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Frederica de Laguna Papers

Creator:
McClellan, Catharine  Search this
Guédon, Marie Françoise  Search this
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004  Search this
Correspondent:
Stearns, Mary Lee  Search this
Aberle, David F. (David Friend), 1918-2004  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baird, Melissa  Search this
Balzer, Marjorie  Search this
Bersch, Gretchen  Search this
Birket-Smith, Kaj  Search this
Black, Lydia  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Chowning, Ann  Search this
Clark, J. Desmond (John Desmond), 1916-2002  Search this
Codere, Helen F., 1917-2009  Search this
Collins, Henry B. (Henry Bascom), 1899-1987  Search this
Colton, Harold Sellers, 1881-1970  Search this
Conklin, Harold C., 1926-2016  Search this
Corbett, John M.  Search this
Darnell, Regna  Search this
Dauenhauer, Nora  Search this
Dauenhauer, Richard  Search this
Davenport, William  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Drucker, Philip, 1911-1982  Search this
Du Bois, Cora Alice, 1903-1991  Search this
Duff, Wilson, 1925-  Search this
Fair, Susan  Search this
Fitzhugh, William W., 1943-  Search this
Foster, George McClelland, 1913-  Search this
Garfield, Viola Edmundson, 1899-1983  Search this
Giddings, James Louis  Search this
Gjessing, Gutorm, 1906  Search this
Grinev, Andrei V.  Search this
Hanable, William S.  Search this
Hara, Hiroko, 1934-  Search this
Haury, Emil W. (Emil Walter), 1904-1992  Search this
Heizer, Robert F. (Robert Fleming), 1915-1979  Search this
Helm, June, 1924-  Search this
Herskovits, Melville J. (Melville Jean), 1895-1963  Search this
Holtved, Erik  Search this
Jenness, Diamond, 1886-1969  Search this
Kahn, Mimi  Search this
Kan, Sergei  Search this
Krauss, Michael E., 1934-  Search this
Kroeber, A. L. (Alfred Louis), 1876-1960  Search this
Larsen, Helge, 1905-1984  Search this
Leer, Jeff  Search this
Lindgren, E. J. (Ethel John), 1904-1988  Search this
Lomax, Alan, 1915-2002  Search this
Low, Jean  Search this
Mathiassen, Therkel, 1892-1967  Search this
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Olson, Wallace  Search this
Rainey, Froelich G. (Froelich Gladstone), 1907-1992  Search this
Riddell, Francis A. (Francis Allen), 1921-2002  Search this
Ritchie, William A. (William Augustus), 1903-1995  Search this
Schneider, William  Search this
Schumacher, Paul J. F.  Search this
Shinkwin, Anne D.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Underhill, Ruth, 1883-1984  Search this
VanStone, James W.  Search this
Weiner, Annette B., 1933-  Search this
Weitzner, Bella, 1891?-1988  Search this
White, Leslie A., 1900-1975  Search this
Woodbury, Natalie Ferris Sampson  Search this
Woodbury, Richard B. (Richard Benjamin), 1917-2009  Search this
Workman, Karen Wood  Search this
Workman, William B.  Search this
Names:
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Bryn Mawr College  Search this
Photographer:
Smith, Harlan Ingersoll, 1872-1940  Search this
Extent:
2 map drawers
38 Linear feet (71 document boxes, 1 half document box, 2 manuscript folders, 4 card file boxes, 1 flat box, and 1 oversize box)
Culture:
Yakutat  Search this
Tutchone Indians  Search this
Tsimshian Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Tlingit Indians  Search this
Tanana Indians  Search this
Kawchottine Indians  Search this
Ahtna Indians  Search this
Athapascan Indians  Search this
Athapaskan -- Northern  Search this
Chugach Eskimos -- Archaeology  Search this
Eskimos -- Greenland  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Eyak Indians  Search this
Hare Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Ingalik Indians  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Map drawers
Manuscripts
Maps
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Sound recordings
Place:
Alaska -- Archaeology
Aishihik (Yukon)
Angoon (Alaska)
Alaska -- Ethnology
Chistochina (Alaska)
Greenland
Copper River (Alaska)
Klukshu (Yukon)
Hoonah (Alaska)
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Klukwan (Alaska)
Saint Lawrence River Valley
New Brunswick -- Archaeology
Yukon Island (Alaska)
Date:
1890-2004
bulk 1923-2004
Summary:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps. A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catherine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athabaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara Sue's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series X: Card Files. Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March. Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional and personal life of Frederica de Laguna. The collection contains correspondence, field notes, writings, newspaper clippings, writings by others, subject files, sound recordings, photographs, and maps.

