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Mildred Constantine Papers

Creator:
Constantine, Mildred  Search this
Names:
Cleveland Museum of Art  Search this
Getty Conservation Institute  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.) -- Employees  Search this
Museum of New Mexico  Search this
Ohio State University  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Rhode Island School of Design  Search this
Abakanowicz, Magdalena  Search this
Albers, Anni  Search this
Barr, Alfred Hamilton, 1902-  Search this
Barragán, Luis, 1902-  Search this
Block, Lou, 1895-1969  Search this
Bourgeois, Louise, 1911-2010  Search this
Buic, Jagoda, 1930-  Search this
Burle Marx, Roberto, 1909-1994  Search this
Cohen, Elaine Lustig, 1927-  Search this
Coiner, Charles T., 1897-  Search this
Corzo, Miguel Angel  Search this
D'Harnoncourt, Anne, 1943-2008  Search this
Danto, Arthur Coleman, 1924-  Search this
Dehner, Dorothy, 1901-1994  Search this
Fitch, James Marston  Search this
Goeritz, Mathias, 1915-  Search this
Hart, Allen M., 1925-  Search this
Hicks, Sheila, 1934-  Search this
Koch, Richard H., d. 2009  Search this
Larsen, Jack Lenor  Search this
Lionni, Leo, 1910-  Search this
Reeves, Ruth, 1892-1966  Search this
Reuter, Laurel  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969 -- Photographs  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Ten Haeff, Ingeborg, 1915-  Search this
Vignelli, Massimo  Search this
Weisman, Donald M.  Search this
Wilder, Elizabeth, 1908-  Search this
Wilke, Ulfert, 1907-1987  Search this
Zeisler, Claire, 1903-1991  Search this
Extent:
5.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Illustrated letters
Transcripts
Video recordings
Interviews
Date:
1945-2008
Summary:
The papers of Mildred Constantine measure 5.3 linear feet and are dated 1945-2009. Subject files, writings, photographs, and a scrapbook provide an overview of her curatorial work in the Architecture and Design department of the Museum of Modern Art, and subsequent activities as an independent curator, and art consultant. Especially well documented is Whole Cloth, a book written with Laurel Reuter that presents an historical overview of how artists have used cloth in their work.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Mildred Constantine measure 5.3 linear feet and are dated 1945-2008. Subject files, writings, photographs, and a scrapbook provide an overview of her curatorial work in the Architecture and Design department of the Museum of Modern Art, and subsequent activities as an independent curator, and art consultant. Especially well documented is the book Whole Cloth that she wrote with Laurel Reuter.

Correspondence, though mostly business related, often touches on personal matters since many of the artists and art world figures with whom she corresponded were also friends. Correspondents include Miguel Angel Corzo, Arthur C. Danto, Dorothy Dehner, Allen Hart (who sent more than 40 illustrated letters), Elizabeth Wilder and Donald L. Weisman. She also corresponded with many art institutions and organizations, among them the Cleveland Museum of Art, Independent International Design Conference, El Museo del Barrio, Museum of New Mexico, Ohio State University, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Estate of David Smith.

Subject files reflect Constantine's activities and interests. A large portion of this series concerns Whole Cloth, a book written with Laurel Reuter that presents an historical look at how artists have used cloth in their work. Correspondence between the two authors, with artists, institutions, and others concerns researching and writing the volume. Also documented are the successes and failures of Constantine's decade long pursuit to publish the book. Other substantive files relate to the Cleveland Museum of Art, Getty Conservation Institute, Sheila Hicks, Jack Lenor Larsen, Rhode Island School of Design, and Soviet Film Posters. Files concerning the University of the Arts' 2003 Commencement include a videocassette.

Writings by Constantine are lecture material and notes. Also found are transcripts of interviews with Constantine and writings by others. Printed material includes newspaper and magazine articles about Constantine and her career. A scrapbook of printed material and photographs documents an exhibition of Latin American posters at the Library of Congress organized by Constantine.

Photographs of people include Mildred Constantine with family, friends, artists and others at public and private events around the world. Notable photographs include: Magdalena Abakanowicz, Anni Albers, Alfred Barr, Luis Barragan, Lou Block, Louise Bourgeois, Jagoda Buic, Elaine Lustig Cohen, Charles Coiner, James Marston Fitch, Mathias Goeritz, Ingeborg Ten Haeff, Ann d'Harnoncourt, Sheila Hicks, Richard Koch, Nancy Koenigsberg, Jack Lenor Larsen, Leo Lionni, Roberto Burle Marx, Ruth Reeves, Laurel Reuter, Eleanor Roosevelt, Ben Shahn, Massimo Vignelli, Ulfert Wilke, and Claire Zeisler. Also, there are photographs of artwork by a wide range of artists.
Arrangement:
The Mildred Constantine papers are organized into 8 series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1947-1997 (Boxes 1, 6; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1964-2008 (Boxes 1, 6; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 3: Subject Files, 1964-2008 (Boxes 2-5; 3.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings, 1991-2008 (Box 5; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1961-2006 (Box 5; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 6: Photographs, 1993 (Box 5; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1945 (Box 5; 1 folder)

Series 8: Scrapbook, circa 1940s (Box 6; 0.1 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Curator and writer Mildred Constantine (1913-2008) was associated with the Museum of Modern Art's Department of Architecture and Design from 1943 to 1971. She then became an art consultant and independent curator, and wrote on fiber and textiles, decorative arts, photography, caricature and cartoons.

Mildred Constantine (known as "Connie") began her career at College Art Association. Hired as a stenographer in 1930, she soon was promoted to editorial assistant for Parnassus, the forerunner of Art Journal.

Constantine left the College Art Association in 1937 to study at New York University and earned BA and MA degrees. She then continued her education at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In 1940, Constantine worked in the Office of Inter-American Affairs at the Library of Congress; it was there that she met René d'Harnoncourt.

Influenced by her 1936 travels in Mexico, Constantine's first curatorial effort was an exhibition of Latin American posters. Drawn from the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, the exhibition was held at the Library of Congress.

At the urging of René d'Harnoncourt, The Museum of Modern Art's Architecture and Design Department hired Constantine in 1943. The majority of her 28 year tenure at the museum was spent working with the department's founder, architect Philip Johnson. As a curator during the 1950s and 1960s, Constantine's innovative exhibitions brought lesser known portions of the museum's collection to public attention. Among her exhibtions were: "Words and Images," that focused on graphic design and posters; "Polio Posters," the first Museum of Modern Art show dedicated to social issues; "Olivetti: Design in Industry;" "Signs in the Street;" and "Lettering by Hand." She also published books on Art Nouveau, contemporary package design, and other subjects.

In 1971, Constantine left the Museum of Modern Art to become an independent curator and art consultant. Exhibitions included "Frontiers in Fiber: The Americans," and "Small Works in Fiber" with Jack Lenor Larsen. Tina Modotti: A Fragile Life, Constantine's book on the photographer, actress, model, and political activist, appeared in 1974. That same year, she and Alan Fern produced Revolutionary Soviet Film Posters that focused on works from the 1920s. Her last published work, Whole Cloth, was written with Laurel Reuter and published in 1997. Constantine continued to research and write, and at the time of her death was working on a large, international survey of the study of thread.

Mildred Constantine and Ralph W. Bettelheim (1909-1993) were married for 50 years. They had two daughters, Judith and Vicki.

