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Corn area: Mike Seeger- presenter; Sarah Ogan Gunning, Ralph Rinzler, Mike Seeger, Alice Gerrard- presenters; Monroe Family workshop (Bill Monroe, Birch Monroe, Charlie Monroe); Betty Mae Jumper- presenter- Seminole Indian Corn Dance

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (7 inch reel, 1/4 inch tape)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1969 July 3
General note:
DPA number 69.101.22
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1969, Item FP-1969-7RR-0022
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Performances / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1969-ref130

Corn area: Monroe Family workshop, Seminole Indian dancers

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (7 inch reel, 1/4 inch tape)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1969 July 3
General note:
DPA number 69.101.23
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1969, Item FP-1969-7RR-0023
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Performances / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1969-ref133

J. E. Mainer's Mountaineers, Seminole Indians (Betty Mae Jumper) corn dance, Moving Star Hall Singers; Guy Carawan- presenter

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (7 inch reel, 1/4 inch tape)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1969 July 5
General note:
DPA number 69.101.53
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1969, Item FP-1969-7RR-0053
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Performances / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1969-ref223

mono dub of 69.101.13 Rev. William Carroll and Family, Seminole Indians, Maybelle Carter, Merle Travis

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (7 inch reel, 1/4 inch tape)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1969 July 6
General note:
DPA number 69.101.68
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1969, Item FP-1969-7RR-0068
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Performances / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1969-ref269

Rev. William Carroll and Family, Seminole Indians, Maybelle Carter, Merle Travis

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound recording (10 inch reel, 1/2 inch tape)
Type:
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
1969 July 6
General note:
DPA number 69.101.13
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1969, Item FP-1969-10RR-0013
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1969 Festival of American Folklife / Series 4: Performances / 4.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1969-ref99

Bryson Jones Travelogue: Deep South, ca. 1940,

Creator:
Human Studies Film Archives  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2017-08-09T20:01:05.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Anthropology  Search this
See more by:
HSFAFilmClips
Data Source:
Human Studies Film Archives
YouTube Channel:
HSFAFilmClips
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_xyyFblJRndQ

Howard H. Hirschhorn photographs of Seminole people

Creator:
Hirschhorn, Howard H.  Search this
Extent:
42 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1970
Scope and Contents note:
Front and profile images of Seminole people, mostly children. The photographs are mounted and annotated for publicaiton in "Seminole Physiognomy and Beady Cerumen."
Biographical/Historical note:
Howard H. Hirschhorn was a member of New York University's Department of Anthropology and the Research Division of the Hoffmann-LaRoche Company.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 83-37
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Articles by Hirschhorn, including "Ethnomedical Acculturation of Florida Seminole Indians 1919-1952," "Cerumen Types and PTC-tasting in the Seminole Indians of Florida," "Botanical Remedies of South and Central America, and the Caribbean: An Archival Analysis Part II Conclusion," and "Seminole Physiognomy and Beady Cerumen: Two Afterthoughts from a Field Study" were also donated with this collection and have been relocated to the National Anthropological Archives Reference Files.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Physical anthropology  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 83-37, Howard H. Hirschhorn photographs of Seminole people, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.83-37
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-83-37

William C. Sturtevant papers

Topic:
Handbook of North American Indians
Creator:
Sturtevant, William C.  Search this
Names:
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Six Nations  Search this
Extent:
220 Linear feet (The total extent of the collection is 191.41 linear feet (consisting of 473 document boxes and 2 record boxes) plus 254 sound recordings, 94 computer disks, 42 card file boxes, 85 oversize folders, 9 rolled items, 18 binder boxes, and 3 oversize boxes. Of the total extent, 4.79 linear feet (14 boxes) are restricted.)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Realia
Research
Notes
Office files
Theses
Slides (photographs)
Sound recordings
Exhibition catalogs
Field notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Microfilms
Newsletters
Manuscripts
Memorandums
Articles
Card files
Books
Artifacts
Negatives
Date:
1952-2007
Summary:
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and other professional activities. The collection is comprised of books, sound recordings, research and field notes, realia, artifacts, clippings, microfilm, negatives, slides, photographs, manuscripts, correspondence, memorandums, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, and bibliographies.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of William Curtis Sturtevant and documents his activities as Curator of North American Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, his work as the editor-in-chief of the Handbook of North American Indians, his research among the Seminole and Iroquois people, and his involvement in various professional activities. The collection is comprised of research and field notes, sound recordings, realia, clippings, negatives, slides, prints, published and unpublished writings, correspondence, memorandums, conference papers and meeting notes, card files, exhibition catalogs, articles, bibliographies, student files such as class notes and papers from Sturtevant's years as an anthropology student, teaching materials including lecture notes and exams, daily planners, passports, military records, artwork including prints and lithographs, maps, and computer files.

The materials in this collection document Sturtevant's career as a preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, university professor, his role as General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, and his contributions to the field of Anthropology. From his early work with the Seminole Indians of Florida to his forays into Burma, and his decades-long study of how Native Americans have been depicted in artistic and popular culture, Sturtevant's diverse intellectual interests are represented in his research files. A copious note taker, Sturtevant captured his observations and opinions of everything from meetings with colleagues to museum exhibits. Sturtevant's commitment to the anthropological profession can be found in the notes and programs of the many conferences, symposiums, and lecture series he attended and at which he presented. He also held numerous leadership positions in various professional associations and sat on the board of directors/trustees for several cultural organizations including Survival International and the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation. Sturtevant was respected for his vast knowledge of indigenous peoples and he received a voluminous amount of correspondence from colleagues who often included copies of their papers and grant proposals. He kept many of these works, which, it appears he used as reference material. Sturtevant's own work is reflected in his writings; he published over 200 scholarly papers, articles, and books.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized in 14 series: 1. Correspondence, 1951-2008; 2. Research Files, 1851, 1860s, 1880s, 1890, 1939-2006; 3. Writings, 1952-2006; 4. Professional Activities, 1952-2006; 5. Smithsonian, 1954-2008; 6. Handbook of North American Indians, 1971-2007; 7. Biographical Files, 1933-2007; 8. Student Files, 1944-1985; 9. Subject Files, 1902-2002; 10. Photographs, 1927-2004; 11. Artwork, 1699-1998; 12. Maps, 1949-1975; 13. Sound Recordings, 1950-2000; 14. Computer Files, 1987-2006.
Biographical/Historical note:
William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007), preeminent North American ethnologist, museum curator, and university professor, was best known for his contributions to Seminole ethnology, as curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, and for his work as the general editor of the Handbook of North American Indians.

