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Ambrotype of Chief Okemos

Photographer:
Smith, Henry H.  Search this
Collector:
Imhof, Joseph, 1871-1955  Search this
Names:
Okemos, Chief  Search this
Extent:
1 Ambrotypes (photographs)
Culture:
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ambrotypes (photographs)
Date:
1858
Summary:
Ambrotype of Chief Okemos [Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)] photographed by Henry H. Smith in 1858.
Scope and Contents:
P12521

This collection contains one 1/4 plate ambrotype depicting Chief Okemos [Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)], photographed by Henry H. Smith of Cheboygan, Michigan in 1858. The upper, right hand portion of the ambrotype glass is broken and missing. The ambrotype is housed in a leather case and features a brass mat and preserver.

Inside the case is a handwritten note that reads, "See back of picture for photographer and date." However, due to the photo's fragility, current NMAI Archives staff have not removed the ambrotype from its case to confirm the photographer and date.

Also included in the case are two newspaper clippings about Chief Okemos that are glued together. The first appears to be from the Lansing Journal and reads, "Old Okemus. –Our friend [paper missing] has left on our table a very fine ambrotype of Okemus, the well known chief of the Chippawas, whose residence in this part of the State has made his name and fame familiar to most of our readers. The old Chief paid a visit to our village a few days since. He is not far from one hundred years old, and although his step is feeble, yet he is as erect as in his palmier days. He has heretofore objected to having his likeness taken, under the impression it would shorten his life. At best he has but a few more days on earth. He carries scars upon his head and shoulder into which a man could lay his finger, which he claims to have received at the battle of Thames and while he was aiming his tomahawk at the head of Col. Johnson, just after he had shot Tecumseh. He also claims to have held a captain's commission in the British government. His position as chief has been usurped by younger hands. – Lansing Jour[word cut off]".

The second clipping is from Springfield (Mass) Republican on December 22, 1858 and reads, "The Potawatamie Chief Okemos, who has for a long time lived near Lansing, Michigan died on Sunday last. His precise age was not known, but it is supposed to have been over one hundred years".
Arrangement:
This ambrotype is housed in an archival phase box.
Biographical / Historical:
There is conflicting information about the details of Chief Okemos' biography including his birth year. It is believed that Chief Okemos was born circa 1769 possibly in the Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa) settlement of Ketchewandaugoning on the Shiawassee River (near present day Bloomfield, Michigan). Other spellings of his name included Okemus, Okemans, Ogimaus, Okemos, O-ge-mah, and O-Gee-Manse.

He fought in several battles including the battle of Tippencanoe, Indiana (1811), the War of 1812, the Battle of Sandusky (1813), and the Battle of the Thames (1813). During the War of 1812, Okemos suffered an injury, which left him with a large scar on his forehead. Chief Okemos also signed several treaties on behalf of the Anishinaabe including the Treaty of Saginaw (1819).

His family included his wife Waindegoquayzance; his son Paymechewaysawdung (1829-1899; also known as John); his son Waygeshegome (1845-1902; also known as James); his daughter Kawbaishcawmoquay (1845-1896); and his daughter Shawusquahbenoquay (d.1852). Chief Okemos died on December 5, 1858 in Michigan.
Related Materials:
There are only 3 other known photographs of Chief Okemos. Two are in private collections and the third is an ambrotype held in the Archives of Michigan (Record Group 2005-13).

The NMAI Archives Center also holds other photographs (NMAI.AC.142) and objects collected by artist and collector Joseph Imholf.
Provenance:
This ambrotype was formerly in the collection of Joseph Imhof (1871-1955, Western artist); lent to MAI by Joseph Imhof in 1930; donated to MAI by Joseph Imhof's widow Sarah Imhof (1872-1966) in 1961.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Ambrotype of Chief Okemos, P12521, NMAI.AC.385; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.385
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a9bcfa4d-7282-4cee-b17f-e02b5083c7b0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-385
Online Media:

Iva Towsley Gardner's collection of Chief Shabbona ambrotypes

Collector:
Gardner, Iva Towsley  Search this
Names:
Shabni, approximately 1775-1859 -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
2 Ambrotypes (photographs) (1/4 plate)
Container:
Box 1
Culture:
Potawatomi  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Ambrotypes (photographs)
Ambrotypes
Date:
1854-1859
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 2 hand-colored ambrotypes that depict portraits of Potawatomi Chief Shabbona, circa 1854-1859. The ambrotypes were given to Iva Towsley Gardner when she served as a nurse within the Potowatami community. The ambrotypes are housed in a union case that features a horse and rider motif. The photographs may have been shot on different dates by different unidentified photographers.