Mildred Constantine died from heart failure on December 10, 2008, at home in Nyack, New York.
Related Material:
Oral history interviews with Mildred Constantine were conducted for the Archives of American Art by Harlan Phillips, 1965 October 15, and by Paul Cummings, 1976 May 3-1976 August 26.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the Archives in 2009 by Mildred Constantine's daughters, Judith Bettelheim and Vicki McDaniel.
Restrictions:
Use of origininal material requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art consultants -- New York -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Textile fabrics in art  Search this
Film posters, Russian  Search this
Women museum curators  Search this
Women authors  Search this
Women art historians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Illustrated letters
Transcripts
Video recordings
Interviews
Citation:
Mildred Constantine papers, 1945-2008. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.consmild
See more items in:
Mildred Constantine Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9ceec1503-7840-4279-b08d-1d44f625df3e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-consmild
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Joel Philip Myers

Topic:
Craft Horizons
Interviewee:
Myers, Joel Philip, 1934-  Search this
Interviewer:
Klein, Daniel, 1938-2009  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Alfred University -- Students  Search this
Blenko Glass Company  Search this
Donald Deskey Associates  Search this
Mint Museum of Art  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Parsons School of Design -- Students  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.) -- Faculty  Search this
Toledo Art Museum  Search this
University of California, Berkeley -- Students  Search this
University of Illinois. -- Faculty  Search this
World Crafts Council  Search this
Blenko, William H., 1921-2016  Search this
Dreisbach, Fritz  Search this
Huchthausen, David R. (David Richard), 1951-  Search this
Lewis, John, 1942-  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin, 1938-2016  Search this
Littleton, Harvey K.  Search this
Marquis, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Ness, Bob  Search this
Popelka, John  Search this
Randall, Theodore, 1914-1985  Search this
Smith, Paul J., 1931-  Search this
Vallien, Bertil, 1938-  Search this
Extent:
6 Items (Sound recording: 6 sound files (4 hr., 15 min.), digital, wav)
63 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Date:
2007 May 1
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Joel Philip Myers conducted 2007 May 1, by Daniel Klein, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in the artist's home, in Marietta, Pennsylvania.
Myers speaks of his childhood in Patterson, New Jersey; making charcoal drawings as a child and taking private courses in oil painting; choosing to pursue a career in advertising design; attending Parsons School of Design in New York City; working as a package designer for Donald Deskey Associates; being influenced by Scandinavian design he saw in New York City to study abroad in Denmark; studying ceramic design at Kunsthaandvaerkerskolen in Copenhagen; meeting and marrying his wife, Birthe, while in Copenhagen; returning to the United States and going back to work for Donald Deskey; attending Alfred University and receiving his B.F.A. and M.F.A. in ceramics; accepting the position director of design for Blenko Glass Company in Milton, West Virginia with no previous experience in glass; teaching himself how to blow glass in the factory alongside the workers; the intense heat and extreme noise of a glass factory; learning of Harvey Littleton's glass workshop in 1962 in Toledo, Ohio, but being unable to attend; having limited exposure to the glass movement and developing his glass art without knowledge of the work of Littleton and his students; designing 50 to 60 different vases, bowls, decanters, and decorative objects a year from 1963 - 1970 at Blenko Glass Company; creating sculptural glass forms in his penetration pieces for his masters thesis; learning of what was happening in the studio glass world by attending the World Craft Council in 1964 in New York City; Paul Smith discovering his work and thereby gaining some publicity in Craft Horizons; being invited by Littleton to give a workshop at the University of California, Berkeley in 1968; the initial shock of seeing glass sculpture made with no real technique; his early attraction to cold-work in order to work intimately with the surface of the glass; acquisition of his work by the Toledo Art Museum and the Mint Museum of Art in Charlotte, North Carolina; establishing a glass program at Illinois University in Bloomington-Normal; his attempts to recruit international students; taking a semester sabbatical in Baden, Austria; being heavily influenced by the natural world; the series Garden, Perfume Bottle, Contiguous Fragment, Dr. Zharkov, The Dialogues, and others; teaching at Pilchuck School of Glass; studying the First World War and consequently creating Musée des Beaux Arts [1996]; travels to Japan; his teaching philosophies; the prevalence of independent glass studios in the world today; and plans for the future. Myers recalls Ted Randall, William H. Blenko, Sr., William H. Blenko, Jr., Marvin Lipofsky, Fritz Dreisbach, Richard Marquis, John Lewis, Bob Ness, Bertil Vallien, David Huchthausen, John Popelka, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Joel Philip Myers (1934- ) is a glass artist from Milton, West Virginia. Daniel Klein (1938- ) is an art consultant from London, England.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound discs. Reformatted in 2010 as 6 digital wav files. Duration is 4 hr., 15 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Glass artists -- Pennsylvania  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching -- Philosophy  Search this
Ceramics -- Design  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching -- Denmark  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Glass blowing and working -- Study and teaching  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.myers07
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw99b1c7b6b-664e-416c-909a-ec509a02efd8
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-myers07
Online Media:

Oral history interview with June Schwarcz, 2001 January 21

Interviewee:
Schwarcz, June Therese, 1918-2015  Search this
Schwarcz, June Therese, 1918-2015  Search this
Interviewer:
Fisch, Arline M., 1931-  Search this
Subject:
Noguchi, Isamu  Search this
Brancusi, Constantin  Search this
Louis, Morris  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Letchzin, Stanley  Search this
Bellas Artes (Santa Fe, N.M.)  Search this
De Vera Gallery  Search this
Japonesque Gallery  Search this
Mobilia Gallery  Search this
Pratt Institute  Search this
Susan Cummins Gallery  Search this
Sybaris Gallery  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Enamel and enameling  Search this
Metal-workers -- California -- San Francisco -- Interviews  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Theme:
Craft  Search this
Women  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12744
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)227013
AAA_collcode_schwar01
Theme:
Craft
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_227013
Online Media:

Oral history interview with June Schwarcz

Interviewee:
Schwarcz, June, 1918-2015  Search this
Interviewer:
Fisch, Arline M.  Search this
Creator:
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Names:
Bellas Artes (Santa Fe, N.M.)  Search this
De Vera Gallery  Search this
Japonesque Gallery  Search this
Mobilia Gallery  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Pratt Institute  Search this
Susan Cummins Gallery  Search this
Sybaris Gallery  Search this
Brancusi, Constantin, 1876-1957  Search this
Letchzin, Stanley  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu, 1904-1988  Search this
Rothko, Mark, 1903-1970  Search this
Extent:
75 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2001 January 21
Scope and Contents:
An interview of June Schwarcz conducted 2001 January 21, by Arline M. Fisch, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Schwarcz's home and studio, Sausalito, California.
Schwarcz speaks of her family background; early interest in color and form; studies at Pratt Institute; working in as a package designer and free-lance designer for department stores such as Macy's in New York and Hochschild-Kohn in Baltimore; living in Chicago, Brazil, and Denver; learning about enamels from a group of "housewives" in Denver; reading Kenneth Bates's book [Enameling: Principles and Practice] "as if it were the Bible"; visiting America House and meeting Dominick Maillard; settling in Sausalito, California, in 1954; the comparison of natural erosion in streams and rocks to etched surfaces; sources of inspiration including fog, folk art, African art, ancient Chinese ceramics, the Japanese aesthetic, ethnic clothing and fabrics, pleats and folds, and works by Isamu Noguchi, Constantin Brancusi, Morris Louis, and Mark Rothko; the practice of working on several pieces at one time; the influence of two books, Santayana's "The Sense of Beauty" and Junichiro Tanizaki's "In Praise of Shadows;" her desire to "making things that are beautiful"; her husband's support and assistance with tools, materials, and techniques; the significance of various tools and equipment; developing forms through paper patterns; the body as vessel; color as "personality"; technical pitfalls of the enameling process; technical problems of electroplating; the 1974 World Craft Conference in which Stanley Letchzin presented his findings on electroforming; meeting Letchzin and comparing processes; the difficulties in selling work; the lack of an audience; teaching workshops at Arrowmont and Vail; aversion to teaching and commissions; relationships with Susan Cummins Gallery, Bellas Artes Gallery, Japonesque Gallery, De Vera Gallery, Sybaris Gallery, and Mobilia Gallery; travel to Europe and Japan; honors and awards; and interest in transparent enamels. Schwarcz also describes her use of basse taille, plique-à-jour, electroplating, electroforming, brush plating, raku, scotchbrite, and Mi-Tique (patina solutions). She also recalls development of each piece in her retrospective catalog, "June Schwarcz : forty years, forty pieces" (San Francisco Craft & Folk Art Museum, 1998) and concludes the interview by discussing five current pieces in progress.
Biographical / Historical:
June Schwarcz (1918-2015) was an enamaler from Sausalito, California. Arline M. Fisch (1931-) is a metalsmith from San Diego, California.
General:
Originally recorded as 4 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 7 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hr., 36 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Occupation:
Enamelers -- California  Search this
Topic:
Enamel and enameling  Search this
Metal-workers -- California -- San Francisco -- Interviews  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.schwar01
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9dd77b4e4-7c5b-46f4-ae5d-12d55f1b6dfb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-schwar01
Online Media:

Antonin Heythum papers, 1920-1959

Creator:
Heythum, Antonin, 1901-1954  Search this
Heythum, Antonin, 1901-1954  Search this
Subject:
Heythum, Charlotta  Search this
Hutchins, Robert Maynard  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Topic:
Industrial design  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Architecture & Design  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8798
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210982
AAA_collcode_heytanto
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Architecture & Design
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210982