Sturtevant's passion for studying Native peoples began at a young age. In third grade "after a class on American Indians, he asked his father what kind of people study Indians, and his father replied, 'Anthropologists.' Sturtevant decided then that he would make anthropology his career" (Merrill 11). After graduating with honors from the University of California at Berkeley in 1949, Sturtevant went on to Yale University to complete his graduate work in anthropology. When it came time to decide on what area of North America he should focus his research, one of his faculty members at Yale, Irving Rouse, "suggested he consider the Seminoles of south Florida. By the end of his first fieldwork season, Sturtevant was convinced that the dearth of ethnographic information about these Seminoles and their status as one of the least acculturated of all North American Indian societies justified ethnographic research among them and offered the possibility of making an important contribution to North American ethnology" (Merrill 13). Sturtevant spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 conducting preliminary fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole and in 1952 he took up temporary residence at Big Cypress Reservation to undertake research for his dissertation, "The Mikasuki Seminole: Medical Beliefs and Practices." This work focused on Seminole medicine, but also included Sturtevant's analysis of Seminole worldview, religion, history, inter-ethnic relations, material culture, economy, kinship, language, and social organization.

In 1954, while he was finishing his dissertation, Sturtevant made the transition from student of anthropology to professional anthropologist. He was hired as an instructor in Yale's Anthropology Department and began his career in museum work as an assistant curator of anthropology at the Yale Peabody Museum. After receiving his PhD from Yale in 1955, Sturtevant moved on to the Smithsonian Institution, where he accepted a position as a research anthropologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE). This position afforded Sturtevant the chance to continue to explore his many research interests in ways that a full time professorship or museum curatorship could not. Over the next ten years he studied the Catawba in South Carolina; the Seneca and Cayuga nations of the Iroquois League in New York, Oklahoma, and Ontario; continued his work with the Seminole; visited European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture; and spent a year in Burma. In 1963, Sturtevant and his wife, Theda Maw, the daughter of a prominent Burmese family, took their three young children to Burma so that they could visit with Maw's family. Sturtevant took this as an opportunity to branch out from his Native American research and spent the year visiting neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examining archival materials, studying the Burmese language, learning about Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, and taking photographs. He also collected 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian.

When Sturtevant returned from Burma, he found the BAE had been dissolved. In 1965, he was transferred from the now-defunct BAE to the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), where he became curator of North American Ethnology, a position he held for the next forty-two years. During his tenure at NMNH Sturtevant oversaw all the North American ethnology collections, planned exhibitions, served on committees, and sponsored interns and fellows. One of Sturtevant's primary duties at NMNH was serving as the General Editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, "a major multi-volume reference work summarizing anthropological, linguistic, and historical knowledge about native peoples north of Mexico" (Jackson). Each volume was designed to represent a geographic or topical area of Americanist study. As General Editor, Sturtevant selected volume editors, chapter authors, oversaw office staff, and proofread manuscripts over the course of production.

Besides focusing on the Handbook, much of Sturtevant's time was taken up by responsibilities he held outside the Institution. Sturtevant was extremely involved in professional anthropological associations and held many leadership positions. Fresh out of graduate school, he began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1957. He later became a member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society, served as book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist from 1962-1968, was a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums and was both vice president and president of the committee once it became the Council for Museum Anthropology, was on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives, served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation from 1976-1982 and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986, and sat on the Board of Directors of Survival International from 1982-1988. He was President of the American Society for Ethnohistory, the American Ethnological Society, the American Anthropological Association, and the Anthropological Society of Washington. Sturtevant also taught classes at Johns Hopkins University as an adjunct professor in the Department of Anthropology, served as a consultant on exhibits at other museums, and reviewed manuscripts for scholarly publications.

Sturtevant remained active in the profession throughout his later years. After divorcing Theda Maw in 1986, he married Sally McLendon, a fellow anthropologist, in 1990 and they undertook several research projects together. Sturtevant was recognized for his dedication and contributions to the field of anthropology in 1996 when he was awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters by Brown University, and in 2002 when his colleagues published a festschrift in his honor, Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant.

Sturtevant died on March 2, 2007 at the Collingswood Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Rockville, MD after suffering from emphysema.

Sources Consulted

Estrada, Louie. 2007. William C. Sturtevant; Expert on Indians. Washington Post, March 17. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/16/AR2007031602273.html, accessed August 31, 2012.

Jackson, Jason Baird. 2007. William C. Sturtevant (1926-2007). http://museumanthropology.blogspot.com/2007/03/william-c-sturtevant-1926-2007.html, accessed August 31, 2012.

Merrill, William L. 2002. William Curtis Sturtevant, Anthropologist. In Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant. William L. Merrill and Ives Goddard, eds. Pp. 11-36. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

1926 -- Born July 26 in Morristown, NJ

1944 -- Entered the University of California at Berkeley as a second-semester freshman

1944 -- Attended summer school at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico in Mexico City where he took courses on Mexican archaeology and South American ethnology

1945 -- Drafted into the United States Navy

1946 -- Received an honorable discharge from the Navy with the rank of pharmacist's mate third class and returned to UC Berkeley

1947 -- Attended the University of New Mexico's summer field school in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

1949 -- January: Received his Bachelor's degree with honors in anthropology from UC Berkeley

1949 -- Began graduate studies at Yale University

1950-1951 -- Spent the summers of 1950 and 1951 in Florida conducting fieldwork among the Mikasuki-speaking Seminole

1951 -- Conducted his first research study of the Iroquois, a classification of Seneca musical instruments, their construction and use, with Harold Conklin

1952 -- May: Moved to Big Cypress Reservation in Florida to conduct research for his dissertation. He focused on Seminole medicine, but also collected physical anthropological data such as blood-type frequencies, handedness, and color blindness

1952 -- July 26: Married Theda Maw

1954 -- Hired by Yale University as an instructor in the Department of Anthropology and as an assistant curator of anthropology in the Yale Peabody Museum

1955 -- Received PhD in anthropology from Yale University

1956 -- Joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) as a research anthropologist

1957 -- Began a three-year term on the Board of Governors of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1957 -- Traveled to Rock Hill, South Carolina to collect linguistic data from Sam Blue, the last member of the Catawba tribe to have maintained some proficiency in the Catawba language. While there, he made a small collection of Catawba pottery for the United States National Museum

1957-1958 -- Spent seven weeks continuing his research among the New York Seneca

1959 -- Returned to Florida to study Seminole ethnobotany. He also collected ethnographic materials, especially objects made for the tourist market, which he deposited in the United States National Museum

1959-1960 -- Member of the executive committee of the Florida Anthropological Society

1960 -- July and August: Visited 17 European museums to examine early ethnographic examples and possible European prototypes of eastern North American Indian material culture

1961-1962 -- Spent the summers of these years conducting ethnographic fieldwork among the Seneca-Cayuga in Oklahoma

1962 -- October: Visited the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario, Canada to conduct fieldwork among the Seneca and Cayuga there

1962-1968 -- Book-review editor and associate editor of the American Anthropologist

