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Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Extent:
245 Linear feet ((375 boxes and 10 map drawers))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1878-1965
Summary:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.
Scope and Contents:
The records in this collection embody the administrative functions of the Bureau of American Ethnology from 1879 to 1965. The collection consists of correspondence, card files, registers, official notices, annual and monthly work reports, research statements, research proposals, grant applications, personnel action requests, notices of personnel action, meeting minutes, purchase orders and requisitions, property records, biographical sketches, resolutions, newspaper clippings, reviews of publications, drafts of publications, circulars, programs, pamphlets, announcements, illustrations, cartographic materials, photographic prints, photographic negatives, bibliographies, and reprinted publications.

Correspondence comprises the bulk of this collection. A significant portion of this correspondence originates from the Bureau's duty to field inquiries regarding North American aboriginal cultures and respond to requests relating to the duplication of BAE library and archival materials. Inquiries and requests, received from all parts of the world, were submitted by colleagues, museum curators and directors, students, professors, amateur archaeologists, government agents, military officials, Smithsonian Institution officials, artists, and members of the general public. Other correspondence reflects the Bureau's day-to-day operations and internal affairs. Subjects discussed in this correspondence include research projects, field expeditions, annual budgets, personnel matters, the acquisition of manuscripts, the disbursement of specimens, and production of BAE publications. Correspondence is occasionally accompanied by announcements, circulars, programs, pamphlets, photographs, drawings, diagrams, bibliographies, lists, newspaper clippings, and maps. Also among these records are the card files and registers of incoming and outgoing correspondence maintained by early BAE administrative staff. For a list of correspondents, see the appendix to this finding aid, available in the NAA reading room.

The majority of illustrations, artwork, and photographs that appear in this collection are associated with BAE publications, including BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, Contributions to North American Ethnology and Smithsonian Institution, Miscellaneous Collection. Maps located among the collection originate, by and large, from BAE field expeditions and research projects. BAE staff also amassed great quantities of newspaper clippings that concerned BAE research or points of interest. Of particular note are three scrapbooks comprised of clippings that relate to "mound builders" and the work of the BAE's Division of Mound Explorations.

Also worthy of note are the various records relating to the 1903 investigation of the BAE. Records related to the investigation highlight the Smithsonian Institution's longstanding dissatisfaction with the internal management of the BAE, its concerns over the BAE's loose relationship with the parent organization, and displeasure with the manner in which BAE scientific research was developing. Other materials of special interest are the various administrative records covering the period 1929 to 1946 and 1949 to 1965. The majority cover personnel matters; however, others justify the work of the BAE and bear witness to growing concerns that the BAE would eventually be absorbed by the Department of Anthropology within the United States National Museum.
Arrangement:
The collection has been arranged into the following 12 series: (1) Correspondence, 1897-1965; (2) Cooperative Ethnological Investigations, 1928-1935; (3) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1929-1946; (4) Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1949-1965; (5) Records Concerning the Photographic Print Collection, 1899-1919; (6) Records Concerning Employees; (7) Fiscal Records, 1901-1902 and 1945-1968; (8) Records Relating to the 1903 Investigation of the BAE; (9) Property Records and Requisitions; (10) Clippings; (11) Publications; (12) BAE Library Materials, Pamphlets and Reprints
Administrative History:
The Bureau of Ethnology was established by an act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1879, but it was largely the personal creation of the geologist and explorer Major John Wesley Powell. His earlier explorations of the Colorado River and Grand Canyon formed the basis of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. While exploring the area, Powell became alarmed at what he perceived to be the decline of the aboriginal way of life due to rapid depopulation. In a letter to the Secretary of the Interior, he warned that "in a few years, it will be impossible to study…Indians in their primitive condition, except from recorded history" (Hinsley). He urged swift government action; the result of which was the appropriation of $20,000 (20 Stat. 397) to transfer all documents relating to North American Indians from the Department of Interior to the Smithsonian Institution and its Secretary's appointment of Powell as director of the newly established Bureau of Ethnology, a position he held until his death in 1902. In 1897, its name was changed to the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) to underscore the limits of its geographical reaches.

