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George H. Clark Radioana Collection

Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Names:
American Marconi Company.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Electricity and Modern Physics  Search this
Extent:
220 Cubic feet (534 boxes, 25 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Technical manuals
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs
Sale catalogs
Technical drawings
Date:
circa 1880-1950
Summary:
The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935. The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.
Scope and Contents:
The materials accumulated in this collection represent the overriding collecting passion of one individual, George H. Clark. The collection forms a documentary record of over half a century of the history of radio, with the greatest emphasis on the period 1900-1935.

The collection includes materials that span the entire history of the growth of the radio industry. It is useful for those historians and other researchers interested in technological development, economic history, and the impact of applications of technology on American life.

In particular, the collection is rich in biographical information on the men who developed the technical aspects of radio and the industry; information on the inception, growth, and activities of radio companies, most notably the National Electric Signaling Company and RCA; and in photographs of all aspects of Radioana.

While most materials document technical aspects of radio, there is much information (e.g. Series 109, 134) on broadcasting and on the early history of television.

The collection, housed in over 700 boxes (about 276 linear feet), was organized into 259 numbered "classes" or series by Clark. Sixty series numbers were never used or were eliminated by Clark and combined with other series. The unused numbers are scattered throughout the filing system. The collection also includes material from series that were eliminated. These materials were never reclassified and are included as an unprocessed series at the end of the series descriptions. The collection also contains material that was never assigned a "class" designation by Clark (Lettered Series: D, E, F, G, H).

The arrangement of the collection is Clark's own; his adaptation of the Navy filing system he helped devise in 1915. Clark periodically revised the filing system and reclassified items within it.

Clark assigned class numbers to types of equipment (e.g. broadcast receivers), systems (impulse-excited transmitters and systems), scientific theories (circuit theory), and topics (company history, biography). Box 1 contains descriptions of the classification system.

When Clark classified an item and filed it he also assigned a serial number. This classification begins with 1 (or 1A) for the first item in the class and continues with successive numbers as items were added. As a consequence, the order of individual items within a series reflects the order in which Clark filed them, not any logical relationship between the items. Clark created cross references for items dealing with more than one subject by making notations on blank sheets of paper placed in related series.

Clark made cross references between series when there was no logical relationship between them; that is, when a person using the collection would not normally look in the series. For example no cross reference would be made of an engineer from series 87 (portraits) to series 4 (biography), but one would be made from series 87 to series 142 (history of television) if the item showed the engineer, say, working on a television installation.

Clark created the insignia "SRM" as the sign on the bottom of all sheets of paper numbered by him for binding. SRM stood for Smithsonian Radio Museum. This replaced the earlier though not greatly used sign "CGM." For a time about 1930, the class number on each sheet was preceded by these: "C.G.M.", for Clark, Martin, and Goldsmith, the earliest contributors to what would become the Clark Radioana Collection. After about 1933-34 Clark used C.W.C. for Clark Wireless Collection.

There are many photographs located in most series throughout the collection. But there are also three exclusive photographic series. Lettered series A, B, C. See index; and also series descriptions under lettered series.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into 223 series.

Numbered Series 1-233:

Series 1, Library Operating System, 1915-1950

Series 2, Apparatus Type Numbers, 1916-1931

Series 3, Photographic Lists, 1925-1928

Series 4, Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical Index to Correspondents in Series 4

Series 5, History of Radio Companies, 1895-1950

De Forest Radio Company, 1905-1930s

Jenkins Televsion Corporation, 1924-1931

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, 1908-1929

National Electric Signaling Company, 1896-1941

Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, 1906-1929

Radio Corporation of America, 1895-1950

Series 6, Shore Stations, 1900-1940

Series 7, Marine Stations, 1900-1930s

Series 8, Broadcasting Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 9, Amateur Stations, 1910s-1940s

Series 10, Miscellaneous Information, 1911-1914

Series 11, Radio Antiques, 1921-1938

Series 13, Specifications of Radio Apparatus, 1910s-1930s

Series 14, General History, 1899-1950s

Series 15, Radio Companies Catalogues & Bound Advertisements, 1873-1941

Series 16, Log Books, 1902-1923

Series 17, Radio Companies' House Organs, 1896-1942

Series 18, Prime Movers, 1904-1911

Series 19, Batteries, 1898-1934

Series 20, Rectifiers, 1875-1935

Series 21, Motor Generators, 1898-1936

Series 22, Nameplates of Apparatus, 1928

Series 23, Switchboards and Switchboard Instruments, 1910-1935

Series 24, Radio Frequency Switches, 1905-1905-1933

Series 25, Transmitter Transformers, 1893-1949

Series 26, Operating Keys, 1843-1949

Series 27, Power Type Interrupters, 1902-1938

Series 28, Protective Devices, 1910-1925

Series 30, Message Blanks, 1908-1938

Series 31, Transmitter Condensers, 1849-1943

Series 32, Spark Gaps, 1905-1913

Series 33, Transmitter Inductances, 1907-1922

Series 34, Transmitter Wave Changers, 1907-1924

Series 37, ARC Transmitters, 1907-1940

Series 38, Vacuum Tube Type of Radio Transmitter, 1914-1947

Series 39, Radio Transmitter, Radio-Frequency, Alternator Type, 1894-1940

Series 41, Vacuum Tubes, Transmitting Type, 1905-1948

Series 43, Receiving Systems, 1904-1934

Series 45, Broadcast Receivers, 1907-1948

Series 46, Code Receivers, 1902-1948

Series 47, Receiving Inductances, 1898-1944

Series 48, Receiving Condensers, 1871-1946

Series 49, Audio Signal Devices, 1876-1947

Series 50, Detectors, 1878-1944

Series 51, Amplifiers, 1903-1949

Series 52, Receiving Vacuum Tubes, 1905-1949

Series 53, Television Receivers, 1928-1948

Series 54, Photo-Radio Apparatus, 1910-1947

Series 59, Radio Schools, 1902-1945

Series 60, Loudspeakers, 1896-1946

Series 61, Insulators, 1844-1943

Series 62, Wires, 1906-1945

Series 63, Microphones, 1911-1947

Series 64, Biography, 1925-1948

Series 66, Antennas, 1877-1949

Series 67, Telautomatics, 1912-1944

Series 69, Direction Finding Equipment, Radio Compasses, 1885-1948

Series 71, Aircraft Transmitters, 1908-1947

Series 72, Field or Portables Transmitters, 1901-1941

Series 73, Mobile Radio Systems, 1884-1946

Series 74, Radio Frequency Measuring Instruments, 1903-1946

Series 75, Laboratory Testing Methods and Systems, 1891-1945

Series 76, Aircraft Receivers, 1917-1941

Series 77, Field Portable Receivers, 1906-1922

Series 78, Spark Transmitter Assembly, 1909-1940

Series 79, Spark Transmitter System, 1900-1945

Series 82, Firsts in Radio, undated

Series 85: Distance Records and Tests, 1898-1940

Series 87, Photographs of Radio Executives, and Technical Types, 1857-1952

Series 90, Radio Terms, 1857-1939

Series 92, Static Patents and Static Reducing Systems, 1891-1946

Series 93, Low Frequency Indicating Devices, 1904-1946

Series 95, Articles on Radio Subjects, 1891-1945

Series 96, Radio in Education, 1922-1939

Series 98, Special Forms of Broadcasting, 1921-1943

Series 99, History of Lifesaving at Sea by Radio, 1902-1949

Series 100, History of Naval Radio, 1888-1948

Series 101, Military Radio, 1898-1946

Series 102, Transmitting & Receiving Systems, 1902-1935

Series 103, Receiving Methods, 1905-1935

Series 108, Codes and Ciphers, 1894-1947

Series 109, Schedules of Broadcasting & TV Stations, 1905-1940

Series 112, Radio Shows and Displays, 1922-1947

Series 114, Centralized Radio Systems, 1929-1935

Series 116, United States Government Activities in Radio, 1906-1949

Series 117, Technical Tables, 1903-1932

Series 120, Litigation on Radio Subjects, 1914-1947

Series 121, Legislation, 1914-1947

Series 122, History of Radio Clubs, 1907-1946

Series 123, Special Applications of Radio Frequency, 1924-1949

Series 124, Chronology, 1926-1937

Series 125, Radio Patents & Patent Practices, 1861-1949

Series 126, Phonographs, 1894-1949

Series 127, Piezo Electric Effect, 1914-1947

Series 128, ARC Transmitting & Reciving Systems, 1904-1922

Series 129, Spark Systems, 1898-1941

Series 130, Vacuum Tubes Systems, 1902-1939

Series 132, Radiophone Transmitting & Receiving System, 1906-1947

Series 133, Photo-Radio, 1899-1947

Series 134, History of Radio Broadcasting, 1908-

Series 135, History of Radiotelephony, Other Than Broadcasting

Series 136, History of Amateur Radio

Series 138, Transoceanic Communication

Series 139, Television Transmitting Stations

Series 140, Radio Theory

Series 142, History of Television

Series 143, Photographs

Series 144, Radio Publications

Series 145, Proceedings of Radio Societies

Series 146: Radio Museums

Series 147, Bibliography of Radio Subjects and Apparatus

Series 148, Aircraft Guidance Apparatus

Series 150, Audio Frequency Instruments

Series 151, History of Radio for Aircrafts

Series 152, Circuit Theory

Series 154, Static Elimination

Series 161, Radio in Medicine

Series 162, Lighting

Series 163, Police Radio

Series 169, Cartoons

Series 173, Communications, Exclusive of Radio (after 1895)