1963 -- October: Spent the year in Burma; visited neighborhoods in Rangoon and villages in the surrounding countryside, examined photographs in several archives, studied the Burmese language, and read extensively about the country's history and culture. Assembled notes on Burmese clothing and other aspects of the culture, took hundreds of photographs, and made a collection of 386 items of clothing and other objects for the Smithsonian

1964 -- Visited Inle Lake in the Southern Shan States southeast of Mandalay, where he examined local approaches to artificial island agriculture

1964-1981 -- Became a member of the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Anthropological Research in Museums, which became the Council for Museum Anthropology in 1974. Sturtevant was the Council's first vice president, serving two terms between 1974 and 1978, and was its president from 1978 to 1981

1965 -- Became curator of North American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History after the dissolution of the BAE

1965-1966 -- President of the American Society for Ethnohistory

1966 -- Named the editor of the Handbook of North American Indians

1967-1968 -- Fulbright scholar and lecturer at Oxford University's Institute of Social Anthropology

1969 -- Began serving on the American Anthropological Association's Committee on Archives

1974-1989 -- Adjunct Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Johns Hopkins University

1976-1982 -- Served three terms on the Board of Trustees of the Museum of the American Indian-Heye Foundation and was appointed to a fourth term between 1984 and 1986

1977 -- President of the American Ethnological Society

1980-1981 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1981 -- Spent part of the spring semester at the University of California Berkeley as a Regents Lecturer

1982-1988 -- Board of Directors of Survival International

1986 -- Divorced Theda Maw

1986-1987 -- Smithsonian Fellow at Oxford University's Worcester College

1990 -- Married Sally McLendon

1992 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1996 -- Awarded an honorary doctorate in humane letters at Brown University

2007 -- Died March 2 in Rockville, MD
Related Materials:
Other materials relating to William C. Sturtevant at the National Anthropological Archives are included in the following collections:

Manuscript 4504

Manuscript 4595

Manuscript 4806

Manuscript 4821

Manuscript 4972

Manuscript 7045

Photo Lot 59

Photo Lot 79-51

Photo Lot 80-3

Photo Lot 81R

Photo Lot 86-68 (6)

Photo Lot 86-68 (7)

American Society for Ethnohistory records

Committee on Anthropological Research in Museum Records

Handbook of North American Indians records

Records of the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History

Gordon Davis Gibson Papers, Sound Recordings

SPC Se Powhatan Confederacy Mattapony BAE No # 01790700

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913800

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04913900

DOE Oceania:Amer Poly:Hi:Hawaiian Helmet:Sturtevant 04914000

Negative MNH 1530

Negative MNH 1530 B

Sturtevant is listed as a correspondent in the following NAA collections:

Administrative file, 1949-1965, Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology

John Lawrence Angel Papers

James Henri Howard Papers

Donald Jayne Lehmer Papers

John Victor Murra Papers

Records of the Society for American Archaeology

Albert Clanton Spaulding Papers

Waldo Rudolph Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel Papers

Copies of sound recordings made by William C. Sturtevant can be found at The California Language Archive at UC Berkeley in two collections, The William Sturtevant collection of Creek/Seminole sound recordings, which includes 31 minutes of Northern Muskogean linguistic field recordings from 1951, and The William Sturtevant collection of Mikasuki sound recordings, which includes 33 minutes of Mikasuki linguistic field recordings from 1951. Two sound tape reels of Seminole music Sturtevant recorded in Florida in 1951 can be found at Wesleyan University's World Music Archives. Folk songs on these recordings include "Scalping Sickness," "Bear Sickness with blowing," "Bear sickness without blowing," "Lullaby," "Feather Dance," "Snake Dance," and "Crazy Dance." Performers include Josie Billie, Lee Cypress, Harvey Jumper, Boy Jim, Charlie (Johnny?) Cypress, Little Tiger Tail, Billy Ossiola, and Charlie Billy Boy.
Separated Materials:
One video tape, "Seminole History and Tradition", was transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives. Series 2.2, Tukabahchee Plate: Glass negative of spectrogram from FBI (Box 135), removed for storage with other glass plate negatives.
Provenance:
These papers were transferred to the National Anthropological Archives by the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History.
Restrictions:
Files containing Sturtevant's students' grades have been restricted, as have his students' and colleagues' grant and fellowships applications. Restricted files were separated and placed at the end of their respective series in boxes 87, 264, 322, 389-394, 435-436, 448, 468, and 483. For preservation reasons, his computer files are also restricted. Seminole sound recordings are restricted. Access to the William C. Sturtevant Papers requires an apointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Botany  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
History  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Realia
Research
Notes
Office files
Theses
Slides (photographs)
Sound recordings
Exhibition catalogs
Field notes
Clippings
Correspondence
Photographs
Microfilms
Newsletters
Manuscripts
Memorandums
Articles
Card files
Books
Artifacts
Negatives
Citation:
William C. Sturtevant papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2008-24
See more items in:
William C. Sturtevant papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2008-24
Online Media:

Charles B. Cory collection of copy prints and copy negatives

Creator:
Cory, Charles B. (Charles Barney), 1857-1921  Search this
Extent:
10 Acetate negatives (black and white, 5 x7 inches.)
119 Photographic prints (gelatin silver.)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Acetate negatives
Photographic prints
Gelatin silver prints
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Date:
1959
Summary:
This collection contains 119 gelatin silver prints and 10 black-and-white negatives taken by Charles Barney Cory between 1877-1896. The images depict scenes of everyday life among the Seminole Indians of Florida.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains 119 gelatin silver copy prints and 10 copy negatives made in 1959 from Cory's original prints. (The original prints likely date from 1877 to 1896, and some of these appear as illustrations in Cory's 1896 book Hunting and Fishing in Florida.) The photographs primarily consist of informal, outdoor portraits of individual and groups of Seminole men, women, and children. In addition, some photographs depict villages and dwellings and people playing games, boating, and tending domestic animals.
Arrangement note:
Prints: organized in folders; arranged by image number.

Negatives: organized in individual sleeves; arranged by image number.
Biographical/Historical note:
A wealthy Bostonian, Charles B. Cory (1857-1921) began collecting ornithological specimens as a young man. Eventually he amassed a superior collection of birds of the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, which he donated to Chicago's Field Museum. In 1883, he was one of forty-eight ornithologists invited to establish the American Ornithologists' Union.
Provenance:
In 1959, Cory's heirs apparently permitted the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation to print and retain photographs from Cory's original negatives. The present location of the original negatives is unknown.

