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Marvin Harris papers

Creator:
Harris, Marvin, 1927-2001  Search this
Names:
Columbia University  Search this
University of Florida. Department of Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
42.27 Linear feet (85.5 document boxes, 1 oversize box, 4 record storage boxes, 90 computer disks, 19 cassette tapes, 1 7" sound reel, 3 vinyl records, and 1 map folder)
Note:
Boxes 88-91 (formerly designated off-site boxes 1-4) are stored off-site. Advanced notice must be given to view these materials.
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
New York (N.Y.)
Mozambique
Rio de Contas (Brazil)
Arembepe (Brazil)
Chimborazo (Ecuador)
Date:
1945-2001
Summary:
This collection contains the professional papers of anthropologist Marvin Harris. Harris was a prominent anthropologist, best known for developing the controversial paradigm of cultural materialism. He authored several important books in the field of anthropology and taught at Columbia University and The University of Florida. The papers include correspondence, research materials, his publications, unpublished manuscripts, conference papers, lectures, subject files, teaching files, computer files, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the professional papers of anthropologist Marvin Harris. The papers include correspondence, research materials, his publications, unpublished manuscripts, conference papers, lectures, subject files, teaching files, computer files, and photographs.

His research files document his ethnographic field work in Rio de Contas, Brazil, both for his dissertation and his racial categorization project; his research on forced labor in Mozambique; his videotape study in New York City households; and his India sacred cattle research. The collection also contains his research on food preferences and aversions, his files as a research consultant for the McKinsey Global Institute, and photos from his field work in Chimborazo, Ecuador and Arembepe, Brazil.

Over the course of his career, Harris also participated in several conferences and invited lectures. The collection contains some of the papers he presented as well as audio recordings of his lecture "Levi-Strauss and the Clam: An Open and Shut Case" and a recording of a radio interview. Also present in the collection are materials relating to conference sessions and symposiums that he organized, including the 1967 AAA session on Anthropology and War and his 1983 Wenner-Gren symposium on Food Preferences and Aversions.

Additional materials that may be of interest are materials documenting Harris' activism in the 1960s at Columbia University, which include his anti-Vietnam War activities, as well as his involvement in the student protests of 1968 at Columbia University. The collection also contains Harris' CIA, FBI, and Department of State records that he obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests, photographs from Harris' service in the army in the 1940s, and photos taken in Brazil by Pierre Verger.

Harris corresponded with several prominent anthropologists, many of whom were Latin American specialists. Some of his noteworthy correspondents include Napoleon Chagnon, Derek Freeman, Morton Fried, Conrad Kottak, Sidney Mintz, Anthony Leeds, Claude Levi-Strauss, Darcy Ribeiro, Anisio Teixeira, Charles Wagley, and Karl Wittfogel. Also of special interest is his correspondence with leading figures in the Mozambique and Portuguese liberation movements, including Antonio Figuereido, Eduardo Mondlane, and General Humberto Delgado.

Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 10 series: (1) Correspondence, 1952-2001; (2) Research, 1949-1997; (3) Writings, 1955-2001; (4) Professional Activities, 1960-1999; (5) Name Subject Files, 1951-2001; (6) University, 1947-1999; (7) Biographical Files, 1954-1999; (8) Writings by Other People, 1961-2000; (9) Photographs, 1945-1996; (10) Computer Files, 1980-2000
Biographical Note:
Marvin Harris was a prominent anthropologist, best known for developing the controversial paradigm of cultural materialism. He authored several important books in the field of anthropology, most notably The Rise of Anthropological Theory (1968) and Cultural Materialism (1979) as well as books that reached a wider audience, such as Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches (1974) and Cannibals and Kings (1977).

Harris was born in Brooklyn, New York on August 18, 1927. After serving in the U.S. Army Transportation Corps (1945-47), he received his B.A. (1948) and Ph.D. (1953) from Columbia University. His first anthropology course was taught by Charles Wagley, who was influential in Harris' decision to become an anthropologist. Harris joined the faculty at Columbia University after earning his doctorate and served as chair of the Department of Anthropology from 1963 to 1966. In 1980, he left Columbia for a position as Graduate Research Professor at University of Florida, where he stayed until his retirement in 2000.

It was in The Rise of Anthropological Theory that Harris coined the phrase "cultural materialism," a subject he further elaborated on in Cultural Materialism. Cultural materialism, Harris explains, is a scientific research strategy "based on the simple premise that human social life is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence" (1979, xv). Harris applied the paradigm to explain various cultural patterns, such as food preferences and taboos, changes in U.S. family structure, and the collapse of Soviet and East European state socialism. One of his most controversial theories was that the Hindu prohibition of slaughtering and consuming cows in India arose because it was more economically beneficial to use cattle as draft animals than as meat. He challenged Napoleon Chagnon's views that Yanomami men were inherently more aggressive and violent by explaining that it was the pursuit of animal protein that was the cause of Yanomami warfare. Harris similarly argued that protein deficiency was the reason why the Aztecs practiced cannibalism.

Harris presented his theories beyond academic circles to a general audience by contributing a monthly column to Natural History Magazine. He also authored several popular books. In addition to Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches and Cannibals and Kings, Harris also wrote America Now (1981), Good to Eat (1985), and Our Kind (1989). Harris also authored and edited several editions of two college-level introductory textbooks: Culture, People, Nature (first published as Culture, Man, and Nature in 1971) and Cultural Anthropology (first published in 1983, later editions coauthored with Orna Johnson). According to Harris, the 1975 edition of Culture, People, Nature "was the first anthropology textbook to be written cover to cover in a gender-neutral mode of discourse" (12/3/93 letter from Harris to Deborah S. Rubin, "Furlow - [The Teaching of Anthropology]", Series 3. Writings, Marvin Harris Papers).

Although Harris is primarily known for his work as a theoretician, he also conducted ethnographic fieldwork throughout his career. Harris traveled to Rio de Contas, Brazil in 1950-51 to conduct research for his dissertation, "Minas Velhas: A Study of Urbanism in the Mountains of Eastern Brazil." This research was also the subject of his book Town and Country in Brazil (1958) and his chapter, "Race Relations in Minas Velhas, a Community in the Mountain Region of Central Brazil" in Race and Class in Rural Brazil (Charles Wagley, 1952). He continued his research in Brazil in 1953-54 while serving as a research advisor for the Ministry of Education in Rio de Janeiro. As field leader of the Columbia-Cornell-Harvard-Illinois Summer Field Studies Program, Harris returned to Brazil in 1962 to study fishing villages in Arembepe. Prior to that, he also served as field leader for the program in Chimborazo, Ecuador in 1960.