Under Powell, the BAE organized the nation's earliest anthropological field expeditions, in which the characteristics and customs of native North Americans were observed firsthand and documented in official reports. Images of Indian life were captured on photographic glass plate negatives, and their songs on wax cylinder recordings. Histories, vocabularies and myths were gathered, along with material objects excavated from archaeological sites, and brought back to Washington for inclusion in the BAE manuscript library or the United States National Museum.

The fruits of these investigations were disseminated via a series of highly regarded and widely distributed publications, most notably BAE Annual Reports, BAE Bulletins, and Contributions to North American Ethnology. BAE research staff also responded routinely to inquiries posed by colleagues, government agencies, and the general public on matters ranging from artwork to warfare. Moreover, the BAE prepared exhibits on the various cultural groups it studied not only for the Smithsonian Institution, but also for large expositions held nationwide.

In 1882 Powell, under instruction of Congress, established the Division of Mound Explorations for the purpose of discovering the true origin of earthen mounds found predominately throughout the eastern United States. It was the first of three temporary, yet significant, subunits supported by the Bureau. Cyrus Thomas, head of the Division, published his conclusions in the Bureau's Annual Report of 1894, which is considered to be the last word in the controversy over the mounds' origins. With the publication of Thomas' findings, the Division's work came to a close.

The course of BAE operations remained largely the same under Powell's successors: W.J. McGee (acting director) 1902; William Henry Holmes, 1902-1910; Frederick W. Hodge, 1910-1918; J. Walter Fewkes, 1918-1928; Matthew W. Stirling, 1928-1957; Frank H.H. Roberts, Jr., 1957-1964; and Henry B. Collins (acting director), 1964-1965. However, following a 1903 internal investigation of the Bureau's administrative activities, Smithsonian officials called for a broader scope of ethnological inquiry and greater application of anthropological research methodologies. The BAE responded in 1904 by expanding agency activities to include investigations in Hawaii, the Philippines, and the Caribbean.

The BAE extended its geographical reaches once again, in the 1940s, to include Central and South America. In 1943, the Institute of Social Anthropology (ISA) was established as an independent subunit of the Bureau for the purpose of developing and promoting ethnological research throughout the American Republics. The findings of ISA-sponsored investigations were published in the six volume series, Handbook of South American Indians (BAE Bulletin 143). Julian H. Steward, editor of the Handbook, was appointed director of ISA operations and held the position until 1946 when George M. Foster assumed responsibility. The ISA was absorbed by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs in 1952, thus terminating its relationship with the BAE.

In 1946 the BAE assumed partial administrative control of the recently established River Basin Surveys (RBS), its third and final autonomous subunit. The purpose of the RBS was to salvage and preserve archaeological evidence threatened by post-World War II public works programs, more specifically the rapid construction of dams and reservoirs occurring throughout the country. Excavations conducted under the RBS yielded considerable data on early North American Indian settlements, and subsequent deliberations on this data were published as reports in various BAE Bulletins.

In 1965, the BAE merged administratively with the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology to form the Office of Anthropology within the United States National Museum (now the Department of Anthropology within the National Museum of Natural History). The BAE manuscript library, also absorbed by the Department of Anthropology, became the foundation of what is today the National Anthropological Archives (NAA).

In its 86 year existence, the BAE played a significant role in the advancement of American anthropology. Its staff included some of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries' most distinguished anthropologists, including Jeremiah Curtain, Frank Hamilton Cushing, J.O. Dorsey, Jesse Walter Fewkes, Alice Cunningham Fletcher, Albert H. Gatschet, John Peabody Harrington, John N.B. Hewitt, William Henry Holmes, Ales Hrdlicka, Neil Judd, Francis LaFlesche, Victor and Cosmo Mindeleff, James Mooney, James Pilling, Matilda Coxe Stevenson, Matthew Williams Stirling, William Duncan Strong, and William Sturtevant. The BAE also collaborated with and supported the work of many non-Smithsonian researchers, most notably Franz Boas, Frances Densmore, Gerard Fowke, Garrick Mallery, Washington Matthews, Paul Radin, John Swanton, Cyrus Thomas, and T.T. Waterman, as well as America's earliest field photographers such as Charles Bell, John K. Hillers, Timothy O'Sullivan, and William Dinwiddie. Several of its staff founded the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1880, which later became the American Anthropological Association in 1899. What is more, its seminal research continues to be drawn upon by contemporary anthropologists and government agents through the use of BAE manuscripts now housed in the NAA.