Historically, the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation managed all photographic materials separately. This collection description represents current management practices of organizing and contextualizing related archival materials.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Copyright restrictions may apply. Please contact the archivist for further information.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Florida  Search this
Seminole Indians -- Florida -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Gelatin silver prints
Photographs
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Charles B. Cory collection of copy prints and copy negatives, 1959, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (print or negative number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.043
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-043

Deaconess Harriet M. Bedell photographs

Creator:
Bedell, Harriet M., 1875-  Search this
Extent:
233 Photographic prints (black and white)
115 Copy negatives (black and white)
Culture:
Gwich'in (Kutchin)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Alaska
Oklahoma
Florida
Date:
1910-1939
Summary:
Photographs in this collection include indoor and outdoor portraits, domestic scenes, landscapes of Gwich'in (Kutchin), Seminole and Cheyenne Indians taken by Deaconess M. Bedell from her work as missionary between 1907-1939.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of photographs made by Deaconess Bedell while she worked as an Episcopal missionary among the Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Gwich'in (Kutchin), and Seminole peoples in Oklahoma, Alaska, and Florida respectively. Although Bedell work in Oklahoma from 1907 to 1916, the Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai photographs are dated from 1910 to 1915 and consist of informal group portraits of men, women, and children dressed in both traditional and Anglo American clothing; group pictures of school children--boys and girls--at the Whirlwind Mission school and the mission campus itself; and traditional and Anglo American dwellings of Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai individuals. Among these photographs are studio portraits collected but likely not made by Bedell. Bedell worked in Alaska from 1916 to 1931; the Alaska photographs in the collection date from 1926 to 1931. Among the photographs are informal, outdoor group portraits of Gwich'in men, women, and children, and photographs depicting the landscape, dog sled teams, and Gwich'in dwellings, summer camps, and men fishing and boxing.The Florida photographs date from 1933 to 1939 and depict informal, outdoor group and single portraits of Seminole men, women, and children in traditioanl clothing, photographs depicting men rowing dugouts, Seminole dwellings (chickees), camps, and baskets. Most of these photographs were made at the Glade Cross Mission in the Everglades. The negatives are primarily copy negatives.
Arrangement note:
Prints: organized in folders; arranged by print number

Negatives: organized in envelopes; arranged by negative number
Biographical/Historical note:
Harriet Mary Bedell was born on March 19, 1875, in Buffalo, New York, to Horace Ira Bedell and Louisa Sophia Oberist. Bedell was confirmed in the Episcopalian church and graduated from Normal School in 1894. Following graduation, Bedell worked as a school teacher before deciding to enroll in the New York City Training School for Deaconesses in 1906. She also spent several months in Buffalo at a local hospital learning the rudiments of nursing. Between 1907 and 1916 Bedell was sent to the Whirlwind mission in Blaine County, Oklahoma. There, she worked as a missionary-teacher among the Cheyenne alongside Deacon Oakerhater (Cheyenne). During her time in Oklahoma Bedell contracted Tuberculosis and spent some time in Denver, Colorado recovering. By 1916 plans were made to close the Mission and Bedell was told she was to be transferred to Alaska where her teaching skills were needed. She accepted the remote post in Stevens Village, Alaska, among the Gwich'in (Kutchin) people. In 1922, Bedell left Alaska briefly to be officially ordained as a Deaconess in Portland, Oregon. During her time in Alaska, Bedell also established a boarding school in nearby Tanana but due to the stock market crash of 1929 and the scarcity of funds the boarding facility was unable to remain open. In 1931, following an unsuccessful trip to Buffalo to try and raise money, it was decided that there was no reason for Bedell to return to Alaska.

In 1933, Bedell travelled to Florida by invitation to speak and was appalled by the living conditions she witnessed among the Seminole in southern Florida. Bedell worked to reopen the Glade Cross Mission in Everglades City which had closed in 1914 as well as opening a new Mission in Collier City. In addition to focusing on health and education, Bedell encouraged the Seminole women she worked with to revive traditional doll-making, basket-weaving and intricate patchwork designs. Bedell worked in South Florida until 1960 when hurricane Donna destroyed her home and the Glade Cross Mission and she decided to retire. Bedell lived to be 94 and spent her final years at the Bishop Gray Inn in Davenport, Florida until her death on January 8, 1969. In the year 2000 Bedell was named a "Great Floridian" and in the diocese of Southwest Florida celebrate Harriet Bedell Day annually on January 8th.
Related Materials:
The Harriet Bedell Collection of 126 prints of Bedell working among the Seminole Indians in South Florida from 1933 to 1960 is located at the State Library and Archives of Florida. Information can be found here: Harriet Bedell Collection.
Provenance:
In 1940 Harriet Bedell sent her negatives to the Museum of the American Indian, via William Stiles, to be made into prints. These prints are the bulk of the collection [P14817-P14911, P14955-P15050]. Later in 1940 Bedell presented the museum with an additional 29 prints [P14913-P14941] and in 1941and 1942 Bedell sent two additional gifts totaling 13 prints [P15328-P15330, P15355-P15364].
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Gwich'in Indians -- Missions -- Photographs  Search this
Cheyenne Indians -- Missions -- Photographs  Search this
Seminole Indians -- Missions -- Photographs  Search this
Women missionaries -- United States  Search this
Women in the Episcopal Church  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Deaconess Harriet M. Bedell photographs, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.037
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-037
Online Media:

Ethel Cutler Freeman papers

Creator:
Freeman, Ethel Cutler, 1886-1972  Search this
Names:
American Museum of Natural History  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Extent:
61.03 Linear feet (114 boxes)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Maasai (African people)  Search this
Culture  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Florida
Date:
1934-1972
Summary:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was an amateur Seminole specialist and research associate with the American Museum of Natural History. Her papers also reflect field work among the Arapaho, Shoshoni, Navaho, Pueblo, Hopi, Kickapoo, and people of the Virgin Islands, the Bahama Islands, and Haiti, and the music and chants of Africa, including those of the Maasai, Zulu, and Pygmies. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member. Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the anthropological interests of Ethel Cutler Freeman. The papers in this collection include her notes and diaries, published articles, unfinished manuscripts, and source materials. The bulk of the collection is material relating to the Seminole Indians of Florida.

Mrs. Freeman also made several trips to the Southwest and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, and Hopi. There is substantial information from these studies included in this collection. She also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, she studied tribal music and chants of several African tribes and the material from these studies forms the major portion of Series 7.

The collection also contains several sound recordings made by Freeman and numerous photographs, negatives, and slides. During rehousing, additional materials including index cards and notebooks from field trips were located and incorporated into the collection. A small amount of material relates to the Hoover Commission on Indian Affairs, of which Freeman was a member.

Correspondents include several Seminole Indians and government officials, personal acquaintances, organizations, and associates of the American Museum of Natural History as well as Dean Amadon, Richard Archbold, Conrad M. Arensberg, Dana W. Atchley, Jacques Barzun, Ruth Benedict, Leonard J. Brass, Louis Capron, Frances Densmore, Margery S. Douglas, John W. Griffin, A.J. Hanna, Ronald F. Lee, Margaret Mead, Robert Cushman Murphy, Kenneth W. Porter, Harry L. Shapiro, Howard Sharp, Frank Speck, Charlton W. Tebean, and Clark Wissler.

