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Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements

Topic:
Kodak (Brand name)
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Date:
1890-1979
Summary:
The collection consists of photographs and advertisements related to women working in industry dating from 1890 to 1948.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Photographs includes images of women in industry along with associated documents. Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject. The photographs date from 1890 to 1981, yet the bulk of the materials are from 1930 to 1948. A portion of the materials are undated. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color. The photographs depict women working in engineering jobs, operating heavy machinery, working with textiles, and handling different types of technology. There are several types of machines and products featured in the collection including pneumatic drills, gas irons, typewriters, rivet guns, compressed air machines, an arbor press, bending roll machines, and light bulbs. Documents that correspond to the photographs discuss an increase in women taking men's jobs in the 1940s while the men were at war. Consequently, photographs from the 1940s in this collection represent the transition of making machinery more applicable to women and enabling them to do "man-sized" jobs. Many of the 1940's photographs depict women enrolling in engineering training programs and physically working with heavy machinery.

Earlier materials from the early 1900s show women sitting in factories next to lighter equipment such as sewing machines and typewriters. There are a variety of companies displayed in the photographs including B. F. Spinney Co., Computing-Bureau Freight Accounts, Curtis Publishing Company, Curtis-Wright Corporation, Deane Works, Draper Corporation, General Electric Co., Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp., Osborn Manufacturing Company, and Timken Roller Bearing Co. A portion of the commercial photographs were taken by companies including Commercial Photo Co., Eastman Kodak Company, Mercury MFG. Co., Novelty Photo Co., Science Service, and Underwood and Underwood.

Series 2: Advertisements includes advertisements related to women in industry. These advertisements date from 1927 to 1946. The materials in this series promote products and jobs targeting women operating machinery such as safety bars, grinding tools, bending roles, gauges, double-seaming machines, and portable package staplers. There are a variety of companies featured in this series including Acme Staple Co., Ashcroft Gauge Division, Buffalo Forge Company, E.W. Bliss Co., The Sheffield Corporation, and Willson Safety Products.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photographs, 1890-1948

Series 2: Advertisements, 1927-1946
Historical:
This artificially created collection traces the transition of women's work in industry during the twentieth century. Most of the collection materials have a different provenance, but thirty-two photographs were assembled by Helena E. Wright during her years working as a curator in the Division of Culture and the Arts at the National Museum of American History. Other photographs showing women in industrial sites were added to the collection by the curator Peter Liebhold in the Division of Work and Industry. The photographs and advertisements in the complete collection were arranged to exhibit the evolution of women in the workforce. Women's occupations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries included work in the clothing industry (i.e. Draper Corporation, B. F. Spinney Co.), factories, and production lines. Despite the low pay, laborious and unsafe working conditions that came with working in these industries, most women felt a sense of empowerment being employed outside the home. Many women welcomed the opportunity to provide an income for their families yet worked long hours in inadequate and dismal settings. During World War I and World War II, men left their industry jobs to serve in the war. In order to serve the war effort, women found more employment opportunities in several types of industries. These included electric companies (i.e. General Electric Co.), aircraft and aerospace engineering businesses (i.e. Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp.), foundry work (i.e. Osborn Manufacturing Company), steel making (i.e. Timken Roller Bearing Co.), as well as enrollment in engineering training programs (i.e. Curtis-Wright Corporation). These industries provided women with a broader range of employment opportunities, skills, and experiences. Consequently, other companies began creating and marketing products to help improve the lives of women in the workforce. Inventions such as the Willson Saf-t-Bra advertised comfort and protection to women working in various industry occupations.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women (AC0060) Rosie the Riveter Health and Safety Records (AC0621) Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection (AC0233)
Provenance:
Found in collections and assembled by curatorial staff.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Science Service  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
Factories -- 20th century  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Manufacturing -- 1920-1930  Search this
Commercial photography  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements, 1890-1948, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1446
See more items in:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1446
Online Media:

Women Operating Heavy Machinery, Woman holding a pneumatic drill

Container:
Box 1, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements, 1890-1948, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements / Series 1: Photographs / 1.4: Women Operating Heavy Machinery
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1446-ref52

Unimate, Mark II

Physical Description:
fiberglass, metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall:;
overall: 70 in x 62 in x 83 in; 177.8 cm x 157.48 cm x 210.82 cm
overall: 70 in x 48 in x 78 in; 177.8 cm x 121.92 cm x 198.12 cm
Object Name:
Industrial Robot, Hydraulic-Pneumatic, One-Armed
Associated place:
United States: Ohio, Toledo
United States: Connecticut, Danbury
ID Number:
MC.336764
Catalog number:
336764
Accession number:
1978.2205
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a6-c655-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_880217

Recommendations, etc.