Sources Consulted:

Hinsley, Curtis. Savages and Scientists: The Smithsonian Institution and the Development of American Anthropology, 1846-1910. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.

McGee, WJ. "Bureau of American Ethnology." The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, The History of its First Half-Century, pp. 367-396. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1897.

Sturtevant, William. "Why a Bureau of American Ethnology?" Box 286, Functions of the BAE, Series IV: Miscellaneous Administrative Files, 1948-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives.
Related Materials:
Additional material relating to BAE administrative affairs and research projects can be found among the National Anthropological Archives' vast collection of numbered manuscripts. Too numerous to list in this space, these include official correspondence, monthly and annual work reports, fiscal records, field notes, personal diaries, expedition logs, catalogues of specimens, vocabularies, historical sketches, maps, diagrams, drawings, bibliographies, working papers and published writings, among various other material. Most of these documents are dispersed throughout the numbered manuscript collection as single items; however, some have been culled and unified into larger units (e.g., MS 2400 is comprised of documents relating to the Division of Mound Explorations). Artwork and illustrations produced for BAE publications are also located among the NAA's numbered manuscript collection as well as its photograph collection (e.g., Photo Lot 78-51 and Photo Lot 80-6).

Photographs concerning BAE research interests can be found among the following NAA photographic lots: Photo Lot 14, Bureau of American Ethnology Subject and Geographic File ca. 1870s-1930s; Photo Lot 24, BAE Photographs of American Indians 1840s to 1960s (also known as the Source Print Collection); Photo Lot 60, BAE Reference Albums 1858-1905; and Photo Lot 85, BAE Miscellaneous Photographs 1895 to 1930. Other photographic lots include portraits of BAE staff and collaborators, namely Photo Lot 33, Portraits of Anthropologists and others 1860s-1960s; Photo Lot 68, Portraits of John Wesley Powell ca. 1890 and 1898; and Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology Portrait File ca. 1864-1921.

Additional materials in the NAA relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the professional papers of its staff, collaborators and USNM anthropologists. These include the papers of Ales Hrdlicka, John Peabody Harrington, Otis Mason, J.C. Pilling, Matthew Williams Stirling, and William Duncan Strong. Documents relating to the work of the BAE can be found among the records of the River Basin Surveys (1928-1969) and the Institute of Social Anthropology (1941-1952).

Records related to this collection can also be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA). SIA accession 05-124 includes information regarding the 1942 transfer of six audio recordings related to the Chumash Indian language from the Bureau of American Ethnology to the National Archives, nine pages of Chumash translations, and "The Story of Candalaria, the Old Indian Basket-Maker." The Fiscal and Payroll Records of the Office of the Secretary, 1847 to 1942 (Record Unit 93), includes voucher logs, disbursement journals and daybooks of money paid out to the BAE from 1890 to 1910. BAE correspondence can also be found among the Records of the Office of the Secretary (Record Unit 776, accession 05-162). The Papers of William Henry Holmes, second director of the BAE, are also located among the SIA (Record Unit 7084).

Accession records concerning artifacts and specimens collected by the BAE are located in the registrar's office of the National Museum of Natural History.

Related collections can also be found at the National Archives and Records Administration. RG 57.3.1, the Administrative Records of the United States Geological Survey, includes register of applications for BAE ethnological expositions conducted between 1879-1882. RG 75.29, Still Pictures among the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, includes 22 photographs of Arapaho, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Comanche, Navajo, and Apache Indians taken by William S. Soule for the BAE during 1868-1875. RG 106, Records of the Smithsonian Institution, includes cartographic records (106.2) relating to Indian land cessions in Indiana created for the First Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1881 (1 item); a distribution of American Indian linguistic stock in North America and Greenland, by John Wesley Powell, for the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, ca. 1887 (1 item); a distribution of Indian tribal and linguistic groups in South America, 1950 (1 item); the Indian tribes in North America, for Bulletin 145, Bureau of American Ethnology, 1952 (4 items). Sound Recordings (106.4) include songs and linguistic material relating to the Aleut, Mission, Chumash, and Creek, gather by the BAE in 1912, 1914, 1930-41. Some include translations (122 items).
Provenance:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology were transferred to the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives with the merger of the BAE and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History in 1965. The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Archives was renamed the National Anthropological Archives in 1968.
Restrictions:
The Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology are open for research.

