic jam to allow woman a child to cross the street in the rain, Aliquippa; 1960. Paper label glued to sleeve.
Local Numbers:
AC0314-0000003.tif (Scan No.)
General:
From Box 8, folder 6.
Restrictions:
Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Chromogenic processes
Photographs -- 1900-2000 -- Chromogenic
Transparencies
Advertising
Collection Citation:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs, ca. 1930-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs
Arthur d'Arazien Industrial Photographs / Series 2: Photographs / 2.1: Color Phototransparencies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0314-ref277
Online Media:

David Plowden Steel Manufacturing Photographs

Source:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Creator:
Plowden, David  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of (NMAH, SI)  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1981
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs documenting the steel industry. Subjects include blast furnaces, steel mills, ore barges, and other related subjects.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
David Plowden (1932-) is an American photographer of urban cities, steam trains, American farmlands, and small towns.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

David Plowden North American Bridge Photographs

Photographs Plowden took of bridges, aqueducts and viaducts all over the United States and a few in Canada. The photographs are of various types of bridges: truss, suspension, covered. Some photographs feature close-up details of architectural elements, such as arches, chains, towers and ornamentation.

Materials at Other Organizations

Chicago History Museum

David Plowden photograph collection

Includes photographs of steel mills and coke plants, automobile assembly factories, oil refineries, printing plants, food processing plants, and other industries in Chicago's Central Manufacturing District and other locations in the Chicago metropolitan area and northern Indiana. Includes transportation yards for railroads and trucks, and some scenes of the Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor. Many buildings show the demise of industry in these locations.

Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

David Plowden photographs and papers, 1948-2011

This collection consists of photographs and papers that document the work of David Plowden as a photographer and author, 1948-2011.

Buffalo History Museum

David Plowden photographic collection, 1968-1985

featuring Buffalo waterfront scenes, grain elevators, steel mills, and Great Lakes steamers. Also includes photographs of places other than Buffalo.

Library of Congress

Photographs of architecture, landscapes, and transportation in the United States and Canada

hese large-format photographs show details of vernacular architecture buildings such as barns; rural, small town, industrial, and urban landscape scenes; and transportation (railroads, ferries, steamships, and roadways).
Provenance:
Collection donated by David Plowden, 1985.
Donated by David Plowden to the Museum's Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now Division of Work and Industry) in 1984.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Blast furnaces  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
David Plowden Steel Manufacturing Photographs, 1981, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1020
See more items in:
David Plowden Steel Manufacturing Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1020

Geological survey of Ohio report of progress in 1870 by J.S. Newberry, chief geologist ; including reports by E.B. Andrews, Edward Orton, J.H. Klippart, assistant geologists ; T.G. Wormley, chemist ; G.K. Gilbert, M.C. Read, Henry Newton, W.B. Potter, local assistants

Title:
State of Ohio. Maps of grouped sections, second geological district, 1870
Geological survey 1870
Report of progress in 1870
Author:
Ohio Chief Geologist  Search this
Andrews, E. B (Ebenezer Baldwin),) 1821-1880  Search this
Klippart, John H (John Hancock),) 1823-1878  Search this
Newberry, J. S (John Strong),) 1822-1892  Search this
Orton, Edward 1829-1899  Search this
Wormley, Theodore G (Theodore George),) 1826-1897  Search this
Physical description:
568 pages, [6] leaves of plates (1 folded) illustrations, maps (some color) 25 cm. + atlas ([5] folded leaves of plates : map : 14 x 25 cm.)
Type:
Books
Place:
Ohio
Great Britain
Date:
1871
Topic:
Agriculture  Search this
Geology  Search this
Geology, Economic  Search this
Iron Industry and trade  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Iron industry and trade  Search this
Call number:
QE151 .O37 1870
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1021525