Series 174, Television Methods and Systems

Series 182, Military Portable Sets

Series 189, Humor in Radio (see Series 169)

Series 209, Short Waves

Series 226, Radar

Series 233, Television Transmitter

Lettered Series

Series A, Thomas Coke Knight RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950

Series B, George H. Clark Collection of Photographs by ClassSeries C, Clark Unorganized and/or Duplicate Photographs

Series D, Miscellaneous

Series E, News Clippings Series F: Radio Publications

Series G, Patent Files of Darby and Darby, Attorneys, circa 1914-1935

Series H, Blank Telegram Forms from many Companies and Countries Throughout the World

Series I (eye), Miscellaneous Series

Series J, Research and Laboratory Notebooks

Series K, Index to Photographs of Radio Executives and Technical Types

Series L, Index to Bound Volumes of Photos in Various Series

Series M, Index to David Sarnoff Photographs

Series N, Federal Government Personnel Files

Series O, Addenda Materials
Biographical / Historical:
George Howard Clark, born February 15, 1881, at Alberton, Prince Edward Island, Canada, emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen. He worked as a railroad telegraph operator for the Boston and Maine Railroad during high school and college. In his unpublished autobiography he wrote:

In 1888, when I was a lad of seven, I suddenly blossomed out as a scrapbook addict, and for years I gave up boyhood games for the pleasure of sitting in a lonely attic and 'pasting up' my books ... By 1897, in high school, I graduated to beautiful pictures, and made many large size scrapbooks ... Around that time, too, I became infatuated with things electrical, and spent many evenings copying in pen and ink the various electrical text books in the Everett, Mass., Public Library. Clark began collecting material pertaining to wireless or radio in 1902. In 1903 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. During his last year of college he specialized in radio work under the instruction of Professor John Stone Stone and after graduation went to work for Stone's radio company, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company, of Boston.

In 1908 Clark took a competitive examination open to all wireless engineers in the United States and entered the civilian service of the Navy. He was stationed at the Washington Navy Yard, with special additional duty at the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering and at the National Bureau of Standards.

In 1915 Clark helped devise a classification system for Navy equipment, assigning a code number to each item. This system of classification for blueprints, photographs, reports, and general data, was prepared by Arthur Trogner, Guy Hill, and Clark, all civilian radio experts with the US Navy Department in Washington. In 1918 Clark adopted the 1915 Navy classification system for organizing the radio data he was accumulating. Clark created the term "Radioana" at this time. He began spending his evenings and weekends pasting up his collection and numbering pages. At this time he bound the accumulated material. It totaled 100 volumes.

In July 1919, after resigning from the Navy, Clark joined the engineering staff of the Marconi Telegraph Company of America, which became part of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) later the same year. His first work was at Belmar and Lakewood, New Jersey, assisting the chief engineer, Roy A. Weagant, in his development of circuits to reduce the interference caused by static (static reduction). Clark and his wife were assigned to the unheated Engineer's Cottage. His wife decided not to stay and left for Florida. Clark moved his trunks of wireless material to the heated RCA hotel at Belmar and spent most of the winter "pasting." As Clark mentions, "From that time on I was wedded to scraps."

After a year of work in New Jersey, Clark was assigned to the sales department in New York, where he devised the "type number system" used by RCA. This type number system, for example, gave the designation UV 201 to the company's first amplifier tube.

From 1922 to 1934 Clark was in charge of RCA's newly created Show Division, which held exhibits of new and old radio apparatus at state fairs, department stores, and radio shows. About 1928 Clark started an antique radio apparatus museum for RCA. RCA's board of directors announced:

Recognizing the importance of providing a Museum for the Radio Art to house the rapidly disappearing relics of earlier days, and the desirability of collecting for it without further delay examples of apparatus in use since the inception of radio, the Board of Directors of RCA has made an initial appropriation of $100,000, as the nucleus of a fund for the establishment of a National Radio Museum. A plan for ultimately placing the museum under the wing of the Smithsonian Institution was coupled with the goal of the Institution's gathering the largest possible library of wireless data.

Around 1933 the RCA traveling exhibition program ended and Clark started classifying his collected "radioana" material. The objects of the museum were eventually turned over for exhibit purposes to the Rosenwald Museum in Chicago and the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, when space was not forthcoming at the Smithsonian. A list of objects sent to the two museums (with tag and case numbers) is in Series 1, Box A. The "radioana" collection remained under Clark's care during the 1930s, and became of increasing use to RCA. Clark continued to add to the material.

Between 1934 and 1942 Clark was in court many times regarding patent infringements. Clark's wireless data was useful and he testified frequently, for example, in RCA's suit against the United States in the Court of Claims over the Marconi tuning patents and in the Westinghouse Company's suit against the United States over the heterodyne. Patent specifications and material regarding these and other radio industry suits are found throughout this collection.

In 1946 RCA retired George Clark and denied him space to house his "radioana" collection. Clark wished to remain in New York and house the collection somewhere in the city where it would be open at all times to the public and where it would be maintained. He hoped to continue cataloguing the collection and writing books from its information. He wanted to keep the collection under his control for as long as he was capable of using it.

George H. Clark died in 1956 and his collection was subsequently given to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1959 the collection was given to the Smithsonian's new Museum of History and Technology, where space was available to house it. The collection remained in the Division of Electricity until the spring of 1983 when it was transferred to the Archives Center.
Brief Company Histories From The Radio Industry, 1900-1930s:
Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi began his first wireless company, Western Union, Postal Telegraph, and the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) were the major enterprises in electrical communications. General Electric, Western Electric, and Westinghouse were the major producers of electrical equipment. All these earlier developments set the stage for the expansion of the radio industry.

General Electric, which dominated the lighting industry, was formed in 1892 as a merger of the Edison and Thomson-Houston companies. It was active in building central power station equipment; controlled nearly all the important early patents in electric railways; took a leading part in the introduction of trolley systems; and was the principal supplier of electric motors. Westinghouse promoted the alternating current system and installed the first AC central station in Buffalo, NY, during the winter of 1866-1867. After years of patent litigation, in 1896 GE and Westinghouse agreed to share their patents on electrical apparatus.

American Bell Telephone Company purchased Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric had a strong patent position in telephone equipment and in industrial power apparatus, such as arc lamps, generators, motors, and switchboard equipment.

Until RCA was formed in 1919, these established electrical companies played no active part in the early development of the American radio industry. They were in difficult financial positions, reorganizing, or concentrating their efforts and resources on improving their existing products.

The revolution in "wireless" technology, which began in earnest after 1900, centered in New York City, home of the Lee de Forest and American Marconi companies, and in Boston, headquarters of John Stone Stone and Reginald Fessenden.

Information in this section was compiled from the Clark Collection; the Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry by W. Rupert Maclaurin, Macmillan Company, New York, 1949; and Radio Pioneers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Commemorating the Radio Pioneers Dinner, Hotel Commodore, New York, NY, November 8, 1945.

The De Forest Companies

Lee De Forest (1873-1961), inventor of the three-element vacuum tube or triode (1906) and the feedback circuit, was one of the first Americans to write a doctoral thesis on wireless telegraphy: "The Reflection of Short Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires," Yale University, 1899. The grid-controlled tube or audion of De Forest was first a radio detector, 1906-1907; in 1912 was adapted to an amplifier; and later to an oscillator. When it was perfected as a high vacuum tube, it became the great electronic instrument of electrical communications.

De Forest began work in the Dynamo Department at the Western Electric Company in 1899. Six months later he was promoted to the telephone laboratory. In 1900 De Forest went to work for the American Wireless Telegraph Company where he was able to carry out work on his "responder." However, after three months when De Forest refused to turn over the responder to the company, he was fired.

In the following year De Forest had a number of jobs, was active as an inventor, and created numerous firms to manufacture his inventions. In 1901 De Forest joined with Ed Smythe, a former Western Electric colleague and a collaborator in his research, to found the firm of De Forest, Smythe, and Freeman. Between 1902 and 1906 De Forest took out thirty-four patents on all phases of wireless telegraphy. The responder that he had been working on for so long never proved satisfactory.