In 1956-57, Harris conducted field research in Mozambique, at the time under Portuguese rule. He initially intended to study the influence of Portuguese rule on race relations, comparing the race relations in Brazil and Mozambique. He soon became aware, however, of the political brutalities that the Portuguese government was imposing on the people of Mozambique. Consequently, Harris decided to focus his research on labor exploitation in the colony. Antonio de Figueiredo, who later became an important figure in the Mozambique liberation movement, served as an informal assistant to Harris. Harris was also friends with Eduardo Mondlane, president of FRELIMO, the Mozambican Liberation Front. Because Harris was openly critical of the Portuguese government, he was forced to leave Mozambique before he completed his research. When he returned to the United States, Harris published Portugal's African "Wards" (1958), a critical evaluation of Portugal's colonialism. His publication was influential in eradicating the forced labor system in Mozambique a few years later.

Harris' activism extended to the social and political unrest at home during the 1960s. He was vice-chairman of Vietnam Facts, an organization of professors in the United States who were against the Vietnam War, and was one of the organizers of the Ad Hoc Teaching Committee on Vietnam. In 1967, he brought an academic focus to war by organizing a symposium on the subject with Morton Fried and Robert Murphy at the American Anthropological Association's (AAA) annual meeting. Together, they edited War: The Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression (1968), a compilation of the papers presented at the conference. During the 1968 student uprising at Columbia University, Harris was one of the few faculty members that openly sided with the students. Harris criticized the actions of the university administrators in his article, "Big Busts on Morningside Heights" (1968).

Due to his experiences in Mozambique, Harris also began to think about the distinctions between emic and etic perspectives, which he discusses in his book, The Nature of Cultural Things (1964). During the 1960s-70s, Harris experimented with the use of video recordings as an etic approach to collecting ethnographic data. He collaborated with the Bronx State Hospital to videotape domestic life in two Puerto Rican and two African American families. He also videotaped and coded behavioral streams of two Caucasian and two African-American families in New York City for his NSF funded project, "Patterns of Authority and Subordination in Low-Income Urban Domiciles." In 1965 and 1992, Harris returned to Brazil to study racial categorizations and identifications, specifically the emic and etic differences in the perception of race. He published several papers on the subject, including "The Structural Significance of Brazilian Racial Categories" (1963), "Referential Ambiguity in the Calculus of Brazilian Racial Identity" (1970), and "Who are the Whites?" (1993).

During the 1980s, Harris was troubled by the rising popularity of postmodernist theory within anthropology. He believed that anthropology was a science and was concerned about the harmful consequences of postmodernist theory to the field. He organized a AAA session on postmodernism called "Anti-anti Science" in 1989 and participated in multiple conference sessions on the subject, including a 1993 session on "The Objectivity Crisis: Rethinking the Role of Science" at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting. "Anthropology and Postmodernism," a revised version of his AAAS paper was published as a chapter in Science, Materialism, and the Study of Culture (Martin F. Murphey and Maxine L. Margolis, 1995). Harris also criticized postmodernist theory in his final book, Theories of Culture in Postmodern Times (1999).

While Harris thought that postmodernism was moving anthropology further away from science, behavior scientists began to see the relevancy of cultural materialism in their own research. In 1986, Harris was invited to give an address at the annual conference of the Association for Behavioral Analysis (ABA). His paper was titled, "Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis: Common Problems and Radical Solutions." He also participated in a symposium on "The Integration of Cultural Materialism and Behavior Analysis" at the 1991 ABA annual meeting.

From 1988-90, Harris served as president of the General Anthropology Division of AAA. In 1991, he was given the honor of presenting the Distinguished Lecture at the AAA annual meeting. His talk was titled, "Anthropology and the Theoretical and Paradigmatic Significance of the Collapse of Soviet and East European Communism." That same year, The Rise of Anthropological Theory was designated a Social Science Citation Classic.

Harris died at the age of 74 on October 25, 2001.

Sources Consulted

Margoline, Maxine L. and Conrad Phillip Kottak. "Marvin Harris (1927-2001)." American Anthropologist. 105(3) (2003): 685-688.

Curriculum Vitae. Series 7. Biographical Files. Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

Harris, Marvin. "Cultural Materialism is Alive and Well and Won't Go Away Until Something Better Comes Along." In Assessing Anthropology,edited by Robert Borofsky, 62-76. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994.

Chronology

1927 -- Born August 18 in Brooklyn, New York

1945-1947 -- Served in U.S. Army Transportation Corps

1948 -- B.A. from Columbia College

1950-1951 -- Field research in Brazil

1953 -- Ph.D. in Anthropology from Columbia University Field research in Brazil

1953-1954 -- Research Advisor, National Institute of Pedagogical Studies, Rio de Janeiro. Brazilian Ministry of Education

1953-1959 -- Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1956-1957 -- Field research in Mozambique

1959-1963 -- Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1960 -- Field leader of Columbia-Cornell-Harvard-Illinois Summer Field Studies Program in Chimborazo, Ecuador

1962 -- Field leader of Columbia-Cornell-Harvard-Illinois Summer Field Studies Program in Arembepe, Bahia, Brazil. NSF

1963-1980 -- Professor, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1963-1966 -- Chair, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University

1965 -- Field Research in Brazil

1965-1972 -- Video Tape Methodology and Etic Ethnography

1969-1974 -- Principle Investigator, Videotape Studies of Urban Domiciles

1968-1969 -- Visiting Distinguished Professor, Central Washington State College

1976 -- Field Research in India

1980-2000 -- Graduate Research Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida

1983-1984 -- Consultant, United Nations Fund for Population Activities

1984 -- McMurrin Professor, University of Utah, Fall

1991-1992 -- Consultant, McKinsey and Company Global Institute

1991 -- Presented AAA Distinguished Lecture, "Anthropology and the Theoretical and Paradigmatic Significance of the Collapse of Soviet and East European Communism" The Rise of Anthropological Theory designated Social Science Citation Classic

1992 -- Field Research in Brazil

2001 -- Died October 25

Selected Bibliography

1952 -- Harris, Marvin. "Race Relations in Minas Velhas." In Race and Class in Rural Brazil, edited by Charles Wagley, 51-55. Paris: UNESCO, 1952.

1956 -- Harris, Marvin. Town and Country in Brazil. New York: Columbia University Press, 1956.

1958 -- Harris, Marvin, and Charles Wagley. Minorities in the New World. New York: Columbia University, 1958. Harris, Marvin. Portugal's African "Wards". New York: The American Committee on Africa, 1958.

1959 -- Harris, Marvin. "The Economy Has No Surplus?" American Anthropologist 51 (1959): 189-199. Harris, Marvin. "Labor Emigration Among the Mozambique Thonga: Cultural and Political Factors." Africa 29 (1959): 50-56.

1963 -- Harris, Marvin, and Conrad Kottack. "The Structural Significance of Brazilian Racial Categories." Sociologia 25 (1963): 203-209.

1964 -- Harris, Marvin. "Racial Identity in Brazil." Luso-Brazilian Review 1 (1964): 21-28. Harris, Marvin. The Nature of Cultural Things. New York: Random House, 1964. Harris, Marvin. Patterns of Race in the Americas. New York: Walker and Company, 1964.

1965 -- Harris, Marvin. "The Myth of the Sacred Cow." In Man, Culture and Animals, edited by A. Vayda and A. Leeds, 217-228. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1965.

