Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
106 documents - page 1 of 6

Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Director:
Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Names:
Ford-Bartlett East Greenland Expedition 1930  Search this
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)  Search this
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923).  Search this
Huntington Free Library  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research  Search this
Collector:
Barrett, S. A. (Samuel Alfred), 1879-1965  Search this
Churchill, Clara G.  Search this
Churchill, Frank C. (Frank Carroll), 1850-1912  Search this
Davis, Edward H., b. 1862  Search this
Emmons, George Thornton  Search this
Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974  Search this
Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971  Search this
Harvey, Byron  Search this
Harvey, Fred  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994  Search this
Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956  Search this
Lothrop, S. K. (Samuel Kirkland), 1892-1965  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Stiles, William F., 1912-1980  Search this
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt), 1871-1954  Search this
Waterman, T. T. (Thomas Talbot), 1885-1936  Search this
Wildschut, William  Search this
Former owner:
Burnett, Edwin K.  Search this
Force, Roland W.  Search this
Extent:
400 Linear feet
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Date:
1890-1998
Summary:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Scope and Contents:
These records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until its sublimation by the Smithsonian Institution in 1990. The types of materials present in this collection include personal and institutional correspondence, individual subject files, minutes and annual reports, financial ledgers, legal records, expedition field notes, research notes, catalog and object lists, publications, clippings, flyers, maps, photographs, negatives and audio-visual materials. These materials span a varied range of subjects relating to the activities of the museum which are more fully described on the series level.
Arrangement:
The MAI, Heye Foundation records have been arranged into 21 series and 50 subseries: Series 1: Directors, 1908-1990 (1.1: George Gustav Heye, 1863-1962, 1.2: Edwin K. Burnett, 1943-1960, 1.3: Frederick Dockstader, 1950-1976, 1.4: Alexander F. Draper, 1972-1977, 1.5:Roland W. Force, 1963-1990, 1.6: George Eager, Assistant Director, 1977-1990) Series 2: Board of Trustees, 1916-1990 (2.1: Board of Trustee Minutes, 1916-1990, 2.2: Individual Board Correspondence, 1943-1990, 2.3: Subject Files, 1917-1990) Series 3: Administrative, 1916-1989 (3.1: Subject Files, 1904-1991, 3.2: Personnel, 1956-1991, 3.3: Legal, 1900-1989, 3.4: Task Force, 1976-1986, 3.5: George Abrams, 1980-1991) Series 4: Financial, 1916-1990 (4.1: Ledgers, 1900-1962, 4.2: Correspondence, 1905-1985, 4.3: Subject Files, 1916-1990) Series 5: Expeditions, 1896-1973Series 6: Collectors, 1872-1981Series 7: Registration, 1856-1993Series 8: Collections Management, 1937-1988Series 9: Curatorial, 1963-1990 (9.1: Curatorial Council, 1973-1990, 9.2: Gary Galante, 1979-1991, 9.3: Mary Jane Lenz, 1974-1994, 9.4: James G. E. Smith, 1963-1990, 9.5: U. Vincent Wilcox, 1968-1984, 9.6: Anna C. Roosevelt, 1973-1988) Series 10: Exhibits, 1923-1991 (10.1: MAI Exhibits, 1923-1990, 10.2: Non-MAI Exhibits, 1937-1991) Series 11: Public Programs, 1935-1990Series 12: Publications, 1904-1994 (12.1: Annual Reports, 1917-1989, 12.2: Publications by MAI, 1904-1990, 12.3: Publications by Other Sources, 1881-1990, 12.4: Administration, 1920-1988, 12.5: Archival Set of Official Publications, 1907-1976) Series 13: Public Affairs, 1938-1991Series 14: Development, 1927-1991 (14.1: Administration, 1979-1990, 14.2: Donors, 1978-1990, 14.3: Fundraising, 1973-1990, 14.4: Grants, 1970-1990, 14.5: Subject Files, 1976-1990) Series 15: Other Departments, 1914-1990 (15.1: Archives, 1914-1990, 15.2: Conservation, 1972-1989, 15.3: Education, 1921-1990, 15.4: Indian Information Center, 1977-1989, 15.5: Museum Shop, 1947-1989, 15.6: Photography, 1918-1990, 15.7: Physical Anthropology, 1919-1956) Series 16: Huntington Free Library, 1926-1991Series 17: Museum Relocation, 1969-1992 (17.1: Subject Files, 1979-1990, 17.2: American Museum of Natural History, 1980-1987, 17.3: Dallas, Texas, 1984-1987, 17.4: Smithsonian Institution, 1979-1990, 17.5: U.S. Custom House, 1977-1990, 17.6: Other Locations, 1974-1987) Series 18: MediaSeries 19: PhotographsSeries 20: Miscellaneous, 1837-1990Series 21: Oversize, 1873-1972 (21.1: Maps, 1873-1975, 21.2: Miscellaneous, 1884-1982)
History of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation:
The Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation was established by wealthy collector George Gustav Heye in 1908. Heye began collecting American Indian artifacts as early as 1897 and his collection rapidly increased over the next several years. Based in New York, Heye bought collections and documentary photographs, sponsored expeditions, and traveled and collected items himself. In addition, once MAI was established he sponsored numerous expeditions across the Western Hemisphere, including North American, Canada, South America and Central America.

From 1908 to 1917 Heye housed his artifacts on temporary loan at the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, Pennsylvania, in lofts on East 33rd Street in New York City, and at other depositories. In 1917, the collections moved from his apartment to their permanent museum location at Audubon Terrace, at 155th Street and Broadway in New York City. The museum, containing ethnographic and archaeological collections from North, Central and South America, opened to the public in 1922. Less than ten years later, Heye completed a storage facility in the Pelham Bay area of the Bronx, known as the Research Branch. Heye served as Chairman of the Board and Museum Director until his death in 1957. After growing concern about the financial and other management of the collections came to a head, the museum became part of the Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and in 1994 opened exhibit space in the U.S. Customs House at Bowling Green near New York City's Battery Park. The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland later opened in 1999 and the main Washington, DC museum opened in 2004.

Please visit the following links for more information about the history of the museum; History of the Collection, Collections Overview, and Significance of the Collection. Moreover, for information about how the museum currently cares for and exhibits the collection, please see the Conservation department and recent entries regarding Exhibitions and Conservation on the NMAI Blog. In addition, see portions of the NMAI Archive Center's collections highlighted in the SIRIS Blog.
Related Materials:
In 2004, the Huntington Fee Library, once part of the MAI/Heye Foundation, was transferred to the Cornell University Library Rare Book and Manuscript Collection. While this collection mainly contained books, it also contained a significant amount of archival materials. The Huntington Free Library's Native American Collection contains outstanding materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America, as well as contemporary politics and human rights issues are also important components of the collection. Further information about the collection and links to finding aids can be found here: rmc.library.cornell.edu/collections/HFL_old.html.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Peru  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Tennessee  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New York (State)  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Panama  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Jersey  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- New Mexico  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Missouri  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Nevada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- California  Search this
Indians of South America  Search this
Indians of Central America  Search this
Pre-Columbian objects  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Texas  Search this
Museums -- Collection management  Search this
Archaeological expeditions  Search this
Ethnological expeditions  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Museums -- Acquisitions  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Cuba  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Ecuador  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Arkansas  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Canada  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Guatemala  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Haiti  Search this
Genre/Form:
Administrative records
Photographs
Annual reports
Field notes
Correspondence
Ledgers (account books)
Minutes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001
See more items in:
Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv412df8cf1-44c0-41fd-9101-eefb477e5aef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001
Online Media:

General Photograph collections

Collector:
National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
Geronimo, 1829-1909  Search this
Extent:
13 Photographs
Culture:
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1886-1913
Summary:
The General Photograph collections contains photographs depicting people, events, and activities related to the historical and contemporary lives of Native peoples throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Scope and Contents:
The General Photograph collections is comprised of individual small collections of photographs that were acquired by the Archive Center from various sources. These small collections are presented together under a single collection for easy access and depict the historical and contemporary lives of Native peoples throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized in folders by accession numbers.
Biographical / Historical:
The photographs in this collection were shot by a variety of photographers and depict many different people and scenes. For specific biographical and historical notes please see individual photographs listed in this guide.
Provenance:
The National Museum of the American Indian and its predecessor, Museum of the American Indian, acquired the photographs in this collection from 1916 to the present.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); General Photograph collections, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.999
See more items in:
General Photograph collections
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4f939fe05-6395-40b0-a532-f614b2f7ac5d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-999
Online Media:

National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4710475fc-a6c0-427e-ad01-f83634f2caa5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

Lovelock Nevada Indian Community Housing and Relief Aid documentation

Creator:
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
Hamner, Lucile  Search this
Extent:
0.25 Linear feet
Culture:
Shoshone  Search this
Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians  Search this
Paiute  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Nevada
Date:
1935
Summary:
This collection contains a U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs report written by Lucile Hamner (1901-1997) documenting the housing conditions in the Lovelock Indian Colony Reservation region in Nevada in 1935.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains a U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs report written by Lucile Hamner (1901-1997) in 1935. The report and accompanying photographs document the housing conditions and relief add provided to families from the Lovelock Indian Colony Reservation, Battle Mountain Colony, and Fort McDermitt Reservation in Nevada. The families documented in this report were from the Paiute, Shoshone, and Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone communities.
Biographical / Historical:
Lucile Hamner (1901-1997) was a Social Worker at the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs. She began her career as a School Social Worker for the Bureau at the United Pueblos Agency in 1932. By 1958, she was a Supervisory Social Worker in the Aberdeen Area Office.
Provenance:
Donated to the NMAI by James (Jim) O'Donogue in 2005.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu
Some materials restricted for privacy.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Lovelock Nevada Indian Community Housing and Relief Aid documentation, Box and Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.079
See more items in:
Lovelock Nevada Indian Community Housing and Relief Aid documentation
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a2fa9304-e6d3-4263-b316-a39668688767
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-079
Online Media:

