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A topographical description of the western territory of North America containing a succinct account of its soil, climate, natural history, population, agriculture, manners, and customs, with an ample description of the several divisions into which that country is partitioned : to which are added, the discovery, settlement, and present state of Kentucky, and an essay towards the topography, and natural history of that important country by John Filson : to which is added, I. the adventures of Col. Daniel Boon, one of the first settlers, comprehending every important occcurrence in the political history of that province. II. the minutes of the Piankashaw Council, held at post St. Vincent's, April 15, 1784. III. an account of the Indian nations inhabiting within the limits of the thirteen United States; their manners and customs; and reflections on their origin by George Imlay ... ; illustrated with correct maps of the western territory of North America; of the state of Kentucky, as divided into counties, from the latent surveys; and a plan of the rapids of the Ohio

Title:
Western territory of North America DSI
Author:
Imlay, Gilbert 1754?-1828? http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n50052799 http://viaf.org/viaf/29879965  Search this
Author:
Filson, John approximately 1747-1788 Discovery, settlement, and present state of Kentucke http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n99270081 http://viaf.org/viaf/174309167  Search this
Subject:
Boone, Daniel 1734-1820 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79114053 http://viaf.org/viaf/40172183  Search this
Imlay, Gilbert 1754?-1828? Travel  Search this
Physical description:
[4], xvi, 433, [23] pages, [4] folded leaves of plates illustrations, maps 22 cm. (8vo)
Type:
Early works to 1800
History
Place:
United States
Genesee Region (N.Y.)
Genesee River Valley (Pa. and N.Y.)
Kentucky
Mississippi River Valley
Ohio River Valley
Date:
1793
To 1803
To 1795
Topic:
Public lands  Search this
Travel  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
History  Search this
Call number:
F352 .I33 1793
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_966370

Liquid Capital Making the Chicago Waterfront

Author:
Salzmann, Joshua A. T http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://viaf.org/viaf/23151897088824071378  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (241 pages)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
Illinois
Chicago
Date:
2017
19th century
20th century
Topic:
Waterfronts--History  Search this
Land use--History  Search this
Human ecology--History  Search this
Human ecology  Search this
Land use  Search this
Waterfronts  Search this
Call number:
HT168.C5 .S25 2018 (Internet)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1145621

American Anti-Slavery Almanac Vol. II, No. I

Published by:
S. W. Benedict, American  Search this
Subject of:
American Anti-Slavery Society, American, 1833 - 1870  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W: 7 3/8 x 4 5/8 in. (18.7 x 11.7 cm)
Type:
almanacs
Place printed:
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1842
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Antislavery  Search this
Communication  Search this
Literature  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2010.1.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Public Domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Slavery and Freedom Objects
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Exhibition:
Making a Way Out of No Way
On View:
NMAAHC (1400 Constitution Ave NW), National Mall Location, Community/Third Floor, 3 050
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58d149d38-763c-4665-8beb-ebc3b63e6c97
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2010.1.12
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View <I>American Anti-Slavery Almanac Vol. II, No. I</I> digital asset number 1

Carex intumescens Rudge

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Hugh O'Neill  Search this
Place:
Worcester County, in wet ditch, Public Landing., Maryland, United States, North America
Collection Date:
8 Jun 1931
Common name:
Swollen Sedge
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Carex intumescens Rudge
Barcode:
02114369
USNM Number:
3165565
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/322ac39c7-9ccd-4eca-8cdd-64a6b5d35c31
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_13605099

Carex debilis Michx.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Hugh T. O'Neill  Search this
Microhabitat Description:
Wet ditch  Search this
Place:
Near public landing, Worcester, Maryland, United States, North America
Collection Date:
8 Jun 1931
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Carex debilis Michx.
Barcode:
00083288
USNM Number:
3099820
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/396d24844-7f7f-4bbc-82f2-6a9eb8efea19
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2496270