1966 -- Harris, Marvin. "The Cultural Ecology of India's Sacred Cattle." Current Anthropology 7 (1966): 51-66. Harris, Marvin, and George Morren. "The Limitations of the Principle of Limited Possibilities." American Anthropologist 58 (1966): 122-127.

1967 -- Harris, Marvin, Morton Fried, and Robert Murphy, eds. "The Anthropology of War and Aggression." Special Supplement, Natural History (December 1967): 30-70.

1968 -- Harris, Marvin. "Big Bust on Morningside Heights." The Nation 206 (1968): 757-763. Harris, Marvin. The Rise of Anthropological Theory. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1968. Harris, Marvin, Morton Fried, and Robert Murphy, eds. War: The Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression. New York: Natural History Press, 1968.

1970 -- Harris, Marvin. "Referential Ambiguity in the Calculus of Brazilian Racial Identity." Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 26 (1970): 1-14.

1971 -- Harris, Marvin. Culture, Man and Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1971.

1974 -- Harris, Marvin. Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: The Riddles of Culture. New York: Random House, 1974.

1976 -- Harris, Marvin, and William Divale. "Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex." American Anthropologist 78 (1976): 521-538.

1977 -- Harris, Marvin. Cannibals and Kings: The Origins of Cultures. New York: Random House, 1977.

1979 -- Harris, Marvin. Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture. New York: Random House, 1979.

1981 -- Harris, Marvin. America Now: The Anthropology of a Changing Culture. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981.

1982 -- Harris, Marvin, A. Vaidynathan, and K.N. Nair. "Bovine Sex and Species Ratios in India." Current Anthropology 23 (1982): 365-383.

1983 -- Harris, Marvin. Cultural Anthropology. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.

1984 -- Harris, Marvin. "Animal Capture and Yanomamo Warfare: Retrospect and New Evidence." Journal of Anthropological Research 40 (1984): 183-201.

1985 -- Harris, Marvin. Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985.

1987 -- Harris, Marvin. "Cultural Materialism: Alarums and Excursions." In Waymarks: The Notre Dame Inaugural Lectures in Anthropology, edited by Kenneth Morre, 107-126. Notre Dame: Notre Dame Press, 1987. Harris, Marvin, and Eric Ross, eds. Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987. Harris, Marvin, and Eric Ross. Death, Sex and Fertility: Population Regulation in Preindustrial and Developing Societies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

1988 -- Harris, Marvin. Why Nothing Works: The Anthropology of Daily Life. New York: Touchstone, 1988.

1989 -- Harris, Marvin. Our Kind: Who We Are, Where We Came From, and Where We're Going. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.

1991 -- Harris, Marvin. "Anthropology: Ships that Crash in the Night." In Perspectives on Social Science: The Colorado Lectures, edited by Richard Jessor, 70-114. Boulder, CO.: Westview, 1991. Harris, Marvin, Thomas Headland, and Kenneth Pike, eds. Emics and Etics: The Insider/Outsider Debate. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991. Harris, Marvin. "The Evolution of Human Gender Hierarchies: A Trial Formulation." In Sex and Gender Hierarchies, edited by Barbara Miller, 57-79. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

1992 -- Harris, Marvin. "Distinguished Lecture: Anthropology and the Theoretical and Paradigmatic Significance of the collapse of Soviet and East European Communism." American Anthropologist 94 (1992): 295-305.

1993 -- Harris, Marvin, Josildeth Gomes Consorte, Joseph Lang, and Bryan Byrne. "Who are the White? Imposed Census Categories and the Racial Demography of Brazil." Social Forces 72 (1993): 451-462.

1994 -- Harris, Marvin. "Cultural Materialism is Alive and Well and Won't Go Away Until Something Better Comes Along." In Assessing Anthropology, edited by Robert Borofsky, 62-76. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994.

1995 -- Harris, Marvin. "Anthropology and Postmodernism." In Science, Materialism, and the Study of Culture, edited by Martin Murphy and Maxine Margolis, 62-77. Gainsville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1995.

1999 -- Harris, Marvin. Theories of Culture in Postmodern Times. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 1999.
Related Materials:
More of Marvin Harris' correspondence can be found in the papers of William Duncan Strong. Researchers may also want to consult the Human Studies Film Archives, which holds video oral histories of Charles Wagley (HSFA 89.10.5) and Lambros Comitas (HSFA 89.10.20), both of whom discuss Harris in their interviews.
Separated Materials:
An open reel video from the collection was transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA 2011.10.1). The video relates to Series 2: Research; Sub-series 2.6: Videotape Research--"[Macy's Santa Claus study]"
Provenance:
The papers of Marvin Harris were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by his daughter, Susan Harris.
Restrictions:
Access to student records (consisting of graded materials and student recommendation letters), grant proposals sent to Harris for review by grant agencies, and part of his faculty recruitment files are restricted until 2081. Series 10. Computer Files are also restricted due to preservation concerns.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Food habits  Search this
Race  Search this
Anthropology  Search this
Cattle -- India  Search this
Citation:
Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.2009-27
See more items in:
Marvin Harris papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw306954d90-5898-4d81-9ab8-8015f53426f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2009-27

Manuscripts

Collection Creator:
Harris, Marvin, 1927-2001  Search this
Container:
Box 33
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Mix of handwritten notes and manuscripts on race relations in Brazil and energy systems.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to student records (consisting of graded materials and student recommendation letters), grant proposals sent to Harris for review by grant agencies, and part of his faculty recruitment files are restricted until 2081. Series 10. Computer Files are also restricted due to preservation concerns.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Marvin Harris papers
Marvin Harris papers / Series 3: Writings / 3.4: Unidenified and Unpublished Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw338c45a5c-c4f8-4a29-9255-6937eb107252
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2009-27-ref2176

Anth 22

Collection Creator:
Harris, Marvin, 1927-2001  Search this
Container:
Box 71
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1962-1965
undated
Scope and Contents:
Course on race relations; includes typescript manuscripts on Mozambique and Latin America
Collection Restrictions:
Access to student records (consisting of graded materials and student recommendation letters), grant proposals sent to Harris for review by grant agencies, and part of his faculty recruitment files are restricted until 2081. Series 10. Computer Files are also restricted due to preservation concerns.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Marvin Harris papers
Marvin Harris papers / Series 6: University / 6.1: Columbia University
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3277ad430-ed71-4eb2-bd69-e977efd950f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2009-27-ref2970

Anth 22

Collection Creator:
Harris, Marvin, 1927-2001  Search this
Container:
Box 71
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1962-1965
undated
Scope and Contents:
Course on race relations; includes typescript manuscripts on Mozambique and Latin America
Collection Restrictions:
Access to student records (consisting of graded materials and student recommendation letters), grant proposals sent to Harris for review by grant agencies, and part of his faculty recruitment files are restricted until 2081. Series 10. Computer Files are also restricted due to preservation concerns.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Marvin Harris papers
Marvin Harris papers / Series 6: University / 6.1: Columbia University
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw3277ad430-ed71-4eb2-bd69-e977efd950f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2009-27-ref2970