Antonin Heythum papers

Creator:
Heythum, Antonin, 1901-1954  Search this
Names:
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Heythum, Charlotta, ca. 1900-  Search this
Hutchins, Robert Maynard, 1899-  Search this
Extent:
3.7 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1920-1959
Scope and Contents:
Primarily subject files containing letters, photographs, and printed material pertaining to various international expositions and Heythum's teaching activities.
Subject files containing letters, photographs, and printed material for the Industrial Design exposition, 1942-1948; International Exposition in Brno, Czechoslovakia, 1928; Paris Exposition, 1937; Swiss Exposition in Zurich, 1939; San Francisco Bay Exposition, 1939; New York World's Fair, 1937-1940; Cleveland International Exposition, 1941; and the International Exposition in Rome, 1942;
draft manuscripts for books by Heythum and his wife, Charlotta, DESIGN FOR USE and PACKAGING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS; typescripts, 1941-1942, of essays by Robert M. Hutchins, concerning education and World War II; teaching files containing letters, student reports, photographs, and printed material for the California Institute of Technology, 1942-1945, and Syracuse University, 1949-1958;
photographs, 1920-1936, of Czechoslovakian countryside, people, museums, and expositions; a typescript, "Industrial Design", by Donald Dohner; exhibition catalogs, 1931-1939, for the National Society of Mural Painters members' "portfolio"; Exposition Coloniale Internationale (Paris); Czech art at the American Fine Arts Building (New York); Exposition Internationale de la Technique de L'Eau; Danish Industrial Art; and United Scenic Artists; and miscellaneous display publications and industrial supply catalogs.
Other material includes; 6 undated drafts of letters; a letter, 1935, from Jacques Lambert concerning the Czechoslovakian pavilion at the Exposition de Bruxelles; and a postcard, 1939, from Czechoslovakia.
Biographical / Historical:
Industrial designer. Czechoslovakian born, Heythum received his degree in Architectural Engineering from the Prague Institute of Technology in 1934. Came to the United States in 1939 to survey the New York and San Francisco World's Fairs and research exhibition techniques. In 1941, Heythum was appointed to the California Institute of Technology to organize and direct the Industrial Design Department. He also taught Design at Columbia University and was a consultant to the firm of Norman Bel Geddes. From 1946 until his death, he was engaged by Syracuse University as head of Industrial Design.
Provenance:
Donated 1985 by Arthur Pulos, who succeeded Heythum as head of Industrial Design at Syracuse. Pulos received material in 1956 from Charlotte Heythum.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center.
Occupation:
Designers  Search this
Topic:
Industrial design  Search this
Function:
Exhibitions
Identifier:
AAA.heytanto
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9d4373047-56b4-4bb9-8482-2174a9c9e05d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-heytanto

Landor Design Collection

Creator:
Landor Associates  Search this
Landor, Walter  Search this
Names:
Mair, Francis M., 1916-1991 (commercial artist)  Search this
Extent:
146 Cubic Feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records
Personal papers
Videotapes
Interviews
Oral history
Date:
circa 1930-1994
Scope and Contents:
Collection documents the career of designer Walter Landor and the significant body of commercial imagery and packaging produced by Landor Associates design firm. Contains corporate and business records of Landor Associates, personal papers of Landor, oral history interviews, films, videotapes, and other audiovisual resources.
Arrangement:
Subgroup 1: Landor Associates Business Records

Series 1: Historical Background and Project Administrations Files

Series 2: Newsletter, 1978-84

Series 3: Scrapbooks

Series 4: Memoranda, 1956-1979

Series 5: News stories and Newsclippings

Series.6: Corporate Subject files

Series 7: Walter Landor reading files

Series 8: New Brochure

Series 9: International files

Series I0: Promo files

Series I 1: Conventions and seminars

Series 12: Awards

Series 13: Tours, presentations, parties

Series 14: Communication films (a Landor subsidiary)

Series 15: Client files

Series 16: The Ferryboat Klamath and the Museum of Packaging Antiquities

Subgroup 2: Walter Landor Papers

Series 17: Papers

Series 18: Trip files

Series 19: Speeches

Series 20: Corporate reference

SUBGROUP 3: Photographic and Other Audiovisual Materials

Series 2 1: Photographs

Series 22: Slides

Series 23: Publications

Series 24: Videos

Series 25: Films

Series 26: Speeches/interviews/discussion sessions on audiocassette

Series 27: Oversize materials

Subgroup 4: Landor Archives Project

Series 28: Associates files

Subseries 28.1: Lillian Sader

Subseries 28.2: Ed Scubic

Subseries 28.3: Other associates

Subseries 28.4: Audiovisual materials - client projects

Series 29: Oral History Interviews
Biographical / Historical:
Walter Landor, son of Jewish Bauhaus architect Fritz Landauer, came to the United States in 1938 with the design team for the British Pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City. He emigrated to the United States in 1941, launching a small design firm in San Francisco. Landor started out doing package design for a largely local and regional clientele (including many West Coast wineries and breweries), although he soon developed a client list that included some of the world's largest and most prestigious corporations. In addition to his own considerable design abilities, Landor had a gift for inspiring and organizing the creativity of a group of associates, and for developing lasting and productive relationships with his clients. The firm developed particular strength in its portfolio of airlines, financial institutions and consumer goods, and prided itself on a network of international clients. From the beginning, Landor linked design to research in consumer behavior, developing increasingly sophisticated methods for evaluating the effectiveness of his designs. This collection documents Walter Landor's remarkable career, the significant body of corporate identity, packaging and other commercial imagery produced by Landor Associates, and the interplay between industrial design and American consumer culture.
Provenance:
Personal papers donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Josephine Landor, widow of Walter Landor; business records donated to Archives Center in 1993 by Landor Associates.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
The Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions.,Reproduction permission from Archives Center: fees for commercial use.
Topic:
Design, Industrial  Search this
advertising  Search this
Industrial designers  Search this
Marketing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiovisual materials
Business letters
Business records -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 20th century
Videotapes
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history
Citation:
Landor Design Collection, ca. 1930-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0500
See more items in:
Landor Design Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0500
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Joel Philip Myers, 2007 May 1

Interviewee:
Myers, Joel Philip, 1934-  Search this
Myers, Joel Philip, 1934-  Search this
Interviewer:
Klein, Daniel, 1938-2009  Search this
Subject:
Blenko, William H.  Search this
Dreisbach, Fritz  Search this
Huchthausen, David R. (David Richard)  Search this
Lewis, John  Search this
Lipofsky, Marvin  Search this
Littleton, Harvey K.  Search this
Marquis, Richard  Search this
Ness, Bob  Search this
Popelka, John  Search this
Randall, Theodore  Search this
Smith, Paul J.  Search this
Vallien, Bertil  Search this
Alfred University  Search this
Blenko Glass Company  Search this
Donald Deskey Associates  Search this
Mint Museum of Art  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Parsons School of Design  Search this
Pilchuck Glass Center (Stanwood, Wash.)  Search this
Toledo Art Museum  Search this
University of California, Berkeley  Search this
University of Illinois.  Search this
World Crafts Council  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Place:
Japan -- Description and Travel
Topic:
Craft Horizons  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- Philosophy  Search this
Ceramics -- Design  Search this
Ceramics -- Study and teaching -- Denmark  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Glass blowing and working -- Study and teaching  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Theme:
Craft  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13605
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)270854
AAA_collcode_myers07
Theme:
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_270854
Online Media:

Jacques Seligmann & Co. records, 1904-1978, bulk 1913-1974

Creator:
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Subject:
Hauke, Cesar M. de (Cesar Mange)  Search this
Glaenzer, Eugene  Search this
Haardt, Georges  Search this
Seligman, Germain  Search this
Seligmann, Arnold  Search this
Parker, Theresa D.  Search this
Waegen, Rolf Hans  Search this
Trevor, Clyfford  Search this
Seligmann, René  Search this
Seligmann, Jacques  Search this
De Hauke & Co., Inc.  Search this
Jacques Seligmann & Co  Search this
Eugene Glaenzer & Co.  Search this
Germain Seligmann & Co.  Search this
Gersel  Search this
Type:
Gallery records
Topic:
Mackay, Clarence Hungerford, 1874-1938 -- Art collections  Search this
Schiff, Mortimer L. -- Art collections  Search this
Arenberg, duc d' -- Art collections  Search this
Liechtenstein, House of -- Art collections  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- France -- Paris  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
La Fresnaye, Roger de, 1885-1925  Search this
Art, Renaissance  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Art treasures in war  Search this
Art, European  Search this
Theme:
Art Market  Search this
Art Gallery Records  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9936
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212486
AAA_collcode_jacqself
Theme:
Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212486
3 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
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Online Media:

Alvin Lustig papers, 1935-1955

Creator:
Lustig, Alvin, 1915-1955  Search this
Lustig, Alvin, 1915-1955  Search this
Subject:
Langsner, Jules  Search this
Topic:
Graphic arts -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Theme:
Lives of American Artists  Search this
Architecture & Design  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7932
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210100
AAA_collcode_lustalvi
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Architecture & Design
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210100

Alvin Lustig papers

Creator:
Lustig, Alvin, 1915-1955  Search this
Names:
Langsner, Jules, 1911-1967  Search this
Extent:
4.8 Linear feet ((1,200 items partially microfilmed on 3 reels))
1 Item (1 rolled doc.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1935-1955
Scope and Contents:
Biographical material; correspondence; writings; graphic designs; sketches; clippings; and photographs.
Reel 323: biographical material, including a biographical sketch by Jules Langsner; correspondence, personal and professional, 1949-55; receipts for works sold; notes and articles on design by Lustig; original design layouts of trademarks, magazine covers, paricularly LOOK magazine, book jackets, record covers, girl scout pamphlets, advertisements, and stationery.
Reel 324: sketchbook of Lustig's designs; architectural drawings; magazine and newspaper clippings; and miscellaneous materials.
Reel 421: photographs of Lustig including two taken by Maya Deren, 1944 (one copyprint microfilmed on reel 1817, fr. 786), of his fabric designs, graphic designs, furniture designs (including some marginal notes), sculpture, helicopter designs, and packaging designs; pictures of the Beverly Landau building and the Beverly Carlton Hotel in Los Angeles; office interiors designed by Lustig; and photographs of Rath House, 1948.
Unmicrofilmed material: books whose jackets Lustig designed.
Biographical / Historical:
Graphic, architectural, and book designer, New York. Studied briefly with Frank Lloyd Wright, but was primarily self taught.
Provenance:
The donor, Elaine Lustig Cohen, is Lustig's widow.
Restrictions:
Microfilmed portion: Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Unmicrofilmed portion: use requires an appointment.
Occupation:
Designers  Search this
Graphic artists  Search this
Topic:
Graphic arts -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Architectural design  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.lustalvi
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw978089af5-2dd1-4f4a-b7dd-399e5eb44d83
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lustalvi

Abril Lamarque papers

Creator:
Lamarque, Abril, 1904-1999  Search this
Names:
Abril Lamarque Creations  Search this
Art Directors Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bacardí Corporation (Puerto Rico)  Search this
Dell Publishing Company  Search this
International Brotherhood of Magicians  Search this
Iowa State University  Search this
National Press Club (U.S.)  Search this
New York Daily News (Firm)  Search this
New York Times  Search this
Oklahoma State University  Search this
Society of American Magicians  Search this
Society of Illustrators (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
United States. Department of State  Search this
University Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
García Cabral, Ernesto, 1890-1968  Search this
Hoffmaster, Paul  Search this
Kozlowski, Karol, 1885-1969  Search this
Lamarque, Juan Abril  Search this
Lamarque, Milagros Abril  Search this
Massaguer, Conrado Walter, 1889-1965  Search this
Portell-Vilá, Herminio, 1901-1992  Search this
Riverón, Enrique  Search this
Extent:
6.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Caricatures
Sketches
Illustrations
Illustrated letters
Drawings
Photographs
Date:
1883-2001
bulk 1904-1999
Summary:
The papers of Cuban born cartoonist, caricaturist, graphic designer, illustrator, and art director Abril Lamarque papers date from 1883-2001, with the bulk of the material ranging from 1904-1999, and measure 6.8 linear feet. His papers contain biographical material; correspondence; writings; files on the many seminars and workshop he taught; scattered financial records; files concerning his business Abril Lamarque Creations; subject files; clippings; printed illustrations of his comics, designs, illustrations, and other work; seven scrapbooks; two sketchbooks, sketches and drawings by him, and artwork by others, including his sister, his brother, Paul Hoffmaster, Enrique Riverón, and H. Portell Vilá; and photographs and negatives depicting Lamarque, Lamarque at work, Lamarque's magic shows, examples of advertising, and friends and colleagues.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Cuban born cartoonist, caricaturist, graphic designer, illustrator, and art director Abril Lamarque papers date from 1883-2001, with the bulk of the material ranging from 1904-1999, and measure 6.8 linear feet. His papers contain biographical material; correspondence; writings; files on the many seminars and workshops he taught; scattered financial records; files concerning his business Abril Lamarque Creations; subject files; clippings; printed illustrations of his comics, designs, illustrations, and other work; seven scrapbooks; two sketchbooks, sketches and drawings by him, and others, including his sister, his brother, Paul Hoffmaster, Enrique Riverón, and H. Portell Vilá; and photographs and negatives depicting Lamarque, Lamarque at work, Lamarque's magic shows, examples of advertising, and friends and colleagues.

Biographical materials include of materials related to Abril Lamarque's many professional and personal associations, including the Art Directors Club, the International Brotherhood of Magicians, the National Press Club, the New York University Club, the Society of American Magicians, and the Society of Illustrators. Material types include membership cards, documents, event posters, and yearbooks. Also included are some personal documents, information on Abril Lamarque and his family, Lamarque's collection of humorous business cards, and eulogies written about Lamarque.

Correspondence is generally scattered, but includes letters to and from illustrators and artists including Ernesto Garcia Cabral, Paul Hoffmaster, Conrado Massaguer, and Lamarque's brother, Juan Abril Lamarque. Some letters are illustrated. Also included is business correspondence, subjects and correspondents including the Dell Publishing Company, the New York Times, and correspondence related to workshops and lectures, including his work at Iowa State University and Oklahoma State University.

Writings chiefly document Lamarque's career in graphic and publication design, and consist of articles, an unpublished draft on publication design, manuals, and book reviews. Also included are scripts for magic shows performed by Lamarque. Writings by others are present, and include limericks written about Lamarque by friends and an autobiography of Lamarque's wife, Milagros Abril Lamarque.

The Workshops series consists of advertisements, press releases, handbooks, publication design layout examples, and other materials related to Lamarque's career in teaching publication design workshops and seminars. Also present within the collection are various financial materials. Abril Lamarque Creations materials document Lamarque's design firm, active 1940-1941, which focused on the design and manufacture of modern decorative accessories for the home, such as serving trays, cigarette holders and jewelry. Photographs, drawings, and advertisements in this series document the product design and sales.

The collection includes several subject files concerning the Bacardi Company, the Dell Publishing Company, and Cuban caricaturist and publisher Conrado Massaguer. Files on Massaguer include illustrations, posters, magazines, clippings, and articles. The Subject Files also include materials collected about Mexican caricaturist Ernesto García, self-taught Polish painter Karol Kozlowski, and several other illustrators and political figures of interest to Lamarque.

Printed materials make up the bulk of the collection. Found are numerous examples of his design work for the New York World-Telegram and Evening Mail, the New York Daily News, the New York Times, US News-World Report, Dell Publishing Company, and others; as well as cartoons, caricatures, and illustrations by Lamarque. Clippings of the comic strip Monguito and editions of the Havana newspaper Lunes de Diario de Cuba are present. Printed material also includes posters, including Lamarque's designs for the "Aluminum for Britain" project, which he was asked to discontinue by the U.S. State Department. Also found in this collection are graphic design and illustration clippings collected by Lamarque.

Also found within the collection are seven scrapbooks containing clippings and articles, illustrations, scattered letters, photographs, invitations, artwork, and other materials detailing Lamarque's extensive artistic career and his amateur magic performances.

Original artwork includes drawings, sketches, prints, and design by-products by Abril Lamarque. Artwork by Lamarque includes silkscreens of dictators; drawings and printing plates for Monguito comics; page banners for Film Fun and other publications; and design paste-ups. Artwork created by others found within the series includes caricatures of Lamarque, sketches by Juan Abril Lamarque, and prints by Paul Hoffmaster.

Photographs included in the collection document Abril Lamarque's life and career, and show Lamarque with friends and colleagues, and performing as an amateur magician for both children and adult audiences.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eleven series.

Missing Title

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1917-2001 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1, OV 12)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1990 (0.5 linear feet; Box 1, OV 12)

Series 3: Writings, 1925-1981 (0.3 linear feet; Box 2, OV 13)

Series 4: Workshops, circa 1940-circa 1985 (0.4 linear feet; Box 2, OV 13)

Series 5: Financial Records, 1924-1989 (4 folders; Box 2)

Series 6: Abril Lamarque Creations, circa 1940-circa 1945 (6 folders; Box 2, OV 13)

Series 7: Subject Files, 1905-1996 (0.5 linear feet; Box 4, OV 14)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1883-1989 (1.5 linear feet; Box 3, 4, 6, and 11, OV 15-17)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1920-1959 (1 linear foot; Boxes 7-9, OV 10)

Series 10: Original Artwork, circa 1914-1988 (0.5 linear feet; Box 4, OV 18)

Series 11: Photographic Material, circa 1920-circa 1985 (0.5 linear feet; Box 5, OV 19)
Biographical Note:
Eduardo Abril Lamarque (1904-1999) was a Cuban born cartoonist, caricaturist, graphic designer, illustrator, and art director who worked primarily in New York City.