U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums

Creator:
Aikins, Russell Chorley, 1896-  Search this
U.S. Steel Corporation  Search this
Extent:
3 Cubic feet (8 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1940s
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises of 21 albums depicting the steel making and finishing operations of the United States Steel Corporation. All of the images were made by Russell Aikins around 1940. The albums contain photographic prints (8" x 9-1/2"). The majority of prints are mounted on spiral-bound pages. The photographs were created for public relations purposes and provide visual documentation of American steel making technology, production practice, and worker manager relationships. Subject matter varies widely, depicting the process of manufacturing steel or steel-related products. The photographs have a strong human and dramatic emphasis. The strongest theme is industrial mobilization for the war effort. Many photographs document female wartime work in industry, and African American workers are also represented. The theme of worker safety is well documented with images depicting safety glasses and protective garments. Printed captions below each photograph usually identify workers by name and occupation.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series, chronologically by album number.
Biographical:
Russell Chorley Aikins was born in Philadelphia on December 7, 1896. He began his photographic career at the Philadelphia Inquirer as a news photographer in 1917. Two years later, Aikins joined the New York Times Sunday Rotogravure Section and the World Wide Syndicate as a staff photographer. In the early 1920s, Aikins organized and ran the New York Times Washington picture bureau. Aikins served briefly, in 1929, as an editor for the newly developing Associated Press (AP) photo service. Following the growing trend in the photo news industry Aikins left the AP and became a freelance photographer. He opened his studio in New York City and did work for Fortune, Time, Life, and Colliers.

Aikins career shifted in 1937 when he decided to "devote all my time to the portrayal of business and industry." Aikins noted the need for big business to be represented and saw his images as tools for business self-promotion: "It had been a growing conviction with me that industry in addition to its product advertising should promote its fitness to serve the public and its ability to make quality goods." He started to recruit companies to combat the stereotypical cold, unfeeling edge of big business. Aikins called this new style of photography "camera-reporting," which he thought could transport stockholders, customers, and the public into the mills, giving the viewer greater confidence in the corporation and its products. A few companies Aikins represented included Chrysler Corporation, General Electric Company, Johnson & Johnson, and the United States Steel Corporation. After World War Two the demand for the technique Aikins helped to pioneer began to diminish as public and labor attitudes changed. After 1948, there is no record of Aikins' activities.

Source

Division of Work and Industry staff.
Historical:
The United States Steel Corporation was created in 1901 by the purchase and consolidation of several companies by financier J.P. Morgan. At the time of formation, it was the largest company in the world. U.S. Steel represented Morgan's attempt to bring stability to the volatile steel market. Morgan purchased Andrew Carnegie's highly aggressive Carnegie Steel and brought it together with Federal Steel, National Tube, American Steel and Wire, American Sheet Steel, American Hoop Steel, American Tin Plate, American Bridge, and the Lake Superior Consolidated Iron Mines. Other companies were added later.

Capitalized at $1.4 billion, U.S. Steel was in 1901 the largest company in the world. It controlled over 50% of American Steel production but was in many ways hamstrung by its size. While the operation of Carnegie Steel was characterized by technological efficiency, US Steel avoided innovation. Some in the company referred to the Corporation's policy as "no inventions, no innovation." The company was thought by many to be driven by a banker's vision of protecting investment, not an industrialist's vision of increasing production. Always sensitive about public antitrust action, Elbert Gary, the leader of the company, sought to cast U.S. Steel as a "good trust." In 1936, the CIO formed the Steel Workers Organizing Committee (SWOC), and began a massive union drive. Although strongly antiunion, U.S. Steel, under Myron Taylor was the first major steel company to recognize the steelworkers union in 1937.

An industry once characterized by low wages and harsh conditions emerged by the late 1940s as one of the highest-paying blue collar employers, forced to negotiate with one of the nation's most powerful unions. Following recognition of the union U.S. Steel followed a corporate strategy of paying for wage settlements by increasing steel prices. This often put the giant company at odds with governmental economic policy.

Source

Division of Work and Industry staff.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Baker Library Historical Collections, Harvard Business School

1934 Art and Industry Exhibition photograph collection

The 1934 Art and Industry Exhibition photograph collection contains photographs that were on display in New York City and Chicago in an exhibition sponsored by the National Alliance of Art and Industry.