Although the majority of the collection spans the years 1934 to 1972, there are some items with dates that fall outside of this range. Some published materials are dated as early as 1822 and one note is dated 1975 and was added to the collection after Freeman's death in 1972. The folders containing these items have been dated accordingly, but these outlier dates have not affected the dates of the sub-series or series.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 15 series: (1) Biographical information and miscellaneous personal papers, 1939-1971; (2) Correspondence, 1936-1972; (3) Manuscripts, 1936-1971; (4) Source Material, 1934-1970; (5) Seminole Indians, 1934-1972; (6) North American Indians, 1936-1971; (7) Cultures other than North American Indian, 1943-1970; (8) Meetings, 1956-1968; (9) Printed materials, 1936-1972; (10) Pamphlets, 1935-1970; (11) Population and Material Culture, 1939, 1951-1963; (12) Sound recordings, 1940-1958, 1969-1970; (13) Lists of Photographs, 1939-1970; (14) Photographs, 1936-1971; (15) Index Cards, undated
Biographical Note:
Ethel Cutler Freeman was born in 1886 in Morristown, New Jersey. Freeman was the daughter of a prosperous family, which gave her the opportunity to study abroad in England at Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre's Academy for girls. After studying in England, Freeman returned to the United States and was married to Leon S. Freeman, a New York broker, in 1909.

By 1934, Freeman had become bored with the typical social activities available to her; while discussing the matter with a friend, Marcellus Hartley Dodge, she described herself as having a "brain full of cobwebs." Dodge, a former trustee at Columbia University, suggested that Freeman enroll in some courses at Columbia. Acting on Dodge's advice, Freeman started taking graduate courses in psychology and sociology at Columbia University, but soon became fascinated with anthropology. During her studies at Columbia, Freeman spent time in the western United States studying the Arapaho and Shoshone while her husband recuperated from a horse riding accident; it was at this point that she developed a taste for field work and an interest in Native American cultures. After completing her studies, Freeman decided that she wanted to study the Seminole people of Florida, near whom she and her family owned a winter home in Naples.

Back on the East Coast, Freeman met Dr. Clark Wissler, then Curator of the Indian Division of the American Museum of Natural History. Wissler was supportive of Freeman's aspirations to continue her anthropological studies, but balked at her expressed interest in the Seminole, whom at that time had a reputation for not being open to contact with outsiders. Undaunted, Freeman contacted W. Stanley Hansen, the man in charge of Seminole settlement; after repeated correspondence with Hansen convinced him she was no mere hobbyist, he agreed to help her make connections within the Seminole community.

Freeman made two visits to the Big Cypress Reservation for the American Museum of Natural History with a government representative before taking her 14-year-old daughter, Condict, and 12-year-old son, Leon Jr., for an extended stay with a group of Seminoles at the heart of the Everglades in February of 1940. After that first winter stay with the Seminoles, Freeman spent virtually every winter living within their remote communities and studying their culture. Over time, Dr. Wissler became impressed by Freeman's thorough and insightful reports and analysis of her findings among the Seminoles and got the American Museum of Natural History to back her winter field studies. Eventually Freeman's work gained her a reputation for being an expert on Seminole culture, which often placed her in the role of consultant to government agencies on issues dealing with Seminole and broader Native American concerns.

As a result of her long acquaintance with the Seminoles, Freeman also became interested in how different groups of Native Americans and other cultures adapted to changes brought about by contact with modern society. Freeman made several trips to the Southwestern United States and Mexico to study such tribes as the Arapaho, Shoshone, Navajo, Pueblo, Choctaw, and Hopi; she also made less extensive studies of various other cultures in the Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, and Haiti. In 1950, Freeman went to Africa to study tribal music and chants of several tribes. Much later, in 1968, the American Museum of Natural History sent Freeman to Portugal to study local costumes.

In the 1940s, Freeman took part in publishing studies for the Department of Agriculture about the Seminoles and worked as an advocate for the Navajo, who at that time were in tense relations with the United States government over their living conditions. From 1947 to 1957, Freeman worked as a representative for the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs; she also was a member of the Indian Rights Committee for the American Civil Liberties Union from 1946 to 1966. From 1948 to 1950, Freeman served as a member of the Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government within the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Throughout her studies in the field and her activities as an advocate for Native American rights, Freeman published her work frequently and gave many talks at a variety of conferences and special events. In 1964, Freeman traveled to Moscow to deliver her paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination," at the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences; she attended the same conference series the following year in Japan to deliver another paper, entitled "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend." Freeman continued visiting and studying the Seminoles in Florida late into her career, making her last visit the year before her death.

Ethel Cutler Freeman died on July 14th, 1972.

Sources Consulted

Letter to Mrs. Margaret Blaker, Archivist at the Smithsonian Institution's Anthropological Archives; Washington, D.C. from Ethel Cutler Freeman. Dated April 24, 1972. Located in vertical files, folders on Ethel Cutler Freeman, in the reading room of the National Anthropological Archives.

"Morristown Anthropologist; Mrs. Leon Freeman Likes Seminole Indians." Newark Sunday News, February 16, 1947.

"New Vernon Woman, Indian Authority." The Morris Observer, October 13, 1955.

"She's 'Hooked' On Seminole Indians: Leading Authority On That World." Daily Record, March 6, 1970.

"The Sentinel Visits--Indian Authority Mrs. Leon Freeman: Who Is Now Working To Rescue A Nation." Sunday Sentinel, February 2, 1947.

Chronology

1886 -- Born in Morristown, New Jersey.

1909 -- Married Leon S. Freeman.

1934 -- Began taking graduate courses at Columbia University in philosophy before changing to anthropology.

1936 -- Field work with the Arapaho and Shoshone.

1938 -- Joined American Anthropological Association. First became associated with American Museum of Natural History.

1939-1943 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1940-1948 -- Special Field Assistant, American Museum of Natural History.

1943 -- Joined American Ethnological Society.

1944 -- Field work in Mexico searching for a lost tribe of Seminoles; studied the Mascogas, Papagos, and Kickapoo.

1945 -- Field work in New Mexico, studying the Pueblo and Navajo.

1946 -- Joined the Society of Women Geographers. Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Hopi.

1946-1948 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1947 -- Field work with the Navajo, Papago, and Pueblo.

1947-1957 -- Represented the American Civil Liberties Union on the National Coordinating Committee for Indian Affairs.

1947-1966 -- Member Indian Rights Committee, American Civil Liberties Union.

1948 -- Appointed first female trustee of the American Institute of Anthropology. Became Field Associate, American Museum of Natural History.

1948-1950 -- Member Hoover Commission for Reorganization of Government – Bureau of Indian Affairs.

1949 -- Field work in the Bahamas, studying native culture.

1950 -- Field work in Africa, studying the Zulu, Masai, and pygmy peoples.

1951 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1952 -- Field work studying native cultures of the Virgin Islands and Haiti.