Carex virescens Muhl. ex Willd.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Hugh T. O'Neill  Search this
Microhabitat Description:
Wt ditch  Search this
Place:
Near Public Landing, District of Columbia / Maryland, United States, North America
Collection Date:
8 Jun 1931
Common name:
ribbed sedge
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Carex virescens Muhl. ex Willd.
Barcode:
00083372
USNM Number:
3099785
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
DC Flora
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d475bed3-0521-4450-9807-9bdd4658b5f3
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2221518

Carex lurida Wahlenb.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Hugh T. O'Neill  Search this
Microhabitat Description:
Wet ditch  Search this
Place:
Public Landing, District of Columbia / Maryland, United States, North America
Collection Date:
8 Jun 1931
Common name:
shallow sedge
yellow-green sedge
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Carex lurida Wahlenb.
Barcode:
00083350
USNM Number:
3099767
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
DC Flora
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/398ea4137-e582-4ae0-9f94-3c47d3b98713
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2206486

Carex longii Mack.

Biogeographical Region:
78 - Southeastern U.S.A.  Search this
Collector:
Hugh T. O'Neill  Search this
Microhabitat Description:
Low meadow  Search this
Place:
Near Public Landing, Maryland, United States, North America
Collection Date:
8 Jun 1931
Taxonomy:
Plantae Monocotyledonae Poales Cyperaceae
Published Name:
Carex longii Mack.
Barcode:
00083297
USNM Number:
3099750
See more items in:
Botany
Flowering plants and ferns
DC Flora
Data Source:
NMNH - Botany Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3ebac19b3-1fcd-490d-9357-3af009107c66
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhbotany_2181476

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate

Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
2.1 Cubic feet (consisting of 4 boxes, 2 folder, 11 oversize folders, 2 map case folders.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Date:
circa 1639-1960
Summary:
A New York bookseller, Warshaw assembled this collection over nearly fifty years. The Warshaw Collection of Business Americana: Real Estate forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Subseries 1.1: Subject Categories. The Subject Categories subseries is divided into 470 subject categories based on those created by Mr. Warshaw. These subject categories include topical subjects, types or forms of material, people, organizations, historical events, and other categories. An overview to the entire Warshaw collection is available here: Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Scope and Contents:
This subject category, Real Estate, consists primarily of land site plans, advertisements, receipts, invoices, correspondence, and publications relating to real estate transactions, mainly land sales, building and home construction drawings, rental and mortgage documents and receipts, investment firms, real estate agents, and other businesses relating to the acquisition and development of real estate. There are images of buildings, and a few catalogs, pamphlets and publications related to real estate. It is arranged from the most fundamental component, land, through to finished product, i.e. a home, including the transactional processes of acquiring the property, and a building which sits upon it (via financing through a lease or mortgage). Materials from peripheral businesses related to property ownership such as lawyers or surveyors are also included.

Series 1, Land Transfers, 1828-1914; undated, consist of bills, receipts, land grants and warrants, printed advertisements and invoices relating to the transfer of land in the United States. The materials include both personal and business transactions, between individuals and between businesses and individual buyers/sellers. The transactions occurred mainly in the Northeastern United States, primarily New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, with some from other areas. Materials in this series are arranged by type of transfer and then in chronological order.

Subseries 1a, Land Sales, Exchanges and Trades, 1828-1914; undated, includes maps of land tracts, correspondence, solicitations, business cards, bills of sale, exchange or trade between sellers and buyers, and advertisements primarily by landowners for property sales. These materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 1b, Land Grants, Warrants, Deeds and Bonds, 1828-1890, include correspondence and official property deed documents. These materials are arranged by subject, and then in chronological order. Series 2, Buildings, 1639-1963; undated, consists of material related for the most part to residential property: receipts, invoices, correspondence, promotional literature, and blank forms (rental agreements, receipts, mechanic's liens, and mortgages). There are construction plans, prospectuses for apartment houses in Manhattan, rental receipts, leases, and rental/indenture agreements between lessors and lessees. These materials are concerned with businesses engaged in rental/sale or construction of residential property in the Northeastern United States (primarily New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania) with several from other areas in the United States. Materials in this series are arranged alphabetically by business name, and then in chronological order.