United States Steel Corporation photographs, circa 1940-1960

A large collection of black and white gelatin silver prints depicting the United States Steel Corporation's steel plants, works, personnel, machinery, mining operations, buildings, warehouses and production of the numerous products manufactured by the company, circa 1940-1960.

Industrial Life Photograph Collection, 1920-1941

Photographs collected by the Business Historical Society to document major industries in the United States and industrial processes.

Lowell National Historical Park

Youngstown Center for Industry and Labor
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition is unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- War work  Search this
Safety  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums -- 1940-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 1940-1950
Citation:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1037
See more items in:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1037
Online Media:

Gary Works, Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corp., Gary, Indiana [black and white photoprint]

Photographer:
Aikins, Russell Chorley, 1896-  Search this
Names:
Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation  Search this
Collection Creator:
Aikins, Russell Chorley, 1896-  Search this
U.S. Steel Corporation  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 7.5" x 9.5".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Gary (Ind.)
Date:
circa 1940-1950
Scope and Contents:
Printed caption: "Employees leaving Gary Works of the Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation at conclusion of the day shift. Over 21,000 people are employed at this plant, which is the world's largest steel mill." Large "Victory" sign in background. At left of title is printed Neg. No. 1840. Image includes several women and at least three African Americans, but most are white men. Nearly all wear hats or caps.
Local Numbers:
AC1037-0000002.tif (AC Scan)
General:
In Box 5.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel industry and trade -- Indiana  Search this
Iron and steel workers -- Indiana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1940-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums
U.S. Steel Corporation Photograph Albums / Album 18, Gary Works, Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation, Gary, Indiana (Negative #1838-Negative #1890)
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1037-ref574

Washington Steel Company Records

Source:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Creator:
Washington Steel Corporation  Search this
Former owner:
Bethlehem Steel Corporation  Search this
Inventor:
Sendzimir, Tadeusz, 1894-1989  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Black-and-white photographs
Negatives (photographic)
Photograph albums
Photographic slides
Date:
1947-1994
Summary:
The collection contains photographs and safety materials from the Washington Steel Corporation, a manufacturer based in Washington, Pennsylvania.
Scope and Contents:
This collection primarily consists of photographs of the Washington Steel Corporation's plant and its employees from its founding in 1945 through the 1970s. Many of the photographs depict company dinners or outdoor events. Some photographs document work within the steel mill. Most of the photographs were labelled and numbered upon receipt by the Division of Work and Industry and have been arranged based upon this numbering scheme. The collection also contains employee safety materials produced by the United Steelworkers.
Arrangement:
Materials are arranged as a single series.
Biographical / Historical:
The Washington Steel Corporation was founded by T.S. Fitch in 1945. Based in Washington, Pennsylvania near Pittsburgh, the Washington Steel Corporation was known for its use of Tadeusz Sendzimir's Z-Mill for cold-rolling stainless steel. Instead of using multi-stand four high rolls Sendzimir's Z-Mill used a clustered nest of rolls, like two inverted pyramids (1-2-3-4 configuration). The company won fame within the industry when its steel was used in the construction of the Atlas missile used to launch the first American spacecraft to orbit the Earth, the Friendship 7. As the steel industry declined in the United States, the firm was purchased by the Lukens Steel Company in 1992, which was in turn purchased by Bethlehem Steel in 1997.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Washington Steel Film Collection (NMAH.AC.0730)

Sendzimir Mill Video Documentation (NMAH.AC.0605)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Bethlehem Steel Corporation in 1997.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Iron and steel industry  Search this
Mills  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white photographs
Negatives (photographic)
Photograph albums
Photographic slides
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1443
See more items in:
Washington Steel Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1443
Online Media:

Washington Steel Film Collection

Collector:
Washington Steel Corporation  Search this
Donor:
Bethlehem Steel Company  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1957-1966.
Scope and Contents:
Motion picture films (16mm on reels, both color and black-and-white) documenting aspects of the steel industry, including manufacturing techniques and examination of the Washington Steel Corporation.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Bethlehem Steel Corporation, May 18, 1999.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for researhc and access on site by appointment.
Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Citation:
Washington Steel Film Collections, circa 1955-1965, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0730
See more items in:
Washington Steel Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0730

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1.45 Cubic feet (consisting of 3 boxes, 2 folders, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, plus digital images of some collection material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Date:
1787-1964
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Women documents the Suffrage Movement within the United States, as well as aspects of women's lives and societal contributions. This includes information about women's social lives, fashion, health, occupations, as well as commentary about the roles and expectations of many women in society. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color.

