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Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Source:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1428 negatives (photographic)
40 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Nauset  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Catawba  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Machapunga (Pungo River)  Search this
Innu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Virginia
Canada
Delaware
North Carolina
Date:
1909-1937
Summary:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.

Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
Related Materials:
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
Separated Materials:
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.

Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
Provenance:
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maryland  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Delaware  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-032
Online Media:

How to Register on the ILLiad Request System

Creator:
Smithsonian Libraries  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2010-03-14T22:51:30Z
Topic:
Library science  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianLibraries
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianLibraries
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_9hDELYBRgS4

Smithsonian Institution Libraries: Creating the Digital Library

Creator:
Smithsonian Libraries  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2009-05-18T18:31:51Z
Topic:
Library science  Search this
Youtube Category:
Science & Technology  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianLibraries
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianLibraries
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_WztO6fSsxCA

The Birth of a Corporate Pop-Up Book

Creator:
Smithsonian Libraries  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2011-05-19T16:53:37Z
Topic:
Library science  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianLibraries
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianLibraries
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_dFUz-hwL9kw

The Pop-Up Art of David Carter

Creator:
Smithsonian Libraries  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2011-05-19T20:03:19Z
Topic:
Library science  Search this
Youtube Category:
Education  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianLibraries
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianLibraries
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_yTLHUkq3GWc

Cooper-Hewitt - Pop-up book: The Pop-up Pinocchio

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-12T21:54:04Z
Topic:
Design  Search this
Youtube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_8XmbLd1ZnI8

Cooper-Hewitt - Pop-up book: The Jolly Jump-Ups Journey through Space

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-12T18:17:40Z
Topic:
Design  Search this
Youtube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_DmwCKJMH3C8

Cooper-Hewitt - Mechanical book: What a Surprise

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-12T20:52:19Z
Topic:
Design  Search this
Youtube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_LRSjWHzPtXY

Cooper-Hewitt - Pop-up book: Dick Tracy: The Capture of Boris Arson

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-11T22:51:01Z
Topic:
Design  Search this
Youtube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_PRI1KjmbrRQ

Cooper-Hewitt - Mechanical book: Alice in Wonderland

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-11T16:46:36Z
Topic:
Design  Search this
Youtube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_bV3ouOwIFEc

Cooper-Hewitt - Pop-up book: Puss in Boots

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-16T15:42:41Z
Topic:
Design  Search this
Youtube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_mVvj_QFtWqk

Cooper-Hewitt - Pop-up book: Popeye with the Hag of the Seven Seas

Creator:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2008-12-12T21:16:49Z
Topic:
Design  Search this
Youtube Category:
Nonprofits & Activism  Search this
See more by:
cooperhewitt
YouTube Channel:
cooperhewitt
Data Source:
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_qxRhg1s2JN8

Robbie Fanning Sewing Arts Collection

Creator:
Fanning, Robbie  Search this
Extent:
5 Cubic feet (13 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Trade catalogs
Correspondence
Pamphlets
Newsletters
Manuals
Photographs
Periodicals
Videocassettes
Date:
1903-2002
bulk 1993-2002
Summary:
The collection documents materials gathered by Robbie Fanning, publisher of sewing related books and newsletters and includes the history of major sewing machine brands, machine accessories, machine embroidery, machine needles, thread, binding, interfacing, and other sewing notions.
Scope and Contents:
Archival materials on the subject of sewing and sewing machines, including correspondence, Fanning's subject files, photographs, newsletters, product manuals, catalogs, trade literature, articles, reprints, sewing periodicals, and VHS videos.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Robbie Fanning (b. 1947-) of Menlo Park, California, a former journalism teacher, she started a publishing company called Open Chain Publishing, specializing in sewing books. She published a quarterly newsletter called The Creative Machine aimed at helping the sewing hobbyist learn new sewing techniques, review sewing equipment and products, and pose questions to the sewing industry. The newsletter ceased publication in 2002. The collection as a whole depicts the shift from sewing as a necessity to clothe a family or save money to sewing as a creative outlet for women and men with leisure time.
Related Materials:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Books related to sewing and books authored by Robbie Fanning.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center in 2008 by Robbie Fanning.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Machine quilting  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Sewing machines  Search this
Sewing  Search this
Quilting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Trade catalogs
Correspondence -- 2000-2010
Pamphlets
Newsletters
Manuals
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Photographs -- 1980-2000
Periodicals
Videocassettes
Citation:
Robbie Fanning Sewing Arts Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1139
See more items in:
Robbie Fanning Sewing Arts Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1139

James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs

Creator:
James Cunningham, Son and Company (Rochester, New York)  Search this
Extent:
10 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Rochester (N.Y.)
Date:
1908-1964
bulk 1908-1929
Summary:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of glass plate negatives and photographic prints of the glass plate negatives depicting horse-drawn hearses (funeral wagons), carriages, and ambulances and motorized vehicles produced by James Cunningham, Son and Company from approximately 1908 to 1929. The majority of the glass plates and photographic prints depict horse-drawn hearses, but there are some motorized vehicles.

There are approximately 335 glass plate negatives and the same number of photographic prints. It is unknown who created the photographic prints, but some of the glass plates were originally held at the Free Library of Philadelphia.

The glass plates are in three sizes: 5" x 7" 8" x 10" and 11" x 14". The glass plates and the photographic prints are arranged by an alpha-numeric system that was presumably developed by the company. In some instances, J.L. Hill is identified as a photographer.

In some instances, the model number, style and date are provided. Most images are side views, although there are some rear and interior views. Some glass plates are unidentified or missing. Some of the descriptions include lamp number information. Many carriages had mounted lamps or lanterns that were oil or battery powered. if a carriage was built for a specific person or company, such as W. H. Graham Company, this information is listed.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Glass Plates, A1 to A55, 1908-1929 and undated

Series 2, Glass Plates, B1 to B159, [1913?] and undated

Series 3, Glass Plates, C1 to C50, undated

Series 4, Glass Plates, D1 to D64, undated

Series 5, Glass Plates, E1 to E8, undated

Series 6, Photographic Prints, undated

Series 7: Background Materials, 1930s-1964
Biographical / Historical:
James Cunningham (1815-1886) was born in County Down, Ireland to Arthur and Ann Cunningham. He came to the United States in 1833 from Canada seeking work in the New York City area, where he had an uncle practicing architecture. In Canada, Cunningham had worked in woodwork design in a carpenter's shop east of Toronto in Cobourg, Ontario. Cunningham returned to Canada via Rochester, New York. While in Rochester, he was introduced to George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck, entrepreneurs who set up the first coach-making shop in Rochester in 1834.