Eduardo Abril Lamarque was born in Cuba on August 28, 1904. His parents sent him to the United States in 1916 when he was twelve to study English and business administration. He lived with an American family in Brooklyn. At age 15, Lamarque's first cartoon was published in the Boy Scout section of the New York World-Telegram and Evening Mail. Four years later he created Bla-Bla, a comic strip that appeared regularly in the New York Daily News. He is credited with creating, in the early 1920s, the first Spanish language comic strip that was not translated from English. The title cartoon character, Monguito, was a hapless soul, fully dressed in business suit and hat, who kept getting into sticky situations. Lamarque produced hundreds of these strips which were picked up by the New York based United Feature Syndicate and published daily in Spanish language newspapers throughout Latin America and the United States.

When he was twenty, Lamarque returned to Cuba to work as the artistic director for the Havana newspaper Lunes de Diario de Cuba. He also published a booklet designed to teach the elements of caricature drawing. Lamarque returned to New York and was hired by the New York World Telegram and Evening Mail as a caricaturist. He produced political cartoons and caricatures for the paper, introducing his "radiocatures", which involved providing instructions on the radio for filling in a grid in the newspaper to produce a caricature of well-known figure in the news.

In 1927, at the age of 23, he became the first art director of Dell Publishing Company - a magazine empire that included Film Fun, I Confess, War Stories, Modern Screen, Popular Song, Spotlight, Radio Stars, Theatrical Page, Ballyhoo, and Modern Romances. He continued working there for 14 years.

In 1940-1941, Lamarque established Abril Lamarque Creations, a design firm that specialized in elegant and functional household objects and jewelry in a modernist tradition. His signature piece was the Pallettray, a serving tray modeled after an artist's palette and hand-finished in exotic woods.

Between 1941 and 1946, Lamarque became the first art director for the Sunday edition of the New York Times and redesigned the New York Times Magazine and the New York Times Book Review. Throughout his career, Lamarque designed and redesigned countless magazines and journals, including American Weekly, New York News, Metropolitan Life, Popular Science, This Week, US News-World Report, and others.

In 1948, Lamarque established a successful graphic design studio in New York that provided a full spectrum of design services, including annual reports, posters, product labeling, corporate publications, advertising, logos, package designs, and brochures. His clients included Barcardi Company, Con Edison, Ericcson Telephone, General Cable, Berlitz School, Lipton, Monsanto, and numerous magazines. In 1958, he was given the National Award for Graphic Design in packaging. His design for the annual American Red Cross poster was selected for the 1948 national Red Cross campaign.

His success and high demand as a publication art director, consultant, and designer was attributed to innovative design principles he based on the German Bauhaus School and its philosophy that promoted functional design principles. Lamarque reduced these principles to a set of guidelines suitable for page design and applied them successfully to a wide variety of publication and print layouts.

Lamarque's teaching experience began in the early 1940s with seminars and workshops he conducted for the publishing industry. He joined the faculty of New York University School of Continuing Education in 1958, where he taught until 1963, and later joined the Crowell Collier Institute and taught publication design workshops across the United States and Canada. He also gave workshops and courses at Oklahoma State School of Journalism.

Lamarque was a long-time member of the Society of Illustrators, Society of Art Directors, the Dutch Treat Club, National Press Club, and New York University Club. He was also an amateur magician and member of the Society of American Magicians. He performed magic acts for the annual Christmas party of the Society of Illustrators. Abril Lamarque died in 1999 at the age of 94.
Provenance:
Martha Lamarque Sarno and Lita M. Elvers assembled and donated their father's papers to the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, in 2001.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Cartoonists  Search this
Design -- Study and teaching  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Caricatures and cartoons  Search this
Designers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Magicians -- United States  Search this
Latino and Latin American artists  Search this
Art directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Graphic arts  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Caricatures
Sketches
Illustrations
Illustrated letters
Drawings
Photographs
Citation:
Abril Lamarque papers, 1883-2001, bulk 1904-1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lamaabri
See more items in:
Abril Lamarque papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw9f56b27c8-8cc8-4e01-a34d-8a8e2b95a136
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lamaabri
Online Media:

International Salt Company Records

Creator:
International Salt Company  Search this
Costain, Harold Haliday  Search this
Rittase, William M., 1894-1968  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet (11 boxes, 1 oversize folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Transparencies
Time books
Scrapbooks
Cashbooks
Annual reports
Ledgers (account books)
Financial records
Patents
Letters
Newsletters
Date:
1881-1993
bulk 1920-1929
Summary:
The collection contains business records and photographic materials documenting the International Salt Company. The business records include correspondence, account and ledger books, a payroll book, patent and trademark information, print advertising and marketing materials, and a salesman salt display kit. The photographic materials include a series of photographs by William M. Rittase, a series of photographs by Harold Haliday Costain, a small photograph album, snapshots, and slides. The images cover all facets of the salt manufacturing and packaging operations, and include photographs taken in New York State, Michigan, and Louisiana.
Scope and Contents:
The collection contains business records and photographic materials documenting the International Salt Company. The business records include correspondence, account and ledger books, a payroll book, patent and trademark information, print advertising and marketing materials, and a salesman salt display kit. The photographic materials include a series of photographs by William M. Rittase, a series of photographs by Harold Haliday Costain, a small photograph album, snapshots, and slides. The images cover all facets of the salt manufacturing and packaging operations, and include photographs taken in New York State, Michigan, and Louisiana.

The scrapbooks contain advertisements for the International Salt Company's Sterling Salt label and other leading salt companies, especially Morton's. Much of the ephemera consists of labels, but there are also small pamphlet cookbooks. The cookbooks, prepared and marketed by various salt companies, tout recipes for tasty dishes using specific salts and expound upon the merits of salt in general, especially the medical benefits. Other clever salt-related advertising appears in conjunction with maps, buttons, song books, calendars, and health exercises.

Series 1, Business Records, 1894-1937, consists primarily of financial materials--ledgers, cash books, monthly statements, timekeeping and payroll information--for the Avery Rock Salt Mining Company (A.R.S.M.Co.), Detroit Rock Salt Company, Detroit Salt Company, International Salt Company, and the Restof Mining Company. Additionally, there is one annual report for the International Salt Company (1957) and the newsletter Saltmaker, 1964.

There are two A.R.S.M.Co. ledgers, 1898-1907 and 1907-1922. The first ledger, 1898-1907, predates the founding of the International Salt Company, and it is likely that A.R.S.M.Co was absorbed by International Salt during a merger. Documentation recorded including inventories, merchandise, labor, surplus, insurance, office expenses, legal expenses, taxes, bills receivable, directors' committee fees, fuel, candles, oil, waste and packing, rental, repairs and maintenance, interest, labor, feed, outside salary account, Cuban consignment account, and loan account. Specific persons, such as superintendents F. Rundio and Sidney Bradford, are mentioned and specific companies including Restof Mining, Joy Morton Company, Havana Mill, G. Lawton Childs & Company, International Salt of New York and various others (pages 193-212), are listed with expenses.

The Detroit Salt Company (general ledger), 1911-1913, consists of one bound volume documenting the company's assets, liabilities, expenses, earnings, advance accounts, and old accounts.

Detroit Rock Salt Company (cash record), 1912 October-1913 January, consists of one bound volume documenting cash received and cash disbursed.

International Salt Company, Inc., Independent Salt Company Division (monthly statements), 1933 October-1937 December, consists of one bound volume of general ledger trial balance sheets organized chronologically. Detailed documentation includes general expenses, assets, capital assets, liabilities, special reserves, net worth, profit and loss statements, warehousing costs and tonnage purchased.

Restof Mining Company (time and payroll), 1894 July 1-1895 March 31, consists of one bound volume of 400 pages, documenting the time and payroll for employees. The volume contains the name of the employee, the number of days worked, hourly wage earned per day, the amount earned, advances, board due, store (supplies due), rent, and any balances due. A portion of the volume is severely water-damaged.