Women includes newslippings, and material related to pro and anti-Suffrage efforts such as fliers, speeches, monographs, and realia. Outside of Suffrage-related topics, Women also includes artistic prints and images of women, poems about women, and serial publications related to women's issues or oriented towards an audience of women.

Women includes a span of subject materials related to more specfic aspects of women's lives and social commentary. This includes historical overviews of notable women's lives, guides to aspects of womanhood, fashion documentation, literature to promote good health, and background about the role of women in varied trades.

No single subtopic is explored in particular depth, though Women offers general information about various aspects of women's lives and varied social and political environments.
Arrangement:
Women is arranged in three subseries.

Suffrage Movement

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Women is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, and it was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published since Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Composers  Search this
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Fashion -- United States -- History -- 20th century  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Fashion -- 20th century  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
United States-Social life and customs  Search this
Health  Search this
Suffragists  Search this
Religion  Search this
Women musicians  Search this
Women -- Social life and customs -- 19th century  Search this
Children  Search this
Industry  Search this
Labor  Search this
Childbirth  Search this
Dress  Search this
Fashion design  Search this
Marriages  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Women -- Political activity  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Social interaction  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women -- Civil rights  Search this
Women -- Health and hygiene  Search this
Children and childbirth  Search this
Clubs  Search this
Women's music  Search this
Social norms  Search this
Women -- Organizations  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Women  Search this
Women's suffrage -- United States  Search this
Women's rights  Search this
Child rearing  Search this
Musical performances  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Women's rights -- United States  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Marriage  Search this
Women -- Suffrage  Search this
Mental health  Search this
Banking  Search this
Women in music  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Hygiene  Search this
Fashion  Search this
War  Search this
Banks and banking, American -- 19th century  Search this
Music  Search this
Health education  Search this
Women -- Education  Search this
Journalists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Speeches
Monographs
Newsclippings
Fliers (printed matter)
Clippings
Newspaper clippings
Books
Realia
Magazines (periodicals)
Plates (illustrations)
Programs
Application forms
Illustrations
Concert programs
Signs (declaratory or advertising artifacts)
Booklets
Publications
Transcriptions
Certificates
Pamphlets
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Women
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-women
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
5.11 Cubic feet (consisting of 11 boxes, 1 folder, 2 oversize folders, 1 map case folder, 1 flat box (partial.))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Business ephemera
Manuscripts for publication
Steel plate engravings
Technical reports
Letterheads
Business cards
Advertising mail
Advertising fliers
Sales letters
Printed ephemera
Sales records
Advertising cards
Advertisements
Trade cards
Periodicals
Commercial catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Manuals
Legal documents
Receipts
Invoices
Print advertising
Advertising
Ephemera
Business letters
Sales catalogs
Printed materials
Illustrations
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Catalogues
Commercial correspondence
Business records
Printed material
Correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Reports
Technical manuals
Date:
1819-1985
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The subject category Steel largely represents business records and advertisements created by steel manufacturers and distributors of steel-based goods or services. Additional materials include biographical writings about Andrew Carnegie, documentation about the effect of the steel industry on society, and educational material about the steel industry.

No complete set of business records are represented within the collection, however the United States Steel Corporation has notable representation within the business records.

Technical documentation about the production of steel-based products as well as background information about the United States Steel Industry and Andrew Carnegie are strong research strengths of this subject category.
Arrangement:
Steel is arranged in three subseries.