Manuscripts

Collection Creator:
Harris, Marvin, 1927-2001  Search this
Container:
Box 33
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Mix of handwritten notes and manuscripts on race relations in Brazil and energy systems.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to student records (consisting of graded materials and student recommendation letters), grant proposals sent to Harris for review by grant agencies, and part of his faculty recruitment files are restricted until 2081. Series 10. Computer Files are also restricted due to preservation concerns.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Marvin Harris papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Marvin Harris papers
Marvin Harris papers / Series 3: Writings / 3.4: Unidenified and Unpublished Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/nw338c45a5c-c4f8-4a29-9255-6937eb107252
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-2009-27-ref2176

Taíno Symposium – Session 1 – Sherina Feliciano-Santos

Creator:
National Museum of the American Indian  Search this
Type:
Symposia
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2019-06-04T19:48:31.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Native Americans;American Indians  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNMAI
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNMAI
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_SfvBQ1NR5aQ

Healing Faith: From Lamentation to Transformation

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Conversations and talks
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2021-08-13T00:11:36.000Z
YouTube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianfolklife
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianfolklife
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_aKxp3lyNuEE

Marcus Mosiah Garvey

Artist:
James VanDerZee, 29 Jun 1886 - 15 May 1983  Search this
Sitter:
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, 17 Aug 1887 - 10 Jun 1940  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image: 12.7 x 7.4cm (5 x 2 15/16")
Sheet: 15.4 x 10.3cm (6 1/16 x 4 1/16")
Mat: 45.7 x 35.6cm (18 x 14")
Type:
Photograph
Place:
United States\New York\Kings\New York
Date:
1924
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Exterior  Search this
Personal Attribute\Facial Hair\Mustache  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses\Monocle  Search this
Marcus Mosiah Garvey: Male  Search this
Marcus Mosiah Garvey: Literature\Writer  Search this
Marcus Mosiah Garvey: Education\Educator\Lecturer  Search this
Marcus Mosiah Garvey: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Social Reformer  Search this
Marcus Mosiah Garvey: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Activist\Political activist  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.93.72
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
Copyright:
©Donna Mussenden VanDerZee
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm42785cc70-da0d-4e25-8b3d-88c5463a33e5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.93.72
Online Media:

Photograph of a Young Lords Party Rally at Queens County Jail

Photograph by:
Hiram Maristany, American, born 1945  Search this
Subject of:
Young Lords Party, American, founded 1969  Search this
Black Panther Party, American, 1966 - 1982  Search this
Bobby Seale, American, born 1936  Search this
Rafael Viera, American, born 1948  Search this
Unidentified Man or Men  Search this
Unidentified Woman or Women  Search this
Medium:
silver and gelatin on photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Image): 15 3/4 × 19 5/16 in. (40 × 49.1 cm)
H x W (Sheet): 16 1/16 × 19 15/16 in. (40.8 × 50.6 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
Place captured:
Queens, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Cultural Place:
Puerto Rico, United States, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
Date:
1969; printed 2014
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Decolonization  Search this
Gesture  Search this
Justice  Search this
Photography  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Prisons  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2014.220.1
Restrictions & Rights:
© Hiram Maristany. Permission required for use.
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Movement:
African American - Latinx Solidarity
Young Lords Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd51af95a6f-1424-4e8e-88f1-5429ffa34e49
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2014.220.1
Online Media:

Defense of the Negro Race----Charges Answered. Speech of Hon. George H. White, of North Carolina, in the House of Representatives, January 29, 1901

Written by:
George H. White, American, 1852 - 1918  Search this
Published by:
George H. White, American, 1852 - 1918  Search this
Subject of:
United States Congress, American, founded 1789  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper (fiber product)
Dimensions:
H x W (open): 9 7/16 × 12 1/16 in. (24 × 30.7 cm)
H x W (closed): 9 7/16 × 6 1/8 in. (24 × 15.6 cm)
Type:
pamphlets
Place depicted:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
Printed January 29, 1901
Topic:
African American  Search this
American South  Search this
Finance  Search this
Government  Search this
Justice  Search this
Law  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Politics  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. History, 1865-1877  Search this
Suffrage  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Stanley Turkel's Collection of Reconstruction Era Materials
Object number:
2012.160.119.1
Restrictions & Rights:
No Known Copyright Restrictions
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Exhibition:
Make Good the Promises: Reconstruction and Its Legacies
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Concourse, C 050
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5e449942b-e311-408d-920e-83391f4da10d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.160.119.1
Online Media:

The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection

Creator:
Moore, Harry T., 1905-1951  Search this
Moore, Harriette V., 1902-1952  Search this
Names:
Bethune-Cookman College (Daytona Beach, Fla.)  Search this
Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial College (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Search this
Pittsburgh Courier (newspaper)  Search this
Progressive Voters League  Search this
Baker, Ella, 1903-1986  Search this
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1875-1955  Search this
Caldwell, Millard Fillmore, 1897-1984  Search this
Current, Gloster B. (Gloster Bryant), 1913-1997  Search this
Gilbert, John  Search this
Hendricks, Joseph Edward, 1903-  Search this
Holland, Spessard L. (Spessard Lindsey), 1892-1971  Search this
Houston, Charles Hamilton, Dr., 1895-1950  Search this
Humphrey, Hubert  Search this
Kennedy, Stetson  Search this
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-1993  Search this
Mathews, John E., 1892 - 1955  Search this
Moore, J. Evangeline, 1930-2015  Search this
Warren, Fuller, 1905-1973  Search this
Watson, J. Thomas, 1885 - 1954  Search this
White, Walter Francis, (President, N.A.A.C.P), 1893-1955  Search this
Williams, Franklin Hall, 1917 - 1990  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Cocoa
United States of America -- Florida -- Lake County -- Groveland
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Mims
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County
United States of America -- Florida -- Brevard County -- Titusville
United States of America -- Florida -- Seminole County -- Sanford
Date:
bulk 1945-1949
Summary:
Harry T. Moore was a pioneering civil rights activist, educator, and civic leader. The collection was originally housed in a formerly "lost" briefcase that was found in 2006 by FBI investigators. The materials in this collection focus on his activities as a civil rights activist and community leader who sought to advocate for pay equity, voting rights, and justice reform for African American communities in Florida. Harry Moore and his wife Harriette were murdered for their work and they have been immortalized as the Civil Rights Movement's first martyrs.
Scope and Contents:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection chronicles Harry Moore's career in civil rights and education that ultimately led to his and his wife's murder. The materials in this collection were originally located in Harry T. Moore's briefcase and are dated from 1942 to 1949. The collection contains correspondence, memoranda, business records, ephemera, and newspaper clippings. The bulk of the material reflects Moore's work as a community leader working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Progressive Voters League (PVL). The materials include original typed correspondence to and from Harry T. Moore as well as mimeographed letters that were saved for recordkeeping purposes.