The numerous De Forest companies, reflected his many interests and his inability to carry one project through to a conclusion. Unlike Marconi, but similar to Fessenden, De Forest had great inventive skill which resulted in a great number of companies; but none lasted long. The original partnership of 1901 led to the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (1901), the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (Maine) (1902), and the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company (1903), to name a few.

The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company was incorporated after De Forest met a stock promoter, Abraham White. While many stations were built by this company, many never sent a message due to static interference. In 1907 two speculators from Denver with large holdings of company stock put the company out of business. The assets were sold to a new company that these speculators organized, the United Wireless Telephone Company. De Forest was forced to resign. He took the triode patents with him.

De Forest joined with one of White's stock salesmen, James Dunlop Smith, and together with De Forest's patent attorney, Samuel E. Darby, they formed a new corporation, the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in 1907. This company set out to develop wireless communication by means of the radio telephone.

In January 1910 De Forest staged the first opera broadcast, with Enrico Caruso singing. The Radio Telephone Company went bankrupt in 1911 following an aborted merger with North American Wireless Corporation. In 1913 he reorganized the company as the Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company and began producing the triode.

The Marconi Company brought a patent suit, claiming the triode infringed on the Fleming valve to which it had rights. In 1916 the court decided that Marconi had infringed the three element De Forest patent and that De Forest had infringed the two element Fleming valve. The result was that neither company could manufacture the triode.

In 1920 RCA acquired the De Forest triode rights through cross-licensing agreements with AT&T which had recently purchased the rights to it. De Forest's company was no match for GE, Westinghouse, and RCA. The De Forest Radio Company (1923) went bankrupt in 1928, was reorganized in 1930, and went into receivership in 1933. RCA eventually purchased its assets.

Marconi Companies

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) came from a wealthy and well connected Italian family. He was able to spend his time developing his inventions and following his own course of action. Marconi spent his entire life developing wireless communication into a "practical" reality. In 1905 Marconi invented a directional antenna. In 1909 he shared with Karl Ferdinand Braun the Nobel prize in physics. And in 1912 he invented the time spark system for the generation of continuous waves. The principal patents in his name were improved types of vertical antennas; improved coherer; magnetic detector for the detection of wireless signals; and improvements on methods of selective tuning. Two other inventions of great importance to the Marconi companies' patent structure were the Oliver Lodge tuning patent and the Ambrose Fleming valve.

In 1895 Marconi made the first successful transmission of long wave signals. The following year he met William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British Post Office, who was interested in inductive wireless telegraphy. This meeting led to the formation in 1897 of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1898 he transmitted signals across the English Channel. In 1899 an American subsidiary was formed. The various Marconi companies were the dominant enterprises in both British and American wireless until 1919 when RCA was formed.

From a business standpoint, wireless did not become profitable until long distance communications were accomplished. On December 12, 1901 in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi received a telegraph signal in the form of repetitions of the Morse telegraphic letter "S" transmitted from the Marconi station at Poldhu, Cornwall, England. This success, however, was met by opposition from vested interests, particularly the Anglo-American Telegraph Company whose cables terminated in Newfoundland.

So as not to restrict his company's future to one front alone, Marconi decided to exploit the field of communication with ships at sea. In order to control this field he decided in 1900 to lease his apparatus rather than sell it outright. This strategy did not work. Competition developed in Germany (Telefunken Corporation) and the United States (American De Forest and its successor, United Wireless) and Marconi was forced to sell rather than lease apparatus to the navies of various countries. He nevertheless retained numerous restrictions. This led to further friction. At the height of this debacle English stations worldwide refused to communicate with ships without Marconi equipment. This absurd and dangerous situation had to change and coastal stations opened up to all senders in 1908.

Marconi's system was based on spark technology. He saw no need for voice transmission. He felt the Morse code adequate for communication between ships and across oceans. He, along with most others, did not foresee the development of the radio and the broadcasting industry. He was a pragmatist and uninterested in scientific inquiry in a field where commercial viability was unknown.

For these reasons Marconi left the early experimentation with the radio telephone to others, particularly Lee De Forest and Reginald Fessenden.

National Electric Signaling Company

Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), one of the principal early radio inventors and the first important inventor to experiment with wireless, left the University of Pittsburgh in 1900 to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. There he invented the liquid barretter, an early radio receiver, and attempted to work out a means for wireless transmission of weather forecasts. After a squabble over patent rights, Fessenden resigned in 1902.

The National Electric Signaling Company (NESCO), primarily intended to support Fessenden's work on wireless, telegraphy, and telephony, was formed by Fessenden and two Pittsburgh capitalists, Hay Walker, Jr. and Thomas H. Given. It began as an inventor's laboratory and never proved successful as a business venture.

Fessenden recognized that a continuous wave transmission was required for speech and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomson on this subject. Fessenden felt he could also transmit and receive Morse code better by the continuous wave method than with a spark-apparatus as Marconi was using.

In 1903 Fessenden's first high-frequency alternator needed for continuous wave transmission was built to his specifications by Charles Steinmetz of GE. In 1906 Fessenden obtained a second alternator of greater power from GE and on Christmas Eve broadcast a program of speech and music. The work on this alternator was given to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson. It took years for Alexanderson to develop an alternator capable of transmitting regular voice transmissions over the Atlantic. But by 1916 the Fessenden-Alexanderson alternator was more reliable for transatlantic communication than the spark apparatus.

Fessenden also worked on continuous-wave reception. This work arose out of his desire for a more effective type of receiver than the coherer, a delicate device that was limited by its sensitivity on a rolling ship at sea. In 1903 he developed a new receiving mechanism - the electrolytic detector.

As his work progressed Fessenden evolved the heterodyne system. However, due to faulty construction and the fact that it was ahead of its time, heterodyne reception was not fully appreciated until the oscillating triode was devised, thus allowing a practical means of generating the local frequency.

Between 1905 and 1913 Fessenden developed a completely self-sustaining wireless system. However, constant quarrels between Fessenden, Walker, and Given culminated in Fessenden's forming the Fessenden Wireless Company of Canada. He felt a Canadian company could better compete with British Marconi. As a result, his backers dismissed Fessenden from NESCO in January of 1911. Fessenden brought suit, won, and was awarded damages. To conserve assets pending appeal, NESCO went into receivership in 1912, and Samuel Kintner was appointed general manager of the company.

In 1917 Given and Walker formed International Signal Company (ISC) and transferred NESCO's patent assets to the new company. Westinghouse obtained majority control of ISC through the purchase of $2,500,000 worth of stock. The company was then reincorporated as The International Radio Telegraph Company. The Westinghouse-RCA agreements were signed in 1921 and International's assets were transferred to RCA.

RCA

The development of the radio industry accelerated after 1912. This was due to several factors, the most important of which was the passage of legislation by the US government requiring ships at sea to carry wireless. This created a market incentive and spurred the growth of the industry. Also, with the outbreak of World War I, the larger electrical companies turned their manufacturing output to radio apparatus, supporting the war effort. Three firms were prominent in this industrial endeavor: AT&T, GE, and Westinghouse.

AT&T's early contributions to this effort centered on their improvements of De Forest's triode, particularly in the evolution of circuits, the redesign of the mechanical structure, and an increase in the plate design. The importation of the Gaede molecular pump from Germany created a very high vacuum. The resulting high-vacuum tube brought the practical aspects of the wireless telephone closer to reality. By August 1915 speech had been sent by land wire to Arlington, Va., automatically picked up there via a newly developed vacuum-tube transmitter, and subsequently received at Darien, Canal Zone. By 1920 AT&T had purchased the rights to the De Forest triode and feedback circuit, and had placed itself in a strong position in the evolution of radio technology.

GE centered its efforts on the alternator, assigning Ernst F. W. Alexanderson to its design, and on further development of vacuum tube equipment for continuous wave telegraph transmission. By 1915 Alexanderson, Irving Langmuir, William D. Coolidge, and others had developed a complete system of continuous wave transmission and reception for GE.

As can be seen, both AT&T and GE were diverting major time and expenditures on vacuum tube research. This inevitably led to patent interferences and consequently, to cross-licensing arrangements.

Westinghouse was not in the strategic position of GE and AT&T. Nevertheless, during the war it did manufacture large quantities of radio apparatus, motors, generators, and rectifiers for the European and American governments. Postwar moves led Westinghouse into full partnership with the other two companies.

By the end of the war, all three companies had committed significant resources to wireless. They were hampered internationally, however, by the Marconi Company's dominant status, and in the United States they were blocked by opposing interests with control of key patents.

The US government also was concerned with this lack of solidarity in the wireless industry and over the British domination of the field worldwide. This impasse set a fascinating and complicated stage for the formation of the RCA.

Owen D. Young, legal counselor for GE, was instrumental in breaking the impasse. Through an innovative and far-reaching organizational consolidation, Young was able to persuade British Marconi that persistence in monopoly was a fruitless exercise, because of the strong US government feelings. Marconi, realizing the harm of a potential American boycott, finally agreed to terms. GE purchased the controlling interest in American Marconi, and RCA was formed. Young was made chairman of the board of RCA, while Edwin J. Nally and David Sarnoff of the old American Marconi were appointed president and commercial manager respectively.