From 1834 to 1838 Cunningham worked as an apprentice and journeyman for George Hanford and J.H. Whitbeck. He formed a partnership with two of his fellow-workers, James Kerr and Blanchard Dean. Together they bought out Hanford and Whitbeck and made cutters, known as one-horse open sleighs and buggies. In 1842 Kerr and Blanchard resigned, and James Cunningham assumed full responsibility.

Cunningham married Bridget Jennings in 1838, and they had three children: Augustine, Joseph, and Margaretta. Cunningham's son, Joseph (1842?-1914) joined his father in the company and as a result, the company reorganized in 1866 as James Cunningham and Son. Joseph Cunningham became a full partner in 1868. Rufus Dryer (1846-1937) became a partner in 1875 when he married Margaretta Cunningham in the same year. There were branch offices with display rooms in Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, New Orleans, Chicago, Des Moines, Kansas City, Topeka, Denver, and San Francisco. In 1876, Cunningham carriages and a hearse won prizes at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.

In 1882, the firm was incorporated as James Cunningham, Son and Company. It was the largest industrial enterprise in Rochester, New York, both in its plant area and in capital. The firm continued to make carriages until 1915. Joseph Cunningham and Rufus Dryer retired in 1909, and the company, which had become a partnership, was reincorporated. Augustine Cunningham, son of Joseph Cunningham, was president, James Dryer (son of Rufus Dryer) vice-president, and Francis Cunningham (son of Joseph Cunningham) was secretary and general manager.

In 1908 the company began automobile production, not for the popular market, but for the type of customer that bought its carriages. The company did not mass-produce their automobiles. Intially, it made only automobile bodies and assembled the rest of the car from engines, transmissions, axles, and radiators made by proprietary companies. By 1910 it produced the entire automobile. In 1916 Cunningham produced a V-8 engine, and the Cunningham car became outstanding for its clean, classic lines. It was the first car to not have running-boards, using instead steps of brass-framed aluminum.

In the late 1920s Cunningham entered the aviation business and created a subsidiary, the Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corporation. The primary aim of the corporation was to build an airplane that would combine stability with speed. The first Cunningham-Hall plane designed with these requirements was a modified biplane: the lower wing was considerably larger than the upper and slotted, so that a current of air could be made to flow between its surfaces. This enabled the plane to land at low speeds. It was first tested in the small town of LeRoy, New York. Cunningham-Hall continued to make aircraft until 1938. Its X-14324, produced in 1934, was a low-wing monoplane made entirely of metal. The company also produced primary trainers, a six-place cabin plane, other passenger and cargo craft, and experimental planes for the Army and Navy. By the early 1930s the company had ceased to produce automobiles and funeral carriages/hearses.

Over the years Cunningham made a wide variety of products. During World War II, Cunningham found a temporary role in defense production. Prior to the war the compaay had produced a variety of odd products: safety belts for aircraft, diving helmets, even belt buckles for Boy Scout uniforms. During the Civil War the company made carriages for the Union armies, and the First World War, ambulances and automotive windlasses for observation balloons. More significant had been its experience of producing armored and tracked vehicles. In March 1928, Cunningham's first tank was tested at Aberdeen, Maryland. Equipped with a revolving turret and armed with a 37 millimeter cannon and a .30 caliber machine gun, it traveled twenty miles an hour, faster than any tank produced up to that time. In 1933, Cunningham developed a tank track, with light-weight rubber-block treads that allowed for even greater speeds. Cunningham also developed experimental half-tracks, cargo carriers, armored cars, and a weapons carrier for a 75 millimeter Howitzer.

In 1940 James Dryer retired. The corporation was dissolved in 1941 and replaced by a partnership, with Augustine and Francis Cunningham as co-partners. After World War II, the firm produced small farm and garden machines such as sickle-bar mowers, tractors, and rotary tillers. Cunningham also designed and produced a complete line of plumbing fixtures for house trailers in a constant effort to retool and redefine itself in the post-war years.

By 1952, the firm met Andrew W. Vincent, an electrical engineer with Stromberg-Carlson in Rochester. Vincent devoted himself to perfecting a small dial telephone system. The heart of this system was the crossbar switch. The company acquired Vincent's initial designs and patent applications and hired him as a consultant. The company restricted its production to creating prototypes of switching devices. The Cunningham crossbar was versatile. It had the ability to switch electrical information from low-level DC signals to 100 megacycles, reliably and at high speeds.

In 1968, Peter F. Cunningham, then president of the company, sold controlling interest to the Gleason Works, a Rochester-based manufacturer of machine tools. Under Gleason Works, the company was renamed Cunningham Corporation. In 1977, all Cunningham-related activities ended.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Institution

National Museum of American History, Division of Work & Industry

1929 Cunningham touring car. See accession #:310671.

National Air and Space Museum Archives

Cunningham-Hall Collection, 1917-1940 (bulk 1928-1930)

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Trade Literature Collection

Trade catalogs from James Cunningham Son & Company (See SILNMAHTL_12462)

Materials in Other Organizations

Long Island Museum of American Art, History and Carriages

Includes drawings, a trade catalog, a cart, and a buggy from James Cunningham and Sons.

Detroit Public Library

Papers of the James Cunningham Company, 1902-1964 (bulk 1909-1946)

Includes notebooks of G. Carson Baker, chief designer and David Fergusson, chief engineer, patent applications, correspondence, drawings and blueprints related to Fergusson's work, parts and instruction books for early automobiles (including electric automobiles), photographs of Cunningham factories, military vehicles and motor trucks.