George Conner Carlisle Indian School collection

Publisher:
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Names:
Conner, George  Search this
Extent:
0.21 Linear feet
Culture:
Osage  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Pamphlets
Date:
circa 1884-1914
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains materials documenting George Conner (Tse-da-ha; Osage) and his time as a student at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. The collection contains 3 photographs of Conner circa 1884-1896, as well as Carlisle Indian School booklets and correspondence circa 1900-1914.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 5 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
George Conner, also known as Tse-dah-ha (Buffalo Hide), was born on the Osage Reservation in Kansas in 1870. His parents were Wah-kon-tah Shinka (Little Doctor) and Le-ah-tsa, both of the Little Osage tribe. Le-ah-tsa was the daughter of Wa-caba-shinka (Little Bear) who was the Principal Chief of the Little Osage.

Kansas Militia killed George's father on a return hunting trip shortly after George was born. George's mother married William Conner (Oh-hunka-moie) and approximately five years later, she was also killed. William Conner played a prominent role in reformulating the Osage government in the new Oklahoma Reservation and helped write the first Osage Nation Constitution.

William sent George to live with his Aunt Margaret "Maggie" Lawrence on her ranch west of Grainola. He attended Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania from 1885-1890 and was re-admitted in 1896 and stayed until 1899. During his last years at Carlisle, George assisted with the physical education of fellow students including exercise drills using 3.5-pound Spaulding Indian clubs, a set of which he brought home (now held in NMAI's collection). He also assisted with coaching younger boys in baseball and other athletics at Carlisle. While at Carlisle the second time, he learned harness making and saddle repair. He also participated in Carlisle's "outing" program, which placed student on neighboring Pennsylvania farms in the summer.

Upon return to the Osage Reservation at age twenty-nine, George moved from his boyhood home on the Lawrence ranch to the Osage Nation capital, Pawhuska. There he opened a harness shop and met his wife Lillian House, a matron at the Osage Girl's school. They had five children Letha, Adelia, Victor, Lester, and Don. George served as the Osage National Council Secretary for a number of years.

George and his step-father William also got involved with Osage resistance to the U.S. Government's Allotment Act, otherwise known as the Dawes Act of 1887. This law was designed to open up remaining Indian land in the West to white settlement, by dividing large reservations among the tribal members. Each would receive a small parcel and then U.S. made the remaining "surplus" land available for settlement. The Osage opposed this and William, George, and the tribe worked collectively for nearly two decades to prevent the reservation from allotment. In 1906, U.S. Congress passed the Osage Allotment Act, making the Osage one of the last tribes in Oklahoma to accept allotment. The tribe was also able collectively to retain the mineral rights of the reservation.

George and Lillian moved from Pawhuska, started farming west of Grainola, Oklahoma, and remained on the farm the rest of their lives. George died in 1936 at the age of 66 years old.

[Biography written by Dr. Joe L. Conner (George Conner's grandson) in 2012 and edited by E. Moazami (NMAI Assistant Head Archivist) in 2018.]
Related Materials:
The Archives and Special Collections at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania also holds collections related to the school.
Separated Materials:
The museum also purchased two objects with this collection: a Carlisle Indian School uniform owned and worn by George Conner and a set of exercise jugggling pins used by Conner when he assisted with physical education at Carlisle (object #s 268789 and 268790).
Provenance:
This collection was purchased by the museum in 2012.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Education -- Carlisle Indian School  Search this
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Pamphlets
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); George Conner Carlisle Indian School collection, NMAI.AC.250; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.250
See more items in:
George Conner Carlisle Indian School collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv433f5caa5-1cc0-49da-ada0-d61c9fea56ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-250
Online Media:

Thomas Indian School glass plate negatives

Photographer:
Thomas Indian School (Iroquois, N.Y.)  Search this
Names:
Thomas Indian School (Iroquois, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
85 Glass plate negatives (N49022-N49106)
Culture:
Seneca [Cattaraugus]  Search this
Cayuga  Search this
Oneida  Search this
Onondaga  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Glass negatives
Place:
Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.)
New York (State)
Date:
1900-1945
Summary:
This collection contains 85 glass plate negatives depicting Iroquois students and student life at the Thomas Indian School on the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation in New York state, circa 1900-1945.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 85 glass plate negatives depicting Iroquois students and student life at the Thomas Indian School circa 1900-1945. The images depict student and class portraits; school activities such as school plays or performances, basketball, football, and Girl Scouts; classes such as woodworking, cooking, and agriculture; and campus buildings and grounds. The photographer is unknown, but was probably affiliated with the school. Iroquois children from Seneca [Cattaraugus], Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Tuscarora communities attended the school.
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in 3 series. Series 1: Student and class portraits, Series 2: School activities and classes, Series 3: School buildings and grounds. The collection is physically organized by negative number.
Biographical / Historical:
Located on the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation in New York State, the Thomas Asylum for Orphaned and Destitute Indian Children was established as a private institution in 1855 and named after benefactor Philip E. Thomas. Orphaned and poor American Indian children from the Seneca [Cattaraugus], Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Tuscarora communities were sent to the asylum for boarding and care. In 1875 the institution was transferred to the State of New York and run under the New York State Board of Charities. It was charged with the education and vocational training of American Indian children in their care, which is reported to have included acculturation and assimilation of Native students by means of prohibiting use of Native languages and traditional cultural practices. In 1905 the institution was renamed the Thomas Indian School. By this time, eight grades were offered at the school, which had a half-day system with students attending classes for part of the day and working the other half. By 1930, the School was classified as a junior high school, but it was eventually closed in 1957 by the State.
Related Materials:
The New York State Archives in Albany, NY holds the Thomas Indian School Agency History Records and a collection of photographs.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by the grandchildren of Victor and Ethel Bissell Seneca.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Education -- school buildings  Search this
Indians of North America -- Cultural assimilation  Search this
Schools -- Exercises and recreations  Search this
Indians of North America -- New York (State)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Glass negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Thomas Indian School glass plate negatives, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.061
See more items in:
Thomas Indian School glass plate negatives
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv46a2805be-fa84-4d3d-97cc-25c15072b3d4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-061
Online Media:

Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs

Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
Extent:
56 Photographic prints
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1898-1901
Summary:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs were shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898 and the Greater America Exposition, 1899, both held in Omaha, Nebraska.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs depict photographic portraits and scenes of sham battles shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska, from June 1 to October 31, 1898. Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) and his assistant Adolph F. Muhr were the official photographers. During the Indian Congress they photographed more than 500 individuals and groups representing the estimated thirty-six tribes represented at the Exposition. Rinehart shot the majority of the outdoor battles, dance scenes, and events, while Muhr photographed the majority of the delegate portraits. Rinehart copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899 and 1900.

Other photographs in this collection are photographic portraits of American Indian leaders that were photographed by Herman Heyn and James Matzen at the Greater America Exposition in Omaha in 1899. Heyn copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899.

Finally, the collection also contains 7 loose photomechanical prints depicting portraits by photographer William Henry Jackson. These prints were colorized and published under Jackson's company the Detroit Photographic Co. Other loose color photomechanical prints include portraits shot by photographer William H. Rau (1855-1920) for the Chicago Inter-Ocean Newspaper in 1901.

The photograph titles were assigned by the photographers.
Arrangement:
The photographs in the album are in original order. The loose prints are organized into 3 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
Byron Harvey, III (1932-2005) was an anthropologist and collector specializing in southwestern American Indian tribes. He was the great-grandson of Frederick Harvey, best known as the founder of the Fred Harvey Company that ran a successful chain of gift shops, restaurants, and hotels known as Harvey Houses. The Company also amassed a collection of American Indian art and sold many collections to museums including the Museum of the American Indian (NMAI's predecessor museum).

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition World's Fair was held in Omaha, Nebraska from June 1 to October 1898. Over 500 Indian delegates from over thirty-five different tribes were present at the Fair. James Mooney (Bureau of Ethnology) and Captain William A. Mercer organized and managed the Indian Congress in conjunction with the Exposition. It included "living exhibitions," with mock Indian villages and demonstrations of dances, daily activities, and sham battles.

The official photographer of the U.S. Indian Congress was Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) with his assistant Adolph F. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913). The Rinehart and Muhr photographs are considered one of the most comprehensive photo documentations of American Indian leaders at the turn of the century.

After the Trans-Mississippi Exposition ended, the Greater America Exposition opened on the same fair grounds from July 1, 1899 to October 31, 1899. Herman Heyn and James Matzen won the contract to be the official photographer of the new Exposition. This Exposition featured many of the same buildings and set up as the Trans-Mississippi Exposition of the previous year.
Related Materials:
The Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas has a large collection of Frank Rinehart photographs from U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including the original glass plate negatives.