At some point in time, a typed note was attached via tape to the glass of one ambrotype. The note states, "Picture of Shabbona and his wife. Property of Iva Towsley Gardner." It has since been determined that both ambrotypes actually depict Chief Shabbona.
Arrangement:
The photographs are stored in 1 box.
Biographical / Historical:
Iva Towsley Gardner (born circa 1899) served as a nurse in Illinois and often treated members of the Potawatomi community in her region. She married Laurence Gardner in 1924. Later in life she worked as a nurse in a private home.

Chief Shabbona (also spelled Shabonee and Shabni) is best known as a warrior and Chief of the Potawatomi tribe. Born circa 1775 to the Ottawa tribe, Shabbona is believed to be the grand-nephew of Ottawa Chief Pontiac (circa 1720-1769). As a young man Shabbona became an Ottawa chief and later married Coconako, the daughter of Potawatomi Chief Spotka. He eventually became a Potawatomi Chief himself. During the War of 1812 Chief Shabonna fought alongside Tecumseh (Shawnee) in an alliance with Great Britain against the United States. After Tecumseh's death, Chief Shabbona pledged his allegiance to the United States. Chief Shabbona died in Illinois in 1859.
Provenance:
Donated by Ann Hohn in 2017 in memory of her parents Maxine and Glenn Fisher. Glenn Fisher was the nephew of Iva Towsley Gardner.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Genre/Form:
Ambrotypes
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Iva Towsley Gardner's collection of Chief Shabbona ambrotypes; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.100
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4f160a4de-6090-47b5-b934-740d333790e3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-100
Online Media:

Daguerreotype of Peter Wilson

Collector:
Thomas, Philip E. (Philip Evan), 1776-1861  Search this
Names:
Wilson, Peter (Cayuga)  Search this
Extent:
1 Daguerreotypes (photographs)
Culture:
Cayuga  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Daguerreotypes (photographs)
Photograph.
Date:
circa 1852-1855
Summary:
Daguerreotype of Dr. Peter Wilson (Cayuga) given to Philip Evan Thomas.
Scope and Contents:
P25296

This collection contains 1 daguerreotype depicting Peter Wilson (Cayuga) circa 1852-1855 housed in a leather case. A handwritten note from Wilson inside the case reads, "Peter Wilson --- Wa-o-wa-wa-na-onk to his friend P.E. Thomas--- Sa-ga-oh." Wilson most likely gifted this daguerreotype to Philip Evans Thomas (1776-1861).
Arrangement:
This daguerreotype is housed in an archival phase box.
Biographical / Historical:
Dr. Peter Wilson (1815-1872), also known as Wa-o-wa-wa-na-onk, was born on the Buffalo Reservation in New York, but subsequently spent a good amount of his life on the Cattaraugus Reservation. Wilson was a signatory to the Second Buffalo Creek Treaty of 1838, in which he was included with a group of Cayuga Warriors, but would later give speeches advocating for fair compensation to members of the Six Nations who had lost much of their land in this and other treaties. Among the speeches were two delivered to the New York Senate in 1848 and 1850.

Peter Wilson earned a medical degree from Geneva Medical College in 1844 and appears to have served as an Assistant Surgeon with the United States Army, either during or soon after the Civil War. He also spent time as the interpreter for the New York Agency of the Office of Indian Affairs.

Philip Evan Thomas (1776-1861) was the first president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B and O). He also served as chairman of the Society's Indian Affairs Committee and was the representative to Washington for the Six Nations of Indians, where he most likely met and befriended Dr. Wilson.
Provenance:
The immediate source of acquisition is unknown.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Genre/Form:
Photograph.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Daguerreotype of Peter Wilson, P25296, NMAI.AC.405; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.405
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv481bfe194-64bb-4f05-9a8b-1c6f4970a659
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-405
Online Media:

Tintypes of Robert Meldrum and Medicine Tree

Collector:
Allen, J. I., -1929  Search this
Names:
Medicine Tree  Search this
Meldrum, Robert, 1806-1865  Search this
Extent:
2 Tintypes (prints)
Culture:
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tintypes (prints)
Date:
1858-1865
Summary:
Tintypes depicting fur trader Robert Meldrum and his wife Medicine Tree [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke); also known as Margaret].
Scope and Contents:
P08166

This collection contains two circular gem tintypes pasted to a mat board. The tintypes depict Robert Meldrum and his wife Medicine Tree [Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke); also known as Margaret]. The photographs were shot by an unidentified photographer in St. Louis, Missouri, circa 1858-1865.

