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Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements

Topic:
Kodak (Brand name)
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Date:
1890-1979
Summary:
The collection consists of photographs and advertisements related to women working in industry dating from 1890 to 1948.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Photographs includes images of women in industry along with associated documents. Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject. The photographs date from 1890 to 1981, yet the bulk of the materials are from 1930 to 1948. A portion of the materials are undated. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color. The photographs depict women working in engineering jobs, operating heavy machinery, working with textiles, and handling different types of technology. There are several types of machines and products featured in the collection including pneumatic drills, gas irons, typewriters, rivet guns, compressed air machines, an arbor press, bending roll machines, and light bulbs. Documents that correspond to the photographs discuss an increase in women taking men's jobs in the 1940s while the men were at war. Consequently, photographs from the 1940s in this collection represent the transition of making machinery more applicable to women and enabling them to do "man-sized" jobs. Many of the 1940's photographs depict women enrolling in engineering training programs and physically working with heavy machinery.

Earlier materials from the early 1900s show women sitting in factories next to lighter equipment such as sewing machines and typewriters. There are a variety of companies displayed in the photographs including B. F. Spinney Co., Computing-Bureau Freight Accounts, Curtis Publishing Company, Curtis-Wright Corporation, Deane Works, Draper Corporation, General Electric Co., Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp., Osborn Manufacturing Company, and Timken Roller Bearing Co. A portion of the commercial photographs were taken by companies including Commercial Photo Co., Eastman Kodak Company, Mercury MFG. Co., Novelty Photo Co., Science Service, and Underwood and Underwood.

Series 2: Advertisements includes advertisements related to women in industry. These advertisements date from 1927 to 1946. The materials in this series promote products and jobs targeting women operating machinery such as safety bars, grinding tools, bending roles, gauges, double-seaming machines, and portable package staplers. There are a variety of companies featured in this series including Acme Staple Co., Ashcroft Gauge Division, Buffalo Forge Company, E.W. Bliss Co., The Sheffield Corporation, and Willson Safety Products.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photographs, 1890-1948

Series 2: Advertisements, 1927-1946
Historical:
This artificially created collection traces the transition of women's work in industry during the twentieth century. Most of the collection materials have a different provenance, but thirty-two photographs were assembled by Helena E. Wright during her years working as a curator in the Division of Culture and the Arts at the National Museum of American History. Other photographs showing women in industrial sites were added to the collection by the curator Peter Liebhold in the Division of Work and Industry. The photographs and advertisements in the complete collection were arranged to exhibit the evolution of women in the workforce. Women's occupations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries included work in the clothing industry (i.e. Draper Corporation, B. F. Spinney Co.), factories, and production lines. Despite the low pay, laborious and unsafe working conditions that came with working in these industries, most women felt a sense of empowerment being employed outside the home. Many women welcomed the opportunity to provide an income for their families yet worked long hours in inadequate and dismal settings. During World War I and World War II, men left their industry jobs to serve in the war. In order to serve the war effort, women found more employment opportunities in several types of industries. These included electric companies (i.e. General Electric Co.), aircraft and aerospace engineering businesses (i.e. Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp.), foundry work (i.e. Osborn Manufacturing Company), steel making (i.e. Timken Roller Bearing Co.), as well as enrollment in engineering training programs (i.e. Curtis-Wright Corporation). These industries provided women with a broader range of employment opportunities, skills, and experiences. Consequently, other companies began creating and marketing products to help improve the lives of women in the workforce. Inventions such as the Willson Saf-t-Bra advertised comfort and protection to women working in various industry occupations.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women (AC0060) Rosie the Riveter Health and Safety Records (AC0621) Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection (AC0233)
Provenance:
Found in collections and assembled by curatorial staff.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Science Service  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
Factories -- 20th century  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Manufacturing -- 1920-1930  Search this
Commercial photography  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements, 1890-1948, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1446
See more items in:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1446
Online Media:

ESSA Symposium on Earthquake Prediction; [proceedings]

Author:
ESSA Symposium on Earthquake Prediction Rockville (1966 : Md.)  Search this
United States Environmental Science Services Administration  Search this
Physical description:
v, 167 p. illus., maps. 27 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
1966
Topic:
Earthquake prediction  Search this
Call number:
QE538.8 .E78 1966
QE538.8.E78 1966
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_75977

(left to right) Robert Williams Wood (1868-1955), William Henry Bragg (1862-1942) and Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973)

Creator:
Davis, Fremont 1915-1977  Search this
Subject:
Bragg, William Henry Sir 1862-1942  Search this
Wood, Robert Williams 1868-1955  Search this
Abbot, C. G (Charles Greeley) 1872-1973  Search this
Johns Hopkins University  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
University of Cambridge  Search this
Physical description:
Gelatin silver prints
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
1939
April 1939
Topic:
Physics  Search this
Astronomy  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 90-105 [SIA2007-0343]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Copyright Not Evaluated
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_290387

Fireman's Monument, Fort Johnson, New York, from the series The American Monument

Artist:
Lee Friedlander, born Aberdeen, WA 1934  Search this
Medium:
gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
image: 7 1/2 x 11 1/4 in. (19.1 x 28.6 cm)
Type:
Photography-Photoprint
Date:
1973
Topic:
Monument\statue  Search this
Occupation\service\fireman  Search this
Object\other\flag  Search this
Architecture Exterior\science\power lines  Search this
Cityscape\New York\Fort Johnson  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase through the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment, Margery and Edgar Masinter, Kevin and Lisa McGovern, and Bernie Stadiem
Copyright:
© Lee Friedlander
Object number:
2003.42.322
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk79af7ecd4-3dab-4d85-9dc3-b866a1722102
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_2003.42.322