Subseries 2a, Developers and Developments, Builders 1871-1931, includes advertisements and literature describing real estate developments (builder's multiple unit housing projects). These materials are arranged by name of the Developer or Development Company and then in chronological order.

Subseries 2b, Residential Property, 1900-1963; undated, include promotional literature for cooperative apartment houses in New York City and photos/descriptions of residential property for sale in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Hudson Valley, New York areas. These materials are arranged by type (apartment house or estate) and then in chronological order.

Subseries 2c, Rental Property, 1822-1916; undated, includes leases, receipts, rental property descriptions and advertisements, correspondence about repairs to rental property, blank rental agreement and rent receipt forms as well as blank forms for mortgages and mechanic's liens. These materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 2d, Historical Properties, 1639-1915; undated, include black and white and color drawings as well as black and white photos of historical properties in New York State, Massachusetts, New England, and unknown locations. These are almost all residential homes in rural settings. A pamphlet, published in 1912 "Forty of Boston's Historic Houses" shows homes in an urban environment. A pamphlet published in 1915 "American Historic Homes" shows photographs of the Jumal Mansion in New York City, Monticello (Virginia), The Hermitage (Nashville, Tennessee), Westover (Virginia), The Pickering House (Salem, Massachusetts), and Mount Vernon (Virginia). These materials are arranged in chronological order by date of the image.

Series 3, Property Acquisition, 1823-1960; undated, includes mortgage documents and advertising materials from individual banks or other lenders, and Realtors or real estate agents. Materials in this series are arranged in three sub series: investment companies, mortgages, and Realtors/real estate agents. Within these sub series materials are arranged alphabetically by business name, and then in chronological order.

Subseries 3a, Investment Companies, 1908-1928; undated, includes correspondence on letterhead stationary, solicitation letters, advertisements, stock and bond certificates, and published annual reports from companies involved in real estate investment or financing. These materials are arranged alphabetically by business name, and then in chronological order.

Subseries 3b, Mortgages, 1823-1922; undated, consist of mortgage and indenture documents, and letterhead and personal correspondence related to mortgages. These materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 3c, Auctioneers, Realtors and Real Estate Agents, 1832-1888; undated, include advertising cards, promotional literature, advertisements, brochures, and correspondence on letterhead stationery related to the sale of property by a Realtor or real estate agent. These materials are arranged alphabetically by business name, and then in chronological order.

Series 4, Businesses and People Related to Real Estate Transactions, 1836-1959; undated, contains documents regarding different kinds of businesses concerned with real estate transactions: companies performing tax searches, title searches, and offering insurance coverage, as well as an appraiser, an abstractor, a "real estate office," a "real estate manager," and a scheme for real estate valuation, Realtor training, lawyers and real estate boards and associations. This series includes correspondence on letterhead stationery, drawings, receipts, advertising cards, and business documents. It also includes black and white drawings, portraits of real estate tycoons. These materials are arranged by subject, and then in chronological order.

Series 5, Government, 1836-1959; undated, includes documents relating to taxes, urban renewal projects in New York City, low income housing in Manhattan, municipal and federal government services. These materials are arranged by subject and then in chronological order where possible.

Subseries 5a, Taxes, 1836-1897; undated, includes protest notices, assessments, receipts, and correspondence related to real estate taxes. These materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5b, Services, 1852-1959; undated, includes documents related to various municipal and federal government services and offerings including urban renewal and low income housing. These materials are arranged by type of service and then in chronological order.

Series 6, Publications, 1855-1930; undated includes pamphlets and government publications related to real estate. Publications include "A General Statement on the Subject of Public Lands," 1836, "A Catechism of Land Surveying, With Examples," 1855, "Real Estate Record and Builder's Guide," 1872, a New York City Directory from 1873, "Investment Nails and a Hammer," 1908, "The Real Estate Magazine," 1912, "Building Permits in the Principal Cities of the United States in 1929," 1930, and two undated publications, "The Real Estate Bulletin," and "The Home News." These are arranged in chronological order.
Materials in the Archives Center:
Archives Center Collection of Business Americana (AC0404)
Forms Part Of:
Forms part of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana.