Series 2, Trademarks, 1881-1935, consists of copies of issued trademark declarations from the United States Patent Office. The trademarks are for company names, logos, salt containers and packages, and various salt products. The trademarks are arranged alphabetically by the name of the trademark. For example, Amaessa, a trademark for baking powder and salt is filed with other trademarks beginning with the letter "A." Additional materials consist of one file folder of correspondence and printed materials about patents, trademarks and copyright laws. The correspondence relates specifically to the ownership of certain trademarks by International Salt Company, and there is correspondence from John L. Ryon, assistant sales manager and W.T. Chisolm, vice-president of International Salt Company. There are compiled lists of brand names, trademarks, and package designs for which International Salt registered at the United States Patent Office, 1926-1927. There are two examples of small cloth bags branded with "Ideal Salt" and some packaging, such as "White Lily High Grade Salt" and labels such as "Purex Free Running Table Salt." The Peter J.L. Searing trademark for salt (No. 52,963) and Chicago Sawed Salt-Block Company (No. 15,174) provide examples of ethnic imagery. A trademark is a brand name. A trademark or service mark includes any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination used or intended to be used to identify and distinguish the goods/services of one seller or provider from those of others, and to indicate the source of the goods/services. Although federal registration of a mark is not mandatory, it has several advantages, including notice to the public of the registrant's claim of ownership of the mark, legal presumption of ownership nationwide, and exclusive right to use the mark on or in connection with the goods/services listed in the registration.

Series 3, Photographs, 1934-1993, is divided into five subseries: Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, 1934; Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934; Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993; Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s; and Subseries 5, Album (unidentified), undated.

Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, circa 1934, consists of three photographs (approximately 10 1/2" x 13") black-and-white prints mounted to 16" x 20" boards. The prints are numbered #6, #42, and #44 and depict a salt mine and equipment used in salt manufacturing located in Avery Island, Louisiana.

Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934, consists of black-and-white prints (10" x 14") signed by Ritasse which are mounted on 18 1/2" x 20" boards. The photographs are arranged numerically from #350 to #480. Many of the photographs are captioned. American photographer William Rittase (1887-1968), active in the 1920s-1930s, is known for his industrial photography. Rittase's images provide insight into International Salt Company activities such as salt manufacturing, packaging operations, general factory processes, printing salt bags, can labeling, brine storage, exteriors of buildings, crushing salt, men in the salt mines, machine shop views, and equipment.

Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993, consists of black-and-white and color prints, as well as transparencies depicting salt mines and related activities. Some of the photographs document a visit by International Salt Company executives to the Jefferson Island, Louisiana salt plant.

Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s, consists of seventeen color slides documenting salt plants, equipment and salt miners.

Subseries 5, Album (damaged mine), undated, consists of twenty-two 4" x 6 1/2" black-and-white photographs documenting the damage to a salt manufacturing plant. The photographs are captioned, but there is no indication of the geographic location of the salt plant.

Series 4, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1920-1948, consists of two scrapbooks (14" x 17" and 11" x 16") that contain primarily tear sheets, unbound periodical pages showing an advertisement as printed, or as a proof, newspaper clippings, magazine clippings, correspondence, pamphlets, price lists, recipes, labels, periodicals, and other ephemera.

The scrapbook, 1920-1931, consists primarily of advertisements and newspaper clippings related to advertising salt products, especially for Morton's Salt and Diamond Crystal Salt. Other companies represented include Colonial Salt Company, Carey Salt Company, Jefferson Island Salt Company, Kerr Salt Company, Mulkey Salt Company, Myles Salt Company, Ohio Salt Company, Pennsylvania Salt Manufacturing Company, Remington Salt Company, Star Salt Corporation, Union Salt Company, Worcester Salt Company, and Watkins Salt Company.

The scrapbook from 1945-1948 is devoted to advertisements for the International Salt Company and Sterling Salt, which promoted salt uses for the home (table salt, curing meats, and brines), industry (rock salt for winter weather) and agriculture (killing weeds). Many of the advertisements were part of the "Pass the Salt" campaign and were featured in publications such as Woman's Day, National Provisioner, Food Industries, Hide, Leather and Shoes, Chemical Previews, and Public Works. The scrapbook is divided into three sections: institutional, weed prevention, and Lixate, a process developed by the International Salt Research Laboratory for making brine. Many of the advertisements were prepared by J.M. Mathes Incorporated.

Also included is a traveling salt kit for Sterling Salt Company salesmen, undated, featuring small glass vials of sterling salt from mines in Detroit, Avery Island, Louisiana, and Restof, New York. Each vial notes the types of salts--purified, softener, iodized, medium flake, coarse flake, granular flour, and meat.

Series 5, Posters, circa 1920s, consists of oversize advertising posters for Worcester Salt Company. There is one set of labels from an exhibit titled "I Eat Rocks! Salt of the Earth."
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1, Business Records, 1894-1937

Series 2, Trademarks, 1881-1935

Series 3, Photographs, 1934-1993

Subseries 1, Harold Haliday Costain, circa 1934

Subseries 2, William Ritasse, circa 1934

Subseries 3, Loose Photographs, 1969-1993

Subseries 4, Slides, circa 1970s

Subseries 5, Album (damaged mine), undated

Series 4, Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1920-1948

Series 5, Posters, circa 1920s
Biographical / Historical:
The International Salt Company incorporated on August 22, 1901, and in 1902, the company purchased the stock and assets of the National Salt Company, which had failed. By 1934, International Salt was a holding company for six subsidiaries: Avery Salt Company (West Virginia), Detroit Rock Salt Company (Michigan), Eastern Salt Company (Massachusetts), Independent Salt Company (New York), International Salt Company, Inc. (New York), and Retsof Mining Company (New York). All of the subsidiaries operated rock salt mines and evaporated salt plants and distributed salt. In 1940, the International Salt Company decided to sell four of its subsidiaries--Avery Salt Company, Detroit Rock Salt Company, International Salt Company, Inc., and Retsof Mining Company.

John M. Avery discovered rock salt at Petite Anse, Louisiana in 1862. Petite Anse Island was renamed Avery Island in the late 19th century. Ownership and mining of salt at Petite Anse involved numerous parties until 1886, when New Iberia Salt Company took over operations. In 1896, the Avery family began operating the mine, and they founded the Avery Rock Salt Mining Company. In 1899, the International Salt Company leased the mine.

The Detroit Salt and Manufacturing Company was founded in 1906. The company quickly went bankrupt during construction of a shaft and was acquired in 1910 by the Watkins Salt Company, which incorporated the new organization under the name Detroit Rock Salt Company. The company experienced success and the International Salt Company purchased the mine circa 1914. In 1983, International Salt closed the mine's operations and in 1985, Crystal Mines, Inc., purchased the mine as a potential storage site.

In 1885 the Empire Salt Company of New York was renamed the Retsof Mine Company, and the Village of Retsof was founded near the mine shaft. During the next 110 years, the mine grew to become the largest salt-producing mine in the United States and the second largest in the world. Before the initial collapse in March 1994, the mine encompassed an underground area of more than 6,000 acres, and the mine footprint (outer edge of mined area) extended over an area of nearly ten square miles. At the time of the collapse, the Retsof Mine was owned by Akzo-Nobel Salt Incorporated (ANSI) and, during the winter of 1993--994 operated at full capacity to meet demands for road salt throughout the northeastern United States. The Retsof Mine ceased operations on September 2, 1995, and by December, twenty-one months after the initial collapse, the mine was completely flooded.
Related Materials:
Materials held at the Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, National Museum of American History

Trade catalogs from International Salt Company Inc., 1900s

Materials held at Other Organizations

Harvard University Archives

Ritasse, William M., 1894-1968. Photographs of Hardvard University campus and environs taken by William M. Ritasse, circa 1930.

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs

Avery Rock Salt Mining Company, Plan. June 16, 1924 (AKZO No. 7-77-02) - Avery Island Salt Works, Akzo Salt Incorporated, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

Salt Mine Village, Salt Workers' Houses No. 6, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

Avery Island Sugarhouse, Avery Island, Iberia Parish, LA

State Library of Louisiana

Historic Photograph Collection contains images of salt mining at Avery Island, Louisiana.