The briefcase and Moore's wallet (part of the NMAAHC Collection) were found by Harriette Moore's brother, George Simms, after the firebombing of the Moore's home on Christmas night in 1951. Both were given to the local authorities for the investigation. The briefcase was lost during the initial 1951-1952 investigations. It was found in 2006 by FBI Investigators in a barn close to the Moore's former home. The investigation was closed the same year and the briefcase and its contents were returned to the family. J. Evangeline Moore served as the steward of the collection, lending out materials to various organizations, journalists, writers, and filmmakers over the years to educate the masses about her father's work and her parents' legacy. This work continued until her death in 2015. This collection and related Moore family heirlooms were donated to the National Museum of African American History and Culture in 2013 and 2018, respectively.
Arrangement:
This archival collection does not include all the materials originally located in the briefcase. Materials from this collection were used during investigations as well as historical displays, documentaries, and various educational presentations. Research revealed that various materials were misplaced or lost. The FBI investigators originally located the briefcase in 2006 and they organized and rehoused the materials for better preservation. According to the 2006 investigation report, the investigators organized the documents in alphabetical order but arranged them as they were discovered within Harry T. Moore's filing system. His filing system was based on keeping documents together in envelopes that pertain to the same subject.

The NMAAHC Archives Team kept the subject and proximal context of the materials together. To further preserve this original arrangement and sustain the collection, materials were separated by format and then by subject, keeping those with similar dates and subjects together.
Biographical / Historical:
Harry Tyson Moore was born on November 18, 1905 to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosalea "Rosa" Tyson Moore in Houston, Florida. After his father's death in 1914, Moore was sent to live with his maternal aunts in Daytona Beach, Florida. He attended Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute, at the time a high school and junior college, where he graduated with a teaching degree in 1924. He immediately began his first teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

Harriette Vyda Sims was born on June 19, 1902 in West Palm Beach, Florida to David and Annie Simms. Harriette was an insurance agent at Atlanta Life Insurance Company, a prominent Black-owned company, working out of Cocoa, Florida when she met Harry. Harry was also working at Atlanta Life to supplement his meager salary from teaching. Harry and Harriette married on Christmas Day in 1926. To establish themselves, the newlyweds moved in with Harriette's family in Mims, Florida. They had two daughters, Annie, born 1928, and Juanita (Evangeline), born 1930.

The couple enrolled together at the Daytona Normal Industrial Institute, later renamed the Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) after a merger of local African American schools. Harriette earned associate and bachelor's degrees in education in 1941 and 1950 respectively. Harry earned a bachelor's degree in education in 1936. Both Evangeline and Annie attended BCC as well. Annie served as an assistant to Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune.

From 1927-1936, Harry served as a teacher and eventual principal of Titusville Colored Junior High School. Harriette was a teacher and lunch lady at various elementary schools in the area. Troubled by the inequities and lack of educational resources available to African Americans, Harry started the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1934. He established the organization with the help of the all-black Florida State Teacher's Association and the support of civil rights lawyer Thurgood Marshall.

In 1937, Moore was involved in a lawsuit regarding teacher pay equality. In Florida, White teachers received a monthly salary of $50 while African American teachers had a base salary of $20. This was the first civil rights case of its kind in the South. Moore's good friend John Gilbert, the principal of the junior high school, served as the plaintiff. The case, Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County, was lost as many African American teachers were afraid to publicly endorse the case, fearing repercussions. This proved correct as Gilbert and Moore were both fired because of their activism. The Florida Supreme Court dismissed the petition stating that Brevard County was not legally required to change salary schedules based on pay because schools used individual contracts with the teachers. This case laid the foundation for several successful pay equality cases including McDaniel v. Board of Public Instruction in 1941 and County Teachers Association v. the Board of Public Instruction for the County of Marion and Broward in 1942.

Fighting for pay equity for teachers and educational civil rights took Harry and Harriette around the state, organizing and mobilizing community members. In 1936, the Moores took on new positions at the segregated Mims Elementary School and continued their involvement in organizing civil rights cases throughout Florida. In 1941, Harry was appointed the president of the Florida State Conference for the NAACP and later became the executive secretary for the Florida branch. In 1944, Smith v. Allwright ruled that it was unconstitutional for the Democratic Party to limit its membership to White people. This gave Harry the impetus to establish the Progressive Voters League (PVL), a partisan political action group in 1946. Harry believed that African Americans should have the power to vote for whomever is best for their community. Harry kept his work with the PVL separate from his work with the NAACP, despite his leadership role in both. Within a few years of PVL's establishment, there were 100,000 registered eligible African American voters in the state. For the first time in Florida's history, African American citizens were organized and poised to change the outcome of elections. In 1946, this work cost Harry and Harriette their positions at Mims Elementary School. Fortunately, the NAACP, grateful for all of Harry's years of voluntary service, named him the NAACP's first full-time paid executive secretary. Both daughters assisted in creating NAACP Youth Council for the chapter as well.

Harry fought against the gruesome lynching and rampant police brutality taking place in Florida. In 1937, he started investigating cases himself and took an active role in pursuing justice in several unsolved lynching cases around Florida. He regularly sent correspondence about voting rights and lynching to state legislators, the governor, congressmen and even the president. In 1949, Moore became very involved in the national case, State of Florida v. Samuel Shepherd, Walter L. Irvin, Charles Greenlee, and Ernest E. Thomas, commonly known as the Groveland Rape case. Four young African American men were accused of raping a white woman, Norma Padgett. The sheriff of the area, Willis V. McCall rallied a mob of 1,000 local men to locate the accused. Ernest Thomas was killed during pursuit after being shot 400 times by the mob. Shepherd, Irvin, and Greenlee were beaten and coerced into confessing to the crime, only Irvin refused. The trio were immediately convicted by an all-white jury. Shephard and Irvin were sentenced to death while Greenlee, a minor, was sentenced to life in prison. In 1951, Harry and the NAACP legal team appealed the case before the United States Supreme Court. The Court ruled the men were not given a fair trial and sent the case back for retrial at the lower court. In November of 1951, while transporting Shepherd and Irvin back to the county prison for the retrial, Sheriff McCall shot the handcuffed men, killing Shepherd and seriously injuring Irvin. Moore launched an aggressive campaign to have McCall removed from his position and indicted for his involvement in the deaths. He wrote letters to President Truman, the governor, congressmen and several state and county legislators about McCall and the case. Many historians believe Moore's involvement in this case led to his murder only six weeks later. In 2019, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis issued the Groveland Four a posthumous pardon.

On December 25, 1951, both Christmas and the Moore's 25th wedding anniversary, a bomb exploded under their home, directly below the Moore's bedroom. Harry died on the way to the hospital. His funeral took place on January 2, 1952 to a crowd of 3,500, according to Ebony magazine. The following day, January 3, Harriette died from the injuries she sustained in the bombing. Her funeral took place on January 8, where NAACP leader Roy Wilkins spoke eloquently about the Moores and how their work will not be forgotten. The Moores are often called the first martyrs of the 1950s Civil Rights Movement.