The National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center also holds other photographs shot by Rinehart and Muhr at Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including collection NMAI.AC.118.
Provenance:
Donated by Byron Harvey, III in 1966.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898 : Omaha, Neb.) -- Photographs  Search this
Greater America Exposition (1899 : Omaha, Neb.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.119
See more items in:
Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a0d820a2-4caf-43a3-b0c2-37c49a927171
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-119
Online Media:

Huron H. Smith photograph collection

Creator:
Smith, Huron H. (Huron Herbert), 1883-1933  Search this
Names:
Milwaukee Public Museum  Search this
Satterlee, John V.  Search this
Extent:
26 Photographic prints
11 Copy negatives
Culture:
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa [Leech Lake, Minnesota]  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa [Mille Lacs, Minnesota]  Search this
Lake Superior Chippewa [Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin]  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Minnesota
Wisconsin
Iowa
Date:
1921-1924
Summary:
This collection includes photographs made by Huron H. Smith during his ethnobotanical studies among Native communities in Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota between 1921 and 1924. These include photographs made among the Menominee (Menomini), Minnesota Chippewa [Mille Lacs and Leech Lake], Lake Superior Chippewa [Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin], Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) on the Mesquakie Indian Settlement in Tama, Iowa.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 26 photographic prints (11 copy negatives) made by ethnobotanist Huron H. Smith during field work for the Milwaukee Public Museum in 1921-1924. Many of the photographs are portraits of Native community members wearing traditional outifts or demonstrating local plant use, such as mat making.

Six photographs are from Smith's 1921-1922 trip to the Menominee (Menomini) reservation in Wisconsin. These include portraits of John Valentine Satterlee, Smith's guide and interpreter, and the Satterlee family. There are also as well as several restricted photographs of a Menominee cemetery and of the Menomini Spirit Rock. Seven photographs are from Smith's 1923 trip to the Meskwaki (Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)) Reservation in Tama, Iowa. These include portraits of William Davenport, Charles Keosatok and wife Qua-tau-che, White Breast and his family, and doctor John McIntosh (Kepeosatok). There are also several restricted images of Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) cemeteries.

Eleven photographs are from Smith's 1923-1924 trips to the Lac du Flambeau Reservation in Wisconsin, working among the Lake Superior Chippewa, and to the Leech Lake and Mille Lacs Reservations in Minnesota, working among the Minnesota Chippewa. Images made in Lac de Flambeau include portraits of Big George Skye, John White Feather (We-bu-ju-o-no-kwe) and wife Na-Wa-Que Go-Kwe, We hre-gu-o-no-kwe, Chief A-mi-kons and wife Pa-ma-ju-o-no-kwe, and Maxiwika [Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)]. Also included are scenic views of a Lac De Flambeau village and a view shot during a Lake Superior Chippewa community dance. Images made in Minnesota include portraits of John Smith, Young Duck and Ajoybenais. There is also a photograph of the balsam Wigwam used by Huron Smith in Leech Lake and a restricted image of a Minnesota Chippewa cemetery. There is also a portrait of Stockbridge Mahican woman Harriet Quinney also taken in 1923.

Some of these photographs were included as illustrations in Smith's articles "Ethnobotany of the Menominee Indians," "Ethnobotany of the Meskwaki Indians," and "Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians" in the Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee.

The copy negatives were created by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (NMAI's predecessor museum) during a photo conservation project in the 1960s.
Photographic prints: P10326-P10351. Copy Negatives: N20758, N36526-N36532, N38018-N38020
Arrangement:
Physcially arranged by catalog number. Intellectually arranged chronologically by community and then catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Huron Herbert Smith was born in Danville, Indiana in 1883. After receiving degrees from De Pauw and Cornell Universities he served as assistant curator of Botany at the Field Museum of Natural History from 1907 and 1917. In 1917, Smith began working at the Milwaukee Public Museum as head of the Botany Department. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s Smith conducted studies on the use of plant by Native American communities in Wisconsin and surrounding states. This research was supported by then-Museum director Samuel Barrett and anthropologist Alanson Skinner. Smith's ethnobotanical studies began on the Menominee Reservation in Wisconsin (1921-1923), and were followed by trips to the Meskwaki (Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)) Reservation in Tama, Iowa (1923), the Lac du Flambeau Reservation in Vilas County, Wisconsin and the Leech Lake Reservation in Minnesota (1923-1924), the Potawatomi bands in Forest County, Wisconsin (1925), the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) south of Wisconsin Rapids (1928), and the Oneida Reservation in Wisconsin (1929).

Smith's work came to a sudden end with his death in 1933 as the result of an automobile accident. At the time of his death, four manuscripts had been published (Smith 1923, 1928, 1932, 1933), one was in process and published in 1998 by Kindscher & Hurlburt, and field notes remained for a sixth on the Oneida.

For more information on Huron Smith see the Milwaukee Public Museum's website on their Ethnobotany collections: http://archive.mpm.edu/research-collections/botany/online-collections-research/ethnobotany.
Related Materials:
A large collection of Huron H. Smith photographs and field notes can be found in the Milwaukee Public Museum Archives.
Provenance:
Gift of Charles Schoewe in 1932.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Several photographs have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Ethnobotany  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Huron H. Smith photograph collection, image #, NMAI.AC.145; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.145
See more items in:
Huron H. Smith photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv468a34deb-ac0a-4075-85a9-c78a6ab6c17f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-145
Online Media:

William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Kansas
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1866-1868
Summary:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations. This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Photographs depict American Indian tribes and Peace Commissioners involved in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty; photographs shot along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division in 1867; and photographs of American Indian delegations visiting Washington, D. C. from 1866-1868.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by photographer Alexander Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Among the photographs are depictions that were shot in and around Fort Laramie, Wyoming during the 1868 peace treaty negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal leaders from several American Indian Northern Plains tribes including Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho); survey photographs shot in Kansas in 1867 for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (later renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway); and portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. including Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes, 1866-1868. Some of the photographs in this collection, particularly those in Series 2, may have been shot by photographers working with Gardner such as Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in three series. Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Series 2: Kansas Pacific Railroad, Series 3: Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

The photographs are physically arranged in eight boxes according to the following: size, conservation work, and series. Within each box they are arranged by photo number. The photographs in boxes 1-4 had conservation work performed by a photo conservator in 2014.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations.

Gardner was born in Paisley, Scotland on October 17, 1821 to James Gardner and Jean Glenn. He worked in a number of positions including as a jeweler, journalist, and editor before entering the field of photography circa 1855.

In 1856, Gardner immigrated to the United States with his wife Margaret Sinclair Gardner, his son Lawrence Gardner, and his daughter Eliza Gardner and later that year he began working as a photographer in Mathew Brady's gallery in New York. While working for Brady, it is thought that Gardner invented the "imperial print," a large photograph printed on approximately 21 x 17 inch paper that was often enhanced with hand-coloring and ink. Wealthy politicians and businessmen were among the clients who sat for their photographic portraits in the Brady studio and paid as much as $50- $500 per imperial print (today the equivalent of about $1,000 to 10,000).

By 1858, Gardner was managing Brady's gallery at 352 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, Gardner was part of Brady's photography team that documented battle aftermaths and military campsites for the Union. Gardner left the Brady studio circa late 1862 and established his own studio in Washington, D.C. where he continued photographing the war along with his brother James Gardner, and other former Brady photographers including Timothy O'Sullivan.

During the war he documented the remnants of important battle scenes including the Battle of Antietam (1862) and the Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Gardner published 100 of his Civil War images in the publication Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War. The two volume work included photographs shot by additional photographers including O'Sullivan and John Reekie.

In addition to war photography, Gardner was also a portrait photographer and photographed many civilians, soldiers, and politicians in Washington, D.C. Between the years 1861-1865, Gardner photographed President Abraham Lincoln on seven different occasions, including both inaugurations, as well as studio portrait sittings. On July 7, 1865, Gardner was the only photographer allowed to photograph the execution of four conspirators in the President Lincoln assassination.

In 1866, Gardner along with Antonio Zeno Shindler and Julian Vannerson were contracted to photograph portraits of American Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Between the years 1866 to 1868, Gardner photographed many tribes in his studio including Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kaw (Kansa), Dakota, and Lakota. In 1868, Gardner was hired by the U.S. Government to serve as photographer for the peace talks that took place in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. During this trip, Gardner photographed the Lakota (Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. Among the government officials at Fort Laramie that Gardner photographed was General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891). Sherman served as a General for the Union Army during the Civil War and later in 1869 became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army under President Ulysses Grant's administration. A member of the Peace Commission established in 1867, Sherman traveled to negotiate treaties with American Indian Plains tribes. Upon returning to Washington, D.C., Gardner published a set of his Fort Laramie photographs in the publication, Scenes in Indian Country. Members of the Peace Commission were given photo portfolios and it is believed that the photos in this collection may have been from General Sherman's personal set. Gardner went on to become the official photographer for the Office of Indian Affairs in 1872.