Business Records and Marketing Material



Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Steel is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel founding  Search this
Steel industry and trade -- 1930-2000  Search this
Stainless steel tableware  Search this
Steel alloys  Search this
Iron and steel bridges  Search this
Iron and steel industry  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Iron and steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Steel, Stainless -- 20th century  Search this
Structural steel workers -- 1920-1930 -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Manufacturing processes  Search this
Trade associations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications -- Business
Business ephemera
Manuscripts for publication
Steel plate engravings
Technical reports
Letterheads
Business cards
Advertising mail
Advertising fliers
Sales letters
Printed ephemera
Sales records
Advertising cards
Advertisements
Trade cards
Periodicals
Commercial catalogs
Manufacturers' catalogs
Manuals
Legal documents
Receipts
Invoices
Print advertising
Advertising
Ephemera
Business letters
Sales catalogs
Printed materials
Illustrations
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Catalogues
Commercial correspondence
Business records
Printed material
Correspondence
Legislation (legal concepts)
Reports
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Steel
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Steel
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-steel

Sendzimir Mill Video Documentation

Interviewer:
Liebhold, Peter  Search this
Creator:
Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation.  Search this
Names:
Washington Steel Mill  Search this
Sendzimir, Tadeusz, 1894-1989  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
27 Video recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Videotapes
Oral history
Interviews
Date:
December 1996.
Scope and Contents:
Inventor Tadeusz Sendzimir, a Polish immigrant, designed and installed the first "Z" Mill for cold rolling stainless steel in the United States. The videohistory documents the story of a new approach to the rolling process of steel technology transfer and consumer demand for a new product;video documents the mill in operation and interviews with active and retired workers.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 3 series.

Series 1: Original Videotapes (13)

Series 2: Master Videotapes (7)

Series 3: Reference Videotapes (7).
Biographical / Historical:
Tadeusz Sendzimir, a Polish émigré, came to the United States in 1939 to work at Armco Steel in Middletown, Ohio. Sendzimir had earlier developed radical processes for galvanizing steel (1931) and cold rolling steel (1933). Sendzimir's rolling process departed dramatically from the multi-stand continuous process developed by John Tytus Armco (1924). Instead of using multi-stand four high rolls Sendzimir's mill used a clustered nest of rolls, like two inverted pyramids (1-2-3-4 configuration). A few Sendzimir Mills were built in Europe before WW II stopped construction of experimental steel plants. While Sendzimir was working at Armco, Signode Steel in Chicago ordered on of his "Z" Mills (Sendzimir Mills are called "Z" Mills in the United States). Signode used the mill to successfully roll low carbon steel for strapping and more importantly for rolling ultra thin silicon steel (for radar units) during WW II.

Stainless steel, first developed around 1915, is made by alloying carbon steel with chromium to make a metal that is highly resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel is relatively hard and is difficult to weld, cut, or drill. The physical properties of stainless steel are important to understanding why the "Z" mill has been so successful. Stainless steel was traditionally rolled in sheets on a four high reversing mill (with a Z mill much larger strips forming rolls can be made). Because stainless steel work hardens quickly it cannot be run through a multi-stand mill easily. One advantage of the a Z mill is that the small work rolls provide a sharper bite, greater pressure, and less roll deflection than a four high mill and thus can roll stainless top gage without having to anneal (soften) the roll.

For more on Sendzimir as an inventor see Steel Will: The Life of Tad Sendizmir, Hippocrene Books, New York, 1994 and by Vanda Sendzimir or "My Father the Inventor" in Invention and Technology, Fall 1995, p. 54-63 also by Vanda Sendzimir.
Related Archival Materials:
Mill's central control pulpit in collection of the Division of History of Technology.
Provenance:
Created by the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation and Peter Liebhold of the Division of History of Technology in December 1996.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original videos are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steel industry and trade -- 1930-2000  Search this
Steel -- Cold working -- 20th century  Search this
Steel, Stainless -- 20th century  Search this
Factories -- 20th century  Search this
Inventions -- 20th century  Search this
Inventors -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Videotapes -- 1990-2000
Oral history -- 1990-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Sendzimir Mill Video Documentation, December 1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0605
See more items in:
Sendzimir Mill Video Documentation
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0605

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