1953-1955 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1955-1957 -- Acting Chairman, American Civil Liberties Union.

1957 -- Field work studying Mexican Seminoles.

1957-1958 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1959 -- Attended annual meeting of American Anthropological Association in Mexico City.

1960-1965 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1963 -- Field work in Oklahoma, studying Seminoles.

1964 -- Presented paper, "The Correlation between Directed Culture Change and Self Determination" VII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.

1968 -- Studied costumes of Portugal for American Museum of Natural History.

1965 -- Presented paper, "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend" VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.

1970-1971 -- Winter field work with Florida Seminoles.

1972 -- Field work in Portugal and the Azores. Died, July 14.

Selected Bibliography

1942 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "We Live with the Seminoles," Natural History 49, no. 4 (April 1942): 226-236.

1944 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Seminole Woman of the Big Cypress and Her Influence in Modern Life," América Indígena 4, no. 2 (April 1944), 123-128.

1960 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Culture Stability and Change among the Seminoles of Florida." In Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia, September 1-9, 1956, edited by Anthony F.C. Wallace, 249-254. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1960. Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1961 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "The Happy Life in the City of Ghosts: An Analysis of a Mikasuki Myth," The Florida Anthropologist 14, nos. 1-2 (March-June 1961), 23-36.

1964 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Directed Culture-Change and Selfdetermination in Superordinate and Subordinate Societies," Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences 4, Moscow (August 1964), 85-90.

1965 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Two Types of Cultural Response to External Pressures Among the Florida Seminoles," Anthropological Quarterly 38, no. 2 (April 1965), 55-61.

1968 -- Freeman, Ethel Cutler. "Lawlessness in an Indian Tribe as a Microcosm of a World Trend," Proceedings of the VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1968, Tokyo and Kyoto (Tokyo: Science Council of Japan, 1968) 191-193.
Related Materials:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs of Seminole Indians in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Objects donated by Ethel Cutler Freeman held in Department of Anthropology collections in accession 319549.

The Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation also holds an Ethel Cutler Freeman collection.
Separated Materials:
Film materials were transfered to the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1986.11.8 (African footage) and HSFA 1986.11.9 (Seminole footage).
Provenance:
The papers of Ethel Cutler Freeman were left to the National Anthropological Archives by the terms of her will. Her son, Leon Freeman, Jr., donated the collection to NAA in August 1972.
Restrictions:
By Ethel Freeman's instructions, the collection was restricted for ten years dating from the receipt and signing of the release forms on October 12, 1972. Literary property rights to the unpublished materials in the collection were donated to the National Anthropological Archives.

Access to the Ethel Cutler Freeman papers requires an appointment.
Seminole recordings cannot be accessed without the permission of the Seminole Tribe.
Rights:
Contact repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Navajo Indians  Search this
Language and languages  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Music  Search this
Citation:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.XXXX.0166
See more items in:
Ethel Cutler Freeman papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-xxxx-0166

John C. Casey letter books

Creator:
Casey, John C.  Search this
Names:
United States. Office of Indian Affairs. Seminole Indian Agency  Search this
Bowlegs, Billy, 1808?-1863 or 1864  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letter books
Date:
1848-1856
Summary:
The collection of John C. Casey journals includes three original letter books from Captain John Casey's time in Monterrey, Mexico during the Mexican-American War from 1847-1848 and as an emigration agent at the Seminole Agency in Florida from 1848 to 1856. This covers a period of time that includes the beginning of the third Seminole War. Additionally, one of the letter books also contains a journal of Casey's operations in the Indian Department in Florida from his arrival in August of 1848 until October of 1849.
Scope and Contents:
The collection of John C. Casey journals includes three original letter books from Captain John Casey's time in Monterrey, Mexico during the Mexican-American War from 1847-1848 and as an emigration agent at the Seminole Agency in Florida from 1848 to 1856. This covers a period of time that includes the beginning of the third Seminole War. Additionally, one of the letter books also contains a journal of Casey's operations in the Indian Department in Florida from his arrival in August of 1848 until October of 1849.
Biographical / Historical:
John Charles Casey was born in England in 1809 but emigrated to the United States as a child and settled with his parents in Paterson, New Jersey. In 1925, Casey enrolled at the Military Academy and following graduation he was commissioned as Brevet Second Lieutenant in the Second Regiment of Artillery in Fort Pike, Louisiana. This fort later served as a staging area for the forced migration of Native Americans by way of the Mississippi and Arkansas River to Indian Territory. In 1831 Casey served as assistant professor of chemistry and geology at the Military Academy but was called back to Fort Pike in 1833. In 1835 the Second Artillery was sent to Tampa Bay, Florida due to increasing hostility with the Seminole community. That same year Casey was promoted to First Lieutenant and took part in several skirmishes and minor actions. He also took several trips into the new Indian Territory after being appointed Acting Agent for transferring Seminoles out of Florida. From 1839 to 1841 Casey served as Purchasing Commissary in New York City and in 1842 he was promoted to Captain, 2nd Artillery. In May 1844, Captain Casey was transferred to the 3rd Infantry. During the war with Mexico Casey was ordered to serve as Chief Commissariat of the Army commanded by Major General Zachary Taylor. At the end of the Mexican War, at his own request due to poor health, he was ordered to Fort Brooke in Tampa Bay. There, he had charge of all Commissary duties for the extensive area of southwest Florida.

In 1849 Casey became Commissioner for the Removal of the Seminole Indians from Florida. Casey was considered qualified partly due to his knowledge of the area as well as his friendly relations with Chief Billy Bowlegs. By 1852 the Bureau of Indian Affairs had been transferred from the War Department to the Interior Department and it was concluded that a new special agent be sent to replace Casey. Casey was reappointed Commissioner in 1854 and returned to Fort Brooke despite his failing health. In May of 1854, Jefferson Davis, the Secretary of War, ordered Captain Casey to suspend talks and trade with the Seminole in the belief that only coercive measures would be successful in inducing the Florida tribes to emigrate. Seeing no alternative, Billy Bowlegs led a Seminole war party in December of 1855 against Lt. George Hartsuff's patrol in the Big Cypress starting the Third Seminole War. Captain Casey who had long been fighting tuberculosis died of pulmonary consumption on December 25, 1856. It is said that Casey's remains were taken with Billy Bowlegs on the vessel Grey Cloud when Bowlegs and the remaining Seminoles departed from Edgemont Key at the close of the war in 1858. Efforts to find Casey's burial place have been unsuccessful.