In his later years, Gardner also was involved in philanthropic causes, such as helping to establish the Masonic Mutual Relief Association which aided widows and orphans of Master Masons. He also founded the Saint John's Mite Association which provided aid to the poor in Washington, D.C. Alexander Gardner died in Washington, D.C. in 1882.
Related Materials:
Alexander Gardner photographs are housed in many archival and museum repositories. Photographs from the Scenes in Indian Country series are also held in the Newberry Library in Chicago, the Missouri Historical Society, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the St. Louis Mercantile Library in Missouri.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were originally owned by General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) and may have been part of a portfolio of photographs that Alexander Gardner gifted to Sherman and other Fort Laramie Treaty peace commissioners. Photographs were then donated to the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) by Sherman's son P(hilemon) Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) in May 1932 and by Sherman's granddaughter Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) in March 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4e897a264-bea6-4416-b04d-25e2701c060d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-077
Online Media:

Herbert U. Silleck photographs

Photographer:
Silleck, Herbert Underhill  Search this
Extent:
260 Photographs
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Lacandon Maya  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1924-1944
Summary:
This collection contains 260 photographs depicting many American Indian communities including Diné (Navajo); Hopi; Isleta Pueblo; Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]; Taos Pueblo; and Lacandon Maya, as well as others. Photographs were shot by amateur photographer Herbert Underhill Silleck circa 1924-1944 during his travels with his wife Agnes Smartt Silleck.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 260 photographs (196 film negatives and 64 photos in an album) shot by amateur photographer Herbert Underhill Silleck during his travels with his wife Agnes Smartt Silleck circa 1924-1944.

The photographs depict many American Indian communities in western United States including Diné (Navajo), Hopi, Isleta Pueblo, Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana], Taos Pueblo, and Lacandon Maya. The images include scenes of candid portraits; powwows in Flagstaff, Arizona and Montana; Pueblos; tourist goods for sale; Aztec Ruins National Monument, New Mexico, among other scenes.
Arrangement:
The photographs are intellectually arranged by subject matter and physically arranged in boxes by image #.
Biographical / Historical:
Relatively little is known about Herbert Underhill Silleck. He was born in New York in April 24, 1881 and worked for the Brooklyn Trust Company for about 47 years. He married Agnes Smartt on June 1, 1905 and they had one daughter Doris G. Silbeck (born 1918). He died in New York on March 14, 1961. Based on Herbert's photographic record, it appears that he was an amateur photographer who traveled throughout the western United States.
Separated Materials:
Agnes Smartt Silleck also donated a sash, hair tie, and a painting to the museum, which can now be found under object numbers 23/2012 - 23/2014.
Provenance:
Gift of Agnes Smartt Silleck, 1962.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Powwows  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Herbert U. Silleck photographs, image #, NMAI.AC.223; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.223
See more items in:
Herbert U. Silleck photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv42a4255df-8763-44c5-9585-1caa2738e7cd
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-223
Online Media:

Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona

Photographer:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Owner:
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Names:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Former owner:
Lumholtz, Carl, 1851-1922  Search this
Extent:
588 Photographic prints
190 Copy negatives
Culture:
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Opata  Search this
Yoeme (Yaqui)  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Cora  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Seri  Search this
Nahua  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Tepecano  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Copy negatives
Place:
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Arizona -- photographs
Mexico -- Photographs
Date:
1898-1902
Summary:
This collection contains photographic prints and copy negatives taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. The majority of the photographs were donated by George Pepper to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1923. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi and Yoreme (Mayo). Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in the Czech Republic moved to the United States in 1881. Hrdlicka became known as the "Father" of Physical Anthropology and worked at the U.S. National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History).
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains photographic prints taken by Ales Hrdlicka in Arizona and Mexico between 1898 and 1902. It is likely that many of the photographs were taken in 1902 as a part of the Hyde exploring expeditions on behalf of the American Museum of Natural History. Some of these photographs were taken by Carl Lumholtz and not Hrdlicka. Native communities that Hrdlicka photographed during his research include--Purepecha (Tarasco), Yoeme (Yaqui), Hualapai (Walapai), Havasupai (Coconino), Piipaash (Maricopa), Mojave (Mahave), Tohono O'odham (Papapgo), Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Tepecano, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Opata, Cora, Seri, Wixarika (Huichol), Nahua, Otomi, and Yoreme (Mayo). Locations photographed in Mexico include--Michoacán, Sonora, Mesa del Encanto and the Ruins of Totoate in Jalisco, Ruins of La Quamada and Ruins of Teul in Zacatecas, Nayarit State, and the central altiplano. Locations photographed in Arizona include--Casa Grande in Pinal County, Fort Yuma Reservation, Supai in Coconino County and the Mission San Xavier del Bac.

The photographs include a large amount of posed portraits of men and women, none of them identified in our collection. Hrdlicka often posed his subjects both facing forward and in profile so that he could better examine their physical attributes.There are some group portraits as well as scenic shots of houses, churches and village views. Hrdlicka also photographed archaeological ruins inlcuding Casa Grande, Mesa del Encanto, Totoate, La Quamada and Teul.

The copy negatives that were made from the prints in the late 1960s by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.
Arrangement:
The majority of the photographs have been left in the order that they were originally cataloged. Photographs from the various tribal communities in Arizona and Mexico are in Series 1-16, each community with its own series. The final series, Series 17, contains photographs from various archaeological ruins in Arizona and Mexico.
Biographical / Historical:
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Bohemia in and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State hospitals, Hrdlicka went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington, of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlicka arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He furthermore came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

Hrdlicka became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. Following this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlicka was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum in 1903.

In 1905, Hrdlicka returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Native American tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

Between 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlicka amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlicka founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president in 1928-1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association in 1925-1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences in 1928-1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlicka was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Biographical note courtesy of the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History. See Ales Hrdlicka Papers. Edited by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist at the National Museum of the American Indian.
Related Materials:
The majority of Ales Hrdlicka's papers and photographs are located at the National Athropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. In addition to the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943 additional Hrdlicka photographs can be found in photographic lots 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; 9, photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; 78, miscellaneous negatives; 97, Division of Ethnology collection (―USNM‖ Collection); 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs; 73-26G, miscellany; 77-48, group portraits of International Congress; 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and 92-46, anthropology lantern slides.
Provenance:
Although it is unclear when George Pepper received the photographs from Ales Hrdlicka, Pepper donated the majority of the collection of photographs to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) in 1923. The rest of the photographs were cataloged by the MAI some time in the 1920s but the provenance history is unknown.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

There are several restricted photographs in Series 2: Yoeme (Yaqui). This have been restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona, Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.103
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička photographs from Mexico and Arizona
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv428a5c065-696f-4fa2-a3cd-11e427060b67
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-103
Online Media:

Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian

Photographer:
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Extent:
96 Photomechanical prints (photogravure proofs)
184 Printing plates (copper printing plates)
Culture:
Twana  Search this
Hoh  Search this
Walla Walla (Wallawalla)  Search this
Wishram  Search this
Suquamish  Search this
Skokomish  Search this
Quinault  Search this
Quileute  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tolowa  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Squaxon  Search this
Mewuk (Miwok)  Search this
Achomawi (Pit River)  Search this
Klamath  Search this
Yurok  Search this
Kumeyaay (Diegueño)  Search this
Cayuse  Search this
Northern Paiute (Paviotso)  Search this
Santa Ysabel (Santa Isabela) Diegueño  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Spokan  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan)  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
A'aninin (Gros Ventre)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Tsuu T'ina (Sarcee)  Search this
Kainai Blackfoot (Kainah/Blood)  Search this
Denésoliné (Chipewyan)  Search this
Cree  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Tewa Pueblos  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Jemez Pueblo  Search this
Serrano  Search this
Washoe (Washo)  Search this
Kutzadika'a (Mono Paiute)  Search this
Kupangaxwichem (Kupa/Cupeño)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan)  Search this
Hualapai (Walapai)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Mojave (Mohave)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Osage  Search this
Yokuts  Search this
Chukchansi Yokuts  Search this
Southern Mewuk (Southern Miwok)  Search this
Wailaki  Search this
Pomo  Search this
Wappo  Search this
Maidu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photomechanical prints
Printing plates
Photogravures
Photographs
Date:
1899-1927
circa 1980
Summary:
The Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian include photogravure printing plates and associated proofs made from Curtis photographs and used in the publication of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The bulk of the images are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps.
Scope and Contents:
The collection comprises 183 photogravure plates (101 folio and 82 octavo) and 96 associated proofs used in the printing of The North American Indian volumes 1-9 and 12-19. The original photographs used to make the photogravures were made circa 1903-1926 and the photogravure plates were made in 1907-1930. The bulk are portraits, though there are also images of everyday items, ceremonial artifacts, and camps. About half of the proofs in the collection are originals used for Curtis's publication, though the collection also includes proofs made in the process of later publication by the Classic Gravure Company (circa 1980). Vintage proofs include handwritten notes, likely made by Curtis Studio employees in Seattle and Los Angeles. Many of the photogravure plates do not have matching proofs; in particular, there are no proofs for the octavo plates.
Arrangement:
The plates and proofs are arranged by the volume of The North American Indian in which they were published. They are described in this finding aid by the caption and plate number with which they were published.
Biographical / Historical:
Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868-1952) was an American photographer best known for his monumental and now-controversial project, the twenty-volume publication The North American Indian. Here he sought to document in words and pictures the "vanishing race" of American Indians.

