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Jacob Lawrence papers [microfilm]

Creator:
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Extent:
4 Microfilm reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Date:
1937-1992
Scope and Contents:
This microfilm collection documents the artistic and teaching career of African American painter Jacob Lawrence.

Included are biographical materials and awards; correspondence; writings and speeches by Lawrence, 1947-1962, and writings about Lawrence; photographs; scattered financial material, 1941-1957; and printed materials.

Correspondence dates from 1937-1971. Among the correspondents are: Ralph Abernathy, Charles Alston, Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, Claude Clark, Hy Cohen, Mildred Cummings, Terry Dintenfass, Inc., David Driskell, Fritz Eichenberg, Philip Evergood, Creighton Gilbert, Edith Gregor Halpert (Downtown Gallery), Langston Hughes, Raymond Patterson, Pratt Institute, Margaret Rigg, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Moses and Raphael Soyer, and the United States Committee for the First World Festival of Negro Arts, Inc. Photographs include personal photographs, 1939-1966, and photographs of art work, 1941-1949. Printed material consists of reproductions of work, brochures and course catalogs, programs and calendars, exhibition announcements and catalogs, posters, articles, and clippings.
Biographical / Historical:
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was an African American painter and educator in New York, New York and Seattle, Washington. Lawrence worked for the WPA's Federal Art Project and taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, Pratt Institute (1956-1971), Brandeis University (1965), The New School (1966), the Art Students League (1967), the University of Washington, and others. One of his most well-known works of art is the The Migration of the Negro (now known as The Migration Series), a 60-panel epic Lawrence created when he received a Rosenwald Fellowship in 1940.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming by Syracuse University Library, Special Collections, 1992. Among the three reels are papers that Lawrence lent to the Archives of American Art for microfilming in 1966 which he subsequently donated to Syracuse.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Rights:
Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Curator, Syracuse University Library, Special Collections. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.lawrjaco2
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lawrjaco2

Ruth Gikow papers

Creator:
Gikow, Ruth, 1915-1982  Search this
Names:
Drewes, Werner, 1899-1985  Search this
Fortess, Karl E. (Karl Eugene), 1907-1993  Search this
Gross, Chaim, 1904-1991  Search this
Hopper, Jo N. (Josephine Nivison), 1883-1968  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Levine, Jack, 1915-2010  Search this
Nordness, Lee  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Linear feet ((on 3 microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sound recordings
Date:
1933-1982
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material, letters, financial material, an interview transcript, notes, writings, a scrapbook, printed material, photographs, and an audio tape document Gikow's career as a painter of social commentary.
REEL D230: Exhibition catalogs, 1948-1965; a scrapbook containing a biographical account and clippings, 1937-1965; an undated photograph of Gikow; and 164 photographs of works of art.
REELS 4874-4875: Biographical accounts, 1959-1971; 7 passports, 1947-1972; letters, 1949-1981, from Gikow to critics and galleries, and from colleagues including Karl Fortess and Lee Nordness, and one letter each from Werner Drewes, Jo Hopper, and Raphael Soyer; a file concerning the Kent State Memorial Exhibition, 1971; receipts, 1951-1978; price lists, 1967-1980; a 3 p. interview transcript; an engagement calendar, 1971; miscellaneous notes and writings by Gikow and others; printed material, including clippings, 1947-1979; exhibition announcements and catalogs, 1940-1982; a book, History of the Jews in America, 1957, by Deborah Pessin, illustrated by Gikow; a book, Gikow, 1970, by Matthew Josephson, with reproductions of art works used in the book; and brochures; photographs of Gikow, her husband Jack Levine, her studio, artists, including Chaim Gross, Jacob Lawrence, and Raphael Soyer, and works of art; and an untranscribed reel-to-reel tape of an interview of Gikow conducted by Karl Fortess.
UNFILMED: Correspondence; photographs of Gikow and of her art work, including one of her demonstrating mural painting at the 1939 World's Fair; reproductions of her book and magazine illustrations; and a yearbook, 1933, from the Women's Art School at The Cooper-Union, where Gikow studied with John Steuart Curry. Also found are writings by Gikow including reminiscences about her life as an artist and as an artist's wife; address books; and exhibition announcements and catalogs.
Biographical / Historical:
Painter, mural painter, illustrator, serigrapher. Died 1982. Gikow was born in the Russian Ukraine, emigrating to New York City with her parents in 1920. She studied under John Steuart Curry at the Cooper Union Art School from 1932-1935. She also studied with Louis Ross, Louis Schanker and Raphael Soyer. After working as an assistant mural painter on the Federal Art Project, Gikow was awarded a commission to paint a mural for the Bronx Hospital. Her book illustrations include Crime and Punishment, and History of the Jews in America. Gikow was married to painter Jack Levine.
Provenance:
Material on D230 was lent by Gikow, 1965. Gikow and her husband Jack Levine donated the remainder in 1978 and 1983, which was microfilmed in 1994 with grants from the Henry and Lucy Moses Fund, the Lucius N. Littauer Foundation, the Samuel Bronfman Foundation, and the Louis and Anne Abrons Foundation. After microfilming, an addition to the collection was donated by Levine in May 1999. Papers of Jack Levine donated at the same time have been cataloged separately.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Muralists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Serigraphers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Social realism  Search this
Jewish artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Women painters  Search this
Women printmakers  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.gikoruth
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gikoruth