Access to the Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Citation:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0155
See more items in:
Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw391046c25-21e2-4334-a01f-9a6f734ae9cd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0155
Online Media:

Department of Anthropology records

Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
330.25 Linear feet (519 boxes)
Note:
Some materials are held off-site; this will be indicated at the series or sub-series level. Advanced notice must be given to view these portions of the collection.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1840s-circa 2015
Summary:
The Department of Anthropology records contain administrative and research materials produced by the department and its members from the time of the Smithsonian Institution's foundation until today.
Scope and Contents:
The Department of Anthropology records contain correspondence, manuscripts, photographs, memoranda, invoices, meeting minutes, fiscal records, annual reports, grant applications, personnel records, receipts, and forms. The topics covered in the materials include collections, exhibits, staff, conservation, acquisitions, loans, storage and office space, administration, operations, research, budgets, security, office procedures, and funding. The materials were created by members of the Section of Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, the Division of Anthropology of the United States National Museum, the Office of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History, and the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History and range in date from before the founding of the Smithsonian Institution to today. The Department of Anthropology records also contain some materials related to the Bureau of American Ethnology, such as documents from the River Basin Surveys.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 28 series: (1) Correspondence, 1902-1908, 1961-1992; (2) Alpha-Subject File, 1828-1963; (3) Alpha-Subject File, 1961-1975; (4) Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Subject Files, 1967-1968; (5) River Basin Survey Files, 1965-1969; (6) Research Statements, Proposals, and Awards, 1961-1977 (bulk 1966-1973); (7) Publication File, 1960-1975; (8) Memoranda and Lists Concerning Condemnations, 1910-1965; (9) Notebook on Special Exhibits, 1951-1952 (10) Section on Animal Industry; (11) Administrative Records, 1891-1974; (12) Administrative Records, 1965-1994 (bulk 1975-1988); (13) Fiscal Records, 1904-1986; (14) Annual Reports, 1920-1983; (15) Chairman's Office Files, 1987-1993; (16) Division of Archaeology, 1828-1965; (17) Division of Ethnology, 1840s, 1860-1972, 1997; (18) Division of Physical Anthropology; (19) Division of Cultural Anthropology, 1920-1968; (20) Records of the Anthropological Laboratory/Anthropology Conservation and Restoration Laboratory, 1939-1973; (21) Collections Management, 1965-1985; (22) Photographs of Specimens and Other Subjects (Processing Laboratory Photographs), 1880s-1950s; (23) Exhibit Labels, Specimen Labels, Catalog Cards, and Miscellaneous Documents, circa 1870-1950; (24) Antiquities Act Permits, 1904-1986; (25) Ancient Technology Program, circa 1966-1981; (26) Urgent Anthropology; (27) Records of the Handbook of North American Indians; (28) Personnel; (29) Repatriation Office, 1991-1994
Administrative History.:
The Smithsonian Institution was founded in 1846. Although there was no department of anthropology until the creation of the Section of Ethnology in 1879, anthropological materials were part of the Smithsonian's collection from its foundation. The Section of Ethnology was created to care for the rapidly growing collection. In 1881, the United States National Museum was established. Soon thereafter, in 1883, it was broken up into divisions, including the Division of Anthropology. In 1904, Physical Anthropology was added to the Division.

The Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) was created in 1879 as a research unit of the Smithsonian, separating research from collections care. However, during the 1950s, research became a higher priority for the Department of Anthropology and, in 1965, the BAE was merged with the Department of Anthropology to create the Office of Anthropology, and the BAE's archives became the National Anthropological Archives (NAA).