Type:
Archival materials
Date:
Jan. 1864-Sept. 1868
Collection Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Collection Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1026, File 3.2.3
See more items in:
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Louisiana, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1864-1869.
Records of the Superintendent of Education for the State of Louisiana, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1864-1869. / Series 3: Personnel Records / 3.2: Correspondence Received Relating to Employment
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1026-ref27
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Recommendations, etc. digital asset number 1
  • View Recommendations, etc. digital asset number 2
Online Media:

Pneumatic Mail Canister

Creator:
National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
YouTube Videos
Uploaded:
2010-08-12T22:12:32.000Z
YouTube Category:
Education  Search this
Topic:
Postal service;Letter mail handling;Stamp collecting  Search this
See more by:
SmithsonianNPM
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
YouTube Channel:
SmithsonianNPM
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:yt_ZGZYolv0KgY

Pneumatic Mail Container, 1953

Creator:
Smithsonian Insider  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
Wed, 12 Oct 2011 20:46:14 +0000
Topic:
Science  Search this
See more posts:
Smithsonian Insider
Data Source:
Smithsonian Insider
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_156119a64c12ac6caf0afb95cbcb0385

What’s that Whishing Sound?

Creator:
National Postal Museum  Search this
Type:
Blog posts
Smithsonian staff publications
Blog posts
Published Date:
March 1, 2013
Topic:
Postal  Search this
See more posts:
National Postal Museum
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:posts_0e343547aeff5e99d26325a859b26eff

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
4 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 1
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 2
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 3
  • View Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974 digital asset number 4
Online Media:

Horse and Sulky Weathervane

Artist:
Unidentified  Search this
Medium:
carved and painted pine and pneumatic tires
Dimensions:
A (man and sulky): 18 1/4 x 11 1/2 x 7 3/4 in. (46.2 x 29.2 x 19.7 cm.) B (pole and ball): 11 1/2 in. (29.2 cm.); 3 1/8 in. (7.8 cm.) diam. C (east directional): 14 1/2 x 4 1/2 x 1/4 in. (36.8 x 11.3 x 0.5 cm.) D (north directional): 14 1/4 x 4 3/8 x 1/4 in. (36.2 x 11.1 x 0.5 cm.) E (south directional): 14 x 4 1/4 x 1/2 in. (35.6 x 10.8 x 1.1 cm.) F (west directional): 14 1/2 x 4 1/2 x 1/4 in. (36.8 x 11.4 x 0.5 cm.)
Type:
Sculpture
Folk Art
Date:
early 20th century
Topic:
Figure male  Search this
Architecture\vehicle\cart  Search this
Animal\horse  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchase from the folk art collection of David L. Davies
Object number:
1992.12.1A-F
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk71edfc529-b2c0-4cc0-ba03-8cc1ea4be00a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1992.12.1A-F

Pneumatic Drill

Artist:
Louis Lozowick, born Ludvinovka, Russia 1892-died South Orange, NJ 1973  Search this
Printer:
Arthur Paul Snader, n.d.  Search this
Medium:
lithograph on paper
Dimensions:
image: 13 3/8 x 8 7/8 in. (34.0 x 22.7 cm)
Type:
Graphic Arts-Print
Date:
1934
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Occupation\industry\construction  Search this
Architecture\machine\drill  Search this
New Deal\Public Works of Art Project\New York State  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Adele Lozowick
Copyright:
© 1934, Lee Lozowick
Object number:
1982.59.16
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7d6c30cb7-053b-45af-9494-49e83bb63eca
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1982.59.16

Gold Is Where You Find It

Artist:
Tyrone Comfort, born Port Huron, MI 1909-died Los Angeles, CA 1939  Search this
Medium:
oil on canvas
Dimensions:
40 1/8 x 50 1/8 in. (101.9 x 127.3 cm.)
Type:
Painting
Date:
1934
Topic:
Architecture\industry\mine  Search this
Occupation\industry\mining  Search this
Figure male\full length  Search this
New Deal\Public Works of Art Project\California  Search this
Object\tool\hammer  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Transfer from the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service
Object number:
1965.18.49
Restrictions & Rights:
CC0
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Painting and Sculpture
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7b1d46ff7-d5d8-4003-ac76-758a761cfa4a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1965.18.49