Jack Levine papers

Creator:
Levine, Jack, 1915-2010  Search this
Names:
American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters  Search this
Jewish Museum (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Barnet, Will, 1911-2012  Search this
Bloom, Hyman, 1913-  Search this
Bocour, Leonard, 1910-1993  Search this
Cadmus, Paul, 1904-1999  Search this
Close, Chuck, 1940-  Search this
Coen, Eleanor, 1916-  Search this
D'Harnoncourt, Rene, 1901-1968  Search this
Dobkin, Alexander, 1908-  Search this
Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997  Search this
Friedan, Betty  Search this
Gikow, Ruth, 1915-1982  Search this
Goodrich, Lloyd, 1897-1987  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Hirsch, Joseph, 1910-1981  Search this
Lasansky, Mauricio, 1914-  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Lee, Gypsy Rose, 1914-1970  Search this
Levine, David, 1926-2009  Search this
Paul VI, Pope, 1897-1978  Search this
Peterdi, Gabor  Search this
Probst, Joachim  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Simon, Sidney, 1917-  Search this
Sorini, Emiliano  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Terkel, Studs, 1912-2008  Search this
Tooker, George, 1920-2011  Search this
Updike, John  Search this
Weber, Max, 1881-1961  Search this
Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Aleksandrovich, 1933-  Search this
Extent:
3.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Student drawings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Drawings
Date:
1923-1999
Summary:
The papers of New York social realist painter and printmaker Jack Levine date from 1923-1999, and measure 3.2 linear feet. Levine's career is documented through biographical material, scattered letters, notes and a speech, writings, student drawings, three scrapbooks, printed material and nearly one linear foot of photographs of Levine, his family, and his colleagues.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York social realist painter and printmaker Jack Levine date from 1923-1999, and measure 3.2 linear feet. Levine's career is documented through biographical material, scattered letters, notes and a speech, writings, student drawings, three scrapbooks, printed material and nearly one linear foot of photographs of Levine, his family, and his colleagues.

Found within the papers are two driver's licenses and several biographical accounts, and scattered letters from colleagues including one each from John Taylor Arms, Hyman Bloom, Leonard Bocour, René d'Harnoncourt, Lloyd Goodrich, Jacob Lawrence, and Homer Saint-Gaudens discussing various art-related events. There is only one carbon copy of a letter written by Levine. The correspondence includes oversized photographs of the members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. Additional photographs of the members are found in the Photograph series.

Notes and writings are primarily typescripts about Jack Levine written by others. There is also a transcript of one speech, "Jack Levine Speaks Regarding the Donation of 108 of his Drawings to the Archives" delivered by Levine at the Fogg Art Museum.