A significant portion of the collection consists of de Laguna's correspondence with family, friends, colleagues, and students, as well as her informants from the field. Her correspondence covers a wide range of subjects such as family, health, preparations for field work, her publications and projects, the Northwest Coast, her opinions on the state of anthropology, and politics. Among her notable correspondents are Kaj Birket-Smith, J. Desmond Clark, Henry Collins, George Foster, Viola Garfield, Marie-Françoise Guédon, Diamond Jenness, Michael Krauss, Therkel Mathiassen, Catharine McClellan, and Wallace Olson. She also corresponded with several eminent anthropologists including Franz Boas, William Fitzhugh, J. Louis Giddings, Emil Haury, June Helm, Melville Herskovitz, Alfred Kroeber, Helge Larsen, Alan Lomax, Margaret Mead, Froelich Rainey, Leslie Spier, Ruth Underhill, James VanStone, Annette Weiner, and Leslie White.

The field notes in the collection mainly represent de Laguna and her assistants' work in the Northern Tlingit region of Alaska from 1949 to 1954. In addition, the collection contains materials related to her work in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Ontario in 1947 and Catharine McClellan's field journal for her research in Aishihik, Yukon Territory in 1968. Most of the audio reels in the collection are field recordings made by de Laguna, McClellan, and Marie-Françoise Guédon of vocabulary and songs and speeches at potlatches and other ceremonies from 1952 to 1969. Tlingit and several Athapaskan languages including Atna, Tutochone, Upper Tanana, and Tanacross are represented in the recordings. Also in the collection are copies of John R. Swanton's Tlingit recordings and Hiroko Hara's recordings among the Hare Indians. Additional materials related to de Laguna's research on the Northwest Coast include her notes on clans and tribes in Series VI: Subject Files and her notes on Tlingit vocabulary and Yakutat names specimens in Series 10: Card Files.

Drafts and notes for Voyage to Greenland, Travels Among the Dena, and The Tlingit Indians can be found in the collection as well as her drawings for her dissertation and materials related to her work for the Handbook of North American Indians and other publications. There is little material related to Under Mount Saint Elias except for correspondence, photocopies and negatives of plates, and grant applications for the monograph. Of special interest among de Laguna's writings is a photocopy of her historical fiction novel, The Thousand March.

Other materials of special interest are copies of her talks, including her AAA presidential address, and the dissertation of Regna Darnell, a former student of de Laguna's. In addition, materials on the history of anthropology are in the collection, most of which can found with her teaching materials. The collection also contains copies of photographs from the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899. Although the bulk of the collection documents de Laguna's professional years, the collection also contains newspaper articles and letters regarding her exceptional performance as a student at Bryn Mawr College and her undergraduate and graduate report cards. Only a few photographs of de Laguna can be found in the collection along with photographs of her 1929 and 1979 trips to Greenland.
Arrangement note:
Arranged in 12 series: (1) Correspondence, 1923-2004; (2) Field Research, 1947-1968; (3) Writings, 1926-2001; (4) Teaching, 1922-1988; (5) Professional Activities, 1939-2001; (6) Subject Files, 1890-2002; (7) Writings by Others, 1962-2000; (8) Personal, 1923-2000; (9) Photographs, 1929-1986; (10) Card Files; (11) Maps, 1928-1973; (12) Sound Recordings, 1904-1973
Biographical / Historical:
Frederica Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna was a pioneering archaeologist and ethnographer of northwestern North America. Known as Freddy by her friends, she was one of the last students of Franz Boas. She served as first vice-president of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) from 1949 to 1950 and as president of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) from 1966-1967. She also founded the anthropology department at Bryn Mawr College where she taught from 1938 to 1972. In 1975, she and Margaret Mead, a former classmate, were the first women to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

Born on October 3, 1906 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, de Laguna was the daughter of Theodore Lopez de Leo de Laguna and Grace Mead Andrus, both philosophy professors at Bryn Mawr College. Often sick as a child, de Laguna was home-schooled by her parents until she was 9. She excelled as a student at Bryn Mawr College, graduating summa cum laude with a degree in politics and economics in 1927. She was awarded the college's prestigious European fellowship, which upon the suggestion of her parents, she deferred for a year to study anthropology at Columbia University under Boas. Her parents had recently attended a lecture given by Boas and felt that anthropology would unite her interests in the social sciences and her love for the outdoors.