The world quickly took note of Harry and Harriet's murders. Newspapers around the world criticized the U.S. for its treatment of African American citizens. The murders were discussed on the floor of the United Nations and the halls of Congress. There were many investigations at the time of the bombing, but the perpetrators were not found. The case was reopened in 1978, but again no charges were filed. In 2004-2006, the investigation was again reopened and led to the conclusion that the murders were conducted by the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. The men believed responsible were Earl J. Brooklyn, Tillman H. Belvin, Joseph N. Cox, and Edward L. Spivey. However, all the men had died by this time, therefore no one was ever charged for the Moores' murder.

Evangeline was extremely involved in the investigation and worked directly with the attorney general. By the mid-1990s, Evangeline began to take a public role in preserving the memory of her family's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement. In 1995, she helped organize the Harry T. Moore and Harriette V. Moore Homesite Development Committee, a non-profit organization that raised money for an educational site dedicated to celebrating the life and work of the Moores. In 2004, Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park opened, featuring a museum, the original Moore homesite, and a 12-acre park. There are annual celebrations held in the second week of December in Mims, honoring the Moore family's sacrifices for human rights. In 2015, the Florida State Senate adopted resolution SR1638, "Remembering the outstanding contributions of pioneer leaders and martyrs Harriette Vyda Simms Moore and Harry T. Moore in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Voting Rights Act, etc." In October 2015, Evangeline passed away in New Carrolton, Maryland.

Historical Timeline

1902 -- Harriette V. Simms was born in West Palm Beach, Florida to David I. Simms and Annie Warren Simms.

1905 -- Harry Tyson Moore was born in Houston, Florida to Stephen John "Johnny" Moore and Rosa Tyson Moore.

1914-1916 -- Johnny Moore died. Rosa Moore sent Harry to Daytona Beach, Florida to stay with family because of financial difficulties. Harry and his maternal aunts moved to Jacksonville, Florida for better educational opportunities.

1919 -- Moore returned to Houston, Florida and began the high school program at Florida Normal and Industrial Memorial Institute. He graduated with a teaching degree in 1924.

1925 -- Harry earned his teaching certificate and immediately began teaching position at the segregated Monroe Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida.

1926 -- Harry and Harriette wed on Christmas.

1927 -- The Moore newlyweds moved in with Harriette's parents. Harry began teaching at the Titusville Colored Junior High School in Titusville, Florida.

1928 -- Annie Rosa Moore was born. In the fall, Harriette began working as a teacher at Mims Colored Elementary School in Mims, Florida.

1930 -- [Juanita] Evangeline Moore was born. Harry began taking correspondence courses at the University of Florida.

1931 -- Harry and his family move into their own home in Mims, Florida.

1934 -- Harry founded the Brevard County chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

1936 -- Harry graduated from Bethune-Cookman College (BCC) with a normal degree in education. In the fall, Harry became a teacher and the principal of Mims Colored Elementary School.

1938 -- In March, Attorney S.D. McGill filed a lawsuit for pay equality with Cocoa Junior School principal John Gilbert as the plaintiff. The case was dismissed in June.

1939 -- The appeal case of Gilbert v. Board of Public Instruction of Brevard County was dismissed. The case was represented by NAACP Legal Counsel, Thurgood Marshall.

1941 -- Harry organized and served as president of the Florida State Conference of the NAACP. Harriette graduated from Bethune-Cookman College with a teaching degree.

1944 -- Harry founded the Progressive Voters League as a political partisan action group in opposition to the NAACP non-partisan stance.

1946 -- As a result of his civil rights work and activism, Harry and Harriette lost their teaching positions at Mims Elementary School.

1947 -- Evangeline enrolled in BCC. Harry became the NAACP's first fully paid executive secretary of the Brevard County chapter.

1948 -- Harriette began teaching at the Lake Park Colored School in Palm Beach County, Florida.

1950 -- Harriette graduated from BCC with a B.S. in science.

1951 -- Harry graduated with a B.A. from BCC in August. December 25: The Moore's home is firebombed. Harry passed away right before midnight.

1952 -- January 1: Funeral of Harry T. Moore. Jannuary 3: Harriette died from injuries sustained in bombing. January 8: Funeral of Harriette V. Moore. The NAACP awarded the Spingarn medal to Harry T. Moore; his mother Rosa accepted it on his behalf. Evangeline married Drapher Pagan, Sr. Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. is born the following year.

1955 -- The FBI officially closed the Moore homicide investigation case.

1972 -- Annie R. Moore Hampton died suddenly and was buried in Ocala, Florida.

1978 -- The Moore case was reopened but no charges were filed.

1985 -- Creation of the Harry T. Moore Social Service Center in Titusville, Florida.

1991 -- Florida's Governor Lawton Chiles ordered the reopening of the Moores' homicide case; no charges were filed.

1993-1998 -- The Brevard County Board of County Commissioners purchased the Moore homesite to be used as a memorial to the slain couple and created The Harry T. Moore Homesite Development Committee. The Florida State Legislature awarded $700,000 for development of the 10-acre Harry T. Moore Memorial Homesite in Mims, Florida.

1999 -- Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Homesite Historical Marker is unveiled.

2002 -- Brevard County Court Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Justice Center opened.

2003-2004 -- An archeological survey of Moore family home led to an investigation. The Florida State Attorney General Charlie Crist reopened the Moore homicide investigation. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Cultural Complex is completed.

2006 -- Attorney General Crist concluded that the perpetrators were four men from the Central Florida Klu Klux Klan. They had all died by this time, so no charges were filed.

2012-2013 -- The post office in Cocoa, Florida was renamed was named in honor of Harry T. and Harriette Moore by an Act of Congress: Public Law 112-243. Harry and Harriette were inducted in the Florida Civil Rights Hall of Fame.

2015 -- Evangeline Moore died in New Carrolton, Maryland.

2019 -- The Harry T. & Harriette V. Moore Memorial Park and Museum was added to U.S. Civil Rights Trail.

2021 -- Brevard County School Board passed a resolution acknowledging the Moore's unjust firings.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in memory of Juanita Evangeline Moore.