According to the original inventory, the tintypes were part of a jewelry locket. At some unknown point in time, the tintypes were removed from the locket and pasted to a mat board.
Arrangement:
The tintypes are arranged on a mat board inside an archival phase box.
Biographical / Historical:
Robert Meldrum (1802-1865) was a fur trader and interpreter for the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) tribe.

Born in 1802, Meldrum and his family emigrated from Scotland to Canada in 1812 and eventually moved to the United States. By the late 1820s, Meldrum was living in St. Louis, Missouri and working in the Rocky Mountain fur trade industry.

The American Fur Company hired Meldrum in 1833 to act as a liaison between the company and the Crow community in Montana. He was stationed at various American Fur Company trading posts and commercial forts along the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri Rivers including Fort Cass, Fort Alexander, Fort Sharpy, and Fort Sharpy II. At these posts, Northern Plains tribes brought various furs to be traded for guns, ammunition, clothing, beads, and other goods.

Meldrum also learned to speak the Apsáalooke language and served as an interpreter between the tribe and U.S. Government. The tribe conferred Meldrum the status of chief and gave him the name "Round Iron" because of the iron trinkets he gifted. Meldrum reportedly married several Apsáalooke women over the years, including Medicine Tree (Margaret), although very little was written about them.

On July 10, 1865, Meldrum died at the American Fur Company's Fort Union on the Upper Missouri River.
Related Materials:
The Montana Historical Society Photograph Archives also holds a photograph of Robert Meldrum.
Separated Materials:
The National Museum of the American Indian also holds other objects from Jirah Isham Allen's collection (object catalog numbers 147472 to 147486).
Provenance:
Formerly in the collection of Jirah Isham Allen (Colonel Ike Allen, 1839-1929, a Montana prospector, pioneer, and storekeeper) and probably collected by him between 1862 and about 1920; purchased by MAI from Jirah Allen in 1926.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Fur trade--Montana  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Tintypes of Robert Meldrum and Medicine Tree, P08166, NMAI.AC.386; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.386
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv49328c979-ed42-43f5-8cc3-6337ae2811ec
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-386
Online Media:

Thomas Henry Tibbles papers

Creator:
Tibbles, Thomas Henry, 1840-1928  Search this
Names:
Omaha World-Herald Company  Search this
Bryan, William Jennings, 1860-1925  Search this
Standing Bear, Ponca chief  Search this
Watson, Thomas E. (Thomas Edward), 1856-1922  Search this
Correspondent:
Crook, George, 1829-1890  Search this
La Flesche, Susette, 1854-1903  Search this
Extent:
2 Linear feet
41 Photographs
Culture:
Ponca  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Articles
Essays
Book drafts
Correspondence
Autobiographies
Date:
1850-1956
bulk 1875-1905
Scope and Contents:
The Thomas Henry Tibbles papers include documents that span Tibbles career as a journalist and lecturer on Indian rights from the 1870s until his death in 1928. Of particular note are the documents related to his work on the Standing Bear vs. George Crook Habeas Corpus trial. This includes articles, essays and talks written by Tibbles as well as copies of a lecture given by Susette LaFlesche Tibbles. Notable correspondents include; Robert Clarkson, Joseph Cook, General George Crook, Robert N. Price and William Jennings Bryan. Examples of materials related to the Ponca land case and Standing Bear trial include reports from the Ponca Relief commitee, a petition from the Ponca people, minutes from the Council Concerning Ponca Land Right and additional documents and writings sent out by Tibbles to gain support from both the church and politicians. Also included in these papers are several drafts of Buckskin and Blanket Days, Tibbles' autobiography that was written in 1905 and published in 1957. There is a significant amount of correspondence between Chester Barris, grandson to Tibbles, and publishing houses between 1939 and 1956 in the search for a willing publisher. There is also correspondence between Barris and his aunt Theadora "Dora" Cogswell who worked on editing the manuscript. Cogswell conducted a large amount of research on the historicity of the events described by Tibbles and her notes are included in the collection. The photographs in this collection include portraits of the Tibbles/LaFlesche family as well as portraits of freinds and aquaintances. These include photographs of Edward Everett Hale, General George Crook, Governor Benjamin Butluer, Wendall Phillips, Thomas Watson, William Jennings Bryan and Harriet Beecher Stowe.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into three series. Series 1: Subject Files and Series 2: Buckskin and Blanket Days are both arranged alphabetically. Series 3: Photographs is subdivided into three subseries; Subseries 3A: T.H. Tibbles Portaits, arranged chronologically, Subseries 3B: Family and Friends and Subseries 3C: Presentation Portraits to Bright Eyes, both arranged alphabetically.
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Henry Tibbles was born May 22, 1840, near Athens, Ohio to parents William and Martha (nee Cooley) Tibbles. In 1856, at the age of 16, Tibbles fought with anti-slavery Free-Staters in the Bleeding Kansas conflicts under James Henry Lane. Lane's troops disbanded the same year and Tibbles went on to study at Mt. Union College in Alliance, Ohio from 1858-1861. During the Civil War Tibbles served as a scout and newspaper correspondent in Missouri and Kansas and continued newspaper work until 1871 when he became a circuit preacher. Between 1874 and 1879, Tibbles worked on the staffs of various newspapers in Omaha, Nebraska eventually reaching the post of assistant editor of the Omaha Daily Herald. It was during his time at the Herald that Tibbles was instrumental in bringing the case of Standing Bear and the Ponca Indian people before the United States District Court at Fort Omaha. Standing Bear, along with thirty other Poncas, had returned to their home in Nebraska after being forcibly removed to Indian Territory 1878. They were being detained at the Omaha Reservation on an order from the Secretary of the Interior and Tibbles began to circulate the story of the plight of the Ponca to major newspapers gathering the support of the public. Eventually Tibbles had attorneys John L. Webster and A.J. Poppleton help Standing Bear petition the court with a writ of habeas corpus. On April 30, 1879 Judge Elmer Dundy declared that an Indian is a person within the law and that the Ponca were being held illegally, setting Standing Bear and the Ponca free. Following the trial, Tibbles continued to report on violations against Native American rights. Tibbles was a witness to the aftermath of the massacre of Native Americans at Wounded Knee in 1891, and reported this tragedy to the world. From 1893-1895, he worked as a newspaper correspondent in Washington D.C. On returning to Nebraska, Tibbles became editor-in-chief of The Independent, a weekly Populist Party newspaper. He was the Populist Party nominee for Vice President of the United States in 1904. Though unsuccessful in this campaign Tibbles continued to write on Populist issues as well as editing The Investigator from 1905-1910 and returning to the Omaha World Herald from 1910 to his retirement.

Tibbles had two children with his first wife, Amelia Owen whom he married in 1861. Eda, born in 1868 in Kansas City, married Herbert Bates in 1894 and May, born in 1870 in Danville Iowa, married Allen Barris in 1891. Amelia died of peritonitis in 1879. On June 29, 1882, Tibbles married Susette "Bright Eyes" LaFlesche (Omaha), daughter of Joseph "Iron Eye" LaFlesche. Susette LaFlesche worked closely alongside Tibbles during the Standing Bear's trial in her role as chief interpreter. Together, LaFlesche, Tibbles and Standing Bear carried out a successful lecture tour in England and Scotland in 1886-1887 speaking on issues of Indian rights. LaFlesche became well known as an eloquent writer and orator. Following her death in 1903 she was eulagized in the US Senate and was later inducted into the Nebraska Hall of Fame. Tibbles remarried for a final time in 1907 to Ida Belle Riddle. She remained by Tibbles side until his own death in 1928.

During his career, Tibbles wrote three books which included Ponca Chiefs (1880), which was written under the pen name "Zylyff", Hidden Power (1881) and The American Peasant (1892). Tibbles had also composed his memoirs titled Buckskin and Blanket Days which were eventually published in 1957 through the efforts of his grandson Chester Barris.
Related Materials note:
The dress of Susette "Bright Eyes" LaFlesche, wife to Tibbles, was also donated by Vivien Barris in 1984 and is a part of NMAI's Ethnology object collection. It has catalog number 25/2192.
Separated Materials:
The photographs have been moved to cool storage.
Provenance:
Thomas Henry Tibbles papers were originally donated to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation in 1960 by Vivien Barris, wife of Tibbles's grandson Chester Barris.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Habeas corpus -- United States -- Cases  Search this
Ponca Indians -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Essays
Book drafts
Correspondence
Autobiographies
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Thomas Henry Tibbles papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.066
See more items in:
Thomas Henry Tibbles papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4b4ba9f3c-13e7-4648-8b7c-fca4d07a9ecc
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-066
Online Media:

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