On July 1, 1920, RCA signed a cross-licensing agreement with AT&T. The telephone company purchased one half million shares of RCA common and preferred stock for several considerations -- the most important being that all current and future radio patents of the two companies were available to each other royalty-free for ten years. Many provisions of these agreements were ambiguous and led to later squabbles between the RCA partners.

In May 1920 Westinghouse, which had an efficient radio manufacturing organization, formed an alliance with the International Radio and Telegraph Company (NESCO's successor). Westinghouse's part ownership gave them control of Fessenden's patents, particularly continuous-wave transmission and heterodyne transmission. Westinghouse also wisely purchased in October of 1920 Armstrong's patents on the regenerative and superheterodyne circuits -- which also included some of Columbia University professor Michael Pupin's patents. This placed Westinghouse in a strong bargaining position vis-à-vis RCA and in their new consolidated corporation. Westinghouse joined the growing group of radio companies on June 30, 1921. With these mergers, RCA agreed to purchase forty percent of its radio apparatus from Westinghouse and sixty percent from GE.

Through these and other legal arrangements, RCA obtained the rights to over 2,000 patents. These amounted to practically all the patents of importance in the radio science of that day. As a result, other firms in the radio industry, for example, the United Fruit Company and the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company, entered into cross-licensing arrangements with RCA.

RCA also made arrangements internationally with the three dominant companies in radio communication in their respective countries. British Marconi, Compagnie Generale de Telegraphie sans fil, and Telefunken. Each corporation was given exclusive rights to use the other companies' patents within their own territories.

The rise of amateur radio in the 1920s and, to a greater extent, the demand for new products by the general public contributed to the rise of the broadcasting industry. This put a strain on the earlier agreements between the major radio corporations and between 1921 and 1928 there was a struggle over patents for control of the evolving medium.

An initial attempt by AT&T to control the broadcasting industry -- using its earlier cross-licensing agreements to manufacture radio telephone transmitting equipment -- began with AT&T's disposal of RCA stock holdings in 1922-1923. It ended in 1926 with a new cross-licensing agreement which gave AT&T exclusive patent rights in the field of public service telephony and gave GE, RCA, and Westinghouse exclusive patent rights in the areas covered by wireless telegraphy, entertainment broadcasting, and the manufacture of radio sets and receiving tubes for public sale.

In 1926 after the agreements were finalized, RCA, GE, and Westinghouse joined forces and established the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Fifty percent of the stock went to RCA, thirty percent to GE, and twenty percent to Westinghouse. The new company was divided into three divisions: the Red, Blue, and Pacific Networks. Independent, competing networks soon emerged. William S. Paley and his family formed the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in 1927. The Mutual Broadcasting System was formed in 1934.

By 1928 RCA had strong patent positions in all major areas of the radio industry, including the research, development and manufacture of vacuum tubes and speakers. Most small companies entering the industry in the 1920s produced their products based on prior research by others and on expired patents. An RCA license, therefore, was essential for the manufacture of any modern radio set or vacuum tube.

In the late 1920s new developments in the reproduction of sound, produced significant changes in the phonograph industry. Among those new developments were the introduction of the electronic record, and the marketing of the Radiola 104 Loudspeaker in 1926. In 1929 RCA purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. This changed not only the quality but the sales of the phonograph and the phonograph record. A new entertainment industry was born and an ever-expanding market for consumer products was created with cultural implications that continue today.

Telefunken

German industrialists were eager to break the Marconi Company's monopoly. Although Marconi had patents on his inventions in Germany, the Germans developed a rival system through the Telefunken Corporation, incorporated in 1903, based on the inventions of Professor Ferdinand Braun, Dr. Rudolf Slaby, and Count George von Arco.

Before 1903 the Braun-Siemens and Halske system had been developed by Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphie (GFDT). The Slaby-Arco system had been developed by Allgemeine Electrizitats-Gesellschaft. After litigation over patents, the German court handed down a decision in favor of the GFDT. The Kaiser, with national interests in mind, ordered that the rivalry cease. The two systems were amalgamated under GFDT, and became known as the Telefunken.

Chronology of Some Significant Events In The History of The Radio Industry

1895 -- Marconi experiments with Hertz's oscillator and Branley's coherer.

1897 -- In March Marconi demonstrates his wireless system on Salisbury Plain, near London, and files a complete patent specification. In May trials of Marconi's system are made over water between Lavernock and Flatholm, a distance of three miles. On May 13, communication is established between Lavernock Point and Brean Down, a distance of eight miles. German scientist Professor Slaby is present. The first Marconi station is erected at the Needles, Isle of Wight. A distance of fourteen and one-half miles is bridged by wireless. In December the Marconi station at the Needles communicates with a ship eighteen miles at sea.

1898 -- In England Oliver Lodge files a complete specification covering inventions in wireless telegraphy.

1899 -- The New York Herald uses Marconi's wireless telegraphy to report the progress of the International Yacht races between the Columbia and the Shamrock off New York harbor in September. US. Navy vessels make trials of Marconi's wireless telegraph system. The cruiser New York and the battleship Massachusetts are equipped with apparatus. Fessenden develops improvements in methods of wireless telegraph signaling.

1900 -- The Marconi International Marine Communication Company is organized on April 25th in London. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden begins work at the United States Weather Bureau. Over the next two years he invents the liquid barretter, an improved radio receiver.

1901 -- In February on board the SS Philadelphia, Marconi receives wireless signals over a distance of 1,551 miles. In March Marconi wireless telegraph service begins between islands of the Hawaiian group. On December 12, Marconi receives transatlantic signal at St. John's, Newfoundland from Poldhu, Cornwall, England. The Canadian government orders two Marconi telegraph sets for use at coastal points along the Strait of Belle Isle.

1901 -- Fessenden procures US patent no. 706737 for a system of radio signaling employing long waves (low frequency). De Forest develops a system of wireless telegraphy in Chicago. 1903-06 10,000 to 50,000 cycle machines, 1 kW, are developed by Steinmetz and by Alexanderson of GE for Fessenden. 1905 Marconi procures patent number 14788 in England, covering the invention of the horizontal directional antenna.

1906 -- At Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Fessenden employs a generator of one-half kW capacity, operating at 75,000 cycles, for radio purposes. He succeeds in telephoning a distance of eleven miles by means of wireless telephone apparatus.

1907 -- De Forest procures a U. S. patent for an audion amplifier of pulsating or alternating current.

1908 -- Marconi stations in Canada and England are opened for radio telegraph service across the Atlantic. Fessenden constructs a 70,000-cycle alternator with an output of 2.5 kW. at 225 volts, for radio signaling purposes. He reports successful radio telephone tests between Brant Rock and Washington, DC, a distance of 600 miles.

1909 -- US House of Representatives passes the Burke Bill for the compulsory use of radio telegraphy on certain classes of vessels. The United Wireless Telegraph Company and the Radio Telephone Company of New York (De Forest and Stone systems) begin the erection of radio stations in the Central and Western states. Marconi shares with Ferdinand Braun of Germany the Nobel prize in recognition of contributions in wireless telegraphy.

1910 -- An act of the US government requires radio equipment and operators on certain types of passenger ships. The Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Marconi station is opened in September. This station communicates with Clifden, Ireland. The transatlantic tariff is seventeen cents a word.

1911 -- A radio section is organized by the US Department of Commerce to enforce the provisions of national radio legislation. Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company acquires the Lodge-Muirhead patents.

1912 -- Rotary gap is used with Fessenden 100 kW 500 cycle spark set at NAA, the Navy's first high-power station at Arlington, Virginia. Marconi Wireless of America acquires property of the United Wireless Telegraph Company. British Marconi secures the important radio patents of Bellini and Tosi, Italian inventors. Wreck of the SS Titanic on April 15th. The act of 1910 is extended on July 23 to cover cargo vessels. requires an auxiliary source of power on ships and two or more skilled radio apparatus operators on certain types of passenger ships. On August 13, an act provides for licensing radio operators and transmitting stations.

1912-1913 -- High vacuum amplifying tubes (an improvement on De Forest's), using the findings of pure science, are produced almost simultaneously in two great industrial laboratories, by Dr. H. D. Arnold of AT&T and Irving Langmuir of GE.

1915 -- De Forest Ultra-audion three-step (cascade) audio amplifier is announced and introduced into practice.

1916 -- GE and the Western Electric Company develop the first experimental vacuum tube radiotelephone systems for the Navy.

1917-1918 -- First production of vacuum tubes in quantity, both coated filament and tungsten filament types, by Western Electric Company and GE.