Rochester Museum and Science Center, Libraries and Collections Department

Local Business History vertical files hold items related to James Cunningham, Son and Company as well as books.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 1973 by the Cunningham Company to the National Museum of American History, Division of Transportation.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Horse-drawn vehicles  Search this
Hearses (Vehicles)  Search this
Family-owned business enterprises  Search this
Automobile industry and trade  Search this
Carriage industry  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Carriage and wagon making  Search this
Ambulances  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1950
Citation:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photonegatives, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1193
See more items in:
James Cunningham, Son and Company Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1193

International Salt Company Records

Creator:
International Salt Company  Search this
Costain, Harold Haliday  Search this
Rittase, William M., 1894-1968  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Transparencies
Time books
Scrapbooks
Cashbooks
Annual reports
Ledgers (account books)
Financial records
Patents
Letters
Newsletters
Date:
1881-1993
bulk 1920-1929
Summary:
The collection contains business records and photographic materials documenting the International Salt Company. The business records include correspondence, account and ledger books, a payroll book, patent and trademark information, print advertising and marketing materials, and a salesman salt display kit. The photographic materials include a series of photographs by William M. Rittase, a series of photographs by Harold Haliday Costain, a small photograph album, snapshots, and slides. The images cover all facets of the salt manufacturing and packaging operations, and include photographs taken in New York State, Michigan, and Louisiana.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains business records and photographic materials documenting the International Salt Company. The business records include correspondence, account and ledger books, a payroll book, patent and trademark information, print advertising and marketing materials, and a salesman salt display kit. The photographic materials include a series of photographs by William M. Rittase, a series of photographs by Harold Haliday Costain, a small photograph album, snapshots, and slides. The images cover all facets of the salt manufacturing and packaging operations, and include photographs taken in New York State, Michigan, and Louisiana.

The scrapbooks contain advertisements for the International Salt Company's Sterling Salt label and other leading salt companies, especially Morton's. Much of the ephemera consists of labels, but there are also small pamphlet cookbooks. The cookbooks, prepared and marketed by various salt companies, tout recipes for tasty dishes using specific salts and expound upon the merits of salt in general, especially the medical benefits. Other clever salt-related advertising appears in conjunction with maps, buttons, song books, calendars, and health exercises.

Series 1, Business Records, 1894-1937, consists primarily of financial materials--ledgers, cash books, monthly statements, timekeeping and payroll information--for the Avery Rock Salt Mining Company (A.R.S.M.Co.), Detroit Rock Salt Company, Detroit Salt Company, International Salt Company, and the Restof Mining Company. Additionally, there is one annual report for the International Salt Company (1957) and the newsletter Saltmaker, 1964.

There are two A.R.S.M.Co. ledgers, 1898-1907 and 1907-1922. The first ledger, 1898-1907, predates the founding of the International Salt Company, and it is likely that A.R.S.M.Co was absorbed by International Salt during a merger. Documentation recorded including inventories, merchandise, labor, surplus, insurance, office expenses, legal expenses, taxes, bills receivable, directors' committee fees, fuel, candles, oil, waste and packing, rental, repairs and maintenance, interest, labor, feed, outside salary account, Cuban consignment account, and loan account. Specific persons, such as superintendents F. Rundio and Sidney Bradford, are mentioned and specific companies including Restof Mining, Joy Morton Company, Havana Mill, G. Lawton Childs & Company, International Salt of New York and various others (pages 193-212), are listed with expenses.

The Detroit Salt Company (general ledger), 1911-1913, consists of one bound volume documenting the company's assets, liabilities, expenses, earnings, advance accounts, and old accounts.

Detroit Rock Salt Company (cash record), 1912 October-1913 January, consists of one bound volume documenting cash received and cash disbursed.

International Salt Company, Inc., Independent Salt Company Division (monthly statements), 1933 October-1937 December, consists of one bound volume of general ledger trial balance sheets organized chronologically. Detailed documentation includes general expenses, assets, capital assets, liabilities, special reserves, net worth, profit and loss statements, warehousing costs and tonnage purchased.

Restof Mining Company (time and payroll), 1894 July 1-1895 March 31, consists of one bound volume of 400 pages, documenting the time and payroll for employees. The volume contains the name of the employee, the number of days worked, hourly wage earned per day, the amount earned, advances, board due, store (supplies due), rent, and any balances due. A portion of the volume is severely water-damaged.

Series 2, Trademarks, 1881-1935, consists of copies of issued trademark declarations from the United States Patent Office. The trademarks are for company names, logos, salt containers and packages, and various salt products. The trademarks are arranged alphabetically by the name of the trademark. For example, Amaessa, a trademark for baking powder and salt is filed with other trademarks beginning with the letter "A." Additional materials consist of one file folder of correspondence and printed materials about patents, trademarks and copyright laws. The correspondence relates specifically to the ownership of certain trademarks by International Salt Company, and there is correspondence from John L. Ryon, assistant sales manager and W.T. Chisolm, vice-president of International Salt Company. There are compiled lists of brand names, trademarks, and package designs for which International Salt registered at the United States Patent Office, 1926-1927. There are two examples of small cloth bags branded with "Ideal Salt" and some packaging, such as "White Lily High Grade Salt" and labels such as "Purex Free Running Table Salt." The Peter J.L. Searing trademark for salt (No. 52,963) and Chicago Sawed Salt-Block Company (No. 15,174) provide examples of ethnic imagery. A trademark is a brand name. A trademark or service mark includes any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination used or intended to be used to identify and distinguish the goods/services of one seller or provider from those of others, and to indicate the source of the goods/services. Although federal registration of a mark is not mandatory, it has several advantages, including notice to the public of the registrant's claim of ownership of the mark, legal presumption of ownership nationwide, and exclusive right to use the mark on or in connection with the goods/services listed in the registration.

Series 3, Photographs, 1934-1993, is divided into five subseries: Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, 1934; Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934; Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993; Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s; and Subseries 5, Album (unidentified), undated.

Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, circa 1934, consists of three photographs (approximately 10 1/2" x 13") black-and-white prints mounted to 16" x 20" boards. The prints are numbered #6, #42, and #44 and depict a salt mine and equipment used in salt manufacturing located in Avery Island, Louisiana.

Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934, consists of black-and-white prints (10" x 14") signed by Ritasse which are mounted on 18 1/2" x 20" boards. The photographs are arranged numerically from #350 to #480. Many of the photographs are captioned. American photographer William Rittase (1887-1968), active in the 1920s-1930s, is known for his industrial photography. Rittase's images provide insight into International Salt Company activities such as salt manufacturing, packaging operations, general factory processes, printing salt bags, can labeling, brine storage, exteriors of buildings, crushing salt, men in the salt mines, machine shop views, and equipment.

Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993, consists of black-and-white and color prints, as well as transparencies depicting salt mines and related activities. Some of the photographs document a visit by International Salt Company executives to the Jefferson Island, Louisiana salt plant.

Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s, consists of seventeen color slides documenting salt plants, equipment and salt miners.

Subseries 5, Album (damaged mine), undated, consists of twenty-two 4" x 6 1/2" black-and-white photographs documenting the damage to a salt manufacturing plant. The photographs are captioned, but there is no indication of the geographic location of the salt plant.

Series 4, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1920-1948, consists of two scrapbooks (14" x 17" and 11" x 16") that contain primarily tear sheets, unbound periodical pages showing an advertisement as printed, or as a proof, newspaper clippings, magazine clippings, correspondence, pamphlets, price lists, recipes, labels, periodicals, and other ephemera.

The scrapbook, 1920-1931, consists primarily of advertisements and newspaper clippings related to advertising salt products, especially for Morton's Salt and Diamond Crystal Salt. Other companies represented include Colonial Salt Company, Carey Salt Company, Jefferson Island Salt Company, Kerr Salt Company, Mulkey Salt Company, Myles Salt Company, Ohio Salt Company, Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, Remington Salt Company, Star Salt Corporation, Union Salt Company, Worcester Salt Company, and Watkins Salt Company.

The scrapbook from 1945-1948 is devoted to advertisements for the International Salt Company and Sterling Salt, which promoted salt uses for the home (table salt, curing meats, and brines), industry (rock salt for winter weather) and agriculture (killing weeds). Many of the advertisements were part of the "Pass the Salt" campaign and were featured in publications such as Woman's Day, National Provisioner, Food Industries, Hide, Leather and Shoes, Chemical Previews, and Public Works. The scrapbook is divided into three sections: institutional, weed prevention, and Lixate, a process developed by the International Salt Research Laboratory for making brine. Many of the advertisements were prepared by J.M. Mathes Incorporated.

Also included is a traveling salt kit for Sterling Salt Company salesmen, undated, featuring small glass vials of sterling salt from mines in Detroit, Avery Island, Louisiana, and Restof, New York. Each vial notes the types of salts--purified, softener, iodized, medium flake, coarse flake, granular flour, and meat.

Series 5, Posters, circa 1920s, consists of oversize advertising posters for Worcester Salt Company. There is one set of labels from an exhibit titled "I Eat Rocks! Salt of the Earth."
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1, Business Records, 1894-1937

Series 2, Trademarks, 1881-1935

Series 3, Photographs, 1934-1993

Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, circa 1934

Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934

Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993

Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s

Subseries 5, Album (damaged mine), undated

Series 4, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1920-1948

Series 5, Posters, circa 1920s
Biographical / Historical:
The International Salt Company incorporated on August 22, 1901, and in 1902, the company purchased the stock and assets of the National Salt Company, which had failed. By 1934, International Salt was a holding company for six subsidiaries: Avery Salt Company (West Virginia), Detroit Rock Salt Company (Michigan), Eastern Salt Company (Massachusetts), Independent Salt Company (New York), International Salt Company, Inc. (New York), and Retsof Mining Company (New York). All of the subsidiaries operated rock salt mines and evaporated salt plants and distributed salt. In 1940, the International Salt Company decided to sell four of its subsidiaries--Avery Salt Company, Detroit Rock Salt Company, International Salt Company, Inc., and Retsof Mining Company.

John M. Avery discovered rock salt at Petite Anse, Louisiana in 1862. Petite Anse Island was renamed Avery Island in the late 19th century. Ownership and mining of salt at Petite Anse involved numerous parties until 1886, when New Iberia Salt Company took over operations. In 1896, the Avery family began operating the mine, and they founded the Avery Rock Salt Mining Company. In 1899, the International Salt Company leased the mine.

The Detroit Salt and Manufacturing Company was founded in 1906. The company quickly went bankrupt during construction of a shaft and was acquired in 1910 by the Watkins Salt Company, which incorporated the new organization under the name Detroit Rock Salt Company. The company experienced success and the International Salt Company purchased the mine circa 1914. In 1983, International Salt closed the mine's operations and in 1985, Crystal Mines, Inc., purchased the mine as a potential storage site.

In 1885 the Empire Salt Company of New York was renamed the Retsof Mine Company, and the Village of Retsof was founded near the mine shaft. During the next 110 years, the mine grew to become the largest salt-producing mine in the United States and the second largest in the world. Before the initial collapse in March 1994, the mine encompassed an underground area of more than 6,000 acres, and the mine footprint (outer edge of mined area) extended over an area of nearly ten square miles. At the time of the collapse, the Retsof Mine was owned by Akzo-Nobel Salt Incorporated (ANSI) and, during the winter of 1993--994 operated at full capacity to meet demands for road salt throughout the northeastern United States. The Retsof Mine ceased operations on September 2, 1995, and by December, twenty-one months after the initial collapse, the mine was completely flooded.
Related Materials:
Materials held at the Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, National Museum of American History

Trade catalogs from International Salt Company Inc., 1900s

Materials held at Other Organizations

Harvard University Archives

Ritasse, William M., 1894-1968. Photographs of Hardvard University campus and environs taken by William M. Ritasse, circa 1930.

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs

Avery Rock Salt Mining Company, Plan. June 16, 1924 (AKZO No. 7-77-02) - Avery Island Salt Works, Akzo Salt Incorporated, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

Salt Mine Village, Salt Workers' Houses No. 6, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

Avery Island Sugarhouse, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

State Library of Louisiana

Historic Photograph Collection contains images of salt mining at Avery Island, Louisiana.