Series 1: Business Ephemera

Series 2: Other Collection Divisions

Series 3: Isadore Warshaw Personal Papers

Series 4: Photographic Reference Material
Provenance:
Real Estate is a portion of the Business Ephemera Series of the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Accession AC0060 purchased from Isadore Warshaw in 1967. Warshaw continued to accumulate similar material until his death, which was donated in 1971 by his widow, Augusta. For a period after acquisition, related materials from other sources (of mixed provenance) were added to the collection so there may be content produced or published after Warshaw's death in 1969. This practice has since ceased.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Genre/Form:
Ephemera
Business ephemera
Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0060.S01.01.Real
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-real

A General Statement on the Subject of Public Lands

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1836
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate / 3: Property Acquisition / 3.1: Investment Companies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-real-ref1541

Public Lands Commission

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 17
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1903
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate / 3: Property Acquisition / 3.1: Investment Companies
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-real-ref1551

Historical disturbance regimes as a reference for forest policy in a multiowner province: a simulation experiment

Author:
Thompson, Jonathan R.  Search this
Spies, T. A.  Search this
Johnson, K. N.  Search this
Lennette, M.  Search this
Bettinger, P.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2006
Topic:
Natural History  Search this
Zoology  Search this
Animals  Search this
Veterinary medicine  Search this
Animal health  Search this
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_80195

Public Land Management and Yosemite in 1897

Author:
Snyder, J.  Search this
Yochelson, Ellis L.  Search this
Object Type:
Smithsonian staff publication
Electronic document
Year:
2004
Topic:
Paleobiology  Search this
Natural History  Search this
See others in:
Paleobiology
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILSRO_20589

Our Priceless Heritage: Snapshots in Time from America's Public Lands, September 1-November 30, 2006

Collection Creator::
Smithsonian Institution. Office of Exhibits Central  Search this
Container:
Box 9 of 11
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Accession 13-079, Smithsonian Institution, Office of Exhibits Central, Exhibition Records
See more items in:
Exhibition Records
Exhibition Records / Box 9
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-sia-fa13-079-refidd1e1608

If You're an Adventurer, Idaho Is the State for You

Creator:
Smithsonian Channel  Search this
Type:
Youtube videos
Uploaded:
2014-09-05T16:53:26Z
Youtube Category:
Entertainment  Search this
See more by:
smithsonianchannel
YouTube Channel:
smithsonianchannel
Data Source:
Smithsonian Channel
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_dAF2VYTgSFE

Public Lands, Pennsylvania, 1818, Creation of a memorial of land to the United States for the Hoover Dam, 1930?, Platteville, Wisconsin, 1897, Cleveland, Ohio, 1914, United States, 1835

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate / 1: Land Transfers / 1.2: Land Sales
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-real-ref1039

"A General Statement on the Subject of the Public Lands," 1836 873Investment Nails and a Hammer

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 20
Type:
Archival materials
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate / 6: Publications
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-real-ref1520

Public Lands Commission

Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Container:
Box 4, Folder 21
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1860
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Real Estate / 6: Publications
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-real-ref1522

Gifford Pinchot

Artist:
Pirie MacDonald, 27 Jan 1867 - 22 Apr 1942  Search this
Sitter:
Gifford Pinchot, 1865 - 1946  Search this
Medium:
Gelatin silver print
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 22.5 x 15.1cm (8 7/8 x 5 15/16")
Mount: 38.6 x 28cm (15 3/16 x 11")
Mat: 55.9 x 40.6cm (22 x 16")
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1909
Topic:
Gifford Pinchot: Male  Search this
Gifford Pinchot: Society and Social Change\Reformer\Environmentalist  Search this
Gifford Pinchot: Politics and Government\Governor\Pennsylvania  Search this
Gifford Pinchot: Natural Resources\Forester  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Drake Morey and the Morey Family
Object number:
S/NPG.2002.378
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46fee0bf8-4928-4674-9a65-e7c816b6c7b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_S_NPG.2002.378