Artwork consists entirely of Levine's student drawings including anatomical studies, neighborhood genre scenes, copies of Old Masters, and a series of images of symphony musicians. Some of the drawings display themes that are reflected in his later paintings.

Three scrapbooks contain clippings that document Levine's career and reflect his political interests. Additional printed material consists of a comprehensive collection of clippings and exhibition announcements and catalogs. There is also an announcement for a lecture by Levine, press releases, calendars of events, reproductions of artwork, programs, brochures including one for Facing East, a portfolio of Levine's prints, and three books.

Photographs include numerous photographs of Levine throughout his artistic career, including images of his wife, painter Ruth Gikow, their daughter Susanna, and colleagues including Hyman Bloom, Leonard Bocour, Alexander Dobkin, Joachim Probst, and Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko. Especially notable is a series of photographs of Levine printmaking with Emiliano Sorini and Ruth Gikow.

There are photographs of Levine serving on art juries and panels with Eleanor Coen, Joseph Hirsch, Gabor Peterdi, Studs Terkel, and Max Weber, and attending events with Lawrence Fleischman, Betty Friedan, Edith Halpert, Mauricio Lasansky, Gypsy Rose Lee, Pope Paul VI, and Raphael Soyer. A small album contains photographs of Levine and various buildings in Boston. There are also photographs of miscellaneous exhibition installations including Levine's retrospective at the Jewish Museum, and of artwork by Levine and others.

Group photographs of the members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters are found here, and include Will Barnet, Paul Cadmus, Chuck Close, David Levine, George Tooker, and John Updike. Additional group photographs of the members that were originally enclosed with letters are found in the correspondence series.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1953-1955 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Letters, 1946-1996 (Boxes 1, 5; 12 folders)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, 1961-1974 (Box 1; 6 folders)

Series 4: Artwork, 1923-1931 (Boxes 1, 5, OV 6; 11 folders)

Series 5: Scrapbooks, 1936-1962 (Boxes 1, 5; 16 folders)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1938-1999 (Boxes 1-3, 5, OV 6; 1.9 linear feet)

Series 7: Photographs, 1940-1998 (Boxes 3-5, OV 6; 52 folders)
Biographical / Historical:
Jack Levine (1915-2010) was born in Boston, Massachusetts and worked as painter and printmaker primarily in New York City. Levine was one of the leading painters and advocates of the Social Realism School of the late 1930s.

Jack Levine was the youngest of the eight children of Lithuanian Jewish parents, Mary Grinker and Samuel Levine. After the family moved from the South End of Boston to Roxbury in 1923, Levine began to study drawing under Harold Zimmerman at the School of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. By 1929, Levine was studying painting under Denman Ross of the Fogg Art Museum.

From 1935-1940, Levine received U.S. government support from the federal Works Progress Administration. His first exhibition of paintings in New York City was at the Museum of Modern Art. In 1937, he painted The Feast of Pure Reason, a satire of Boston political power. Together with Ben Shahn, Levine became a leading exponent of the Social Realism School of the late 1930s. His first one-man show was held at the Downtown Gallery in New York City in 1938.

After serving in the U.S. Army during World War II, Levine was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1945, and a grant from the American Academy of Arts and Letters the following year. Also in 1946, Levine married painter Ruth Gikow and moved to New York City. Between 1950 and 1951, he was a Fulbright Fellow working in Rome where he was inspired by Old Master paintings. In the 1960s Levine's interest in printmaking intensified and he was instructed in creating intaglio prints by Emiliano Sorini, and was introduced to Abe Lublin who was associated with the New York Graphic Society.

Levine taught at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the American Art School in New York, and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. His work is in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum, the Museum of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Fogg Art Museum. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters from 1956 on.