The Museum acquired two personal watches, a locket, and 26 textual documents pertaining to Harry and Harriette Moore (2013.157) from Juanita Evangeline Moore in 2013. These materials are viewable via Smithsonian Collections Search. The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection was acquired through a donation from the Moores' grandson, Drapher "Skip" Pagan, Jr. in 2018.
Restrictions:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use.
Topic:
Education  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Activism  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Resistance  Search this
Segregation  Search this
Groveland Four Trial, Groveland, Fla., 1949-1952  Search this
American South  Search this
Blacks -- Press coverage  Search this
Justice  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Social justice  Search this
Lynching  Search this
Violence  Search this
United States -- History -- 1945-1953  Search this
Suffrage  Search this
Politics  Search this
Families  Search this
Law  Search this
Associations, institutions, etc.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Harry T. And Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection, 1942-1949. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.12
See more items in:
The Harry T. and Harriette V. Moore Archival Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io39fe77a2e-3542-4a8b-add7-006d9625fb9e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-12

Henry P. Whitehead collection

Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
156.91 Linear feet (178 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pamphlets
Sound recordings
Clippings
Memorabilia
Newspapers
Photographs
Books
Brochures
Date:
1843-2010
bulk 1940-1986
Summary:
The papers of historian Henry P. Whitehead measure 156.91 linear feet and date from 1843 to 2010 (bulk 1945-1986). The collection documents Whitehead's careers, as well as his family and personal life. The collection also includes the personal papers of Tomlinson D. Todd, Elizabeth B. Delaney and the Howard Theatre Foundation. The combined collection is comprised of black theatrical memorabilia; materials relating to civil rights activities in the District of Columbia; and the African American experience in general. Included are playbills, sheet music, admission tickets, newspapers, magazines, books, photographs, clippings, flyers, brochures, pamphlets, sound recordings, research files, and other material.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of historian Henry P. Whitehead measure 156.91 linear feet and date from 1843 to 2010 (bulk 1945-1986). The collection includes the personal papers of Henry P. Whitehead, Tomlinson D. Todd, Elizabeth B. Delaney and the Howard Theatre Foundation. The collection is divided into four series.

Series I focuses on Whitehead and includes papers dating from 1843 to his death in 2011. This series includes biographical material including a large amount of appointment books, identification and membership cards, resumes, certificates, and personal and family material. There is a limited amount of correspondence, which focuses on his personal relationships with family, friends, and general correspondence relating primarily to his work as a local historian.

Also found within Whitehead's papers are countless records from his time employed by the Washington DC government. Materials include memoranda, notes, research material, handbooks, guides, manuals, affirmative action info and records, affirmative action plans, promotion recommendations, recruitment plans and summaries, personnel files (complaints), civil actions and reports related too Whitehead's 37 years of government employment. It reflects the activities of numerous departments, primarily in regards to employment and affirmative action.

There are also a number of files that document Whitehead's involvement in numerous community organizations. Among the organizations in which Whitehead was involved include U Street Festival, Lincoln Corporation, and the U Street Theater Foundation. The papers of the U Street Foundation document the production and establishment of the annual U Street Festival. The Lincoln Theater Foundation and the U Street Theater Foundation papers document the efforts to reopen the Lincoln Theater. Also included are Whitehead's research on the Lincoln as well as old Lincoln Theatre programs. Additionally found within this series are documents and clippings on the economic development within Washington DC particularly in the Shaw/U Street location.

The majority of this series consists of printed material. Printed material in this series includes books, clippings, magazines, newsletters, newspapers, press releases, sheet music, programs as well as promotional material for several Washington DC theaters and organizations. There is a large quantity of theater programs dating from 1900-1986. The majority of the clippings and magazines are theater related topics, coupled with a miscellaneous selection of clippings on topics that presumably captured Whitehead's attention.

Research, notes and writings include a large amount of scrapbooks compiled by Whitehead of mostly photocopied clippings documenting Washington DC history, African American theater history, and general African American history. Five scrapbooks were compiled by an unknown source and were previously housed in the New York Public Library collection. Two scrapbooks are about general theater history one about Frances Starr and one about Margaret Anglin. There is also one scrapbook pertaiing to Mae Hall. Also included are a large amount of research notes and notebooks along with general miscellaneous notes.

There are several photographs of African Americans in the performing arts as well as images of Washington DC and several unidentified men, women, and children.

Audio recordings include 23 cassette from the Alexandria Church of God.

The remainder of the collection consists of the papers of Tomlinson D. Todd, Elizabeth B. Delaney, and those about the Howard Theatre.

The Howard Theatre papers are arranged in Series II and include documents relating to the Washington DC historic Howard Theatre and date from 1910 to 1986. The papers in this series predominantly document the Howard Theatre Foundation's efforts to reestablish and run the Howard Theatre in which Whitehead was the vice president. Records include business correspondence, founding documents, photographs, memoranda, press releases, member lists, financial records, clippings, and scrapbooks of clippings pertaining to the organization and theatre.

The correspondence in the collection include a handful of letters from the Washington DC government along with individuals and organizations. Also included is a large amount of interoffice memoradums.

Administrative records include lawsuits, resolutions, meeting minutes, grant proposals, press releases, memoranda, member lists, studies and reports.

Financial records include check stubs, receipts, invoices, bank statements, expenses, and contribution lists. Printed material includes original and photocopied clippings relating to the history and coverage of the foundation activities. Mostly promotional material as flyers, brochures, and press releases along with programs. In particular two 1920 Howard Theatre programs.

The scrapbooks of original and photocopied clippings compiled by Whitehead chronicle the history of the theatre and coverage of the foundation activities.

There are three VHS cassette featuring Whitehead discussing the Howard Theatre. Also found in series 2 are numerous stock investment record books belonging to A.E. Lichtman one of the early managers of the Howard Theatre. In addition early correspondence between Lichtman and the Rex Amusement Company concerning operational management issues of the Howard Theatre.

The Tomlinson D. Todd papers are arranged in Series III and date from 1902-1986 they include organization files, collected printed materials, subject files, and personal papers.

The collection includes materials relating to organizations in which there was a relationship to Todd's work and in which he had an interest primarily during the 1940s and 1950s, organizations include the National Negro Congress (ca, 1946-1947); the Congress for Industrial Organizations (1943-1947); National Council of Negro Women (1947-1949); Committee for Racial Democracy in the Nation's Capital (1947-1948).

The subject files include documents from three of Todd's organizations; Institute on Race Relation, Club Internationale, and his radio program "Americans All". As well as printed material from Todd's alma mater Lincoln University.

The largest subject file is "Americans All" which includes radio scripts as well as audio recording of a few programs and public service announcements. Also found are several black and white photographs of Todd at the radio studio. Printed materials include newspapers, leaflets, convention proceedings, and flyers, There are a large amount of programs ranging from church worship to convention as well as performance. Also present is a small amount of personal papers, including resumes, certificates, admission tickets, family documents, and travel ephemera from his all expense paid trip to Nigeria.

There are a few photographs of Todd at functions and with notable individuals as well as some family, friends and travel.

Elizabeth's B. Delaney papers are arranged in Series IV and date from 1874-1973.

The papers primarily document her involvement in four organizations, the Grand Oder of Odd Fellow of Kentucky, the Order Eastern Star Kentucky, the State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs of Kentucky and the National Association of Colored Women. There is a small amount of printed material belonging to her son primarily the Alpha Phi Alpha material and Gospel Choral Sheet Music, and books.