Records of the Field Offices for the State of Arkansas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
23 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 23 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1901. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Arkansas staff offices and subordinate field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, monthly reports, applications of freedmen for rations, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and homesteads.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen issued rations, special orders and circulars issued, registers of bounty claimants, and monthly reports forwarded to the Assistant Commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general orders and circulars received. The unbound records also contain monthly reports; amnesty oaths; applications of freedmen for rations; and records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1901.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. The Bureau's operations began in Arkansas in May 1865, when Brig. Gen. John W. Sprague took command as Assistant Commissioner. By order of Commissioner Howard in Circular No. 5, dated May 30, 1865, he established headquarters at St. Louis, MO, the next month. Bvt. Maj. Gen. Edward O. C. Ord relieved Sprague in October 1866 and was succeeded by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles H. Smith in March 1867.

When Sprague arrived in St. Louis, his jurisdiction encompassed areas outside Arkansas, including Missouri, Indian Territory, parts of Kansas (around Fort Leavenworth and Fort Scott), and Illinois (around Quincy and Cairo). By September 1865, Commissioner Howard felt that the laws of Missouri afforded enough protection to freedmen for the Bureau's activities to cease there. On October 16, 1865, Sprague received orders from Commissioner Howard to transfer headquarters from St. Louis to Little Rock, Arkansas, and operations of the Bureau were by-in-large withdrawn from Missouri. However, in April 1867 Frederick. A. Seely was assigned as a disbursing officer for Missouri with headquarters at St. Louis, a position he held until February 1872. Although much of Seely's work related to the processing and payment of claims, he was also in charge of freedmen's affairs in Missouri. The headquarters remained in Little Rock until the Bureau's activities were terminated. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau at Arkansas, for example, included those with headquarters at Arkadelphia, Augusta, Batesville, Camden, Lewisburg, Devall's Bluff, Fort Smith, Hamburg, Hampton, Helena, Jacksonport, Lake Village and Luna Landing, Lewisville, Little Rock, Madison, Magnolia, Marion, Monticello, Napoleon, Osceola, Ozark, Paraclifta, Pine Bluff, Princeton, South Bend, Union, and Washington. Under the direct supervision of the subassistant commissioners were the civilian and military agents. Occasionally, the Bureau retained military officers in a civilian capacity after the termination of their military service. For a list of known Arkansas subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the Appendix.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

Constrained by limited resources, Southern opposition, and the politics of Reconstruction, the Bureau faced an enormous challenge in its efforts to assist the freedmen and refugees. Its relief efforts, without question, saved thousands of southerners from starvation. Its attempts to assist freedmen to become self-sufficient, to provide public education, administer justice, and, to a lesser degree, to provide land, all worked with varying degrees of success to lessen the difficulties during the transition from slavery to freedom. One of the Bureau's greatest legacies is the body of records it created and received during the course of its operations. These records are arguably some of the most important documents available for the study of the Federal Government's policies, efforts to reconstruct the South, and Southern social history and genealogy.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN ARKANSAS

The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Arkansas and Missouri generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, and assisted freedmen in locating land.

To prevent widespread starvation and destitution in Arkansas and Missouri, the Freedmen's Bureau issued some 1,705,055 rations to both blacks and whites from June 1865 to September 1866. In May 1865, prior to the Bureau's relief efforts in the Arkansas district, the Federal Government had issued 75,097 rations to refugees and 46,845 to destitute freedmen. After late October 1865, the Bureau's ration–relief efforts were discontinued in Missouri. Because civil authorities in the Arkansas district failed to provide medical assistance to the "Destitute and Starving," the Bureau, with assistance from Northern societies, established asylums, hospitals, and various kinds of relief camps. By the fall of 1866, with two commissioned medical officers, contract physicians, and male and female attendants, the Bureau had treated more than 100 refugees and over 1,500 freedmen. In late October 1866, Assistant Commissioner John W. Sprague reported that Arkansas hospitals alone had given medical aid to 3,260 people, nearly 200 of them freedmen. By the end of June 1868, Bureau hospitals in Arkansas had treated four times as many patients as in previous years, and greatly curtailed the attacks of smallpox and cholera.1