Born in Wisconsin in 1868, Edward Curtis grew up on his family's farm in Le Sueur County, Minnesota, from 1874 to 1887. In 1887, he and his father Johnson Curtis settled on a plot near what is now Port Orchard, Washington, and the rest of the family joined them the following year. When Johnson Curtis died within a month of the family's arrival, the burden of providing for his mother and siblings fell to 20-year-old Edward, and Edward set out to do so through his photography. In 1891, Curtis moved to the booming city of Seattle and bought into a joint photo studio with Rasmus Rothi. Less than a year later, he formed "Curtis and Guptill, Photographers and Photoengravers" with Thomas Guptill; the enterprise quickly became a premier portrait studio for Seattle's elite. In 1895, Curtis made his first "Indian photograph" depicting Princess Angeline, daughter of the chief for whom Seattle had been named. The following year he earned his first medal from the National Photographic Convention for his "genre studies."

In 1899, Edward Curtis joined the Harriman Alaska Expedition as official photographer, a position which allowed him to learn from anthropologists C. Hart Merriam and George Bird Grinnell while documenting the landscapes and peoples of the Alaskan coast. This expedition and the resulting friendship with Grinnell helped to foster Curtis's ultimate goal to "form a comprehensive and permanent record of all the important tribes of the United States and Alaska that still retain to a considerable degree their primitive customs and traditions" (General Introduction, The North American Indian). Curtis made several trips to reservations from 1900 to 1904, including a trip with Grinnell to Montana in 1900 and multiple trips to the Southwest, including the Hopi Reservation. He also hired Adolph Muhr, former assistant to Omaha photographer Frank A. Rinehart, to manage the Curtis studio in his absence, a decision which would prove more and more fruitful as Curtis spent less and less time in Seattle.

In 1906, Curtis struck a deal with financier J. P. Morgan, whereby Morgan would support a company – The North American Indian, Inc. – with $15,000 for five years, by which time the project was expected to have ended. Systematic fieldwork for the publication began in earnest that summer season, with Curtis accompanied by a team of ethnological researchers and American Indian assistants. Arguably the most important member of Curtis' field team was William Myers, a former newspaperman who collected much of the ethnological data and completed most of the writing for the project. The first volume, covering Navajo and Apache peoples, was published at the end of 1907, but already Morgan's funding was incapable of meeting Curtis's needs. Despite heaping praise from society's elite, Curtis spent much of his time struggling to find people and institutions willing to subscribe to the expensive set of volumes. After the initial five years, only eight of the proposed twenty volumes had been completed. Fieldwork and publication continued with the support of J. P. Morgan, but Curtis's home life suffered because of his prolonged absences.

In 1919, Curtis's wife Clara was awarded a divorce settlement which included the entire Curtis studio in Seattle. Exhausted and bankrupt, Edward Curtis moved with his daughter Beth Magnuson to Los Angeles, where they operated a new Curtis Studio and continued work on the volumes; volume 12 was published in 1922. The constant financial strain forced Myers to leave the North American Indian team after volume 18 (fieldwork in 1926) and Curtis made his last trip to photograph and gather data for volume 20 in 1927. After the final volumes were published in 1930, Curtis almost completely faded from public notice until his work was "rediscovered" and popularized in the 1970s.

Curtis's "salvage ethnology," as scholar Mick Gidley describes it, was mildly controversial even during his life and has become ever more so as his legacy deepens. In his quest to photograph pre-colonial Indian life through a twentieth-century lens, he often manipulated and constructed history as much as he recorded it: he staged reenactments, added props, and removed evidence of twentieth-century influences on "primitive" life. Curtis's work continues to shape popular conceptions of American Indians and so, while problematic, his legacy--his vision of American Indian life--continues to be relevant.
Related Materials:
NMAI also holds Edward Curtis photographs documenting the Harriman Expedition (1899) as well as platinum prints and photogravures of the images published in The North American Indian.

The Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives holds Edward Curtis prints submitted for copyright (Photo Lot 59) as well as many of his original negatives, photographs, and papers.

Steve Kern donated photogravure plates to the Center for Creative Photography and the Seattle Art Museum at the same time that he donated this set to MAI.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Steven and Arlene Kern to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in 1984.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Pictorial works  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photogravures
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.080
See more items in:
Edward S. Curtis photogravure plates and proofs for The North American Indian
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv47bb7e1cf-cd0f-42a1-ac5b-8ee402c1ab8f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-080
Online Media:

Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1428 Negatives (photographic)
40 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Iroquois [Six Nations/Grand River (Brantford, Ontario)]  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Nauset  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Catawba  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Machapunga (Pungo River)  Search this
Innu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Virginia
Canada
Delaware
North Carolina
Date:
1909-1937
Summary:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.

Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
Related Materials:
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
Separated Materials:
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.

Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
Provenance:
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maryland  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Delaware  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a7ad21af-6cc2-49e2-a636-bcf01e1c4dc6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-032
Online Media:

Thomas Croft cabinet cards

Creator:
Croft, Thomas  Search this
Extent:
19 Cabinet photographs
0.04 Linear feet
Culture:
Oklahoma Cherokee  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Oto  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
American Indian -- Southern Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Cabinet photographs
Date:
1888-1894
Summary:
This collection consists of nineteen cabinet card images depicting individuals from a number of Southern Plains Indian communities in the Oklahoma and Indian Territories between approximately 1888 and 1894.
Scope and Contents:
The Thomas Croft cabinet cards collection consists of nineteen cabinet card images taken between approximately 1888 and 1894 near Arkansas City, Kansas, and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Territory. The photos depict men, women, and children from a number of Southern Plains Indian communities living in the regions then known as the Oklahoma and Indian Territories. Communities depicted include Oklahoma Cherokee, Niuam (Comanche), Kiowa, Otoe, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Ponca, and Sac and Fox individuals and groups. These cabinet cards consist of studio portraits as well as less formalized photographs shot outside of the studio on Native reservations and at the nearby Chilocco Indian School.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into folders by cultural group.
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Croft was born in 1849 and lived in Illinois before moving further west. In the years soon after his 1885 arrival in Arkansas City, Kansas, Croft joined two already established photographers in the area, William Prettyman and George Cornish. Croft documented daily life in Arkansas City, but also frequently traveled to the then Oklahoma and Indian Territories to capture images of Native Americans living on nearby reservations. He maintained Elite Studio in Arkansas City, Kansas, and later another studio in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Territory. Croft continued to practice photography into the early years of the twentieth century until his death in 1909. In addition to his numerous photographs of Native Americans, Croft is also known for documenting the 1893 Land Run in Oklahoma, as well as for taking what is considered to be the first photographic image of a tornado, shot in May of 1896 in Oklahoma City.
Related Materials:
Thomas Croft's photographic work is extensive and resides in many cultural heritage repositories, including the Kansas City Public Library in Kansas City, Missouri, the Department of Special Collections and University Archives of the University of Tulsa in Oklahoma, and the DeGolyer Library at Southern Methodist University in Texas, among other locations.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Joanne Reiter in 1995.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Thomas Croft cabinet cards, NMAI.AC.350; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.350
See more items in:
Thomas Croft cabinet cards
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4c03316d5-43c0-43b2-90a3-24b873caeb4a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-350
Online Media:

Grace F. Thorpe Collection

Creator:
Thorpe, Grace F.  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Abourezk, James G., 1931-  Search this
Seely, Dagmar  Search this
Thorpe, Charlotte  Search this
Thorpe, Jim, 1887-1953  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Linear feet
2,175 Photographic prints
166 Negatives (photographic)
27 Nitrate negatives
113 Slides (photographs)
5 Contact sheets
Culture:
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Nitrate negatives
Slides (photographs)
Contact sheets
Place:
Oklahoma
Arizona
Japan -- 1940-1950
Pearl River (N.Y.)
Jim Thorpe (Pa.)
Date:
1900-2008
Scope and Contents:
The Grace F. Thorpe Collection (1900-2008) includes documents, photographic prints, slides, negatives and other materials that encapsulate the breadth of Grace Thorpe's life and work as a WWII veteran, Native rights activist, and dedicated daughter, mother and family member. This includes material from her personal, military and professional life. Series 1: Early Life and Family History (1921-1940) includes materials related to the Thorpe family including photographs of Grace's parents, Jim and Iva at the Carlisle Indian School as well as letters and photographs from Grace as a young girl. Series 2: Military Career and Life in Japan (1943-1950) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's time as a Corporal in the Women's Army Corps and her life as a wife and mother in Japan following the war. This series also includes the medals Grace received for her service in WWII. Series 3: Pearl River, New York and Business (1950-1967) contains documents and photographs from Grace's time as a mother and business woman in Pearl River, New York. Series 4: Working on Behalf of Native Americans and Activism (1968-1977) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's work with various Native American organizations on economic and civil rights issues following her move to Arizona in 1967. Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy (1912-1984) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives regarding Jim Thorpe and the work by the Thorpe family to restore Jim's Olympic record and keep his legacy alive. Series 6: Later Years (1979-2007) includes documents, photographic prints and negatives from Grace's life in Oklahoma, her work as an environmental activist, and other activities later in her life.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged in six series chronologically based on how the collection was received with minor changes. The Series' include--Series 1: Early Life and Family History (1921-1940), Series 2: Military Career and Life in Japan (1943-1950), Series 3: Pearl River, New York and Business (1950-1967), Series 4: Working on Behalf of Native Americans and Activism (1968-1977), Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy (1912-1984), and Series 6: Later Years (1979-2007). There is some chronological crossover between Series 5: Jim Thorpe and His Legacy and the rest of the collection.