The D.C. Moore Gallery in New York City currently represents the Estate of Jack Levine.
Provenance:
Jack Levine donated his papers to the Archives in 1962, 1978, and 1999.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and limited to the Washington, D.C. Reference Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Social realism  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Boston  Search this
Jewish artists  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Printmakers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Student drawings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Drawings
Citation:
Jack Levine papers, 1923-1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.levijack
See more items in:
Jack Levine papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-levijack
Online Media:

Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers

Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Names:
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Bocour, Leonard, 1910-1993  Search this
Dintenfass, Terry, 1920-  Search this
Eichenberg, Fritz, 1901-1990  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Extent:
25.35 Linear feet
0.001 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Date:
1816
1914-2008
bulk 1973-2001
Summary:
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Biographical material includes appointment and address books; education and personal identification certificates and documents; awards, certificates, curriculum vitae, and chronologies; biographical material related to other individuals, including identification documents and memorial programs; and transcripts of interviews with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

The correspondence series includes extensive personal and professional correspondence with family, friends, artists, admirers (including students in a number of elementary and middle schools), university students, government agencies, art schools, galleries, museums, publishing houses, and others. Included in this series are condolence letters received by Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death in 2000.

Writings include published and unpublished writings by and about Jacob Lawrence, as well as writings by others. These writings include speeches, notes, essays, articles, lists, and short stories. Also included is a visitor comment book from the Los Angeles County Museum exhibition of Jacob Lawrence's Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass series.

Printed material includes books; brochures; business cards; clippings; exhibition and event announcements, invitations, catalogs, and programs; magazines; newsletters; posters; post cards; and press releases. Books in this collection may include illustrations by Jacob Lawrence or have personal inscriptions from the author to Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Photographs include photographs of Jacob Lawrence artwork, photographs and reproductions of Gwendolyn Knight artwork, and photographs of Jacob Lawrence, Gwendolyn Knight, and other individuals. Also included in this series are photographs and reproductions of work by others.

Personal business records include a ledger; consignment, financial, and shipping records related to the Terry Dintenfass Gallery; contracts and agreements; and estate documents.

Artwork includes sketches by Jacob Lawrence, a blank sketchbook inscribed by Jacob Lawrence to Gwendolyn Knight, and artwork by other artists.

Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project Records include materials generated by the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project, a non-profit created with the goal of producing a catalogue raisonné (and later, a digital archive) of Jacob Lawrence's work. These records include address books and phone logs; copies of Jacob Lawrence's CV; founding documents, bylaws, and meeting minutes; correspondence; writings, including draft pages of the catalogue raisonné; business records, including employment files, contracts, invoices, insurance, and tax information; printed and digital material; and photographs and artwork.

The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material series includes founding documents and foundation bylaws, correspondence, financial documents, reports, and proposals. Found within this series are materials related to the Lawrence Center for the Visual Arts, a subsidiary foundation of the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation.

Professional files include material related to projects and exhibitions, teaching files and inclusion in curricula, files regarding possible fake Jacob Lawrence works, and gallery files.

The honors series is divided into two subseries: awards and certificates, and government honors. Awards and certificates includes honorary degrees, arts prizes, and any other honors awarded to Jacob Lawrence or Gwendolyn Knight. Government honors include resolutions, proclamations, and keys to cities. Also included in this series are correspondence related to awards and honorary degrees, commencement programs, plaques, and medals.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 11 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1914-2005 (Boxes 1, 11, 26, OV 10; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1943, 1952-2005 (Boxes 1-5, 12-14, 26; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1954-1959, 1973-2005, undated (Boxes 5-6, 14-15; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1816, 1926, 1937, 1945-2008 (Boxes 6-9, 15-17, 26, OV 30, OV 31; 6.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1970-1997, undated (Boxes 9, 17, OV 10; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1962-2005 (Boxes 9, 17; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1984, 1990-1994, undated (Boxes 9, 18, 26; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonne Project Records, 1982-2002 (Boxes 18-23, Box 26; 5.1 linear feet, ER01; 0.001 GB)

Series 9: Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material, 1997-2005 (Box 23; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 10: Professional Files, 1964-2004 (Boxes 23-24; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 11: Honors, 1948, 1966-2005 (Boxes 24-25, 27-29, OV 30; 2.3 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Modernist painter and educator Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was born in 1917 as Jacob Armstead Lawrence in Atlantic City, New Jersey. He began his art studies at the Utopia Children's Center in New York City's Harlem district where he studied under the painter Charles Alston. Lawrence dropped out of high school at the age of sixteen to continue his art instruction with Alston, this time at the Harlem Art Workshop, where he met several artists associated with the Harlem Renaissance including the sculptor Augusta Savage.