University of North Carolina, Southern Historical Collection at the Louis Round Wilson Library

Papers for the Avery Family of Louisiana, 1796-1951
Provenance:
Tom Maeder donated the collection on June 13, 2009.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Salt  Search this
Salt workers  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- Michigan  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- New York  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- Louisiana  Search this
advertising  Search this
Industrial photography -- 1990-2000 -- Texas  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- Louisiana  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- New York  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- Michigan  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Transparencies
Time books
Scrapbooks
Cashbooks
Annual reports
Ledgers (account books)
Financial records
Patents
Letters
Newsletters
Citation:
International Salt Company Records, 1881-1993, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1158
See more items in:
International Salt Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1158
Online Media:

Lockwood-Greene Records

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated  Search this
Lockwood-Greene Company  Search this
Whitman, David  Search this
Greene, Stephen  Search this
Lockwood, Amos  Search this
Former owner:
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (233 boxes, 850 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs
Trade literature
Date:
1784-2004
bulk 1915-1930
Summary:
The engineering firm that became Lockwood Greene was founded by David Whitman, a mill engineer, in 1832. Amos D. Lockwood, a consultant, succeeded Whitman and entered a partnership with Stephen Greene in 1882. The firm specialized in industrial engineering and construction; they designed and built a wide variety of structures and work environments worldwide over the next century. Lockwood Greene was acquired by CH2M HILL in December, 2003. Before its acquisition by CH2MHILL it was reportedly the oldest industrial engineering, construction, and professional services firm in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Lockwood Greene records are a comprehensive range of documents related to the appraisal, building, construction, design, evaluation, and engineering of facilities for a variety of clients. The material covers the entire period of industrialization of the United States, and, provides a thorough record of the textile industry, both in New England and the South. Some of the textile mills are documented with unusual completeness, showing water and steam power layouts, factory village plans, and landscaping schedules. A broad range of other building typologies is also covered, including projects with public or retail functions, such as early automobile showrooms, hospitals, apartments and private dwellings, churches, and schools.

In-depth study of the company's earliest history is hampered by a scarcity of records, many of which were lost in the great fire that destroyed Boston's city center in 1872. Nevertheless, graphic and textual evidence does exist within the collection that illuminates these early projects, in addition to the fabric of surviving buildings. The Lockwood Greene records document several commissions that the firm would return to again and again over the course of many decades as clients requested plant additions, upgrades to mechanical and operating systems, and other substantive changes. Researchers are encouraged to examine the blueprints, elevations, and plans for these later additions in order to find illustrations of the firm's earlier interventions at the site. In addition to drawings, other visual evidence for nineteenth-century projects can be found in the company's extensive photo files, which often document structures for which drawings do not exist.

The Lockwood Greene records contain an abundance of graphic and textual evidence for structures designed after 1910 until the 1930s. After this period, visual documentation becomes much more limited. This is partially due to the evolution of drafting tools and information management technologies within the architecture and engineering profession. Lockwood Greene was an early adopter of technological innovations in rendering and data capture, beginning with the introduction of aperture cards and microfilm and extending to the adoption of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. These more modern formats were not part of the acquisition, and, at the time of writing, still reside with the company.

The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of interest to historians of architecture and engineering, as well as those that study the history of business and labor relations. It provides extensive textual and documentary evidence on the evolution and growth of American engineering and the increasing professionalization of the discipline through specialization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rich holdings of architectural drawings, photographs, and specifications provide unparalleled resources that trace the evolution of industrial buildings and their typologies; experimentation with building materials and systems, particularly with regards to fireproofing; and the history of textile manufacture in the United States. In addition, there is also rich visual and documentary evidence of the changing relationships between corporations and their employees through photographs, plans, and designs for company towns and mill villages, as well as through corporate records that illustrate the work culture of Lockwood Greene itself. The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of special interest to historic preservationists as the awareness of the significance of industrial and vernacular buildings continues to grow, and detailed design drawings and other visual material will be of especial value for restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive-reuse projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Project Drawings, Renderings, and Plans, 1784-1969, undated

Series 2, Photographs and Slides, 1881-2001, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photo Albums, 1906-1934

Subseries 2.2: Photographic Files, 1881-1956

Subseries 2.3: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1948-1974

Subseries 2.4: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1919-1999

Subseries 2.5: Project Negatives and Transparencies, 1956-1970

Subseries 2.6: Project Slides and Transparencies, 1985-2001

Subseries 2.7: Project Slides and Transparencies, Culls, 1974-2001

Subseries 2.8: Project Slides and Transparencies, Corporate Photography, 1976-1998

Subseries 2.9: Photograph Album Covers, 1920, undated

Series 3: Job Files, 1872-1957, undated

Subseries 3.1, Specifications, 1913-1942, undated

Subseries 3.2: List of Drawings, 1872-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3: Project Files, 1919-1969, undated

Subseries 3.4: Reports, 1913-1969

Subseries 3.5: Job Cost Records, 1913-1957, undated

Series 4, Corporate Records and History, 1881-2004, undated

Subseries 4.1: Meeting Minutes, 1913-1995

Subseries 4.2: Corporate Files, 1891-2004, undated

Subseries 4.3: Historical Research and Reference Files and Photographs, 1881-1983, undated

Subseries 4.4: Corporate Publications, 1917-2001, undated

Series 5, Non-Lockwood Greene Publications, 1910-1984, undated

Series 6, Audio-Visual, 1964
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood Greene, one of the nation's oldest engineering firms, traces it roots to 1832, when Rhode Island native David Whitman began a machinery repair service. Riding the wave of the early industrial revolution in textile manufacturing, Whitman added mill design services to his repertoire, which formed the backbone of a flourishing consulting business for the rest of the century. Whitman was one of the first itinerant mill engineers or "doctors" that traveled throughout New England advising various industrialists on the placement, design, and construction of their factories and the layout of the complicated system of machinery and shafting that they contained. His largest commission was the design of the Bates Manufacturing Company complex in Lewiston, Maine, which was incorporated in 1850 and soon became one of the largest textile producers in New England.