After a year studying at Columbia with Boas, Gladys Reichard, and Ruth Benedict, de Laguna was still uncertain whether anthropology was the field for her. Nevertheless, she followed Boas's advice to spend her year abroad studying the connection between Eskimo and Paleolithic art, which would later became the topic of her dissertation. In the summer of 1928, she gained fieldwork experience under George Grant MacCurdy visiting prehistoric sites in England, France, and Spain. In Paris, she attended lectures on prehistoric art by Abbe Breuil and received guidance from Paul Rivet and Marcelin Boule. Engaged to an Englishman she had met at Columbia University, de Laguna decided to also enroll at the London School of Economics in case she needed to earn her degree there. She took a seminar with Bronislaw Malinowski, an experience she found unpleasant and disappointing.

It was de Laguna's visit to the National Museum in Copenhagen to examine the archaeological collections from Central Eskimo that became the turning point in her life. During her visit, she met Therkel Mathiassen who invited her to be his assistant on what would be the first scientific archaeological excavation in Greenland. She sailed off with him in June 1929, intending to return early in August. Instead, she decided to stay until October to finish the excavation with Mathiassen, now convinced that her future lay in anthropology. When she returned from Greenland she broke off her engagement with her fiancé, deciding that she would not able to both fully pursue a career in anthropology and be the sort of wife she felt he deserved. Her experiences in Greenland became the subject of her 1977 memoir, Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology.

The following year, Kaj Birket-Smith, whom de Laguna had also met in Copenhagen, agreed to let her accompany him as his research assistant on his summer expedition to Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet. When Birket-Smith fell ill and was unable to go, de Laguna was determined to continue on with the trip. She convinced the University of Pennsylvania Museum to fund her trip to Alaska to survey potential excavation sites and took as her assistant her 20 year old brother, Wallace, who became a geologist. A close family, de Laguna's brother and mother would later accompany her on other research trips.

In 1931, the University of Pennsylvania Museum hired de Laguna to catalogue Eskimo collections. They again financed her work in Cook Inlet that year as well as the following year. In 1933, she earned her PhD from Columbia and led an archaeological and ethnological expedition of the Prince William Sound with Birket-Smith. They coauthored "The Eyak Indians of the Copper River Delta, Alaska," published in 1938. In 1935, de Laguna led an archaeological and geological reconnaissance of middle and lower Yukon Valley, traveling down the Tanana River. Several decades later, the 1935 trip contributed to two of her books: Travels Among the Dena, published in 1994, and Tales From the Dena, published in 1997.

In 1935 and 1936, de Laguna worked briefly as an Associate Soil Conservationist, surveying economic and social conditions on the Pima Indian Reservation in Arizona. She later returned to Arizona during the summers to conduct research and in 1941, led a summer archaeological field school under the sponsorship of Bryn Mawr College and the Museum of Northern Arizona.

By this time, de Laguna had already published several academic articles and was also the author of three fiction books. Published in 1930, The Thousand March: Adventures of an American Boy with the Garibaldi was her historical fiction book for juveniles. She also wrote two detective novels: The Arrow Points to Murder (1937) and Fog on the Mountain (1938). The Arrow Points to Murder is set in a museum based on her experiences at the University of Pennsylvania Museum and the American Museum of National History. Fog on the Mountain is set in Cook Inlet and draws upon de Laguna's experiences in Alaska. Both detective novels helped to finance her research.

De Laguna began her long career at Bryn Mawr College in 1938 when she was hired as a lecturer in the sociology department to teach the first ever anthropology course at the college. By 1950, she was chairman of the joint department of Sociology and Anthropology, and in 1967, the chairman of the newly independent Anthropology Department. She was also a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1949; 1972-1976) and at the University of California, Berkeley (1959-1960; 1972-1973.)