Sources: Wallace, Fred. "The Story of Captain John C. Casey," Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 41 No. 2 (Oct 1962), pp127-144
Provenance:
The John C. Casey Copybooks were purchased by the Museum of the American, Heye Foundation from Gilman's Book Store in 1964. They became a part of the NMAI Archive Center in 1990.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Seminole Indians -- Wars  Search this
Mexican War, 1846-1848  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letter books
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Captain John C. Casey Journals; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.029
See more items in:
John C. Casey letter books
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-029
Online Media:

Bill Wright photographs of Kickapoo, Seminole, and Tiwa Indians

Creator:
Wright, Bill  Search this
Extent:
14 Prints (silver gelatin)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Tiwa Indians  Search this
Kickapoo  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1986, 1993
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Bill Wright circa 1993 documenting Kickapoo Indians in Colonia el Nacimiento, Mexico, and Black Seminole Indians in Coahuila, Mexico. There are also three images of the 1986 Tiwa Celebration of St. Anthony that depict dancers, preparations, and a procession.
Biographical/Historical note:
Bill Wright is a businessman and photographer in Abilene, Texas. His photography has been published in four photography books: Portraits from the Desert: Bill Wright's Big Bend, The Tiguas: Pueblo Indians of Texas, The Texas Kicakpoo: Keepers of Tradition, and People's Lives: A Photographic Celebration of the Human Spirit.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 91-3
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Bill Wright photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 98-39.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Photographs are under copyright by the photographer.
Topic:
Religion  Search this
Dance  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 91-3, Bill Wright photographs of Kickapoo, Seminole, and Tiwa Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.91-3
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-91-3

W. Stanley Hanson photographs relating to Seminole people in Florida

Creator:
Hanson, W. Stanley  Search this
Names:
Mitchell, Robert D. (collector and possible photographer)  Search this
Extent:
285 Copy negatives (circa)
291 Copy prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Miccosukee Seminole (Mikasuki)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Copy negatives
Copy prints
Photographs
Date:
possibly 1914, 1930-1931
Scope and Contents note:
The collection consists of photographs, most made by W. Stanley Hanson, which document Seminole and Mikasuki people, villages, and camps. Some photographs depict dugout canoes, wagons and cattle, construction of a chickee, Osceola's gravesite, and daily activities. There are also some images of Dr. W. Stanley Hanson.
Biographical/Historical note:
W. Stanley Hanson (1883-1945) was a resident of Ft. Myers, Florida, where his father William Hanson was a physician to the Mikasuki community. W. Stanley Hanson built on his family's close connections with the tribe, becoming a trusted advisor and recording the lives of Mikasuki in photographs and writing.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 62
Reproduction Note:
Copy prints and copy negatives made by Smithsonian Institution, 1957.
Local Notes:
Last name previously misspelled as "Hansen." Spelling corrected September 16, 2009.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs of and writings about artifacts collected by Hanson are held in the Hanson Family Archives of the Seminole Lodge of the Woody Hanson family of Fort Myers, Florida.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Laundry  Search this
Cooking  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Canoes and canoeing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 62, W. Stanley Hanson photographs relating to Seminole people in Florida, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.62
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-62
Online Media:

William D. Boehmer photographs of Seminole people

Creator:
Boehmer, William D.  Search this
Names:
Civilian Conservation Corps (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
400 Negatives (circa, nitrate)
2,200 Negatives (circa, acetate)
2,200 Prints (circa 2200 prints (enlargements), silver gelatin)
32 Color negatives (acetate, 35 mm)
250 Negatives (circa, acetate, 35 mm)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Prints
Color negatives
Photographs
Place:
Big Cypress Reservation (Fla.)
Florida
Brighton Reservation (Fla.)
Date:
circa 1939-1963
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made during William Boehmer's time teaching on the Brighton and Big Cypress Reservations. They depict day schools, classes, students and other Seminole people (including the Osceola family), celebrations (including Field Days, a pow wow, and Civilian Conservation Corps Achievement Day), handicrafts, agriculture, meetings, and Seminole dances.
Biographical/Historical note:
William D. Boehmer (d. 1991) was an Educational Field Agent for the Bureau of Indian Affairs and taught on reservations in Florida. In 1938, he moved to Brighton, Florida, with his wife, Edith M. Boehmer, to teach at the Seminole Indian Agency. When the school closed in 1954, Boehmer began working with other Seminole groups, including those at the Big Cypress Reservation and the Hollywood Seminole Reservation.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 18
Reproduction Note:
Enlargements and prints made from original negatives by the Smithsonian Institution, circa 1966-1972.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by Boehmer of Seminole people held in the National Anthropological Archives MS 4526.
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries hold an oral history with William Boehmer.
Restrictions:
Nitrate negatives are in cold storage and require advanced notice for viewing.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Schools  Search this
Harvesting  Search this
Dance  Search this
Handicraft  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 18, William D. Boehmer photographs of Seminole people, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.18
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-18

MS 601 Seminole Indian Words Relating to Parakeets

Collector:
Hoxie, W. J. (Walter John), 1848-1934  Search this
Extent:
1 Page
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
1888
Scope and Contents:
Words relate to parakeets. Also Seminole names for mammals.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 601
Topic:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Zoology -- parakeet names  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Zoology -- mammal names  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 601, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS601
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms601

MS 4923 List of Seminole towns and their chiefs in 1823

Creator:
Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958  Search this
Informant:
Yonsai  Search this
Extent:
2 Pages
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Extracted from American State Papers, with comments from Yonsai, Oklahoma Seminole.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4923
Local Note:
typescript document with A. notations
Topic:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Towns, villages and other settlements -- list of  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4923, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4923
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4923

MS 4675 Pocket notebook

Creator:
ANONYMOUS  Search this
Extent:
50 Items (ca. 50 pages)
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Approximately 24 pages apparently relate to Oklahoma Seminole dances, especially "Stomp dance," and approximately 26 pages of sketches of petroglyphs, one from Moab, Utah, all others unidentified as to locality. No date.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4675
Topic:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Dance -- stomp  Search this
Indians of North America -- (identification uncertain)  Search this
Pictographs -- Petroglyphs  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4675, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4675
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4675