In 1967, the United States National Museum was broken up into three separate museums: the Musuem of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History), the National Museum of American Art, and the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). The Office of Anthropology was included in NMNH and was renamed the Department of Anthropology in 1968.

New divisions were added to the Department, including the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA) in 1981, the Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (RIIES) in 1982, and the Repatriation Office in 1993. In 1983, the Smithsonian opened the Museum Support Center (MSC) in Suitland, Maryland, as offsite housing for collections with specialized storage facilities and conservation labs.

The Department of Anthropology is currently the largest department within NMNH. It has three curatorial divisions (Ethnology, Archaeology, and Biological Anthropology) and its staff includes curators, research assistants, program staff, collections specialists, archivists, repatriation tribal liaisons, and administrative specialists. It has a number of outreach and research arms, including the Repatriation Office, Recovering Voices, Human Origins, and the Arctic Studies Center.

The Museum is home to one of the world's largest anthropology collections, with over three million specimens in archaeology, ethnology, and human skeletal biology. The NAA is the Smithsonian's oldest archival repository, with materials that reflect over 150 years of anthropological collecting and fieldwork. The HSFA is the only North American archive devoted exclusively to the collection and preservation of anthropological film and video.

Sources Consulted

National Museum of Natural History. "Department of Anthropology: About" Accessed April 13, 2020. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/anthropology/about

National Museum of Natural History. "History of Anthropology at the Smithsonian." Accessed April 13, 2020. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/sites/default/files/media/file/history-anthropology-si.pdf

National Museum of Natural History. "History of the Smithsonian Combined Catalog." Accessed April 13, 2020 https://sirismm.si.edu/siris/sihistory.htm

Chronology

1846 -- The Smithsonian Institution is founded

1879 -- George Catlin bequeaths his collection to the Smithsonian The Section of Ethnology is established to oversee ethnological and archaeological collections The Bureau of Ethnology is established by Congress as a research unit of the Smithsonian

1881 -- The U.S. National Museum (USNM) is established as a separate entity within the Smithsonian Institution

1883 -- The staff and collections of the USNM are reorganized into divisions, including a Division of Anthropology

1897 -- The United States National Museum is reorganized into three departments: Anthropology headed by W. H. Holmes; Biology with F. W. True as head; and Geology with G. P. Merrill in charge The Bureau of Ethnology is renamed the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) to emphasize the geographic limit of its interests

1903 -- The Division of Physical Anthropology established

1904 -- The Division of Physical Anthropology is incorporated into the Division of Anthropology

1910 -- The USNM moves into the new Natural History Building

1965 -- The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology is created on February 1 The BAE is eliminated and merged with the Office of Anthropology

1968 -- The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology (SOA) of the National Museum of Natural History is retitled the Department of Anthropology on October 29

1973 -- The Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (RIIES) is established at the National Museum of Natural History's (NMNH) Center for the Study of Man (CSM) to study the waves of immigration to the United States and its overseas outposts that began in the 1960's

1975 -- The National Anthropological Film Center is established

1981 -- The National Anthropological Film Center is incorporated into the Department of Anthropology

1982 -- The RIIES, part of the CSM at the NMNH, is transferred to the Department of Anthropology

1991 -- NMNH establishes a Repatriation Office

1993 -- The Repatriation Office is incorporated into the Department of Anthropology

Head Curators and Department Chairs

1897-1902 -- William Henry Holmes

1902-1903 -- Otis T. Mason (acting)

1904-1908 -- Otis T. Mason

1908-1909 -- Walter Hough (acting)

1910-1920 -- William Henry Holmes

1920-1923 -- Walter Hough (acting)