During World War II, de Laguna took a leave of absence from Bryn Mawr College to serve in the naval reserve from 1942 to 1945. As a member of WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service), she taught naval history and codes and ciphers to women midshipmen at Smith College. She took great pride in her naval service and in her later years joined the local chapter of WAVES National, an organization for former and current members of WAVES.

In 1950, de Laguna returned to Alaska to work in the Northern Tlingit region. Her ethnological and archaeological study of the Tlingit Indians brought her back several more times throughout the 1950s and led to the publication of Under Mount Saint Elias in 1972. Her comprehensive three-volume monograph is still considered the authoritative work on the Yakutat Tlingit. In 1954, de Laguna turned her focus to the Atna Indians of Copper River, returning to the area in 1958, 1960, and 1968.

De Laguna retired from Bryn Mawr College in 1972 under the college's mandatory retirement policy. Although she suffered from many ailments in her later years including macular degeneration, she remained professionally active. Five decades after her first visit to Greenland, de Laguna returned to Upernavik in 1979 to conduct ethnographic investigations. In 1985, she finished editing George Thornton Emmons' unpublished manuscript The Tlingit Indians. A project she had begun in 1955, the book was finally published in 1991. In 1986, she served as a volunteer consultant archaeologist and ethnologist for the U. S. Forest Service in Alaska. In 1994, she took part in "More than Words . . ." Laura Bliss Spann's documentary on the last Eyak speaker, Maggie Smith Jones. By 2001, de Laguna was legally blind. Nevertheless, she continued working on several projects and established the Frederica de Laguna Northern Books Press to reprint out-of-print literature and publish new scholarly works on Arctic cultures.

Over her lifetime, de Laguna received several honors including her election into the National Academy Sciences in 1976, the Distinguished Service Award from AAA in 1986, and the Lucy Wharton Drexel Medal from the University of Pennsylvania in 1999. De Laguna's work, however, was respected by not only her colleagues but also by the people she studied. In 1996, the people of Yakutat honored de Laguna with a potlatch. Her return to Yakutat was filmed by Laura Bliss Spann in her documentary Reunion at Mt St. Elias: The Return of Frederica de Laguna to Yakutat.

At the age of 98, Frederica de Laguna passed away on October 6, 2004.

Sources Consulted

Darnell, Regna. "Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." American Anthropologist 107.3 (2005): 554-556.

de Laguna, Frederica. Voyage to Greenland: A Personal Initiation into Anthropology. New York: W.W. Norton Co, 1977.

McClellan, Catharine. "Frederica de Laguna and the Pleasures of Anthropology." American Ethnologist 16.4 (1989): 766-785.

Olson, Wallace M. "Obituary: Frederica de Laguna (1906-2004)." Arctic 58.1 (2005): 89-90.
Related Materials:
Although this collection contains a great deal of correspondence associated with her service as president of AAA, most of her presidential records can be found in American Anthropological Association Records 1917-1972. Also at the National Anthropological Archives are her transcripts of songs sung by Yakutat Tlingit recorded in 1952 and 1954 located in MS 7056 and her notes and drawings of Dorset culture materials in the National Museum of Canada located in MS 7265. The Human Studies Film Archive has a video oral history of de Laguna conducted by Norman Markel (SC-89.10.4).

Related collections can also be found in other repositories. The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania holds materials related to work that de Laguna carried out for the museum from the 1930s to the 1960s. Materials relating to her fieldwork in Angoon and Yakutat can be found in the Rasmuson Library of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks in the papers of Francis A. Riddell, a field assistant to de Laguna in the early 1950s. Original photographs taken in the field in Alaska were deposited in the Alaska State Library, Juneau. Both the Archive of Folk Culture at the Library of Congress and the American Philosophical Library have copies of her field recordings and notes. The American Museum of Natural History has materials related to her work editing George T. Emmons' manuscript. De Laguna's papers can also be found at the Bryn Mawr College Archives.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Frederica de Laguna.
Restrictions:
Some of the original field notes are restricted due to Frederica de Laguna's request to protect the privacy of those accused of witchcraft. The originals are restricted until 2030. Photocopies may be made with the names of the accused redacted.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Anthropology -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Maps
Field notes
Correspondence
Photographs
Sound recordings
Citation:
Frederica de Laguna Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1998-89
See more items in:
Frederica de Laguna Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1998-89
Online Media:

MS 7369 Margaret Lantis correspondence concerning "The U.S.A. as Anthropologists See It" (American Anthropologist, Vol. 57, No. 6 December 1955)

Creator:
Lantis, Margaret, 1906-2006  Search this
American Anthropological Association  Search this
Correspondent:
Vogt, Evon Z. (Evon Zartman), 1918-2004  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Harrington, J. C. (Jean Carl), 1901-1998  Search this
Schneider, David Murray, 1918-  Search this
Harding, Charles F., III  Search this
Gillin, John, 1907-1973  Search this
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Mason, Leonard, 1913-2005  Search this
Merriam, Alan P., 1923-1980  Search this
Kluckhohn, Clyde, 1905-1960  Search this
Goldschmidt, Walter, 1913-2010  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (ca. 3/4 in. )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters
Date:
1953-1954
Scope and Contents:
Consists mainly of correspondence with Sol Tax, editor of the American Anthropologist at the time. Also includes correspondence with contributors and prospective contributors to the volume and participants in a related symposium, including Jules Henry, Evon Zartmann Vogt, Jean C. Harrington, David M. Schneider, Charles F. Harding, III, John Gillin, Margaret Mead, Melford Spiro, Leonard Mason, Alan P. Merriam, Clyde Kluckhohn, Marvin Kaufmann Opler, Walter Rochs Goldschmidt, and Ruth Landes.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 7369
Topic:
American Anthropologist  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters
Citation:
Manuscript 7369, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7369
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7369

Melford E. Spiro papers

Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Names:
University of California, San Diego. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
9.6 Linear feet ((24 boxes))
12 sound recordings
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Field notes
Photographic prints
Slides (photographs)
Psychological tests
Place:
Israel
Ifalik Atoll (Micronesia)
Burma
Date:
1943-2003, undated
Summary:
Melford E. Spiro was a psychological anthropologist whose career included fieldwork on the Pacific Atoll of Ifaluk, on kibbutzim in Israel, and in Burma. His research topics included child rearing, cooperation, aggression, and supernatural beliefs. His papers, dated 1943-2003, primarily document these periods of fieldwork in relation to these topics. The collection consists of field notes, personality data and analysis, photographs, interview tapes and transcriptions, ephemera, subject card files, and research files. It also includes limited material related to his teaching and writings in the form of course outlines and research, lecture notes, annotated articles, drafts, and book reviews.
Scope and Contents:
The Melford E. Spiro papers, 1943-2003, primarily document his periods of field work on the Ifaluk Atoll, on kibbutzim in Israel, and in Burma. The collection consists of field notes, personality data and analysis, photographs, interview tapes and transcriptions, ephemera, subject card files, and research files. It also includes limited material related to his teaching and writings in the form of course outlines and research, lecture notes, annotated articles, drafts, and book reviews.

The collection includes a great deal of the data Spiro collected at all three field sites, including Rorschach and Thematic Apperception tests (TAT) and the subsequent analysis, sentence completions, drawings by children, and autobiographies of informants. The majority of the interview transcriptions and questionnaires in the collection are from Israel and are written in Hebrew. Translations in English do not exist within this collection. The photographs include black-and-white snapshots of people and landscapes on Ifaluk and color slides taken in Burma and other locations in Southeast Asia.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 4 series: Series 1. Ifaluk, 1947-1988, undated; Series 2. Israel, 1951-1981, undated; Series 3. Burma, 1943-1978, undated; Series 4. Teaching and writing, 1953-2003, undated.
Biographical Note:
Chronology

1920 April 26 -- Melford Spiro born in Ohio

circa 1942 -- BA Philosophy, University of Minnesota

circa 1942 -- Studied at Jewish Theological Seminary in New York

1947-1948 -- Field work in Ifaluk (Caroline Islands atoll)

1950 -- PhD in Anthropology, Northwestern University

1950 -- Start of field work in Israel

1950-1957 -- Taught at Washington University, St. Louis, the University of Connecticut, and the University of Washington