Upon Whitman's death in 1858, his unfinished work was assumed by Amos D. Lockwood, a prominent mill agent and astute businessman who had built a name for himself in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The successful completion of the projects at Lewiston brought enough additional demand for Lockwood's services to prompt him to relocate to Boston, where he formally opened an independent consulting office with partner John W. Danielson in 1871. For the next ten years, A.D. Lockwood & Company was involved in a least eight major mill design projects, half of which were for new construction. One of these projects, the design and construction of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company in Greenville (now Piedmont), South Carolina was especially significant and is considered to be a prototype for the Southern textile industry.

In 1882, Lockwood established a new business, Lockwood, Greene and Company, with Stephen Greene, a professionally-trained civil engineer who had joined the firm in 1879. As the firm grew, it expanded its scope as consultants supplying all of the necessary architectural and engineering services a prospective owner needed to initiate, equip, and run a complete plant. Acting as the owners' representative, the company supervised construction and installation but did not directly act as builders or contractors. Lockwood

Greene's objective expertise was legendary and made it a leader in this emergent field. As Samuel B. Lincoln explains in his history of the company:

"The new firm's knowledge and experience in the textile industry enabled it to analyze samples of cloth and, from such samples, to provide everything necessary for a completed plant to make such goods in any desired quantity. It did not at any time act as selling agents for machinery or equipment, neither did it accept commissions or rebates from suppliers: by this policy it maintained a position as impartial and independent engineer." (pages 105-107)

Greene became president of the company upon Lockwood's death in 1884. Under his leadership, the company expanded into additional industries and designed an array of other industrial building types that would prefigure the diversity of later work. In 1893, the company revolutionized American industry by designing and constructing the first factory whose operating power was provided entirely over electric wires from a remote power plant, rather than relying upon a water source or a stockpiled fuel supply. The Columbia Mills project created a great deal of publicity for the firm and was a signal to other manufacturers that there were viable alternatives to the use of steam power.

As changing economic conditions led Lockwood Greene to move away from its traditional reliance upon the textile manufacturing industry, it was very successful at soliciting projects for a wide variety of structures, from newspaper plants and automotive factories to convention halls and schools. After 1900, Lockwood Greene expanded its operations and opened branch offices in other cities, including Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Atlanta, and Charlotte. In 1915, Edwin F. Greene, president and son of Stephen Greene, reorganized the firm as Lockwood, Greene & Company, Incorporated This new entity served as the parent company and controlled three subsidiaries: one to own and operate cotton mills that Greene had acquired; one to manage other companies' textile mills; and one to provide engineering services.

Lockwood Greene expanded its operations tremendously as the textile industry boomed under wartime demand and in the years following. The severe textile depression from 1923 to 1928 caused the collapse of this structure, however, as Lockwood Greene continued to suffer deep losses in the textile mills that it owned. The parent company was dissolved in 1928 and the engineering subsidiary, which had remained profitable, was salvaged as Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated.

After a rocky start with the onset of the Depression, the company began to prosper during the Second World War and its growth continued steadily throughout the next several decades. In the late 1960s, as a result of declining business, the company's headquarters was transferred from Boston to Spartanburg, South Carolina. In 1981, Phillipp Holtzman USA, a subsidiary of Phillipp Holtzman AG of Frankfurt, Germany, acquired a majority interest in Lockwood Greene. In 2003, CH2M Hill, a global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services based in Denver, Colorado, acquired the company.

From its beginnings under David Whitman, Lockwood Greene has become one of the most diversified engineering firms in the United States. The firm is best known as a designer of industrial and institutional buildings, but the company has become a leader in many additional areas in recent years. Lockwood Greene dominates the market in the design and production of the germ- and dust-free "clean room" facilities required by the pharmaceutical industry and micro-electronics manufacturers. The company has also developed expertise in designing integrated security and networking systems for industrial plants, international port facilities, and military installations worldwide.

Banham, Raynor. A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

Biggs, Lindy. The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Bradley, Betsy Hunter. The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Greene, Benjamin Allen. Stephen Greene: Memories of His Life, with Addresses, Resolutions and Other Tributes of Affection. Chicago, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1903.

Heiser, William J. Lockwood Greene, 1958-1968, Another Period in the History of an Engineering Business. Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated, 1970.

Lincoln, Samuel B. Lockwood Greene: The History of an Engineering Business, 1832-1958. Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1960.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated The Lockwood Greene Story: One-Hundred-Fifty Years of Engineering Progress. Spartanburg, South Carolina: Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated; undated.
Related Materials:
"[Trade catalogs from Lockwood, Greene & Co.]", Trade Literature at the American History Museum Books, Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lockwood Greene, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1997 (original drawings). An addendum to the collection was donated by CH2M HILL in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing film portion of collection requires special appointment, please inquire. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff.
Topic:
Architects  Search this
Architecture, Commercial  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Construction industry  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Textile mills  Search this
Mills  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Industrial buildings -- Design and construction  Search this
Industrial buildings  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Factories -- Power supply  Search this
Factories -- Design and construction  Search this
Factories  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Commercial buildings  Search this
Electric power production  Search this
Genre/Form:
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Trade literature
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Lockwood Greene Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1113
See more items in:
Lockwood-Greene Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1113
Online Media:

Nordberg Manufacturing Company Collection

Creator:
Nordberg Manufacturing Company  Search this
Names:
Chain Belt Company  Search this
Nordberg, Bruno V.  Search this
Extent:
45 Cubic feet (189 boxes, 110 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Trade catalogs
Photographs
Blueprints
Place:
Milwaukee (Wis.)
Date:
1891-1947
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of the company's photo and negative archives; miscellaneous trade publications; G. Turnwald notebooks; technical memoranda; trade literature; operating manuals; parts books; Nordberg company history; machinery proposals; order books; time records; Chain Belt Company catalogs; and blueprints used in the shops.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1912-1957

Series 2: Catalogs/Bulletins, 1891-1972

Series 3: Sales/Order Materials, 1891-1971

Series 4: Advertising Materials, 1911-1955

Series 5: Operating Manuals and Instructions, 1917-1964

Series 6: Technical Memorandum, 1919-1969

Series 7: Turnwald Notebooks, 1928-1942

Series 8: Trade Literature, 1912-1974

Series 9, Photographs, undated

Series 10: Drawings, 1884-1979
Historical:
The Nordberg Manufacturing Company, founded in 1890 by Bruno V. Nordberg, manufactured steam engines (later diesel engines) and precision built heavy machinery in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The company later added Poppet valve steam engines, oil engines, railway track maintenance machinery, crushers, machinery for processing ore, mine hoists, blowing engines, condensers, steam pumping engines, and Corliss engines for every type of power service. Nordberg was a leading manufacturer of marine diesel engines and supplied engines for many of the American merchant marine ships.