1918 -- Lloyd Espenschied procures US patent number 1,256,889 for the invention of a duplex radio telegraph system. (See Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, NMAH, Collection #13.) The House of Representatives passes a resolution on July 5, authorizing the President to take over management of telegraph and telephone systems due to war conditions.

1919 -- Bills are introduced in Congress for permanent government control of radio stations. The widespread resentment of amateurs has more to do with the defeat of these bills than the objections of commercial companies. Roy Alexander Weagant, New York, reports having developed means of reducing disturbances to radio reception caused by atmospherics or static. This is the first successful static-reducing system. GE purchases the holdings of the British Marconi Company in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, the name of the latter company being changed to Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in October. Edward J. Nally is elected president of the new company.

1920 -- E. F. W. Alexanderson is appointed Chief Engineer of RCA. RCA begins the installation of 200-kW Alexanderson alternators at Bolinas, California, and Marion, Massachusetts. The Tropical Radio Telegraph Company, a subsidiary of the United Fruit Company, New York, operates ten long-distance radio stations at points in Central and South Americirca RCA purchases 6,000 acres at Rocky Point, Long Island, New York, and begins erection of a Radio Central station, comprising a number of operating units for communication with European stations and stations in South Americirca On May 15, RCA inaugurates radio telegraph services between installations at Chatham and Marion, Massachusetts, and stations at Stavanger and Jaerobe, Norway. Westinghouse Company's radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, broadcasts returns of the national elections, November 2. Development, design, and manufacture by GE of the early receiving and transmitting tubes made available to the public by RCA (UV-200,201,202). Radio telegraph stations and properties taken over by the government under war time powers are returned to their owners at midnight, February 29. The government calls for bids for the sale of large quantities of surplus radio and telegraph and telephone apparatus purchased for war needs and not used.

1921 -- RCA develops Vacuum tubes UV-200(detector) and UV-201(amplifier) -- both triodes with brass shells known as the UV base, and incorporating a filament that required 1 ampere at 5 volts for operation -- for storage battery operation; and at the same time also released to the public the WD-11 for dry cell operation, which employed an oxide-coated tungsten filament. RCA station at Rocky Point, Long Island, opens on November 5. WJZ station established by the Westinghouse Company in Newark, NJ. RCA broadcast station at Roselle Park, NJ (WDY) opens on December 15. It continues operation until February 15, 1922, when its operation is transferred to WJZ, Newark, previously owned by Westinghouse. RCA installs 200-kW alternator at Tuckerton, NJ.

1922 -- First use of tube transmitters by RCA for service from the United States to England and Germany. RCA begins substitution of tube transmitters on ships to replace spark sets. RCA begins replacement of crystal receivers by tube receivers on ships.

1923 -- Broadcast stations WJZ and WJY opened in New York in May by RCA. WRC opens in Washington on August 1. The UV-201A, receiving tubes developed by GE and consuming only 1/4 of an ampere are introduced by RCA. Tungsten filaments coated and impregnated with thorium were employed.

1924 -- Edwin H. Armstrong, demonstrates the superheterodyne receiver on March 6th. In November RCA experiments with radio photographs across the Atlantic. RCA markets the superheterodyne receivers for broadcast reception.

1925-26 -- Dynamic loudspeakers introduced. Magnetic pick-up phonograph recording and reproduction developed. RCA opens radio circuit to Dutch East Indies. Direction-finders introduced on ships.

1927 -- Fully self-contained AC radio receivers introduced.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Smithsonian in 1959.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection remains unprocessed and is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Electric engineers -- 1880-1950  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Electricity -- 1880-1950  Search this
Communication -- 1880-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Technical manuals -- Electrical equipment
Clippings
Patents
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Blueprints
Letters patent
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Sale catalogs -- Electrical equipment -- 1880-1950
Technical drawings
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0055
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep833dbe2b0-891b-4411-a413-3b4b1e3306ad
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0055
Online Media:

Series 197, INTER-CITY RADIO, HISTORY OF DOMESTIC (City to City) RADIO COMMUNICATION

Collection Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Container:
Box 504, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1929-1937
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection remains unprocessed and is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
George H. Clark Radioana Collection / Series I: Miscellaneous Series
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep894c662f8-6f16-4c4e-9f1d-36d254ca6301
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0055-ref3058

Clark, George H.

Collection Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents note:
Writings on radio history
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection remains unprocessed and is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
George H. Clark Radioana Collection / Series 4: Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical / 4.3: General "C" file, including secondary material on the following persons:
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep872e3e9af-a4cb-4f19-97f0-a5e1e08743d2
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0055-ref318

[Guglielmo Marconi wearing headphones : photograph]

Names:
Marconi, Guglielmo, Marchese, 1874-1937  Search this
Collection Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Extent:
1 Item
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Scope and Contents:
Photographer unidentified.
Local Numbers:
88-627 (OIPP Neg. No.)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio -- History  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints
Collection Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
George H. Clark Radioana Collection / Series A: Thomas Coke KnightT RCA Photographs, circa 1902-1950 / 1.12: Portraits / Marconi
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep881210407-613b-4e55-a592-59139fd811db
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0055-ref3648

Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical

Collection Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1898-1948
Scope and Contents note:
Series 4 comprises a large collection of disparate materials accumulated by Clark on persons important in the technological development of radio. Included in it are primary materials relating to some of the most important inventors and innovators in radio and wireless communication, including Guglielmo Marconi, Lee DeForest, Nicola Tesla, Reginald A. Fessenden, Roy A. Weagant and John Stone Stone. Additionally, Clark collected documentation on amateurs, radio corporation executives, navy radio aids Clark knew, operators, engineers and hundreds of others active in radio in the first half of the twentieth century. The documents include: letters, and in some cases, full sets of correspondence between individuals; biographical and autobiographical writings (such as resumes) solicited by Clark for inclusion in his "radio library"; writings by Clark and others on various topics in radio history; litigation and patent documents; internal corporate memoranda; drawings, blueprints and designs; and most voluminous, printed material in various forms, including clippings, articles, award programs, press releases and scrapbook entries. Clark's scrapbook entries range from one-line facts about individuals typed or written directly onto a page, citations for other sources of information about individuals, business cards, photographs, and newspaper and magazine clippings ranging in length from one or two lines to several pages.

This series is arranged in alphabetical order by name of individual. The box and folder inventory of this finding aid indicates what types of documents are included on each person. A separate file has been created for individuals when primary material is included. When only secondary material exists, such as clippings, the material has been filed in a general file under the appropriate letter of the alphabet. The finding aid also lists these names and types of documents included. Photocopies of scrapbook items have been filed in cases where information about more than one individual was found on a single page. Correspondence and other documents which pertain to more than one person have been cross referenced in the index to correspondents which follows this finding aid.

A selected list of individuals for whom the collection contains the most comprehensive primary material follows: Armstrong, Edwin Howard; Clark, George H.; DeForest, Lee; Dolbear, Amos; Dubilier, William; Dunlap, Orrin; Fabbri, Alessandro; Farnsworth, Philip; Fessenden, Reginald A.; Firth, John A.; Goldsmith, Alfred N.; Harbord, James G.; Hooper, Stanford C.; Isbell, Arthur A.; Kintner, S.M.; Logwood, Charles Vern; Loomis, Mahlon; Lowenstein, Fritz; Marconi, Guglielmo; Mauborgne, Joseph O.; McCandless, H.W.; Nally, E.J.; Oleson, Harold F.; Pickard, Greenleaf Whittier; Sarnoff, David; Stone, John Stone; Weagant, Roy A.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection remains unprocessed and is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0055, Series 4
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88832addb-71a4-45b9-8852-f5245694a085
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0055-ref51

Articles on radio history, no author

Collection Creator:
Clark, George Howard, 1881-1956  Search this
Container:
Box 24, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection remains unprocessed and is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs, negatives, and slides.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
George H. Clark Radioana Collection
George H. Clark Radioana Collection / Series 4: Biographies of Radio Personages, Technical
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e939b494-d848-405a-bfdd-260220d61b60
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0055-ref5749

Audio Log Sheets

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1986 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1986 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1986 Festival of American Folklife / Series 6: Tennessee / Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5e3529477-6f2f-4c65-b6c0-c3cc310a6a93
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1986-ref1310
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Audio Log Sheets digital asset number 1

Special Events

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
Each year the Festival presents a special evening concert to honor both its co-founder Ralph Rinzler (1934-1994) and a key person with whom he collaborated. The 2012 Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert paid tribute to folklorist, cultural worker, and activist Worth Long, whose work spans five decades and an incredible range. A friend and colleague of Rinzler, Long founded the Mississippi Delta Blues and Heritage Festival, curated multiple Smithsonian Folklife Festivals, and documented traditional arts and culture throughout the Southern United States. His accomplishments include a GRAMMY nomination (with Ralph Rinzler and Barry Lee Pearson) for Roots of Rhythm and Blues: The Robert Johnson Era (1993), a recording with Columbia Records that grew out of a Smithsonian project of the same name, and a Peabody Award for Will the Circle Be Unbroken?, a radio history of the Civil Rights Movement in five Southern cities. He has been recognized by the National Black Arts Festival's Living Legends Award and the Smithsonian's Lifetime Achievement Award.