1923-1935 -- Walter Hough

1935-1960 -- Frank M. Setzler

1960-1962 -- T. Dale Stewart

1963-1965 -- Waldo R. Wedel

1965-1967 -- Richard Woodbury

1967-1970 -- Saul H. Riesenberg

1970-1975 -- Clifford Evans

1975-1980 -- William W. Fitzhugh

1980-1985 -- Douglas H. Ubelaker

1985-1988 -- Adrienne L. Kaeppler

1988-1992 -- Donald J. Ortner

1992-1999 -- Dennis Stanford

1999-2002 -- Carolyn L. Rose

2002-2005 -- William W. Fitzhugh

2005-2010 -- J. Daniel Rogers

2010-2014 -- Mary Jo Arnoldi

2014-2018 -- Torbin Rick

2018- -- Igor Krupnik
Related Materials:
The NAA holds collections of former head curators and department chairs, including the papers of Otis Tufton Mason, Walter Hough, T. Dale Stewart, Waldo Rudolph and Mildred Mott Wedel, Saul H. Riesenberg, Clifford Evans, and Donald J. Ortner; the photographs of Frank Maryl Setzler; and the Richard B. Woodbury collection of drawings of human and animal figures.

Other related collections at the NAA include the papers of Gordon D. Gibson, Eugene I. Knez, and Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans; and the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the Center for the Study of Man, and the River Basin Surveys.
Provenance:
This collection was transferred to the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) by the National Museum of Natural History's Department of Anthropology in multiple accessions.
Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0311
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3da0f5297-c324-47c1-96dd-171f6edd11b6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0311

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Matthews, Washington  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
3 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
June 28, 1891
Scope and Contents:
Concerns the contribution of army officers to the study of American Indians.
Local Note:
Autograph letter signed
Place:
United States -- New Mexico -- Fort Wingate
Related Materials:
See Mason's draft, GRSN 5855.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Anthropology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw33566cd3b-0d19-45ef-85ef-b0c19ee06df4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15514

Letters to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Pilling, James Constantine  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
2 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
June 2, 1891
Scope and Contents:
Concerns men eminent in American linguistics.
Related Materials:
See Mason's draft, GRSN 5855.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Linguists -- Americanists  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Anthropology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw36e3d5fc6-d005-4019-974f-0d6fc5a14927
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15515

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Names:
Boston Society of Natural History  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
3 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
June 18, 1891
Scope and Contents:
Concerns the Boston Society of Natural History and anthropological work.
Place:
United States -- Arizona -- Hopi Pueblos
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Anthropology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3983b1abc-61b3-4394-89cf-10d0592d4966
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15516

Letters to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Jones, Charles C., Jr. (Charles Colcock), 1831-1893  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
2 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 19
Culture:
Creek -- model of village  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
January 4, 1892
Scope and Contents:
Concerns Mason's wish to build a model of a Creek village.
Place:
United States -- Georgia -- Augusta
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Exhibits -- Creek village  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Anthropology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw367286075-060d-4d15-93d0-9fcda2e32dad
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15517

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Hale, Horatio  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
7 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 19
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
July 30, 1891
Scope and Contents:
Concerns sources on ethnological work.
Place:
Canada -- Ontario -- Clinton
Related Materials:
See Mason's draft, GRSN 5855.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

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Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Anthropology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw37479e844-be46-4417-a2cf-eb0f776c4f83
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15518

Rough notes and drafts for history of Division of Ethnology

Creator:
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Rathbun, Richard  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology. Division of Ethnology -- History  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
86 Pages (ca. 86 pages)
Container:
Box 2, Folder 21
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1906
Scope and Contents:
Attached to letter, Richard Rathbun to Otis Tufton Mason, June 9, 1906, calling for a history of the divisions of the Department of Anthroplogy.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

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Collection Rights:
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Topic:
Anthropology -- History  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Anthropology—Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw318c8e05c-ae06-4d31-a3b4-af7d266d8fe2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15520

Letters to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Douglass, A. E.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
4 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 25
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Place:
Florida -- Archeology
Date:
June 3, 1890
Scope and Contents:
Concerns shell heap sites on the coast of Florida.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archeology -- Florida  Search this
Mounds  Search this
Shell heaps  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Archeology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3bfce07cc-4cbb-4241-bf8d-687bd5c50202
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15525

Letters to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
McGuire, Joseph Deakins  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
4 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 25
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
October 18, 1890
Scope and Contents:
Concerns McGuire's thoughts on shellheap habitation.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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Topic:
Archeology -- Shell heaps  Search this
Shell heaps  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Archeology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw31e34d51b-2e3a-4bed-b3d0-a89a645f9de2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15526