The regulation of written labor contracts between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Bureau in Arkansas. In Circular Number 16, issued October 26, 1865, Commissioner Sprague outlined the rules governing the free labor system in Arkansas. Sprague ordered that all contracts in the Arkansas district were to be in writing with the approval of a Bureau official. Labor agreements were not to exceed 1 year, and no fixed rates were to be established. A 10–cent fee paid by the planter was required for each laborer. Generally, men could earn $16 per month, women $10, and children $6. First–class laborers could earn $20 per month, and received room and board, medical attention, and other essentials. In some cases, freedmen worked for a share of the crop. Whatever the agreement, subordinate Bureau officers were required to keep a record of labor contacts that they approved and witnessed, and freedmen were free to seek employment where they wished. Bureau officials often encouraged freedmen to give special consideration to employers who offered schools for their children.2

In response to Commissioner Howard's orders of July 12, 1865, concerning the education of refugees and freedmen, Assistant Commissioner Sprague appointed William M. Colby as general superintendent of refugee and freedmen schools. Colby was instructed "to cooperate with the state authorities and if possible work out a general system of education for those classes." Colby faced a great deal of opposition from southern whites who felt that freedmen taught by "evil emissaries from the North" encouraged social equality, an idea that they vehemently opposed. In spite of this bitter opposition, however, Bureau officials in Arkansas furnished buildings for schools, and sent agents throughout the district to advise freedmen about education. From November 1865 to September 1866, working with such groups as the Indiana Friends and the Western Department of the American Freedmen's Aid Commission, the Bureau paid more than 30 percent of the cost for instructing freedmen in the alphabet, arithmetic, geography, and writing. By the summer of 1868, there were more than 30 teachers and over 1,000 pupils attending some 27 day and night schools. Some 118 teachers were instructing over 1,800 students in 24 Sabbath schools.3

In January 1869, Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles H. Smith, then Assistant Commissioner for Arkansas, reorganized the education branch into three districts, with an assistant superintendent for each, for the purpose of cooperating with State officials in the transfer of the Bureau schools to the State's system. William M. Colby, David C. Casey, and James T. Watson were appointed to these new positions. General Smith held the position of chief superintendent of education. The Assistant Commissioner's office was abolished in April 1869, and Commissioner Howard reappointed Colby as the superintendent of education on May 1, 1869. Colby held that position until July 1870. By that time the Bureau had turned over most of the schools to the State Board of Education.

When Commissioner Sprague established his headquarters in St. Louis, several benevolent societies had already begun work on the establishment of schools for freedmen in Missouri. In 1864, the American Missionary Society established a freedmen school at Warrensburg, and the Western Freedmen Aid Society (WFAC) assisted military officials in the education of freedmen at Benton Barracks. By the time disbursing officer Frederick A. Seely opened his office in Missouri in 1867, there were more than 1,000 students attending some 30 schools in St. Louis alone. Seely, however, did provide support and assistance to local groups in the construction of additional schools in St. Louis, Warrensburg, Kansas City, Westport, and Carondolet.4

Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was of paramount concern to the Freedmen's Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard on May 30, 1865, Assistant Commissioners were directed to "adjudicate, either themselves or through officers of their appointment, all difficulties arising between Negroes themselves, or between Negroes and whites or Indians." In the Arkansas district, freedmen were tried in both provost courts and freedmen courts. Freedmen courts were used when Bureau officials determined that freedmen were being treated unjustly. A freedmen court consisted of a Bureau official and two citizens of a given county. The three–member court had jurisdiction over all matters involving labor disputes and other cases relating to freedmen and refugees that did not exceed $300, 30 days in prison, or a fine of $100. In October 1865, Sprague appointed civilian superintendents to administer justice, especially in instances where freedmen were denied the right to testify in courts. Superintendents were told to follow state court procedures and laws as long as the laws made "no distinctions on account of color." By summer 1866, despite continued allegations of mistreatment of freedmen, all cases except those relating to labor contracts were being handled by state courts or military authorities. In 1867, when reconstruction acts placed Arkansas under the fourth military district, both state and Bureau courts were put under military supervision.5