Gwendolyn Knight (1913-2005) was born in Barbados and moved to New York City with her adoptive parents when she was seven. She attended New York's Wadleigh High School and later Howard University in Washington, D.C. where she studied fine arts with Lois Mailou Jones and James Porter. Forced to leave her studies at Howard because of the Depression, Knight returned to Harlem and continued her artistic pursuits in Augusta Savage's workshop. In 1935, Knight joined the Harlem Mural Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) working under Selma Day and Charles Alston. Lawrence and Knight met in Savage's workshop and married in the summer of 1941.

During the Depression, Lawrence also joined the WPA Federal Arts Project in Harlem. Finding WPA murals overwhelming, Lawrence concentrated on traditional painting instead. He produced his first major works in the late 1930s, most notably the Toussaint L'Ouverture series, images that document the life of the revolutionary hero and Haiti's struggle for independence. Other significant works include visual narratives of the lives of abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass. In 1940, Lawrence received the prestigious Julius Rosenwald Fellowship, which made it possible for him to purchase his first art studio on 125th Street in the heart of Harlem. He soon portrayed Harlem street life in paintings that became commentaries on the role of African Americans in United States society with highly developed themes of resistance and social opposition. That same year, Lawrence began his most celebrated series, The Migration of the American Negro, multiple tempera panels depicting the exodus of African American sharecroppers in the south to northern industrial cities in search of better employment and social opportunities. Edith Halpert exhibited the works in their entirety at her Downtown Gallery in 1941, establishing Lawrence as the first African American artist to exhibit in a top New York gallery. The following year, New York's Museum of Modern Art and the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC each bought half of the sixty panels in the series, helping to further Lawrence's career within the larger world of American art.

In the summer of 1946, the artist Joseph Albers invited Lawrence to teach at North Carolina's Black Mountain College. It was the first in a series of teaching positions in prestigious art schools including Pratt Institute (1956-1971), Brandeis University (1965), The New School (1966), the Art Students League (1967), and others. During the 1950s and 1960s, Lawrence's work continued to focus on racism and political activism but in the late 1960s shifted to themes of racial harmony.

Both Lawrence and Knight continued independent careers in art. Knight pursued her art studies at the New School in New York and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine. In the mid-1960s, she collaborated with other female artists to form the Studio Gallery in New York City. Knight's main body of work consists of portraits and still-lifes that incorporate expressions of African sculpture, Impressionism, dance, and theater. Focusing on gesture, her art is described as light and airy with a minimum of lines allowing empty space to define the work. In 1970, Lawrence traveled to Seattle to teach as a visiting artist at the University of Washington. He was hired on a permanent basis the following year and remained on staff until his retirement in 1986.

Jacob Lawrence died June 9, 2000, in Seattle, Washington at the age of 83. Gwendolyn Knight continued to paint and exhibit her work around the country until her death on February 18, 2005 in Seattle, Washington at the age of 92.
Related Material:
Also found at the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence conducted by Carroll Greene (1968 October 26), interviews conducted by Avis Berman (1982 July 20-August 4), and an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight conducted by Paul Karlstrom (1998 November 18). The Archives of American Art also holds a collection of Jacob Lawrence papers, available on microfilm only, reels D286 and 4571-4573. Originals reside at Syracuse University Library, Special Collections.
Provenance:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in five accretions between 1979 and 1997. Additional papers were donated in 2012 by the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation via Barbara Earl Thomas, representative.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Educators -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lawrjaco
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lawrjaco
Online Media:

Frederick Ballard Williams scrapbook, 1908-1915

Creator:
Williams, Frederick Ballard, 1871-1956  Search this
Williams, Frederick Ballard, 1871-1956  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Landscape painting  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5806
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208646
AAA_collcode_willfred
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208646