University of North Carolina, Southern Historical Collection at the Louis Round Wilson Library

Papers for the Avery Family of Louisiana, 1796-1951
Provenance:
Tom Maeder donated the collection on June 13, 2009.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Salt  Search this
Salt workers  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- Michigan  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- New York  Search this
Salt industry and trade  Search this
Salt mines and mining -- Louisiana  Search this
advertising  Search this
Industrial photography -- 1990-2000 -- Texas  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- Louisiana  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- New York  Search this
Mines and mineral resources -- Michigan  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Slides (photographs) -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Transparencies
Time books
Scrapbooks
Cashbooks
Annual reports
Ledgers (account books)
Financial records
Patents
Letters
Newsletters
Citation:
International Salt Company Records, 1881-1993, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1158
See more items in:
International Salt Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fb5589f8-c9ba-4e1d-ac7d-1ce2b4585c34
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1158
Online Media:

Donald Deskey collection

Creator:
Deskey, Donald, 1894-  Search this
Names:
Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company  Search this
Centre de recherche en économie et statistique (Paris, France)  Search this
Charak Furniture Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Deskey Associates, Inc.  Search this
Deskey-Vollmer, Inc.  Search this
Donald Deskey Associates, Inc.  Search this
Johnson & Johnson, Inc.  Search this
New York World's Fair (1939-1940 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Procter & Gamble Company  Search this
Radio City Music Hall (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Widdicomb Furniture Company  Search this
Deskey, Donald, 1894-  Search this
Extent:
75 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Proposals
Labels
Clippings
Renderings
Slides
Stationery
Letters patent
Financial records
Photographs
Drawings
Client lists
Correspondence
Organizational charts
Reviews
Patents
Lantern slides
Technical reports
Date:
1927-1989
Summary:
Project files containmagazine and newspaper clippings, reviews, correspondence, renderings, floor plans, perspective drawings, site plans, sketches, preliminary drawings, patents, stationery, labels, and technical reports. There is an extensive collection of photographs and slides of many of Deskey's packaging designs, interiors, furnishings, and exhibition installations. The files of Donald Deskey Associates include organizational charts, client files, proposals, and financial records. Some of Deskey's personal correspondence, speeches, articles, and family photographs are included. Materials cover the period from 1927-1975.
Arrangement note:
Arranged into six records groups: 1) architecture/interiors projects; 2)Donald Deskey Associates; 3) industrial design projects; 4) reference; 5) Donald Deskey's personal papers; and 6) photographs. A special collection of more than one thousand slides of Deskey's work are boxed separately.
Biographical/Historical note:
Industrial, interior, and packaging designer. Born Blue Earth, Minnesota, November 23, 1894. By 1943, he had established Donald Deskey Associates in New York. Along with Dreyfuss, Bel Geddes, and Loewy, Deskey was one of the great industrial design pioneers in the 1930s.

He is best known for his designs for the furnishings and interiors of Radio City Music Hall in 1932, and for his work for companies such as: Widdicomb Furniture Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan; W & J Sloane, New York; and Estey Manufacturing Company, Owosso, Michigan. Deskey is also known for his familiar packaging designs for Procter & Gamble products, such as Crest toothpaste, Prell shampoo, and Tide detergent.

Donald Deskey Associates also was responsible for lamppost #10, the streetlight still in use today in New York City. Materials from this archival collection were featured in Cooper-Hewitt's 1994 exhibition and accompanying book, "Packaging the New: Design and the American Consumer, 1925- 1975."
Location of Other Archival Materials Note:
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Drawings and Prints Department. Approximately 3,000 drawings for furniture and textile designs.
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Applied Arts Department. Two tables, handles, and a glass bottle and box designed by Deskey.
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Textiles Department. One textile designed by Deskey.
Other sources of archival information on Deskey include, the Procter & Gamble Archive, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Deskey Associates, New York City.
Provenance:
The Deskey collection was donated to the museum in three installments.

In 1975, Deskey deposited at Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum,, hundreds of drawings, 3 four-drawer file cabinets of material, and several oversized packages comprising the bulk of his papers covering the period from 1927-1965. These items were officially donated to the museum in 1988.

In 1992, Deskey Associates of New York made an additional gift consisting of, approximately 1,000 35mm slides that documented projects from the 1960s through 1980s, and focused primarily on designs for packaging.

In 1994, Donald Deskey's nephew, Robert Deskey presented the Museum with, 120 postcards, letters, and family photographs.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use onsite by appointment. Permission of staff required to photograph materials.
Occupation:
Packaging designers -- United States  Search this
Interior designers -- United States  Search this
Industrial designers -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Street lighting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Buildings, Prefabricated -- United States  Search this
Plastics -- Design  Search this
Interior decoration -- United States -- 20th century  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Furniture design -- United States  Search this
Art deco -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Proposals
Labels
Clippings
Renderings
Slides
Stationery
Letters patent
Financial records
Photographs
Drawings
Client lists
Correspondence
Organizational charts
Reviews
Patents
Lantern slides
Technical reports
Identifier:
SIL-CH.1975-11-77
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sc2dc69717a-7af5-4385-91a8-73b28e077a18
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-ch-1975-11-77

Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection

Topic:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation
Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum -- Exhibitions  Search this
Extent:
13.38 Cubic feet (11 legal document boxes, 1 shoe box (5 x 8 inches), 6 records center boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1917-2000
bulk 1981-1986
Summary:
This collection consists of background material collected in support of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" (opened in 1982) and its companion book (published 1983) by curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano, a related symposium, educational materials, and a travelling version of the exhibit. The collection contains photographs and textual materials used in the exhibit and book, internal correspondence and memoranda, and a large amount of material gathered for research purposes but not used in any "Black Wings" production.
Scope and Contents:
The core of the collection covers activities of American Black aviators between 1917 and 1981, from Eugene Bullard's service as a pilot in World War I through the first Black astronauts assigned to the Space Shuttle program in the early 1980s. Curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano and other Museum staff collected and generally grouped materials to fit the four chronological sections of the "Black Wings" exhibit and related book, with a strong emphasis on the stories of individual people.

Headwinds (1917-1939) covers pioneer fliers such as Bullard and Bessie Coleman; Black aviation activities in the Chicago and Los Angeles areas; early aviators and organizers including William J. Powell, Willa Brown, and Cornelius Coffey; and long distance flights by James Herman Banning and Thomas C. Allen, and C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson and Dr. Albert E. Forsythe.

Flight Lines (1939-1945) includes the 1939 flight of Dale L. White and Chauncey E. Spencer to Washington, D.C.; the Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPT); the start of training of Black military pilots at Tuskegee Army Air Field during World War II; and training of the all-Black 477th Bombardment Group. This section and the next include U.S. Army Air Force documents and photography, and materials obtained from individual Tuskegee Airmen.

Wings for War (1943-1945) covers the experiences of the men of the 99th Fighter Squadron and later the 322nd Fighter Group, all-Black fighter units which participated in the Allied campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy during World War II, and their commander, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Era of Change (1945-1981), including many materials from the U.S. armed forces and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), covers the desegregation of the armed forces; military pilots' participation in the Korean and Vietnam wars (featuring William Earl Brown, Jr.; Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr.; Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.); general aviation (John W. Green, Jr.; Neal Loving); commercial aviation (Perry H. Young, Jr.; James O. Plinton, Jr.); and the U.S. space program, including not just the first Black astronauts (Guion S. Bluford, Jr.; Ronald E. McNair; Frederick D. Gregory; Charles F. Bolden) but many other NASA professional men and women from Project Mercury through the beginning of the Space Shuttle era.

Most of the material was photocopied from other sources such as books, newspapers, periodicals, and other archival collections, but many copy photographs and anecdotes were obtained from the aviators themselves (or their families), particularly those active in the 1930s and 1940s. The collection also contains internal Museum documents, notes, and memoranda regarding the development and implementation of the various "Black Wings" productions, including portions of exhibit scripts, book manuscripts, ephemera, and Museum photography taken at the exhibit opening and the symposium. Photographic formats include prints, copy prints, 4 x 5 inch black and white copy negatives and color transparencies, and 35mm copy slides. Quality of the photography is often fair to poor, as the copies are several generations removed from the original images.