The Freedmen's Bureau in the Arkansas district sought, with limited success, to secure land for refugees and freedmen. It intended to establish freedmen on lands under its control that had been abandoned or confiscated. However, its efforts were nullified by President Andrew Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of May 29, 1865, which provided pardons and the restoration of lands to Confederates who took an oath of allegiance to the Federal Government. To minimize the impact of Johnson's Proclamation, the Bureau required that refugees and freedmen occupying land under cultivation be allowed to remain on the land until crops were harvested or just compensation was rendered. It also required that existing lease agreements be honored until they expired and that refugees and freedmen would not be moved from the land until arrangements could be made for them elsewhere. There was no complete effort to restore lands to their original owners in Arkansas until the Freedmen's Bureau was withdrawn from the State.6

The Southern Homestead Act (14 Stat. 66), approved by Congress on June 21, 1866, made available for public settlement 46 million acres of public lands in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Nine million acres of this Federal land was located in Arkansas. Because the Act specifically prohibited discrimination against applicants due to race, it offered an opportunity for Arkansas freedmen and others to become landowners. Generally, the Freedmen's Bureau, through "Locating Agents," assisted interested freedmen in finding plots, and provided them with 1–month subsistence, free transportation to their prospective tracts of land, and seeds for the initial planting. Despite his concerns that a large percentage of the Arkansas land was worthless and that many freedmen who were under labor agreements for the year would not be able to take full advantage of the Southern Homestead Act, Assistant Commissioner Sprague hired Dr. W. W. Granger as locating agent for Arkansas freedmen. By early summer 1867, Granger had located 1.5 million acres of land available for entry (application) and recommended more than 400,000 acres for settlement. By fall 1867, Granger reported that of the 243 tracts he had surveyed, freedmen had entered 116 of the 143 that were suitable for settlement. A total of 26,395 entries were made in Arkansas under the Southern Homestead Act during the 10 years of the Act's existence. Less than 11,000, however, were carried to completion. Of the approximately 250 freedmen who eventually made land entries, only 25 percent completed them. Whites made most of the entries in Arkansas, and many of the freedmen who sought land there came from Georgia.7

ENDNOTES

1 Thomas S. Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874 (New York: 1923), pp. 205 – 207.

2 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, pp. 77 and 255.

3 Thomas S. Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, pp. 207 – 210.

4 Richard O. Curry, ed. Radicalism, Racism, and Party Realignment: The Border States during Reconstruction (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1969), pp. 258 – 259.

5 House Ex. Doc. No. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1255, p. 45; Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874, pp. 211 – 215.

6 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 70 – 71.

7 Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, eds., The Freedmen's Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations (New York: Fordham University Press, 1999), pp. 73–77; see also Claude F. Oubre, Forty Acres and a Mule: The Freedmen's Bureau and Black Land Ownership (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1978), p. 109.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Arkansas:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices in Arkansas. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

ARKADELPHIA (Clark County)

July–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent William A. Stuart

Dec. 1865–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent William A. Britton

Oct. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Anthony E. Babricht

AUGUSTA (Woodruff County)

Nov. 1865–Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent John Thorp

Nov. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Sebastian Geisreiter

BATESVILLE (Independence County)

Dec. 1865–ca. June 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Reuben Harplam

July 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. William Brian

Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. Walter O. Lattimore

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. Albert H. Andrews

Nov.–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. John Harold

Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. William J. Lyster

CAMDEN (Ouchita County)

July 1865–June 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Lewis H. Carhart

June–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Nathan Cole

Oct. 1866–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Joseph L. Thorp

DEVALL'S BLUFF (Prairie County)

June 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent Willis Davis

July 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent William McCullough

July–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Hiram Willis

Dec. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William McCullough

FORT SMITH (Sebastian County)

Oct. 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Francis Springer

Mar.–May 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Thomas Abel

May–Aug. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Sebastian Geisreiter

Aug. 1866–May 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Charles Banzhaf

May–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Elihu G. Barker

Aug.–Oct. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Charles Banzhaf

Nov. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Pinkney Lugenbeel

HAMBURG (Ashley County)