In 1895, the company elected Jacob Friend as its first president. From 1912-1924, Bruno Nordberg served as president, and in 1924, Robert Friend, son of Jacob Friend, became president. The company purchased the Busch-Sulzer Brothers Diesel Engine Company of St. Louis in 1946, merging two of the largest diesel engine manufacturers.
Related Materials at the National Museum of American History:
Division of Work and Industry

The Division holds a photograph of the Nordberg diesel type oil engine at the Central Station Burro Mountain Copper Company Power House. Related artifacts include a builders plate and calipers. See Accession #: 1984.0243

Smithsonian Institution Libraries Trade Literature Collection

The libraries hold trade literature relating to Nordberg Manufacturing Company, Chain Belt Company, Rexnord, Inc.

Michigan Technological University, J.R. VanPelt and Opie Library

Nordberg Manufacturing Company Engineering Blueprints Collection, circa 1890-circa 1946

220.0 cubic ft.

Blueprints, circa 1890-circa 1946, of the Nordberg Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Includes blueprints of valve engines, pumps, hoists, compressors, and similar equipment, much of which was used by mining companies in Michigan's Upper Peninsula.

Wisconsin Historical Society Library and Archives

Nordberg Manufacturing Company photographs, circa 1910-1970s

182 photographs and 4.0. c.f. of negatives (10 archives boxes).

Photographs and negatives, circa 1910-1970s, related to the Nordberg Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Images include views of heavy machinery used in the manufacture of mine hoisting engines and aerial views of the manufacturing company. The collection also includes an album of photographs made in the manufacturing plant of the company of Corliss and Poppett valve steam engines.
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds related Nordberg Manufacturing Company objects that include a builders plate and calipers. See Accession #1984.0243.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Heavy machinery  Search this
Diesel engines  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Marine engines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks
Trade catalogs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 19th-20th century
Blueprints
Citation:
Nordberg Manufacturing Company Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0975
See more items in:
Nordberg Manufacturing Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0975
Online Media:

Worthington Corporation Records

Collector:
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
History of Technology, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of [former name], NMAH, SI.  Search this
Work and Industry, Division of, NMAH, SI  Search this
Creator:
Holly Manufacturing Company  Search this
Worthington Corporation  Search this
Names:
Henry R. Worthington Pump Works  Search this
International Steam Pump Company  Search this
Jeanesville Iron Works  Search this
Worthington Pump and Machinery Corporation  Search this
Grace, John F.  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (54 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial records
Trade catalogs
Reports
Sketchbooks
Advertisements
Patents
Photographs
Newsletters
Minute books
Legal documents
Correspondence
Place:
England
London
Hazelton (Penn.)
Buffalo (N.Y.)
Holyoke (Mass.)
Cincinnati (Ohio)
Date:
1840-1982
Summary:
This collection documents the products and business activities of the Worthington Corporation, its predecessors and its subsidiaries. The records focus on the products that the Worthington Corporation produced, including steam pumps, hydraulic pumps and gas engines.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the products and business activities of the Worthington Corporation, its predecessors and its subsidiaries. It consists of annual and monthly reports, correspondence, legal filings, trade literature, photographs, airbrushed photographs and product illustrations, financial reports, meeting minutes, newsletters, company histories and research notes, patents, blueprints, engineering sketchbooks, lecture notes, publications, and promotional materials for several World's Fairs where Worthington products were exhibited.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Historical and Reference Materials, 1847-1965

Series 2: Administrative and Business Records, 1856-1963

Series 3: Publications, 1872-1982

Series 4: Photographs, 1840-1964

Series 5: Sketchbooks and Notebooks, 1882-1964
Biographical / Historical:
Henry R. Worthington (December 17, 1817-December 17, 1880) was an innovator in the world of 19th century steam pumps earning patents for a direct-acting steam pump (US Patent 6274) and a duplex steam pump (US Patent 116,131). Initially, Worthington partnered with William H. Baker to found the Worthington & Baker Works in 1845, with the works based in Brooklyn. Worthington's company began by producing various pumps for naval craft, including pumps installed on the USS Monitor, the first ironclad ship of the US Navy. After Baker's death, Worthington changed the name of his business to the Henry R. Worthington Corporation and expanded into the production of water works pumps for major cities. Worthington pumps gained international acclaim at World's Fairs in the latter half of the 19th century. Fountains at the Centennial Exposition of 1876 and Columbian Exposition of 1893 and the hydraulic pumps for the Eiffel Tower's elevators at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 were all powered by Worthington products.

In 1899, Worthington was purchased and merged into the International Steam Pump Company, along with the Blake and Knowles Steam Pump Company, Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Company, the Snow Steam Works, the Deane Steam Pump Company and several smaller works. After the acquisition of these different works, the International Steam Pump Company's product line expanded to include gas engines and mining machinery.

International Steam Pump reverted to the Worthington name, first as Worthington Pump and Machinery Corporation (1916-1952) and then as the Worthington Corporation (1952-1967). It was also during this time when Worthington relocated its main works from Brooklyn to Harrison, New Jersey in 1917. All the while, the company continued to produce hydraulic engines, gas engines and water works pumps. Through various mergers the company also diversified into refrigeration and air conditioning. In 1967, the Worthington Corporation merged with the Studebaker Automobile Manufacturing Company, becoming Studebaker-Worthington.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Pumps (AC0060)

Division of Politial and Military History

The Division of Political and Military History holds photographs of a World War I bond drive at the Deane Works of Holyoke, Massachusetts. See accessions: 1979.0015.01 and 1979.0015.04.