The physical arrangement of the materials was determined by storage needs.
Biographical / Historical:
Grace Frances Thorpe was born in Yale, Oklahoma on December 10, 1921 to parents James (Jim) Francis Thorpe (Sac and Fox (Sauk)) and Iva Margaret Miller Thorpe. Jim, already a famed athelete and olympic medalist, had met Iva as students at Carlisle Indian School and were married in 1913. Grace was the youngest of four, Gail Margaret, James and Charlotte Marie though her brother James died from polio at a young age. When Iva and Jim divorced in 1923, Iva and the girls moved to Chicago while Jim moved to California to pursue work in the movies. For school, Grace attended St. Mary's Academy, Sacred Heart, in Oklahoma and Haskell Institute in Kansas, which was where her father had attended school.

In 1943 Grace worked briefly at the Ford Motor Company before enlisting in the Women's Army Corps (WAC) during WWII. After attending training and graduating from the WAAC Training Center in Ft. Oglethorpe, Georgia, Thorpe attained the rank of Corporal, and served as a Recruiter for the Women's Army Corps stationed in Tucson and Camp White in Oregon before being assigned overseas to the New Guinea Campaign. From 1944-1945 Corporal Thorpe was stationed in New Guinea, Philippines and Japan. Following an Honorable Discharge in 1945, Grace remained in Japan during the occupation with her husband Lieutenant Fred W. Seely (1918-2008) whom she married in June 1946. She became employed at General MacArthur Headquarters as Chief of the Recruitment Section, Department of Army Civilians, Tokyo, Japan. Both of her children, Dagmar (1946-) and Paul Thorpe (1948-1964) were born during this time in Japan.

Grace and her children left Japan and arrived in San Francisco on April 20, 1950. They lived in Pearl River, New York from late 1950 to the mid 1960s. She first became employed as a Hostess with Welcome Wagon upon completing training in July of 1951 and later became a supervisor, business machine salesperson, and territorial account executive for the Yellow Pages with the Reuben H. Donnelly Corp. earning recognition in Distinguished Sales Performance. She completed a course in effective speaking and human relations conducted by the Dale Carnegie Institute and won a Best Speech Award. In 1967, Grace moved to Arizona where she became involved with American Indian tribes. Grace was appointed Economic Development Conference Coordinator for the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)'s 1968 and 1969 conferences. In 1969-1970, Grace joined Native American Activists at the occupation of Alcatraz Island for three months and managed their publicity. She then served as a Congressional Intern from 1974-1975 for Senator James Abourezk. Grace was later appointed Legislative Assistant with the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs and as a Task Force Program and Planning Analyst for the American Indian Policy Review Commission. During this time period she attended—The Antioch School of Law, Washington DC; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Research Fellow), Boston, Massachusetts; University of Tennessee, Knoxville and Northeastern University, Tahlequah, Oklahoma. During this time she also began working on the restoration of her father's 1912 Olympic titles as well as other projects to recognize and honor her father.

After returning to her tribal homeland in Oklahoma she became active in tribal affairs and in 1983 successfully restored her father's Olympic record. She also conducted genealogical research on the Thorpe family. Her article "The Jim Thorpe Family' was published as a two-part series in the Chronicles of Oklahoma in 1981. In later years, Grace served her tribe as a tribal judge, health commissioner, and became an environmental activist opposing nuclear waste on tribal lands. She remained active in Native American issues, a matriarch of the Thorpe family, and involved with her granddaughter, Tena Malotte, and her great-grandchildren, Aspen and Huna.

Biographical note provided by Dagmar Seely, daughter to Grace Thorpe, with additions by Rachel Menyuk, Processing Archivist.
Separated Materials:
27 nitrate negatives have been moved offsite and are being housed at the National Anthropological Archives.
Provenance:
Donated by Dr. Dagmar Seely and Tena Malotte, 2015.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Yellow pages  Search this
United States. Army. Women's Army Corps  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- New Guinea.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japan.  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Philippines.  Search this
Alcatraz Island (Calif.) -- History -- Indian occupation, 1969-1971.  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Grace F. Thorpe Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.085
See more items in:
Grace F. Thorpe Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv40c1b8318-3394-45f2-8ac1-45348543fb36
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-085
Online Media:

Ernest S. and Eloise Carter Collection

Creator:
Carter, Ernest S.  Search this
Carter, Eloise  Search this
Names:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Dockstader, Frederick J.  Search this
Extent:
2415 Slides (photographs)
855 Negatives (photographic)
526 Photographic prints
0.85 Linear feet
Culture:
Ute  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Hopi-Tewa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides (photographs)
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Photographs
Slides
Place:
Arizona
California
Nevada
Colorado
Utah
New Mexico
Date:
1947-1986
bulk 1964-1975
Summary:
The Ernest S. and Eloise Carter collection includes photographic prints, negatives and slides taken between 1950 and 1976 in the American Southwest, Mexico and Bolivia. The Carters were research associates for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1964 and 1975 and focused much of their research on petroglyphs and pictographs. In addition to photographic material there is also correspondence and documentation about the photographs in the collection.
Scope and Contents:
The Ernest S. and Eloise Carter collection includes photographic prints, negatives and slides taken between 1950 and 1976 in the American Southwest, Mexico and Bolivia as well as documentation and notes regarding their work. The bulk of the photographs and notes were made by the Carters from 1964 to 1976 while they were research associates for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. The Carters spent much of their time photographing and researching petroglyph and pictograph sites in Arizona, New Mexico, California and Nevada producing black and white and color negatives, color slides, and photographic prints that were sent back to the MAI along with maps, notes, and reports as they were completed.

Series 1: Photographs, 1950-1975, is organized into four separate subseries. Subseries 1.1 Mexico and Bolivia, Landscapes and People, 1950-1951, includes photographs taken in Bolivia, circa 1950-1951 and in Mexico in 1964. Although it is unclear whether or not Ernest Carter took the Bolivia photographs himself or acquired them while he was traveling there, the photographic prints include landscape views and portraits shot in around the city of Potosí, Bolivia. The photographs shot in Mexico include black and white negatives the Carters took at the Monte Alban and Mitla ruins in Oaxaca, Mexico in July, 1964. Subseries 1.2 US Southwest: Landscapes and Petroglyphs, 1964-1973, the largest group of materials in the collection, includes the bulk of the work done by the Carters for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. The subseries is arranged chronologically and then by location including sites in Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada and Utah. Both Eloise and Ernest shot photographs, though Eloise generally shot in black and white and Ernest in color. This subseries includes negatives(5x7 and 35mm), slides (120 and 35mm), and photographic prints of various sizes, some mounted. Images include wide shots of petroglyph, pictograph, and acorn grinding sites, close-ups of petroglyphs as well as landscape views.

The Carters were also prolific collectors of kachinas and other ethnographic objects from the Southwest. Subseries 1.3 Object Photography: Kachinas, Pottery, Baskets and Other Objects, 1967-1975 includes photographs of the Carter kachinas, pottery and basket collections as well as several photographs of the Carters in their home alongside their collections. Subseries 1.4: Educational Materials and Other Selected Studies, 1970-1973 includes photographs the Carters put together for use by the educational department. Mostly mounted prints and slides, these photographs generally were sent with specific descriptions and were selected to highlight the variations between the petroglyph sites. This subseries also includes "Pueblo Life and Work" a series of photographs shot by the Carters at Taos Pueblo, Ildenfonso Pueblo, Laguna Pueblo and Hopi Pueblo in 1973.

Series 2: Correspondence and Photograph Documentation, 1964-1987, includes correspondence and documentation about the photographs in the Carter collection. The majority of the correspondence is between Ernest Carter and Frederick Dockstader, director of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI), regarding the donation of photographs and objects from the Carters to the museum between 1964 and 1976. The correspondence also includes detailed expense records which document where the Carters where traveling when as well as when shipments of photographs and objects were being made through the years. The documentation includes detailed reports from the Carters research on petroglyphs, maps of various petroglyph sites, photograph lists with descriptions as well as drawings and notes.
Arrangement note:
This collection is arranged into two series. Series 1: Photographs, 1950-1976, is organized in four subseries. Subseries 1.1: Mexico and Bolivia, Landscapes and People, 1950-1951, 1964; Subseries 1.2: US Southwest: Landscapes and Petroglyphs, 1964-1973; Subseries 1.3: Object Photography: Kachinas, Pottery, Baskets and Other Objects, 1967-1975; Subseries 1.4: Educational Materials and Other Selected Studies, 1970-1973. These subseries are then arranged chronologically. Series 2: Correspondence and Photograph Documentation is arranged alphabetically and then by document number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Ernest Carter was born Ernest (Eryst of Eruie) Sigmund Schickler in Vienna, Austria in 1922. Following World War II, he left Europe for South America where he spent four years in the Andes on climbing expeditions. He changed his name from Schickler to Carter when he moved to the United States in 1951 and officially became an American citizen in 1957. Eloise Carter was born in Nebraka in 1928 and eventually became a dental assistant in the Bay Area, California, where she met and married Ernest around 1960. In 1964 Ernest and Eloise were made research associates of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation which began a long term relationship with the MAI. During this time the Carters traveled throughout California, Nevada and other location in the Southwest and Mexico to photograph petroglyphs and pictographs which were subsequently shipped to the Museum. They also collected objects which were donated to the MAI including baskets, pottery and kachinas among other items. Their relationship with the MAI tapered off after Frederick Dockstader left the museum in 1975. The Carters continued to travel and work with communities in the southwest and eventually settled in Mountain View, California.
Provenance:
Donated by Ernest and Eloise Carter between 1964-1975 with additional photographs donated in 1986.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Petroglyphs  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Photographs
Slides
Negatives (photographic)
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Ernest S. and Eloise Carter collection, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.034
See more items in:
Ernest S. and Eloise Carter Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4e1297b20-418e-420a-a3d8-62bd2104dd70
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-034
Online Media:

John Wetherill lantern slides

Photographer:
Wetherill, John  Search this
Extent:
42 Lantern slides
Culture:
Pueblo (Anasazi) (archaeological)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Cliff Palace (Mesa Verde, Colorado) -- Archeology
Colorado -- Antiquities
Date:
1892
Summary:
This collection contains glass lantern slides shot by rancher and explorer John Wetherill (1866-1944). The photographs depict Ancestral Puebloan sites in southwestern U.S., as well as photos of Diné (Navajo) and Ute men and women.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 42 glass lantern slides that were shot by John Wetherill (1866-1944) circa 1892. The bulk of the photographs depict Ancestral Puebloan sites at Mesa Verde and Hovenweep in southwest Colorado. Wetherill may have been escorting the H. Jay Smith Exploring Company around the region as they collected objects for a Mesa Verde exhibit at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

The glass lantern slides depict cliff dwellings in a state of pre-archaeological preservation including the sites of Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House, Square Tower House, Kodak House, Sandal House, and Spring House at Mesa Verde; and Square Tower at Hovenweep. The photographs also depict Oraibi Hopi Village, Montezuma Castle, and Casa Grande Ruins sites in Arizona.

A few photographs depict Ute and Diné (Navajo) men and women. One photograph of note depicts an outdoor group portrait photographed at a Ute wedding in Mancos, Colorado. The individuals depicted include George Bowles (Harvard student), Mancos Jim (Ute) and his wife, Herbert L. Cowing (1877-1956), Elmer Coston, Benjamin Kite Wetherill (1832-1898), and Richard Wetherill (1858-1910).

Several photographs in this collection also depict objects such as pottery, yucca baskets, stone axes, manos, and metates alongside Ancestral Puebloan human remains. These photographs are restricted.

John Wetherill is listed as the photographer, however, his brother Richard Wetherill (1858-1910) may have shot some of the photographs as well. The lantern slides feature handwritten labels that describe the photographs and were probably written by a Museum of the American Indian employee. Additionally, "Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, Broadway at 155th ST. N. Y. City" is printed on the back of the masking paper, which indicates that the lantern slides were most likely assembled by MAI staff.

Some lantern slides may be the reverse or mirror images of the actual scenes.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in photo number order.
Biographical / Historical:
John Wetherill (1866-1944) was a cattle rancher, explorer, and amateur archaeologist in Colorado. Born in Kansas in 1866 to Benjamin Kite Wetherill and Marion Tompkins Wetherill, the family moved to Mancos in southwestern Colorado in 1879. In December 1888, Richard Wetherill (John's older brother) and Charles Mason (brother-in-law), were credited with having discovered Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House, and Square Tower House sites at Mesa Verde, although the cliff dwellings were already known to some Native Puebloan communities in the southwest at the time. Additionally, several non-Native explorers had visited other Ancestral Puebloan sites in the region prior to the Wetherills' discoveries including Mexican-Spanish missionaries Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Silvestre Velez de Escalante in 1776; prospector John Moss in 1873; and photographer William Henry Jackson for the Hayden U.S. Geological Survey in 1874.

After the discovery, Richard and his brothers John, Clayton, Winslow, and Benjamin continued exploring and found other Ancestral Puebloan sites in the region. In 1891, the Wetherill brothers worked with amateur Swedish archaeologist Gustaf Nordenskiöld excavating Cliff House. Nordenskiöld taught them the basics tenants of archaeological excavation and trained them to keep detailed provenance records and to label objects.

From 1888-1893, the Wetherills collected more objects from Mesa Verde and eventually sold many of their collections, including a large collection to the Colorado State Historical Society (History Colorado). By 1900 John Wetherill moved to New Mexico and then Utah with his wife Louise Wade Wetherill. John continued serving as a guide and trained archaeologists and anthropologists in the region. He died in 1944.

Agnes Cowing (1880-1965), the collector of the glass lantern slides, was a librarian in New York. She most likely obtained them from her brother Herbert L. Cowing (1877-1956) or her sister Julia R. Cowing (b. 1857) who were both friends of the Wetherill family and visited the Wetherill Ranch in Mancos, Colorado in the 1890s.
Related Materials:
History Colorado in Denver, Colo. holds a John and Richard Wetherill photographs collection (2000.129), a Richard Wetherill manuscripts collection (Mini-MSS #3035), and a large collection of objects collected by the Wetherills. The Smithsonian's National Anthropological Archives holds a collection of photographs collected by H. Jay Smith (NAA MS 2420).
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation by Agnes Cowing in 1934.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Antiquities & archaeological sites -- Colorado  Search this
Indians of North America -- Colorado  Search this
cliff dwellings -- Colorado -- Mesa Verde National Park  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lantern slides
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); John Wetherill lantern slides, Box and Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.106
See more items in:
John Wetherill lantern slides
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4c6bd4b84-f45a-47d2-8ff7-bea7c091feb3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-106
Online Media:

Elmer E. Higley collection

Topic:
Methodist Episcopal Church
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth
Creator:
Higley, Elmer Ellsworth  Search this
Extent:
534 Lantern slides
0.2 Linear feet
Culture:
Pikuni (Piegan) [Blackfeet Nation, Browning, Montana]  Search this
Nooksack  Search this
Tulalip  Search this
Haida  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Kalispel (Pend d'Oreilles)  Search this
Wasco  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Niitsitapii (Blackfoot/Blackfeet)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Date:
bulk circa 1900-1968
Summary:
This collection consists of 534 glass lantern slides depicting Indigenous groups throughout North America. It also includes a small number of publications written by Elmer E. Higley and others about Native Americans and missionary work during the early twentieth century.
Scope and Contents:
The Elmer E. Higley collection consists of both Lantern Slides and Printed Materials. Series 1: Lantern Slides, 1900-1924, includes 534 glass lantern slides, many hand-colored. The lantern slides were used by Higley in lectures to promote his missionary and reform work with the Joint Committee on Indian Work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he was the Superintendent from 1919 to 1923. While Higley was the photographer of some of the lantern slide images, specifically those taken in Mesa Verde, the majority of the photographs were not taken by Higley, but rather collected by him for use in his lectures as he traveled around the country. Series 2: Printed Materials, 1914-1968, includes a small number of early twentieth-century publications written by Higley and others about Native Americans and missionary work in the United States during this time.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into two series. Series 1: Lantern Slides, 1900-1924 and Series 2: Printed Materials, 1914-1968.
Biographical / Historical:
Elmer Ellsworth Higley was born in Ohio in 1867. He attended high school and college in northwestern Pennsylvania before marrying Alice C. Dowler in 1892. Higley later also attended the Drew Theological Seminary and afterwards worked as a pastor in a number of Methodist churches around the country. In approximately 1919 Higley was appointed Superintendent of the Joint Committee on Indian Work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with his office based in Chicago, Illinois. Employed in this work until 1923, Higley traveled the United States, visiting Native reservations and promoting Christian reform efforts for American Indian education. While traveling, Higley frequently presented illustrated lectures on his missionary work to audiences, using the glass lantern slides now residing in the collections of the National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. In the years after 1923, Higley continued as a pastor in both Ames, Iowa, and Evanston, Illinois, the latter where he eventually died in 1931.
Provenance:
Gift of Mrs. R. S. Jensen and Family in 2018 and 2019.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this colletion are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Topic:
Missionaries  Search this
cliff dwellings -- Colorado -- Mesa Verde National Park  Search this
Methodist church buildings  Search this
Missions -- Mission School  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Elmer E. Higley collection, NMAI.AC.228; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.228
See more items in:
Elmer E. Higley collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv45ca4b0f8-01c2-4114-b663-3d3cb3d59f0c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-228
Online Media:

Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico

Creator:
Cordry, Donald Bush  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
93 Photographic prints
9 Negatives (photographic)
24 Copy negatives
Culture:
Nahua  Search this
Guerrero Nahua  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Wixarika (Huichol)  Search this
Chinantec [Chinantla]  Search this
Cora  Search this
Yoreme (Mayo)  Search this
Zoque  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Negatives (photographic)
Copy negatives
Photographs
Negatives
Place:
Mexico
Date:
1933-1940
Summary:
Images consist mostly of portraits of the indigenous people in the Mexican states of Michoacán, Guerrero, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Oaxaca, Chiapas and Veracruz. The collection primarily contains images of Wikarika (Huichol) people, but includes images of the Purepecha (Tarasco), Guerrero Nahua, Chinantec [Chinantla], Zoque, Otomí (Otomi), Tzotzil Maya, Yoreme (Mayo) and Zapotec peoples.
Scope and Contents:
The Donald Bush Cordry collection primarily contains photographic prints and negatives made by Cordry while he collected objects from 1935 to 1938 on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Photographic materials from his private 1933 trip to Guerreo and a few taken around 1940 are also housed in the collection. The photographs depict the native peoples of the Mexican states of Chiapas, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, and Veracruz and represent people preparing food, making masks, pottery and textiles, and dressing for and participating in ceremonies. In addition there are village scenes and informal portraits of individuals. Series 1: Michoacán and Guererro States, includes images shot within the Purepecha (Tarasco) and Guererro Nahua communities between 1935 and 1936. (Negatives: N21118-N21126; Prints: P11986- P12008; Copy Negatives: N36725-N36731) Series 2: Nayarit and Sinaloa States, is the largest series and includes images shot in various Wixarika (Huichol) villages in 1937 and depicts many ceremonial functions. (Prints: P12659-P12672, P12880-P12887, P13273-P13275, P13386-P13414; Copy Negatives: N36855-N36863, N41431-N41432) Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora and Mexico States, includes images from various culture groups from around 1940. These include Chinantec [Chinantla], Zoque, Otomí (Otomi), Tzotzil Maya, Yoreme (Mayo) and Zapotec. (Prints: P15052-P15053, P15202-P15203, P15347-P15348, P16553-P16562; Copy Negatives: N37306-N37307, N37335-N37336, N37506-N37507)

The photographic prints are all silver gelatin (DOP) and are a range of sizes. The majority of the negatives are copy negatives made by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation during a photo conservation project in the 1960s.
Arrangement note:
Arranged into three series by date and geographical location. Series 1: Michoacán and Guererro States: Purepecha (Tarasco), Guererro Nahua, 1933, 1935-1936; Series 2: Nayarit and Sinaloa States: Wixarika (Huichol), 1937; Series 3: Oaxaca, Chiapas, Sonora States: Various communities, circa 1940. Within each series the prints and negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Starting in high school, Donald Bush Cordry was deeply committed to theatrical set design and puppetry and while attending the Minneapolis Institute of Art began to carve his own wooden marionettes and hand puppets. In 1931, Cordry made his first trip to Mexico (Guerrero) and become fascinated by contemporary Mexican Indian art, especially mask making. In 1934, Cordry moved to New York to work as a marionette designer for puppeteer Tony Sarg and soon contacted George G. Heye to learn more about Mexican Indian art. From 1935 to 1938, Cordry collected Mexican masks and other art forms on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. On his first 1935 collecting trip for Heye, Cordry traveled throughout the states of Michoacán and Guerrero and collected carved and painted dance masks.

In 1936, Cordry married fellow artist Dorothy Mann. Shortly after their wedding, the newlyweds traveled by horseback for six months through Nayarit, Jalisco, and southern Sonora and extensively collected among and photographed the Huichol, Cora and Mayo Indians. The couple moved to Mexico in 1938, first settling in Oaxaca; in the mid-1940s, no longer working for Heye, they relocated to Mexico City. There Cordry established his own design business and produced decorative Mexican folk art-style crafts. His business was highly successful and his work was featured in House and Garden magazine. The couple moved to Cuernavaca, where in 1953 Cordry suffered a stroke and was forced to close his workshop. His stroke also put an end to his traveling and collecting activities. Deeply interested in the history and traditions of Mexican Indians, Cordry assembled an extensive reading library of pre- and post-conquest Mexico materials and together with his wife published "Costumes and Textiles of the Aztec Indians of the Cuetzalan Region, Puebla, Mexico" (1940); "The Costumes and Weaving of the Zoque Indians of Chiapas, Mexico" (1941); and, most importantly, "Mexican Indian Costumes" (1968). Cordry's monumental "Mexican Masks" (1980) was published shortly after his death. Cordry died in Cuernavaca, Mexico, at the age of 71.
Related Materials:
There are around 900 ethnographic items collected by Donald Cordry in Mexico in the National Museum of American Indian's ethnology collections. For more information about these materials contact NMAI Collections.

The National Anthropological Archives (National Museum of Natural History) holds several collections of Donald B. Cordry photographs. See: NAA Photo Lot 87-38, NAA Photo Lot 82-14, and NAA Photo Lot 80-3. The Donald Cordry Mexican mask collection at Natural History can be found in the Department of Anthropology in accession 355867.
Provenance:
The majority of the Donald Cordry photographs came to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation along with field collections in 1936 and 1938. There were additional donations of photographs made by Cordry in 1937, 1940, 1941 and 1943.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- Social life and cutoms  Search this
Indians of Mexico -- Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Nayarit (Mexico)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Photographic prints
Negatives
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.008
See more items in:
Donald B. Cordry photographs from Mexico
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv43995f9d3-738a-4dd3-9cf4-4b071077f0a8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-008
Online Media:

Fred Harvey Company collection of Carl Moon Southwest photographs

Photographer:
Moon, Carl, 1878-1948  Search this
Publisher:
Fred Harvey (Firm)  Search this
Extent:
434 Photographs
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Hopi [Sipaulovi]  Search this
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
San Ildefonso Pueblo  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographs
Place:
San Felipe Pueblo (N.M.)
Arizona
New Mexico
Date:
1907-1914
Summary:
This collection contains photographs that were commissioned by Fred Harvey Co. and shot by Carl Moon circa 1907-1914. The photographs depict American Indian communities in the southwest including A:shiwi (Zuni), Acoma Pueblo, Diné (Navajo), Hopi, Laguna Pueblo, and Taos Pueblo among many others.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 203 glass transparencies, 2 nitrate negatives, and 1 autochrome (plus 228 copy negatives and copy transparencies) that were commissioned by Fred Harvey Co. and shot by Carl moon circa 1905-1914. The photographs depict the southwest American Indian communities of A:shiwi (Zuni), Acoma Pueblo, Dine (Navajo), Havasupai (Coconino), Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo), Laguna Pueblo, Nambe Pueblo, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), San Felipe Pueblo, San Ildefonso Pueblo, Taos Pueblo, Tesuque Pueblo, and White Mountain Apache. Some images were also shot in Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona. The photographs are a mix of portraits, posed action shots, and architecture shots. Some of the photographs appear to have been staged by the photographer. There are a few photographs in this collection that may have been shot by Moon prior to his employment with the Fred Harvey Company.

The copy negatives and transparencies were created by the Museum of the American Indian (NMAI's predecessor museum). There are sometimes multiple copy negatives and copy transparencies per glass plate transparency.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 17 series by culture group or location. Series 1: A:shiwi (Zuni), Series 2: Acoma Pueblo, Series 3: Diné (Navajo), Series 4: Havasupai (Coconino), Series 5: Hopi, Series 6: Isleta Pueblo, Series 7: K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Series 8: Kewa (Santa Domingo Pueblo), Series 9: Laguna Pueblo, Series 10: Nambe Pueblo, Series 11: Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Series 12: San Felipe Pueblo, Series 13: San Ildefonso Pueblo, Series 14: Taos Pueblo, Series 15: Tesuque Pueblo, Series 16: White Mountain Apache, Series 17: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

The collection is physically arranged first by collection type (transparencies and negatives) and then in photo numeric order.
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1878 in Wilmington, Ohio, Carl E. Moon (originally spelled Karl) took up photography after serving with the Ohio National Guard. He moved to Albuquerque, N.M. in 1903 and opened a photograph studio where he began photographing American Indians in the U.S. southwest region. After publishing and exhibiting many of his photographs nationally, he was commissioned by the Fred Harvey Company in 1907 to take photographs of American Indian communities in the southwest. The Fred Harvey Company was founded by Frederick Henry Harvey and consisted of a chain of successful gift shops, restaurants, and hotels know as Harvey Houses. Moon photographed individuals in his El Tovar Studio in the Grand Canyon, Ariz. and also traveled to communities in the region including A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Hopi, and Laguna Pueblo, among many others. The Fred Harvey Company used these photographs in their postcards, brochures, and publications for the tourist industry. The Fred Harvey Company also partnered with the Sante Fe Railroad to help generate tourism to the southwest region and Moon became the official photographer for the railroad. Moon also took up drawing and painting and studied with American painter Thomas Moran. Moon stayed with the Fred Harvey Company until 1914.

After Moon left the Fred Harvey Company, he opened a studio in Pasadena, California and continued his career as a photographer and painter. During this period, Moon painted and donated 26 works depicting Southwest American Indians to the Smithsonian Institution (now in the Smithsonian American Art Museum's collection). He also sold 24 oil paintings and 293 photographic prints to Henry E. Huntington that are now part of the Huntington Library in San Marino California. With his wife Grace Purdie Moon, he also produced and illustrated children's books of collected Native American stories and legends. Moon died in San Francisco, Calif. in 1948.
Related Materials:
The Huntington Library in San Marino California holds a large collection of Carl Moon works, including oil paintings and photographic prints. The University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections also holds photographs shot by Carl Moon and the Smithsonian American Art Museum holds 26 Carl Moon paintings.
Separated Materials:
Two nitrate negatives are stored at an offsite storage facility.
Provenance:
Donated to the Museum of the American Indian by the Fred Harvey Company in 1963.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Arizona  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Mexico  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred Harvey Company collection of Carl Moon Southwest photographs, Box and Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.090
See more items in:
Fred Harvey Company collection of Carl Moon Southwest photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4053c0c32-e2a1-4111-8439-644e9b5d4db4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-090
Online Media:

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By
  • Images
  • Finding aids
  • National Museum of the American Indian