The Rinzler Memorial concert featured performances by the Sweet Heaven Kings led by Norvus Butch Miller, the premier Washington D.C. shout band, based in the United House of Prayer in Anacostia, and the Rising Star Fife and Drum band from Northern Mississippi led by Sharde Thomas, the granddaughter of NEA National Heritage Fellow Othar Turner.

The 2012 Festival also featured several other special evening concerts:

On Wednesday, June 27, the National Museum of African American History and Culture presented Bring Back the Funk featuring George Clinton, Ivan Neville and Dumpstaphunk, and Meshell Ndegeocello. These legendary and accomplished artists showed how funk music has influenced hip-hop, soul, and rock. In between sets, popular radio personality Tom Joyner spoke to performers and museum experts to get their impressions on funk and the impact it has had on music.

On Thursday, June 28, and Thursday, July 5, Azerbaijani Music was featured with Imamyar Hasanov and Pezhham Akhavass. Hasanov played the kamancha, a stringed instrument known for its tender and melodic sounds, and Akhavass played percussion in this evening of traditional mugham improvisations and love songs from Azerbaijan.

On Friday, June 29, Smithsonian Folkways Recordings presented Quetzal and La Sardina de Naiguatá, two Smithsonian Folkways recording artists who had just released new albums. Quetzal combines shades of East L.A.'s soundscape, traditional son jarocho of Veracruz, salsa, R&B, and more to express the political and social struggle for self-determination and self-representation. La Sardina de Naiguatá fuses traditional Venezuelan parranda music with diverse and progressive instrumentation in a way that has revolutionized and reinvigorated the genre.

On Friday, June 29, The Music of Monticello and the Blue Ridge was presented in partnership with the National Museum of African American History and Culture. The Ebony Hillbillies, banjo and guitar duo Sparky and Rhonda Rucker, and guitarist Amythyst Kiah performed the African American folk music tradition of the Virginia Piedmont. Other program highlights include calling by Herschel Tolson and square dancing by the South Side Squares. A demonstration also took place earlier in the day at the Warner Bros Theater, National Museum of American History.

On Sunday, July 1, Hungarian Roma Music with Kálmán Balogh was featured. The Kálmán Balogh Gypsy Cimbalom Band joined the Karavan Familia to showcase the wide stylistic varieties and distinctive virtuoso sounds of Roma musical traditions from Hungary and Central Europe.

On Friday, July 6, Mariachi Los Camperos de Nati Cano of Los Angeles joined University of Texas-Pan American's Mariachi Aztlán for a joint performance, featuring a special return of Nati Cano on violin.

Bring Back the Funk and The Music of Monticello and the Blue Ridge were produced in partnership with the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture. The two Azerbaijani Music concerts were produced in collaboration with the Karabakh Foundation. The Hungarian Roma Music concert was produced with the support of the Trust for Mutual Understanding, Embassy of Hungary in the United States, and the Balassi Institute - Hungarian Cultural Center, New York. Federal support for the La Sardina de Naiguatá and Quetzal and Mariachi Los Camperos de Nati Cano concerts came from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center. Chevron Corporation, the Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in the United States, Venezuelan Sounds Foundation, and Centro de la Diversidad Cultural (Caracas, Venezuela) were supporters of the La Sardina de Naiguatá concert.
Participants:
Ralph Rinzler Memorial Concert

William W. Long, 1986-, Atlanta, Georgia

Worth W. Long, 1936-, Atlanta, Georgia

Ada T. Thomas, 1956-, Sardis, Mississippi

Olivia Shardé Thomas, 1990-, Sardis, Mississippi

Aubrey Turner, 1982-, Senatobia, Mississippi

United House of Prayer, Washington, D.C.

Michael Wooten, Jr., 1994-, Senatobia, Mississippi

Latino Concerts

Mariachi Los Camperos de Nati Cano -- Mariachi Los Camperos de Nati CanoSergio Alonso, 1975-, harp, Sylmar, CaliforniaNatividad Cano, 1933-, Fillmore, CaliforniaJimmy Cuéllar, 1982-, violin, Los Angeles, CaliforniaRaúl Cuéllar, 1976-, violin, Los Angeles, CaliforniaJesús Guzmán, 1964-, violin, Pico Rivera, CaliforniaIsmael Hernández, 1969-, violin, Hacienda Heights, CaliforniaJuan Jiménez, 1962-, guitarrón, Pomona, CaliforniaGermán López, 1972-, vihuela, La Puente, CaliforniaJavier Rodríguez, 1969-, trumpet, Los Angeles, California

Quetzal -- QuetzalAlexander Chadsey, 1980-, keyboards, Seattle, WashingtonTylana Renga Enomoto, 1977-, violin, Los Angeles, CaliforniaJosé Quetzal Flores, 1973-, jarana, requinto, guitar, Pasadena, CaliforniaMartha González, 1972-, vocals, Pasadena, CaliforniaChristian Camilo Moreno, 1985-, Los Angeles, CaliforniaJuan Pérez, 1975-, bass, Los Angeles, California

La Sardina de Naiguatá -- La Sardina de NaiguatáPatricia Abdelnour, 1976-, Caracas, VenezuelaFélix Orlando Corro Cáceres, 1950-, trombone, Miranda, VenezuelaJosé Ramón Corro Domínguez, 1954-, bass, Vargas, VenezuelaRicardo Benito Díaz, 1933-, trumpet, Vargas, VenezuelaReinaldo José Díaz Iriarte, 1990-, Vargas, VenezuelaBetty Yoanna Díaz Monrroy, 1970-, vocals, Vargas, VenezuelaKatiuska Judith Díaz Monrroy, 1969-, vocals, Vargas, VenezuelaKeila Ann Marie Díaz Monrroy, 1976-, vocals, Vargas, VenezuelaElvis José Hernández Sandoval, 1982-, redoblante, Vargas, VenezuelaEfraín Adrián Herrera Franco, 1979-, videographer, Vargas, VenezuelaCarlos Alfredo Iriarte Rivas, 1993-, trombone, Vargas, VenezuelaArturo Candelario Iriarte Sánchez, 1961-, bombo, Vargas, VenezuelaAdolfo José Jiménez Cardona, 1952-, bongo, Vargas, VenezuelaLeonardo José Pereira Díaz, 1979-, tambora, Vargas, VenezuelaJohnny Antonio Rodríguez Martínez, 1953-, piano, Vargas, VenezuelaMiguel Richard Romero Rodríguez, 1965-, tumbadora, Vargas, VenezuelaRoberto Antonio Verde Rojas, 1949-, manager, Municipio Tubores, Nueva España, VenezuelaNelva Garminia Yriarte Blanco, 1964-, vocals, Vargas, VenezuelaMariani Coromoto Yriarte Verde, 1989-, vocals, Vargas, VenezuelaJoel Oswaldo Yzaguirre Yriarte, 1964-, trombone, Vargas, Venezuela

NMAAHC Concerts

Music of Monticello and the Blue Ridge

Amythyst Kiah

Sparky Rucker

Rhonda Rucker

James Rucker, III

The Ebony Hillbillies -- The Ebony HillbilliesNorris Bennett, banjo, dulcimer, vocalRique Prince, violin, vocalGloria Gassaway, bones, vocalNewman Baker, washboard, spoons, percussionBill Salter, bass

Bring Back the Funk

George Clinton -- George ClintonGene AndersonDanny BedrosianBarbarella BishopStephen BoydMs. BunnGeorge ClintonLashonda ClintonShawn ClintonTracey Lewis ClintonBennie CowanLige CurryDwayne DungeyKendra FosterGlenn GrauMary GriffinMichael HamptonPaul HillRobert JohnsonJeff KassabianRicardo LewisTracy Lewis SRKim ManningJoseph McCrearyCarlos McMurrayWilliam PayneMr. PhillipsJerome RodgersGarrett ShiderGreg ThomasMr. ThorenWill ThortonAndre WilliamsMatt Wilson

DumpstaPhunk -- DumpstaPhunkNick Daniels, IIICarmelita GlaspieAnthony HallMichael HarrisIvan NevilleIan Neville

Meshell Ndegeochello -- Meshell NdegeochelloMeshell NdegeochelloCharles HaynesJebin BruniChris BruceHesse HonigEric Elterman

Azerbaijani music

Imamyar Hasanov, -- kamancha

Pezhham Akhavass, -- tombak, daf

Brian Silver, presenter

Kalyi Jag

Kálmán Balogh, -- cimbalom

Csaba Novák, bass

Róbert Lakatos, violin

István Nagy, vocals, guitar, -- tamboura -- , harmonica

Lisa Overholser

Ilona Farkas, vocals, dancing
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2012 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2012, Series 5
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2012 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk561386f35-140d-4458-ab83-80a82197b6cf
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2012-ref39