The Scrapbook was complied by Whitehead consisting of photocopied clipping documenting the life of Elizabeth B. Delaney.
Arrangement note:
This collection is arranged into four series:

Series 1: Henry P. Whitehead papers Series 2: Howard Theatre Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd Series 4. Elizabeth B. Delaney
Biographical/Historical note:
Henry Preston Whitehead Jr., was a native of Columbus Ohio. A graduate of Ohio State University, where he also attended law school and was a member of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. Mr. Whitehead discovered Washington's "Black Broadway" in 1940, when he was a soldier in town on a weekend furlough. As he served in the Army in the South Pacific during World War II. Prior to moving to Washington DC Henry P. Whitehead worked for five years as a liquor inspector. Mr. Whitehead moved to Washington D.C. in 1949 and worked for the Post Office before working for the District of Columbia government where he stayed 21 years. He led several equal employment initiatives during the 1960s and 1970s, and was last employed as associate director of the District's Office of Human Rights. In 1980 after putting in 37 years of government service Mr. Whitehead retired. Mr. Whitehead was an historian who led efforts to restore Washington's U Street cultural corridor and achieved recognition as an authority on and collector of black theatrical memorabilia. Mr. Whitehead worked to promote and preserve the city's rich African American cultural heritage.

Mr. Whitehead, served as the chairman and president for 10 years of the Howard Theater Foundation Inc., which he helped establish. There he led the effort to include Howard Theatre in the National Register of Historic Places.

Similarly he was an active member of the U Street Festival Foundation. He was an adviser to the Kennedy Center, Anacostia Museum, and other Smithsonian Institution units and contributed materials to their exhibitions. He was also a consultant to historical documentaries broadcast on public television and radio, including PBS's "Duke Ellington's Washington." His writings included "Remembering U Street," a book used for annual festivals in the historic area.

Mr. Whitehead was also the founder and board member of the Lincoln Theatre Foundation.

Henry P. Whitehead Jr. died on January 8th 2002 at the age of 84.
Related Materials:
Related archival materials in the Institute on Race Relations records in the Anacostia Community Museum Archives.

This collection also contains artifacts catalogued in the ACM Objects collection.
Provenance:
The collection was donated to the Anacostia Community Museum on September 1, 2005 by Michael A. Watkins.
Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Howard Theatre (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
African Americans  Search this
National Negro Congress (U.S.)  Search this
National Council of Negro Women  Search this
Radio broadcasting  Search this
African American neighborhoods  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pamphlets
Sound recordings
Clippings
Memorabilia -- 20th century
Newspapers
Photographs
Books
Brochures
Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
Identifier:
ACMA.06-042
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa751389911-f3d5-474b-82b4-126047b9cc46
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-acma-06-042
Online Media:

National Association of Colored Women Bulletin

Creator:
National Association of Colored Women's Clubs (U.S.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (10 3/4 x 8 1/4 inches)
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Bulletins
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
December 1946
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
African American women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Bulletins
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.7: Subject Files / National Association of Colored Women's Club's, Inc.
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7a595a75c-6dd8-42b1-9a26-c141e0aef1da
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1882
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  • View National Association of Colored Women Bulletin digital asset number 1

A Decade of United Action, 1935-1945, National Council of Negro Women brochure

Creator:
National Council of Negro Women  Search this
Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (8 3/4 x 3 3/4 inches)
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Brochures
Date:
1945
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
African American women -- Societies and clubs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Brochures
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.7: Subject Files / National Council of Negro Women
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7c6b0669e-f5bd-4a88-b440-30a003c113c5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1891
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Committee on Jobs for Negroes in Public Utilities, correspondence

Creator:
Committee on Jobs for Negroes in Public Utilities (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Names:
Capital Transit Company (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
1 Document (11 x 8 1/2 inches )
Container:
Box 158, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Documents
Correspondence
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
December 3, 1943
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Discrimination in employment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.7: Subject Files / Committee on Jobs for Negroes in Public Utilities
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa79acfc523-9fbc-488e-9d9e-2a8bcc733d67
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1910
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Richard Dyer-Bennett, "The Voice of Minstrelsy" program booklet

Creator:
United Public Workers of America  Search this
Names:
Congress of Industrial Organizations (U.S.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
1 Booklet (9 x 6 1/4 inches)
Container:
Box 158, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Booklets
Concert programs
Date:
January 30, 1948
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Labor unions  Search this
Education -- Washington, (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Concert programs
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.7: Subject Files / Congress of Industrial Organization (U.S.)., United Public Workers of America
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7bc527ad2-7a76-4b8d-925c-b1719541258f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1920
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Treasury book

Creator:
Institute on Race Relations (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
1 Legal document (10 1/2 x 8 3/4 inches)
Type:
Archival materials
Legal documents
Date:
1946 January 28
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.1: Institute on Race Relations / Account Books
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa72d5adb24-9005-458b-9b18-1b8aa861278c
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1929
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  • View Treasury book digital asset number 10

Industrial Bank of Washington account book

Creator:
Institute on Race Relations (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Extent:
1 Legal document (4 1/2 x 3 inches)
Type:
Archival materials
Legal documents
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.1: Institute on Race Relations / Account Books
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa78e7299f9-7f6d-448d-bad0-f2fd808d8c3d
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1930
8 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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  • View Industrial Bank of  Washington account book digital asset number 2
  • View Industrial Bank of  Washington account book digital asset number 3
  • View Industrial Bank of  Washington account book digital asset number 4
  • View Industrial Bank of  Washington account book digital asset number 5
  • View Industrial Bank of  Washington account book digital asset number 6
  • View Industrial Bank of  Washington account book digital asset number 7
  • View Industrial Bank of  Washington account book digital asset number 8

Letter to Tomlinson D. Todd from George G. Brown

Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Washington, D.C. -- history
Date:
1944 April 7
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Race relations -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.1: Institute on Race Relations / Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7bb570f7a-925a-4de5-8ba4-0f73c996eb14
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1931
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Letter to Tomlinson D. Todd from George G. Brown digital asset number 1
  • View Letter to Tomlinson D. Todd from George G. Brown digital asset number 2

Copy of letter to Tomlinson D. Todd from Helen Dortch Longstreet

Collection Collector:
Whitehead, Henry P. (Prenton), 1917-2002  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Letters (correspondence)
Place:
Washington, D.C. -- history
Date:
1947 March 31
Collection Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Please contact the archivist to make an appointment: ACMarchives@si.edu.
Collection Rights:
The Henry P. Whitehead collection is the physical property of the Anacostia Community Museum. Literary and copyright belong to the author/creator or their legal heirs and assigns. Rights to work produced during the normal course of Museum business resides with the Anacostia Community Museum. For further information, and to obtain permission to publish or reproduce, contact the Museum Archives.
Topic:
Race relations  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence)
Collection Citation:
Henry P. Whitehead collection, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution, gift of Michael A. Watkins.
See more items in:
Henry P. Whitehead collection
Henry P. Whitehead collection / Series 3: Tomlinson D. Todd / 3.1: Institute on Race Relations / Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa7f5a76bdc-95e9-49e4-a4b2-b6601b3f1bd9
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-06-042-ref1932
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Copy of letter to Tomlinson D. Todd from Helen Dortch  Longstreet digital asset number 1
  • View Copy of letter to Tomlinson D. Todd from Helen Dortch  Longstreet digital asset number 2

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