Emergency Job

Artist:
Louis Lozowick, born Ludvinovka, Russia 1892-died South Orange, NJ 1973  Search this
Medium:
lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
image: 12 1/4 x 8 3/4 in. (31.0 x 22.2 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
1942
Topic:
Figure(s) in exterior  Search this
Figure group\male  Search this
Architecture\science\power lines  Search this
Occupation\service\repairman  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Adele Lozowick
Copyright:
© 1942, Lee Lozowick
Object number:
1980.43.18
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7ea0fb854-da3a-4dd6-9bc1-95747a561e56
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1980.43.18

Photographic History Collection

Object Name:
photographic history collection
Photographic History Collection
ID Number:
COLL.PHOTOS.000003
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-be9c-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1296376

Photographic History Collection: Science Service

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Object Name:
Science Service Collection
Date made:
1930-1960
ID Number:
COLL.PHOTOS.000029
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Photographic History
Photography
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ac-5f97-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1341559

Spectral Color Unit No. 283

Measurements:
overall: 4 in x 6 1/2 in; 10.16 cm x 16.51 cm
overall: 4 in x 6 3/8 in x 1/4 in; 10.16 cm x 16.1925 cm x .635 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Science Kit
Associated Place:
United States: New Jersey
ID Number:
2015.0285.04
Catalog number:
2015.0285.04
Accession number:
2015.0285
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b2-59a4-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1800721
Online Media:

Science Service

Measurements:
overall: 8 1/2 in x 11 in; 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
pamphlet, science
ID Number:
2014.3012.0560
Nonaccession number:
2014.3012
Catalog number:
2014.3012.0560
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-2264-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1463283

Science Service - For Use AUg. 15-Aug. 21, 1938

Measurements:
overall: 18 in x 23 1/2 in; 45.72 cm x 59.69 cm
Object Name:
newspaper, science
Date made:
1997-03-01
ID Number:
2014.3012.0569
Nonaccession number:
2014.3012
Catalog number:
2014.3012.0569
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-226d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1463302

Ancient Gems No. 246

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.8 cm x 14 cm x 8.5 cm; 23/32 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 11/32 in
overall: 1 1/4 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 1/2 in; 3.175 cm x 13.97 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Science Kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
April 1961
Credit Line:
Miles Davis in memory of Audrey B. Davis, Ph.D.
ID Number:
2011.0240.01
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a8-78de-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462556
Online Media:

Buoyancy No. 322

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 2.7 cm x 14 cm x 8.5 cm; 1 1/16 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 11/32 in
overall: 1 1/8 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 9/16 in; 2.8575 cm x 13.97 cm x 9.04875 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1967
ID Number:
2011.0240.02
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.02
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1c68-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462905
Online Media:

Cast Iron No. 317

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.8 cm x 14 cm x 8.5 cm; 23/32 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 11/32 in
overall: 13/16 in x 5 3/4 in x 3 1/2 in; 2.06375 cm x 14.605 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1967
ID Number:
2011.0240.03
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.03
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1c69-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462906
Online Media:

Center of Gravity No. 318

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 2.7 cm x 14 cm x 8.5 cm; 1 1/16 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 11/32 in
overall: 1 1/8 in x 6 1/16 in x 3 5/8 in; 2.8575 cm x 15.39875 cm x 9.2075 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1967
ID Number:
2011.0240.04
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.04
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1c6a-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462907
Online Media:

Copper No. 276

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.8 cm x 14 cm x 8.5 cm; 23/32 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 11/32 in
overall: 1 1/8 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 1/2 in; 2.8575 cm x 13.97 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
October 1963
ID Number:
2011.0240.05
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.05
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1c6b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462908
Online Media:

Color No. 319

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (container material)
Measurements:
overall: .7 cm x 17 cm x 11.5 cm; 9/32 in x 6 11/16 in x 4 17/32 in
overall: 5/8 in x 6 13/16 in x 4 9/16 in; 1.5875 cm x 17.30375 cm x 11.58875 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1967
ID Number:
2011.0240.06
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.06
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1c6c-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462909
Online Media:

Computation No. 273

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (container material)
Measurements:
overall: .5 cm x 24 cm x 10.5 cm; 3/16 in x 9 7/16 in x 4 1/8 in
overall: 3/4 in x 9 1/2 in x 4 1/16 in; 1.905 cm x 24.13 cm x 10.31875 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
July 1963
ID Number:
2011.0240.07
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.07
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1cfd-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462917
Online Media:

Cryptography No. 225

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (container material)
Measurements:
overall: .7 cm x 22.7 cm x 10.5 cm; 9/32 in x 8 15/16 in x 4 1/8 in
overall: 1/2 in x 9 in x 4 in; 1.27 cm x 22.86 cm x 10.16 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
1959
ID Number:
2011.0240.08
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.08
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1d8e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462921
Online Media:

Diffraction Optics No. 272

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.8 cm x 14 cm x 8.5 cm; 23/32 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 11/32 in
overall: 3/4 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 1/2 in; 1.905 cm x 13.97 cm x 8.89 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
June 1963
ID Number:
2011.0240.09
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.09
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1d8f-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462922
Online Media:

Diffraction Optics No. 272

Maker:
Science Service  Search this
Physical Description:
cardboard (container material)
Measurements:
overall: 1.8 cm x 14 cm x 8.5 cm; 23/32 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 11/32 in
overall: 7/8 in x 5 1/2 in x 3 7/16 in; 2.2225 cm x 13.97 cm x 8.73125 cm
Object Name:
science kit
Associated Place:
United Kingdom: England
United States: New Jersey
Date made:
June 1963
ID Number:
2011.0240.10
Accession number:
2011.0240
Catalog number:
2011.0240.10
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Chemistry
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ae-1e3e-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1462923
Online Media:

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