Philip von Saltza photographs, 1926-1939

Creator:
Von Saltza, Philip, 1885-  Search this
Von Saltza, Philip, 1885-  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Photographs  Search this
Theme:
Audio - Visual  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8542
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210720
AAA_collcode_vonsalt
Theme:
Audio - Visual
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210720

Gunvor Bull Teilman papers, 1921-1980

Creator:
Teilman, Gunvor Bull, 1900-  Search this
Teilman, Gunvor Bull, 1900-  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8585
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210764
AAA_collcode_teilgunv
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210764

John Wenger papers, 1922-1977

Creator:
Wenger, John, 1887-1976  Search this
Wenger, John, 1887-1976  Search this
Topic:
Theaters -- Stage-setting and scenery  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10109
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212995
AAA_collcode_wengjohn
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212995

E. Gordon West printed material, 1961-1983

Creator:
West, E. Gordon, 1933-  Search this
West, E. Gordon, 1933-  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Texas -- San Antonio  Search this
Watercolor painting -- 20th century -- Texas -- San Antonio  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10574
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214050
AAA_collcode_weste
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214050

Paul Brooks Willis papers, 1930-1978

Creator:
Willis, Paul Brooks, 1903-1981  Search this
Willis, Paul Brooks, 1903-1981  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New Mexico -- Santa Fe  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10579
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214055
AAA_collcode_willpaul
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214055

Dan Wingren papers, 1946-1981

Creator:
Wingren, Dan, 1923-  Search this
Wingren, Dan, 1923-  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching -- Texas -- Dallas  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Texas -- Dallas  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10598
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214074
AAA_collcode_wingdan
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214074

Harry Shoulberg papers, 1904-1983

Creator:
Shoulberg, Harry, 1903-1995  Search this
Shoulberg, Harry, 1903-1995  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5718
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208556
AAA_collcode_shouharr
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208556

Charles Paul Gruppe papers, 1903-1940

Creator:
Gruppe, Charles Paul, 1860-1940  Search this
Gruppe, Charles Paul, 1860-1940  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8292
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210463
AAA_collcode_grupchap
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210463

Dorothy Poulos papers, 1954-1979

Creator:
Poulos, Dorothy, 1912-  Search this
Poulos, Dorothy, 1912-  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- Texas -- Dallas  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8373
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210547
AAA_collcode_pouldoro
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210547

Arthur Schwieder papers, 1932-1962

Creator:
Schwieder, Arthur, 1884-1965  Search this
Schwieder, Arthur, 1884-1965  Search this
Subject:
Arthur Schwieder Group  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York -- History  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8624
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210804
AAA_collcode_schwarth
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210804

Samuel Salko papers, 1941-1962

Creator:
Salko, Samuel, 1888-1968  Search this
Salko, Samuel, 1888-1968  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8779
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210962
AAA_collcode_salksamu
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210962

Augustus Hamilton Peck papers, 1910-1976

Creator:
Peck, Augustus Hamilton, 1906-1975  Search this
Peck, Augustus Hamilton, 1906-1975  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- History  Search this
Graphic arts -- Vermont  Search this
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8809
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210994
AAA_collcode_peckaugu
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210994

Geri Pine and Nat Werner papers, 1936-1978

Creator:
Pine, Geri, 1914-  Search this
Werner, Nat, 1908-1991  Search this
Pine, Geri, 1914-  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Theme:
Women  Search this
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8840
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211025
AAA_collcode_pinegeri
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211025

Mordi Gassner papers, 1929-1981

Creator:
Gassner, Mordi, 1899-1995  Search this
Gassner, Mordi, 1899-1995  Search this
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8961
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211148
AAA_collcode_gassmord
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211148

Gordon Onslow-Ford papers, 1951-1978

Creator:
Onslow-Ford, Gordon, 1912-2003  Search this
Onslow-Ford, Gordon, 1912-2003  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9096
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211290
AAA_collcode_onslgord
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211290

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