Radio history

Collection Creator:
Espenschied, Lloyd, 1889-? (electrical engineer)  Search this
Container:
Box 21
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Lloyd Espenschied Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Lloyd Espenschied Papers
Lloyd Espenschied Papers / Series 1: Subject Files
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83a8642dd-60bb-40e8-8734-23bfdaf3831f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0013-ref598

Kenneth M. Swezey Papers

Creator:
Swezey, Kenneth M., 1905-1972 (journalist)  Search this
Sarony, Napoleon, 1821-1896  Search this
Tesla, Nikola, 1856-1943  Search this
Extent:
8.6 Cubic feet (26 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Cabinet photographs
Patents
Date:
1891 - 1988
Summary:
The collection consists of correspondence (both of Nicola Tesla and Kenneth Swezey), copies of patents, articles, pamphlets, brochures, stamps, newsletters, and manuscripts, from 1890-1972 collected and assembled by Swezey.
Scope and Contents:
The Swezey papers are divided into four series: Series 1: Correspondence and Subject Files, Series 2: Tesla Photographs, Series 3: Publications and Series 4: Research Notes. Series 4: Research Notes is housed in a small metal box and contains Swezey's research notes presumably for his incomplete biography of Tesla. Series 1: Correspondence and Subjects Files is arranged alphabetically and is composed of correspondence, copies of patents, articles, pamphlets, brochures, stamps, newsletters and manuscripts. The folders within this series are titled and include a diverse combination of correspondence between Swezey and Tesla, and between Swezey and his colleagues, companies, government officials, museum curators, and Tesla's admirers. Box 19 contains photographs of Tesla, his inventions, his laboratories and personal photographs. Boxes 20-26 include bibliographies, biographies and articles. The collection is strong in articles from magazines such as Electrical Experimentor, newspaper clippings, articles regarding electricity, power, radio, pamphlets, and brochures. The collection generally follows Swezey's arrangement and is somewhat inconsistent in terms of organization. However, the folder titles are fairly specific and should give the researcher direction. The materials within the folders are arranged chronologically. While some photo prints have been placed together in Series 2, there are also a large number of photo prints throughout the collection, according to Swezey's original arrangement. The collection provides an overview of Tesla's unusual personality and Swezey's intense preoccupation with Tesla. The collection also provides insight into Tesla's way of life, philosophies, personality and a general overview of his inventions and how society reacted to this prolific and unusual inventor.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Correspondence and Subject Files, 1891-1988

Series 2: Tesla Photographs, 1983; 1943

Series 3: Publications, 1959-1970

Series 4: Research Notes, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was born in Smiljan, Lika, now Yugoslavia and emigrated to America in 1884. He worked at the Edison Machine Works as a dynamo designer where he was promised a salary of $18.00 a week, with a completion bonus of $50,000. He realized at the end of the year the bonus had been a practical joke and he resigned. By 1887, he accumulated enough money to build a laboratory and start working on models of motors. Shortly thereafter, he developed his famous polyphase, alternating current motor, using an alternating current instead of the direct current used up until this point. Tesla's motor kept "exact step with the rotations of the field, regardless of load; this was the first polyphase synchronous motor." (Science, Swezey, vol. 127 p.1149) The induction motor which he later invented developed a high torque in starting, built up speed, and could maintain speed with varying loads. In 1888, Tesla received his first patents from the U.S. Patent Office. George Westinghouse quickly recognized Tesla's lucrative ideas, and hired him. Westinghouse was awarded the important Niagara Falls Power contract using Tesla's patents for his turbine engine utilizing the polyphase system. After a year, despite his very high salary with Westinghouse, Tesla decided to go back to working in his private lab in New York. He experimented with high frequency currents which led to many discoveries, including the famous Tesla coil the forerunner of fluorescent and neon lighting. At the same time he started delving in the new field of science, telautomatics, now called automation. He built and demonstrated model boats controlled by wireless radio impulses and the first radio controlled torpedo (the forerunner of the guided missile) One of Tesla's dreams was to transmit electric signals all over the world without using wires . In 1899, he began building a demonstration plant for wireless transmission at his Shoreham, Long Island laboratory. Despite never completing the plant due to lack of funds, his vision earned him the name "father of radio". In Tesla's latter years he worked on inventions and ideas which he could not afford to develop and became more eccentric and withdrawn from society. He died January 7, 1943 at the age of 87. Although Tesla was well regarded in his time, he was never revered in this country as he was in Yugoslavia. Most of Tesla's original documents and correspondence are in Belgrade, Yugoslavia at the Nikola Tesla Museum. The Library of Congress Manuscript Division holds 7 reels of microfilm of these materials.

Kenneth M. Swezey (1905-1972) wrote for the New York Sun in his late teens and early twenties. At this time he met and became friends with Nikola Tesla. Swezey regarded him as an unsung electrical genius and collected Tesla materials from 1921-1972. In his capacity as writer for various publications he frequently wrote about Tesla and his scientific advancements. Privately he spent a large part of his time memorializing him, eg. he started the Tesla Society. He also organized anniversary celebrations commemorating Tesla, etc. Swezey also wrote science books, among them: Formulas, Methods, Tips and Data for Home and Workshop, 1969; Science Shows You How, 1964 and After Dinner Science. When Mr. Swezey died in 1972, the Smithsonian Institution acquired his collection. Kenneth Swezey felt that the United States should honor Tesla and spent most of his life trying to memorialize him. He was instrumental in organizing a celebration of Tesla's 75th anniversary with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, soliciting admiring statements from both individuals and corporations, for the unpublished pamphlet, "Tribute to Nikola Tesla." Some of Mr. Swezey's other Tesla related activities included: forming the Tesla Society, organizing and designing the 100th anniversary celebration, successfully lobbying for the naming of ships, schools, and a unit of measurement after Tesla, and the striking of a stamp commemorating Tesla.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Robert MacCrate, Attorney, Sullivan and Cromwell in 1972.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Series 1: Leland Anderson correspondence, box 2 is restricted by the donor until 2030.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio -- History  Search this
Electrical engineering  Search this
Electrical engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Cabinet photographs
Patents
Citation:
Kenneth M. Swezey Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0047
See more items in:
Kenneth M. Swezey Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82f8acf59-7398-45d6-973e-9391f2fde87a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0047
Online Media:

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
2.44 Cubic feet (consisting of 4.5 boxes, 1 folder, 5 oversize folders, 2 flat boxes (partial), 1 map case folder.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Business ephemera
Business letters
Publications
Receipts
Business cards
Trade literature
Logs (records)
Sales catalogs
Print advertising
Ephemera
Catalogs
Advertising mail
Commercial catalogs
Invoices
Trade cards
Technical reports
Trade catalogs
Advertising
Manuals
Reports
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial correspondence
Catalogues
Printed materials
Illustrations
Bulletins
Technical manuals
Printed material
Transcripts
Letterheads
Printed ephemera
Advertisements
Advertising cards
Radio scripts
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Business records
Date:
1893-1992
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Accounting and Bookkeeping forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
The radio category contains material primarily related to radio company products, radio broadcasts and programs, technical documentation on the use of radios, and material documenting the effect of radio on modern life. The bulk of the material covers sales catalogues and advertisements, though no complete records for single companies are present.

The radio broadcast transcripts and programs include fictional or anecdotal stories, transcripts of contests, interviews, or speeches, and notifications about future broadcasts.

Literature concerning the effect of radio on modern life includes brief radio historiographies, discussions about the need for advanced education for the radio field, and documentation of the use of radio in leisure time or in rural life. Additional publications address the uses and effects of radio during times of war. While no extensive documentation exists on any one topic, the publications may provide general histories of the radio with snapshots of specific facets of radio history.
Arrangement:
Radio is arranged in three subseries.