1957 -- Began teaching at the University of Chicago

1961-1962 -- Field work in Burma

1968 -- Started at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) as a founding member of the Anthropology department

1968-1972 -- Chair of the Anthropology department at UCSD

1969-1972 -- Summers: Worked with Burmese refugees in Thailand

1975 -- Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

1982 -- Appointed UCSD's first holder of the Presidential Chair

1982 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1990 -- Retired from UCSD

2014 October 18 -- Died in La Jolla, CA

Melford E. Spiro was a psychological anthropologist whose career included fieldwork on the Pacific Atoll of Ifaluk, on kibbutzim in Israel, and in Burma. His research topics included child rearing, cooperation, aggression, and supernatural beliefs. He was renowned for his "careful, insightful, and insistent emphasis upon motivational and psychological underpinnings of human behavior…and upon the need to take them into account in cross-cultural analysis." (Jordan)

While a PhD student at Northwestern University, Spiro was introduced to psychological anthropology by A. Irving Hallowell, who became a lifelong mentor and friend. After receiving his PhD in 1950, he went on to teach at Washington University in St. Louis, and the Universities of Connecticut, Washington, and Chicago before becoming the founding chair of the anthropology department at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) in 1968. He recruited the department's first faculty members in 1969 including Roy D'Andrade, Marc J. Swartz, Theodore Schwartz, Robert I. Levy, David K. Jordon, and Joyce Bennett Justus. Spiro also received training in psychoanalysis after arriving in San Diego and practiced as a lay analyst while establishing links to the medical school to provide anthropology graduate students with general psychiatric training.

Spiro served terms as president of the American Ethnological Society and the Society for Psychological Anthropology (SPA). He was one of the founders of Ethos, the SPA's journal. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and was the recipient of two Guggenheim fellowships and an Einstein Fellowship from the Israel Academy of Science. He also received an Excellence-in-Teaching award from the Chancellor's Associates at UCSD based on his mentoring of anthropology graduate students.

Sources consulted: Jordan, David K. "In Memoriam, Melford E. Spiro." Anthropology News 56, no. 11-12 (December 2015): 26-27.

Avruch, Kevin. "Biographical Memoirs, Melford E. Spiro." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.nasonline.org/publications/biographical-memoirs/memoir-pdfs/spiro-melford.pdf.
Related Materials:
Film and sound reels have been transferred to the Smithsonian's Human Studies Film Archive, accession number 2016-009.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Melford Spiro's son, Jonathan Spiro, in 2015.
Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Kibbutzim  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropologists -- United States  Search this
Ethnopsychology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Photographic prints
Slides (photographs)
Psychological tests
Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2015-04
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2015-04

Preface to Forsyth [?]

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 24
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2001
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 4: Teaching and writing / 4.2: Writings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref100

BMIT, classification of responses

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref101

BMIT-SERT city: Original protocols [?] and classification of responses

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
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Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref102

BMIT and SERT frequency tables

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961-1962
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref103

BMIT-SERT children

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961-1962
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref104

BMIT-SERT: Schedule and original printouts

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref105

Sentence completion: Summary charts from Burmese children

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref106

Sentence completion

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Extent:
2 Folders
Container:
Box 20
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref107

SERT new dataset [?] summaries ala Kibbutz outline

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref108

Drawings

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Extent:
2 Folders
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970-1971
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref109

Parents and self drawings (boys)

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref110

Draw-a-person (boys)

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1970
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref111

Draw-a-person (girls)

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 19
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1970
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.2: Research and collected data
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref112

Field notes

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 16
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1962 January
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.1: Field notes
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref114

Factionalism, used notes

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 16
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961 October-November
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.1: Field notes
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref115

Village politics, miscellaneous

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961-1962
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.1: Field notes
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref116

Field notes

Collection Creator:
Spiro, Melford E., 1920-2014  Search this
Container:
Box 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1961 August-1962 January
Collection Restrictions:
The Melford E. Spiro papers are open for research.

Access to the Melford E. Spiro papers requires an appointment.
Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Melford E. Spiro papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Melford E. Spiro papers
Melford E. Spiro papers / Series 3: Burma / 3.1: Field notes
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2015-04-ref117

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