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Stearns, Richard Edwin  Search this
Names:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
3 Pages
Container:
Box 2, Folder 25
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
October 28, 1890
Scope and Contents:
Concerns shell heaps on the west coast of the United States and names of species involved.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archeology -- Shell heaps  Search this
Shell heaps  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Archeology—Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw363da317e-6a7d-45f9-8308-7059bbafae91
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15527

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Lopp, W. T.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
4 Pages
Container:
Box 3, Folder 33
Culture:
Eskimo -- Armour  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
December 20, 1895
Scope and Contents:
Concerns Eskimo armour
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Armour -- Eskimo  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Armor
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3b54acb94-4efc-429a-8e7c-56314182442a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15541

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
McLeod, E. L.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
50 Pages
Container:
Box 4, Folder 44
Culture:
Paiute  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Place:
California, Kern County -- Paiute
Date:
September 14, 1902
Scope and Contents:
Includes notes on the Paiute of Kern County, California and many Paiute terms for baskets.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

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Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Baskets -- Paiute  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Baskets
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw336ab0bd8-a848-43a0-9e2e-0ccea871e74e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15548

Letters to Otis Tufton Mason and Walter Hough

Creator:
Bailie, William  Search this
Addressee:
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
9 Pages
Container:
Box 4, Folder 44
Culture:
Ekoi  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1907-1908
Scope and Contents:
Concern baskets, basketry terms, work of the Ekoi in Africa.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Baskets  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Basketry
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw305f3ff1e-c72f-44f0-aac5-dd9d40c13da4
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15553

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Pinchot, Gifford  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
Container:
Box 6, Folder 75
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
October 14, 1898
Scope and Contents:
Pinchot was apparently asked about trees in the far western United States and replied that the canoe birch did not extend to the Kootenai River and he identified a pine that grew in the Northwest.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

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Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Canoes and canoeing  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Boats
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3a0a110cc-5af8-4118-be7c-c6f22300760c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15576

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Russell, Frank A.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
Container:
Box 6, Folder 75
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
April 30, 1900
Scope and Contents:
The letter includes a list of captions of photographs.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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Topic:
Photograph captions  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Boats
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw34aaa62b5-02a1-4be8-b653-27b45b1a99e0
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15577

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Eggers, H.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
14 Pages
Container:
Box 6, Folder 79
Culture:
Australian Aborigines  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
August 19, 1888
Scope and Contents:
Concerns the construction and use of the boomerang by Australian Aborigines.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Boomerangs  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Boomerang
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3c3a4381a-ddfc-462e-9191-7c8d077d0042
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15579

Letters to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Bowditch, Charles P.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
Container:
Box 6, Folder 81
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
November 14, 1904
Scope and Contents:
Provides a list of publications in anthropology.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Bowditch, Charles
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw385e69818-ab83-4234-910d-56467599b50f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15580

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
McIlhenny, E. A.  Search this
Names:
Luscomb, C. R.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
6 Pages
Container:
Box 20, Folder 268
Culture:
Attacapa -- Habitations  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
September 22, 1896
Scope and Contents:
The letter describes house building among the Atakapa of Grand Lake, Louisiana. Attached are notes concerning the construction of a model based by C. R. Luscombe on McIlhenny's information.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

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Collection Rights:
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Topic:
Museum model -- house -- Attacapa  Search this
Habitations -- Attacapa  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Habitations
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3b705eaec-a1ba-4552-95a4-e5f756c1298d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15680

Letter to Otis Tufton Mason

Creator:
Fisher, A. K.  Search this
Addressee:
Mason, Otis Tufton, 1838-1908  Search this
Collection Creator:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.). Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. United States National Museum. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
Container:
Box 20, Folder 268
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
May 13, 1898
Scope and Contents:
Concerns pre-Columbian dogs.
Collection Restrictions:
Some materials are restricted.

Access to the Department of Anthropology records requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Dogs -- Pre-Columbian  Search this
Collection Citation:
Department of Anthropology Records, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Department of Anthropology records
Department of Anthropology records / Series 17: Division of Ethnology / 17.1: Manuscript and Pamphlet File / Habitations
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw35718a150-d0b1-443c-932b-203466e6e025
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-xxxx-0311-ref15681

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