Missing Title

Business Records and Marketing Material

Genre

Subject
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Missing Title

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Radio is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio -- History  Search this
Radio -- Receivers and reception  Search this
Radio  Search this
Radio -- Transmitters and transmission  Search this
Radio -- Apparatus and supplies  Search this
Radio broadcasting  Search this
Radio broadcasts  Search this
Radio in politics  Search this
Radio advertising  Search this
Radio -- Receivers and reception -- Design and construction  Search this
Radio audiences  Search this
advertising -- Business ephemera  Search this
Consumer goods -- Catalogs  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Broadcast advertising  Search this
Radio comedies  Search this
Broadcasting  Search this
Broadcasting -- United States  Search this
War  Search this
Retail trade  Search this
Radio programs  Search this
Transmission of culture  Search this
Radio -- 1930-1940  Search this
Radio -- Antennas  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business ephemera
Business letters
Publications -- Business
Receipts
Business cards
Trade literature
Logs (records)
Sales catalogs
Print advertising
Ephemera
Catalogs
Advertising mail
Commercial catalogs
Invoices
Trade cards
Technical reports
Trade catalogs
Advertising
Manuals
Reports
Manufacturers' catalogs
Commercial correspondence
Catalogues
Printed materials
Illustrations
Bulletins
Technical manuals -- 20th century
Printed material
Transcripts
Letterheads
Printed ephemera
Publications
Advertisements
Advertising cards
Radio scripts
Correspondence
Advertising fliers
Business records
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Radios
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep805ffaf5e-f3b1-4f2a-9714-a4f2c6774754
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-radios

Radio and Society

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 1-2
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1927-1949
Scope and Contents:
Topics include brief overviews of radio history, proposals for mass educational programming through broadcasts, the effect of radio on rural life, and commentary on proposed legislation impacting radio broadcasting.
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Radios / Subject
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89440547c-3210-4ab2-bb7c-77f0c2a08d7c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-radios-ref55

Radio's civic ambition : American broadcasting and democracy in the 1930s / David Goodman

Author:
Goodman, David 1957-  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xx, 337 pages) : illustrations
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
United States
Date:
2011
©2011
20th century
Topic:
Radio broadcasting--History  Search this
Public radio--History  Search this
Radio broadcasting--Political aspects  Search this
Radio broadcasting--Social aspects  Search this
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Radio  Search this
Public radio  Search this
Radio broadcasting  Search this
Call number:
HE8698 .G66 2011 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1148181

Ann Carroll

Author:
Kline, Lawrence  Search this
Subject:
Carroll, Ann  Search this
Radio Smithsonian  Search this
Physical description:
Color: Black and White; Size: 10w x 8h; Type of Image: Person, candid; Medium: Photographic print
Type:
Photographic print
Person, candid
Date:
1978
Topic:
Women  Search this
Women--History  Search this
Radio  Search this
Standard number:
94-2876
Restrictions & Rights:
No restrictions
Data Source:
Smithsonian Archives - History Div
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sic_8748

EAC 436458 Punch Card

User:
Sivowitch, Elliot  Search this
Creator:
General Services Administration  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 8.7 cm x 18.7 cm; 3 7/16 in x 7 3/8 in
Object Name:
punch card
Form date:
1960
Date used:
ca 1960
Subject:
Mathematics  Search this
ID Number:
2018.3105.01
Nonaccession number:
2018.3105
Catalog number:
2018.3105.01
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-a57b-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1900063

Barbour Family Scrap Book (One Man's Family)

Associated Name:
Morse, Carlton E.  Search this
Maker:
Standard Brands Inc.  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 7/8 in x 11 in; 20.0025 cm x 27.94 cm
Object Name:
booklet
book
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1946
Subject:
Radio and television broadcasting  Search this
Radio  Search this
Credit Line:
Carlton E. Morse
ID Number:
1989.0174.04
Accession number:
1989.0174
Catalog number:
1989.0174.04
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-0eb7-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1838737

Typewriter used by Carlton Morse

Associated Name:
Morse, Carlton E.  Search this
Maker:
Royal Typewriter Company  Search this
Physical Description:
metal (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 9 in x 15 in; 22.86 cm x 38.1 cm
Object Name:
Typewriter
Place made:
United States
Date made:
1940
Subject:
Radio  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Carlton E. Morse
ID Number:
1989.0174.03
Catalog number:
1989.0174.03
Accession number:
1989.0174
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Entertainment
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746b3-12e9-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1115592

Elmo Neale Pickerill Papers

Creator:
Pickerill, Elmo Neale, 1885-1968  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
Long Island Early Fliers Club  Search this
OX5 Aviation Pioneers.  Search this
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Veterans Wireless Operators Association.  Search this
Extent:
2.55 Cubic feet ((4 legal document boxes) (3 shoeboxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Newsletters
Publications
Photographs
Date:
1907-1968
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains photographs (some with captions) with corresponding negatives, publications, periodicals, Early Bird newsletters and stationary, biographical material, and correspondence from friends and contemporaries.
Biographical / Historical:
Elmo Neale Pickerill (1885 - 1968) was born in Greenridge, Missouri. In 1910 he made his first solo flight while establishing air to ground wireless radio communication. Pickerill was an officer in the aviation section of the Army Signal Corps during World War I. He joined RCA in 1920 and retired in 1950. Pickerill was not only a member, but held officer positions in the following organizations: The Early Birds, Long Island Early Fliers Club, the OX5 Club, and the Veterans Wireless Operators Association. He was most noted for his work with the Early Birds.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Eugene M. Baker, gift, 1997, 1997-0023, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Radio in aeronautics  Search this
Radio  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Aeronautical instruments  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Newsletters
Publications
Photographs
Identifier:
NASM.1997.0023
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2e26782d0-4150-4179-af7c-0de0d901ff44
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1997-0023

Greenleaf Pickard Notebooks and Nikola Tesla Patents

Creator:
Pickard, Greenleaf Whittier, 1877-1956  Search this
Donor:
Cardwell Condenser Corporation (Lindenhurst, New York)  Search this
Names:
Tesla, Nikola, 1856-1943  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (5 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Date:
1898-1941
Summary:
The collection documents Greenleaf Whittier Pickard, an engineer, and his experiments in wireless technology. Materials include Greenleaf Pickard notebooks and patents issued to Nikola Tesla.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Greenleaf Pickard Notebooks, 1898-1941

Series 2: Nikola Tesla Patents, 1890, 1896 (bulk 1901-1918)
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Greenleaf Whittier Pickard was born February 14, 1877, in Portland, Maine and died on January 8, 1956 in Newton, Massachusetts. Dr. Pickard was a grandnephew of the poet John Greenleaf Whittier, and was a graduate of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1899 he received a grant from the Smithsonian Institution to support his wireless research at Blue Hill Observatory in Milton, Massachusetts. He was an engineer at the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (1902-1906); and after 1945 he was head of Pickard and Burnes, an electronics engineering firm.

Pickard discovered that a number of naturally occurring crystalline minerals could detect radio signals. The contact between a fine metallic wire (cat's whisker) and the surface of certain crystalline materials rectifies and demodulates high frequency alternating currents, such as those produced in a receiving antenna by radio waves. Pickard patented a crystal detector in 1906. The point-contact rectifier was the forerunner of the transistor invented in 1948. Pickard conducted experiments to determine the effect of sun and sunspots, meteor showers, atmosphere pressure and temperature on reception. He contributed to the development of the direction finder, and noted in 1908 that errors in reading radio compasses might be caused by buildings, trees, and other objects.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Cardwell Condenser Corporation, through Paul Meyer and David C. Kjeldsen in November 2004.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. No copyright, patent, trademark or related interests were conveyed in the deed of gift. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Radio -- Receivers and reception  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks
Citation:
Greenleaf Pickard Notebooks, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0915
See more items in:
Greenleaf Pickard Notebooks and Nikola Tesla Patents
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89b18df1d-f339-4ccd-83e8-c8870eb6b76a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0915

Electricity and Modern Physics Photonegatives

Creator:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Information, Technology and Society  Search this
Names:
Radio Corporation of America.  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Farnsworth, Philo Taylor, b. 1906  Search this
Marconi, Guglielmo, Marchese, 1874-1937  Search this
Marconi, Maria, Marchesa  Search this
Tesla, Nikola, 1856-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Extent:
6 Cubic feet (34 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Black-and-white negatives
Date:
1890 - 1930
Summary:
Photographic negatives and some glass plate negatives depicting subjects relating to the Division of Electricity and Modern Physics' artifact collections and research interests. Negatives include portrait photographs of engineers (Marconi, Tesla, Bell, and Zworykin), images of radios, telegraphy equipment, and phonographs.
Scope and Contents:
Photographic negatives and some glass plate negatives depicting subjects relating to the Division of Electricity and Modern Physics' artifact collections. Negatives include portrait photographs of engineers (Marconi, Tesla, Bell, and Zworykin), images of radios, telegraphy equipment, radio equipment, inventors, and phonographs. The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) engineers and some equipment are especially well represented. Many of the negatives are unidentified and undated.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series and are arranged by topics. The folder titles in the container list were taken from the image enclosures.
Related Materials:
Materials held in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

George H. Clark Radioana Collection, circa 1880-1950 (AC0055)

Thomas Alva Edison Photo Prints, 1890s-1933, (AC0299)

Kenneth M. Swezey Papers, 1891-1982 (AC0047)
Provenance:
Source unknown. Found in collections.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the photonegatives are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Radio -- Apparatus and supplies  Search this
Radio -- History  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Phonograph  Search this
Telegraph, Wireless  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Electricity and Modern Physics Photonegatives, 1898-1953, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0715
See more items in:
Electricity and Modern Physics Photonegatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep80d6a6f36-69a6-4eed-a2ee-5960a736cc0c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0715
Online Media:

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