Division of Science and Medicine

The Division of Medicine and Science holds several Watch Dog Water Meters produced by the Worthington-Gamon Meter Company. See accessions PH.325890 and PH.325891.

Smithsonian Institution Libraries Trade Literature Collection

The libraries contain trade literature on Worthington and its subsidiaries.
Provenance:
Donated to the Smithsonian in the 1960s by Studebaker Worthington, Inc.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Business -- History  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Diesel engines  Search this
Pumping machinery  Search this
Steam-turbines  Search this
Rock-drills  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial records -- 20th century
Trade catalogs
Reports
Sketchbooks
Advertisements
Patents
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Minute books
Legal documents
Correspondence -- 19th century
Citation:
Worthington Corporation Records, 1840-1982, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0916
See more items in:
Worthington Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0916
Online Media:

Pete Claussen Collection of American Flag Magazine Covers

Creator:
Claussen, Pete  Search this
Extent:
7 Cubic feet (21 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Magazines (periodicals)
Date:
1941-1943
Summary:
American magazines and magazine covers dating from 1941 through 1943 with illustrations of the American flag collected and donated by Pete Claussen.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains American periodicals and periodical covers dating from 1941 through 1943 that depict the American flag. There is one cover dating from 1941. Series one consists of the periodicals and periodical covers. Oversized materials are located at the end of the collection but are alphabetized in the container list. Series two is composed of period ephemera related to the flag.

The artwork on the covers illustrates the flag in a variety of styles, from a small inset on an unrelated image to a color spread encompassing nearly the entire cover. In some instances, the flag appears in patriotic scenes of American life on the home front while in others it appears in battle or in close proximity to specific factories or consumer products.

Beyond their covers, the periodicals contain a snapshot of American life during the middle years of the Second World War. They include an extremely broad range of interests and topics ranging from embalming practices to railroad employee journals. War-related themes are conveyed in the form of patriotic articles, practical advice and knowledge, jokes, and caricatures of enemies. Photographs provide a visual depiction of day-to-day life during the period. Periodicals in the collection include magazines, comic books, community newspapers, and story collections. Most are imprinted with a date of publication or copyright and many include the "United We Stand" slogan. Non-periodical materials in the collection include a "United We Stand" postcard, an Indiana public schools syllabus entitled "Character Education," and a booklet entitled "Make and Mend for Victory" with instructions for making clothing wear longer. A reprint of a letter of appreciation for high achievement in the production of war equipment sent to the White Motor Company by the Under Secretary of War is included, along with a similar letter to the Hoover Company. Also part of this series is a 1942 magazine which captures the patriotic spirit of the time but does not depict the American flag.

This collection represents a contribution to the understanding of American patriotism and patriotic symbolism in American life, as well as mutually beneficial collaboration between the United States government and private industry.

In July 2002, Mr. Pete Claussen, a member of the Museum's National Board, viewed the exhibit July 1942: United We Stand (http://www.americanhistory.si.edu). The exhibition featured American flag cover art. Most of the covers in the exhibition were loaned to the Museum. Mr. Claussen became so interested in the covers that he began collecting them and donating them to the Museum.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in two series.

Series 1, Magazine Flag Covers, 1941-1943

Series 2, Ephemera, 1942-1943
Biographical / Historical:
The National Publishers Association coordinated a campaign with the United States Department of the Treasury in the summer of 1942 to feature the American flag on magazine covers. Paul MacNamara, a publicist with the Hearst Corporation in New York, conceived of the campaign. The magazine industry could demonstrate its patriotism and the importance of magazines to American morale and at the same time justify its use of paper and other resources in the face of rationing. The Treasury Department endorsed the program and assisted magazine publishers by organizing store displays designed to show off the covers to the public. The federal government benefited from the campaign as many magazines, at the request of the Treasury Department, ran advertisements for war bonds. About five hundred magazines participated in this campaign.

The campaign rules required that the flag was not to have any overprinting, was to be displayed according to flag protocol, and was to appear with the motto "United We Stand." The motto, long a part of American history, came from the 1768 ballad The Liberty Song by John Dickenson. The United States Flag Association, in support of the "United We Stand" campaign, selected winning cover designs and awarded its Patriotic Service Cross to eight magazines and the Cross of Honor to the grand prize winner. Harper's Bazzar, House and Garden, Infantry Journal, The Merck Report, Modern Industry, NYLIC Review, This Week and Time earned the Patriotic Service Cross. The House and Garden cover, as the grand prizewinner, also was awarded the Cross of Honor.

The Treasury Department attempted to reprise the campaign again in 1943, but participation was scattered and not on the same level as the original 1942 campaign.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Ivory Soap Advertising Collection, 1883-1998 (AC0791)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Fred S. Rosenau Papers, 1944-1945 (AC0478)

Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer Poster Collection, 1942-1952 (AC0546)

Some of the magazines in this collection are in bound editions in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries.
Provenance:
Donated by Pete Claussen in May 2004 and January 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Flags -- United States  Search this
Patriotism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Magazines (periodicals) -- 1940-1950
Citation:
Pete Claussen Collection of American Flag Magazine Covers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0860
See more items in:
Pete Claussen Collection of American Flag Magazine Covers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0860
Online Media:

Movie Poster Collection

Donor:
Rosen, Martha  Search this
Extent:
85 Items (9 folders, 85 items)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Date:
1963-2001
Scope and Contents:
Movie posters, all except two from the 1990s, representing a wide range of popular films, including both adult and children's films, live action and animated, and studio and independently made films.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Smithsonian Institution Libraries (SIL) employee.
General Note:
Donor did not wish to have her name in the collection title, so the collection was transferred into collection
Provenance:
Donated by Martha Rosen.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Film posters  Search this
Motion pictures  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- Motion pictures -- 20th century
Citation:
Archives Center Poster Collection, 1910s-2001, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0656
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0656

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