The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.
Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.
Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com).
This collection contains 23 photographic prints and one contact sheet (36 images) made by Frederick John Pratson for his book Land of the Four Directions, published in 1970. Photographs include images of Passamaquoddy community members in Indian Township, Maine as well as Maliseet community members of the Tobique First Nation and Mi'kmaq community members of Big Cove and Indian Island in New Brunswick, Canada.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes one contact sheet with 36 images and 23 photographic prints of varying sizes made for Frederick John Pratson's 1970 publication Land of the Four Directions. The images on the contact sheet were most likely shot on the Mi'kmaq First Nation on Indian Island in Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada. These include portraits of Mi'kmaq Chief Peter Barrow, along with several other unidentified men. A handful of these images include Pratson himself.
A large number of the photographic prints (silver gelatin) were shot in the late 1960s among the Passamaquoddy community in Maine and were identified in 2010 by Donald G. Soctomah, Historic Preservation Officer of the Passamaquoddy Tribe. Many of the photographs include images of children, many from the Dana family, going about their daily lives. The rest of the prints are listed as being photographed among Maliseet community members of the Tobique First Nation in New Brunswick, Canada and also include a large number of portraits of children, many of them still unidentified.
Born October 4, 1935 in Hartford Connecticut to John and Catherine Pratson, Frederick John Pratson was a historian and travel guide writer. After graduating from Boston College in 1957, he wrote for the travel section of the Boston Globe in addition to publishing a number of guidebooks which covered Canada and parts of the United States. In 1970, Pratson published Land of the Four Directions based on travels, photography and interviews among Passamaquoddy community members in Indian Township, Maine as well as Maliseet community members of the Tobique First Nation and Mi'kmaq community members of Big Cove and Indian Island in New Brunswick, Canada.
Pratson later returned to Indian Island Reservation in New Brunswick to interview Mi'kmaq (Micmac) Chief Peter Barlow in 1972. He also conducted interviews with William Jalbert, a lumberjack in Round Pond, Maine and with a group of Fisherman in East Dover, Nova Scotia. These interviews, done under the sponsorship of the New England-Atlantic Provinces-Quebec Center at the University of Maine (Orono) are now held in the Northeast Archives of Folklore and Oral History at the University of Maine.
Pratson died in December 1989, leaving a wife, four sons and two daughters.
MF 042 Frederick Pratson Collection located at the Northeast Archives of Folklore and Oral History, University of Maine.
Gift Frederick John Pratson, circa 1985.
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frederick John Pratson photographs from Land of the Four Directions, image #, NMAI.AC.341; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.