Damaged pneumatic mail letter

Medium:
paper; ink
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 10 3/4 × 8 5/16 in. (27.31 × 21.11 cm)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place:
United States of America
Date:
February 21, 1898
Topic:
Covers & Letters  Search this
Object number:
2014.2027.2
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm876088b90-158b-4e25-9a52-1dcad73ff7ad
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2014.2027.2
Online Media:

Damaged pneumatic mail cover with apology label

Medium:
paper; ink
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 5 × 6 1/8 in. (12.7 × 15.56 cm)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place:
United States of America
Date:
April 28, 1904
Topic:
Covers & Letters  Search this
Object number:
2014.2027.3
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm82ef27a89-4312-4ffd-9a20-c0442f29331b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_2014.2027.3
Online Media:

20c Brooklyn Bridge single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2041
Medium:
paper; ink (blue); adhesive / engraving
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
New York
United States of America
Date:
May 17, 1983
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
1999.2004.295
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8e0b2e8a6-6681-4da9-8f50-3ba03ea8b715
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1999.2004.295

24.1c Tandem Bicycle coil single

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 2266
Medium:
paper; ink (deep blue, red); adhesive / engraving
Type:
Postage Stamps
Place:
United States of America
Date:
October 26, 1988
Topic:
U.S. Stamps  Search this
Credit line:
Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved.
Object number:
1990.0517.12854
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm83877a1fe-6be8-47b1-a181-f40974b96f42
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_1990.0517.12854

Pneumatic tube canister

Medium:
metal
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 24 1/2 x 8 1/4 in. (62.23 x 20.96 cm)
Type:
Mail Processing Equipment
Place:
New York
Date:
1953
Topic:
The Cold War (1945-1990)  Search this
Object number:
0.269514.1
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
On View:
Currently on exhibit at the National Postal Museum
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8eb74265e-f714-48ae-a704-7b92ef20501f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_0.269514.1

Pneumatic mail fake postal reply card

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA UY4
Printer:
Oxford Paper Company  Search this
Depicts:
William Tecumseh Sherman, American, 1820 - 1891  Search this
Medium:
paper; ink (black)
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 3 3/8 x 5 9/16 in. (8.5 x 14.2 cm)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place:
Illinois
Date:
March 21, 1908
Topic:
The Gilded Age (1877-1920)  Search this
Covers & Letters  Search this
Object number:
0.270213.1
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
On View:
Currently on exhibit at the National Postal Museum
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm85a25b103-e6df-4468-ab1c-6c2f4d855065
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_0.270213.1
Online Media:

Pneumatic tube cover

Title:
Scott Catalogue USA 332
Medium:
paper; ink
Dimensions:
Height x Width: 3 11/16 x 6 1/4 in. (9.3 x 15.8 cm)
Type:
Covers & Associated Letters
Place of Origin:
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Place of Destination:
Charlotte, North Carolina
Date:
October 1, 1910
Topic:
The Gilded Age (1877-1920)  Search this
Covers & Letters  Search this
Object number:
0.270213.2
See more items in:
National Postal Museum Collection
Data Source:
National Postal Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/hm8da9148aa-bf34-4bb3-ae35-48da7e278358
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npm_0.270213.2
Online Media:

Gabler & Bros. Upright Player Piano

Maker:
E. Gabler & Bros.  Search this
Physical Description:
mahogany veneer (case: material)
cast-iron (frame material)
felt (hammers: material)
Measurements:
overall: 62 1/2 in x 55 in x 28 in; 158.75 cm x 139.7 cm x 71.12 cm
Object Name:
piano
Place made:
United States: New York, New York
Date made:
1923-1925
ID Number:
MI.71.12
Catalog number:
71.12
Accession number:
292526
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Musical Instruments
Music & Musical Instruments
Pianos
Mechanical Musical Instruments
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a4-4771-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_605868
Online Media:

Aeolian Pianola Piano Player

Maker:
Aeolian Co.  Search this
Physical Description:
wood (overall material)
metal (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 37 1/2 in x 44 in x 16 3/8 in; 95.25 cm x 111.76 cm x 41.5925 cm
Object Name:
piano player
Place made:
United States: New York, New York City
Date made:
1901
Credit Line:
Gift of Mrs. Julian James
ID Number:
MI.285023
Accession number:
57301
Catalog number:
285023
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Musical Instruments
Music & Musical Instruments
Popular Entertainment
Mechanical Musical Instruments
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a9-e26d-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1160837
Online Media:

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