MS 4690 Manuscripts relating to the study of Seminole Music

Creator:
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Drew, Frank  Search this
Moore-Willson, Minnie, 1859-1937  Search this
MacCauley, Clay, 1843-1925  Search this
Extent:
2 Boxes
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Newsclippings
Date:
1931-1942
Scope and Contents:
Contents include: ---- Correspondence with editor of Bureau of American Ethnology and list of illustrations used in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 161. ---- "Seminole Music." 374 page carbon copy of manuscript and a few miscellaneous pages, roughs of music transcriptions, arranged music transcriptions of 243 songs as published. Submitted December 18, 1942. ---- "Seminole Music." Approximately 250 page manuscript. Incomplete manuscript submitted by Frances Densmore, May 16, 1940. This manuscript and the manuscript finally published in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 161 are compilations of previous manuscripts submitted by the author, 1931-1933, 1936, 1941. (Old Number) 1787 "Seminole Hunting and Alligator Dance Songs." 22 page manuscript, 28 pages tabulated analyses of 13 songs. (Transcriptions and 10 illustrations mentioned on old catalog card are not present. See original prints file for illustrations in part.) Submitted February 1, 1932.
Submitted April 21, 1932. (Old Number) 3228 "Seminole Songs connected with Legends and Dances." 38 page manuscript including descriptive analysis of songs, tabulated analyses of 31 songs. (transcriptions of 31 songs, recorded on old catalog card, are not present.) Submitted September 30, 1932. (Old Number) 3259-a "Chitimacha, Choctaw and Seminole Music, with a comparative survey of Indian music in the Gulf States." 75 page manuscript, including descriptive analyses of 23 songs, tabulated analyses for 13 Seminole songs. (Tabulated analyses for Chitimacha and Choctaw songs, 20 pages transcriptions, 18 photos and 2 figures, recorded on old catalog card, are not present. See original print file for part of the illustrations.) Submitted main portion of the manuscript to the Bureau of American Ethnology June 17, 1933. The comparative survey part was a report submitted to the National Research Council, May 15, 1933. (Old Number) 3259-b (part) Seminole text from manuscript "Choctaw and Seminole Songs." 8 page manuscript Submitted June 14, 1939. The Choctaw material is separately filed under Choctaw, Bureau of American Ethnology Ms Number 3258 (Old Manuscript Number 3259-b, part.) (Old Number) 3260 "Dance Songs of the Seminole Indians." 19 page manuscript including descriptive analyses of 20 songs, tabulated analyses. (Transcriptions and 9 photos sent with this manuscript, recorded on old catalog card, are not present.)
(Old Number) 3197 "The Seminole Indians." 43 page manuscript including descriptive analyses of 7 songs, tabulated analyses of 8 songs. (8 transcriptions and 36 photos and 1 sketch illustration, recorded on old catalog card, are not present.) See original prints file for part of illustrations.) Submitted March 3, 1931. (Old Number) 3208 "Seminole Bird Dance and their Songs." 31 page manuscript including descriptive analyses of songs, tabulated analyses for 18 songs. (18 song transcriptions and 42 photo illustrations, recorded on old catalog card, are not present). Submitted January 18, 1932. (Old Number) 3209 "Buffalo Dance and Corn Dance." 30 page manuscript including descriptive analyses of 12 songs, 12 tabulated analyses. (12 transcriptions and 12 photo illustrations, recorded on old catalog card, are not present. See original print file for part of the photo illustrations.) Submitted December 12, 1931. (Old Number) 3211 "A comparison between the structure of Nootka and Quileute songs and that of songs previously analyzed, also a description of a Seminole flute and Seminole customs." 57 page manuscript, from which pages 4-10 were taken out by F. D. for incorporation in Nootka and Quileute Music. No Nootka and Quileute material remains in this manuscript. (17 photo illustrations, map and diagram, recorded on old catalog card, are not present. See original print file for some of the illustrations.)
Submitted November 30, 1932. (Old Number) 3262 "Caloosa and Seminole Corn Dance and Hunting Dance Songs." 28 page manuscript, including descriptive analyses of 25 songs, tabulated analyses of 25 songs. (11 pages transcriptions, 1 sketch, 13 photos, recorded on old catalog card, are not present. See original print file for some of the photos.) Submitted May 28, 1932. (Old Number) 3407 "Dance Songs of the Seminole Indians." 2 page list of Seminole transcriptions and cylinder records. (7 sheets transcriptions, recorded on old catalog card, are not present.) All these songs were recorded at Brighton, Florida, by Billie Stewart in February 1932. Submitted by F.D. March 16, 1936. (Old Number) 4083 "Songs of the Seminole in Florida." 28 page manuscript (71 transcriptions of songs, recorded on old catalog card, are not present.) Submitted by F.D. March 20, 1941.
The following Seminole material was received from the Densmore estate, ca. 1962. Three notebooks in F. Densmore's handwriting, dated: 1931, 1932 and 1933 (Brighten), and 1933. These notebooks contain material on Seminole songs and dances. Miscellaneous fieldnotes including "Last of Josie Billie" and "Discended from Osceola". Reading notes from Frank Drew, Minnie Moore-Willson, Clay McCauley, and others. 2 notebooks and several miscellaneous pages. "Annual Report, Narrative Section, 1935, Seminole Agency Dania, Fla." Prepared by J.L. Glenn, Officer in Charge. 18 page mimeo. Clippings: "Indian Buried Unmourned; Tribesmen at Paleface Rites," February 25, 1938, The Herald; photographs of Seminole Indians, page 10, April 25, 1937, The Herald, Miami, Florida, with typed note: "Do these scenes remind you of 'Days of (not so) long ago?' Chas." Various reprints re Seminole Indians: "Souvenir of the Original Musa Isle Seminole Indian Village, Miami, Fla." No date, 12 pages. Publishers announcement of Grant Forman's book, Indian Removal. "Musa Isle Seminoles and Alligators" by James Lowther Berkebile, 1929, Phoenix Printing Co., Augusta, Georgia. 35 pages and 23 illustrations of Seminole Indians.
"Seminole Indians: Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida," presented by Mr. Fletcher, 71st Congress, 3rd Session, Doc. No. 314, GPO, 1931. 88 pages and map. Announcement of lectures W. Stanley Hanson, Secretary Seminole Indian Association, and article from The American Eagle, "Seminole Indian Association Reorganized", September, 1933.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4690
Other Title:
Seminole Music
Seminole Hunting and Alligator Dance Songs
The Seminole Indians
Seminole Bird Dance and their Songs
Buffalo Dance and Corn Dance
A comparison between the structure of Nootka and Quileute songs and that of songs previously analyzed, also a description of a Seminole flute and Seminole customs
Seminole Songs connected with Legends and Dances
Chitimacha, Choctaw and Seminole Music, with a comparative survey of Indian music in the Gulf States
Seminole text from manuscript "Choctaw and Seminole Songs"
Dance Songs of the Seminole Indians
Caloosa and Seminole Corn Dance and Hunting Dance Songs
Songs of the Seminole in Floria
Last of Josie Billie
Discended from Osceola
Annual Report, Narrative Section, 1935, Seminole Agency Dania, Fla.
Indian Buried Unmourned; Tribesmen at Paleface Rites
Souvenir of the Original Musa Isle Seminole Indian Village, Miami, Fla.
Musa Isle Seminoles and Alligators
Seminole Indians: Survey of the Seminole Indians of Florida
Topic:
Music -- Seminole  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newsclippings
Citation:
Manuscript 4690, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4690
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4690

MS 4566 Papers of Stanley Smith, Baptist missionary among the Florida Seminole

Creator:
Smith, Stanley  Search this
Extent:
190 Frames
Culture:
Seminole  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Frames
Date:
1843-1849
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4566
Local Note:
Copied from originals borrowed from Mr Smith by W. C. Sturtevant, April, 1959.
Topic:
Seminole Indians  Search this
Missions  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4566, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4566
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4566

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