Mar.–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Fred A. Tencate

July 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Isaiah S. Taylor

Nov. 1867–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent George Towle

July–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Sebastian Geisreiter

HAMPTON (Calhoun County)

Oct. 1865–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent John Scroggins

HELENA (Phillips County)

1864–65 -- Superintendent and Agent H. Sweeney (Superintendent of Freedmen)

1867 -- Superintendent and Agent H. Sweeney (Superintendent)

1869–71 -- Superintendent and Agent James T. Watson (Claims Agent)

JACKSONPORT (Upper White River District)

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- General Superintendent J. M. Bowler

Mar. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- General Superintendent J. T. Watson

JACKSONPORT (Jackson County)

May–Aug. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent Jonas Lindale (also Provost Marshal for the Department of Arkansas)

Aug.–Oct. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent William Tisdale (also Provost Marshal for the Department of Arkansas)

Oct.–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent J. M. Bowler

Dec. 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Robert Anderson

Mar. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

Feb. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William Brian

LAKE VILLAGE AND LUNA LANDING (Chicot County)

July–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Thomas Abel

Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter

Dec. 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Hersey

July–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent G. Benson

Dec. 1867–Nov. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. G. Cunningham

LEWISBURG (Conway County)

Feb.–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent John Vetter

June 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William Morgan

LEWISVILLE (Lafayette County)

Oct. 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Nathan Cole

July 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent V. V. Smith

LITTLE ROCK (Pulaski County)

Feb.–Sept. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent J. Raines (Superintendent of Freedmen until July 1865)

Nov. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent W. Tisdale

July 1866–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent F. Gross

Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent James T. Watson

Sept. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

LITTLE ROCK

Jan.–Mar. 1864 -- Superintendent of Freedmen W. G. Sargent (Superintendent at Helena)

Apr. 1864–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent of Freedmen W. G. Sargent

MADISON (St. Francis County)

Apr.–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

Oct. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Williams

MARION (Crittenden County)

Sept. 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Agent James R. Walker

Oct. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Agent E. G. Barker

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Agent Main

MONTICELLO

July 1865–ca. Jan. 1866 -- General Superintendent for the South Eastern District of Arkansas E. G. Barker (Agent)

Jan. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- General Superintendent for the South Eastern District of Arkansas E. G. Barker (General Superintendent)

MONTICELLO (Drew County)

Jan.–Oct. 1866 -- Agent G. Duvall

OSCEOLA (Mississippi County)

Apr. 1866–Oct. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Eli Mix

PARACLIFTA (Sevier County)

Dec. 1865–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent A. W. Ballard

Dec. 1866–Oct. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Hiram Willis

PINE BLUFF (Arkansas River District)

July 1866–Jan. 1867 -- General Superintendent William J. Dawes

Jan.–Feb. 1867 -- General Superintendent William D. Hale

Feb. 1867 -- General Superintendent William J. Dawes

PINE BLUFF (Jefferson County)

Dec. 1864–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent S. W. Mallory (Superintendent of Freedmen until July 1865)

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent D. H. Williams

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent A. Coats

Mar.–Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent E. Wallace

Sept. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter

Mar.–May 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent W. J. Dawes (Agent)

May1867–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter (Agent)

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent R. W. Barnard

PRINCETON (Dallas County)

1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Stubblefield

1866–68 -- Superintendent and Agent George W. Mallett

SOUTH BEND (Arkansas County)

May 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent William D. Hale

June–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Hersey

Sept. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. Coats

Mar.–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent DeWolf

UNION (Fulton County)

Oct. 1866–Sept. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Simpson Mason

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent John Martin

WASHINGTON (South West District of Arkansas)

Nov. 1865–Oct. 1866 -- General Superintendent E. W. Gantt

Oct. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- General Superintendent F. Thibant

WASHINGTON (Hemstead)

July–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent John R. Montgomery

Dec. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent James Williams

July 1866–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent F. Thibant

Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent C. C. Gilbert
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1901
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Arkansas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
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ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1901
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