The last six boxes of the collection (currently unprocessed) consists of material collected circa 2000 by curator Cathleen S. Lewis and Ian Cook (NASM Department of Space History) for a proposed update to the "Black Wings" exhibit. After it became clear that the exhibit was not going to be updated, Lewis transferred the material to the NASM Aeronautics Department, as Hardesty and Pisano were contemplating an update to the Black Wings book. This, too, failed to materialize, and the material was transferred to the NASM Archives in May 2018 to be added to the existing Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection. This series was received by the Museum's Archives Division after the existing collection material had been scanned; it has not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series. The first four roughly chronological series (Exhibit, Book, Educational Outreach, and Symposium) relate to the different "Black Wings" productions, and materials within each series often reflect the four-section groupings detailed in the Scope and Content note. The next series, Research Materials, has four sub-series: Biographical Files (alphabetical by last name), Subject Files and Study Materials (alphabetical by subject), Photographic Negatives, and Photographic Prints and Illustrations. The last series houses later additions to the collection which are currently unprocessed. Materials within folders are predominantly photocopies (xerographs) and often include numerous duplicates, many unlabeled, and in no specific order. Materials relating to an exhibit often include a NASM Exhibits Department reference number (example: SE:13-L73-P58 to P59) indicating the exhibit number (13), label number (L73), and position within the exhibit (P58 to P59). Some materials are not visible online due to copyright restrictions.
Biographical / Historical:
On September 23, 1982, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" opened as part of the existing "Pioneers of Aviation" exhibit located in Gallery 208 of the museum's National Mall Building in Washington, D.C. The exhibit was dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. "Black Wings" encompasses the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both civilian, military, and commercial circles. The exhibit generated much public and media interest, and inspired the Museum to sponsor a symposium on February 25, 1983, entitled "The American Black in Aviation, A Decade of Change: 1939-1949," (working title: "Tuskegee Airmen at War") featuring presentations by historians and U. S. Army Air Forces veterans including Noel F. Parrish (Commander, Tuskegee Army Air Field, 1942-1946), George F. Roberts (Commander, 99th Fighter Squadron, September 1943 to April 1944), and pilots Lewis A. Jackson, Elwood T. Driver, and Louis R. Purnell. In conjunction with the exhibit, the Museum, working with Sid Aaronson Films, Inc., produced a set of sound filmstrip packages designed for elementary and secondary school use. In 1983, the Smithsonian Institution Press published a companion book, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, authored by the exhibit's curators, Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano; a second edition was issued the following year as part of the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight series. A Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES) version of the exhibit began circulating to other museums and venues in June 1983, and a expanded version of the SITES exhibit (featuring additional artifacts, photography, and audio-visual materials) was displayed April 1 to August 5, 1984, at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (later know as the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum) in Washington, D.C. The original NASM "Black Wings" exhibit—with occasional updates—remained on display in the "Pioneers of Flight" gallery (later renamed the "Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery") until 2019 when the gallery was closed due to renovations to the Museum's National Mall Building.
Related Materials:
"Black Wings: African American Pioneer Aviators" NASM Website Collection, NASM.2004.0026 [finding aid not available online]
Provenance:
National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Department of Aeronautics, Transfer, 1993, NASM.1993.0060; additional material transferred from NASM Department of Space History, 2018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
aeronautics, civil  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American women air pilots  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Astronauts  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
United States Air Force  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks -- United States  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Vietnam War  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg27c62d0c6-784f-4db6-9a31-26160b8635a1
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0060
Online Media:

Raymond Loewy papers

Creator:
Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986  Search this
Names:
American Society of Industrial Designers  Search this
Coca-Cola Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Exxon Corporation  Search this
Gestetner Duplicating Machine Company  Search this
Hallicrafter  Search this
Hupp Motor Company  Search this
International Business Machines Corporation  Search this
Raymond Loewy Associates  Search this
Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc.  Search this
Sears, Roebuck and Co.  Search this
Shell Oil Company  Search this
Studebaker Corporation  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc.  Search this
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986  Search this
Snaith, William, 1908-1974  Search this
Extent:
3 Boxes (2 letter sized boxes, 1 legal sized box.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Press releases
Speeches
Photographs
Date:
[mid-1940s-early 1960s]
Summary:
This collection spans the period from the mid-1940s to the early-1960s and consists ofnewspaper and magazine articles by and about Loewy, including the 1949 TIME magazine on which he appeared on the cover. Extensive clippings exist pertaining to his designs for automobiles. Also includes many articles and speeches written by and about William Snaith, a partner in the firm which was renamed Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. in 1961. A catalog from the exhibition, "Ten Automobiles," which took place at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1953, is included. Other materials include brochures printed and designed by the firm, press releases, a listing of projects, honors, and membership. Some photographs of Loewy and his design team are included. The collection does not contain any original design materials or project files.
Arrangement note:
Unprocessed.
Biographical/Historical note:
Industrial Designer. Born Paris, France, November 8, 1893, Loewy initially studied electrical engineering, and by 1909, he has designed and sold a successful airplane model. He immigrated to the United States in 1919 and became a naturalized citizen in 1938. Loewy began working as a freelance window display designer for Macy's and Saks Fifth Avenue, and as an illustrator for Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and others, from 1919.

He designed the trademark for Neiman-Marcus in 1923. Loewy is identified as one of the founding fathers of industrial design. In 1929, he started Raymond Loewy Associates in New York, and by 1947, he appeared on the cover of TIME magazine. Loewy's designs always stressed the importance of the clean, functional, dynamic design of products. His schooling in electrical engineering translated into his designs for automobiles, trains, airplanes, ships, and spacecraft for NASA. He also designed interiors for many hotels, offices, and supermarkets. He is best known for his designs for the 1947 Studebaker Starlight Coupe; the 1953 Starliner Coupe; the 1961 Avanti; the 1947 line of Hallicrafter radio recievers; the 1929 Gestetner duplicating machine; the 1934 Sears Coldspot refrigerator; and the S-I steam locomotive for the Pennsylvania Railroad.

He also designed logos for Exxon and Shell oil companies, and bottles and refrigerated vending machines for Coca Cola. He became President of the American Society of Industrial Designers in 1946. Loewy established Compagnie de l'Esthetique Industrielle in Paris in 1952. His work has been featured in many exhibitions, including: "An Exhibition for Modern Living", Detroit Institute of Arts, 1949; "The Designs of Raymond Loewy", Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1975; and "The Machine Age in America", Brooklyn Museum, 1986, among others. He authored, "The Locomotive: Its Esthetics", 1937; "Never Leave Well Enough Alone", 1951; and "Industrial Design", 1979. In 1961, Loewy went into semi-retirement, became partners with William Snaith, and renamed the company Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. Loewy died in Monte Carlo, July 14, 1986.
Location of Other Archival Materials Note:
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. The Raymond Loewy Collection. Drawings, blueprints, sketches, phtographs, slides, and audio and video recordings, covering the period from 1929-1988.
Canadian Center for Architecture, Special Collections. Vertical file docmenting Loewy's work.
Provenance:
The materials in this collection were donated to Cooper-Hewitt by Betty Reese, Loewy's publicist.
Restrictions:
Unprocessed; access is limited. Permission of Library Director required for use.
Occupation:
Industrial designers  Search this
Interior designers  Search this
Packaging designers  Search this
Topic:
Radio -- Receivers and reception -- Design and construction  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Interior decoration -- United States  Search this
Automobiles -- Design and construction  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Supermarkets -- Design  Search this
Coldspot refrigerator  Search this
Transportation -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Press releases
Speeches
Photographs
Identifier:
SIL-CH.XXXX-0001
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sc2e29ec5f7-bae5-442b-bab5-6535771b849c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-ch-xxxx-0001

Ladislav Sutnar collection

Creator:
Sutnar, Ladislav  Search this
Names:
Addo-X Business Machines  Search this
Bauhaus -- Influence  Search this
Carr's Department Stores  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
J.C. Penny Co.  Search this
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.  Search this
Printex Corporation  Search this
RCA Corporation  Search this
Sweet's Catalog Service  Search this
Vera (Company)  Search this
Sutnar, Ladislav  Search this
Extent:
85 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Layouts
Brochures
Correspondence
Sketches
Sales catalogs
Photographs
Date:
1927-1976
Summary:
Material relates to Sutnar's career including exhibitions, designs for corporate clients, designs for books on packaging design and catalog information. Little office correspondence and personal information is provided.The major part of the collection consists of Sutnar's designs, including logos, letterheads, catalogs, and advertising campaigns for a large number of clients, notably Addo-X, Carr's Department Stores, JC Penney, RCA, and Vera, as well as product and catalog design for Sweet's Catalog Service. Also included are drafts of books, sketches, over 5,000 photographs, photoprints, and photonegatives. Other materials include clippings, page layouts, brochures and booklets about package design and magazine layouts.
Arrangement note:
Arranged by client account and by material size. A picture reference file is boxed separately.
Biographical/Historical note:
Graphic, display, and industrial designer. Born Pilsen, Austro- Hungary (now Plzen, Czech Republic), 9 November 1897. Sutnar immigrated to the United States in 1939. He was inspired by the Bauhaus and was an advocate for a constructivist and functional approach in graphic design stressing simplicity, order, and precision. He was the art editor of the Prague publishing house, "Druzstevni Prace." Sitmar was head designer for the Czech pavilion at 1939 New York World's Fair.

He served as art director for Sweet's Catalog Service from 1941 to 1960. Due to his belief that designers need to be capable of working in many fields of design, Sutnar established his own "full-service" firm in New York City in 1951. He developed a new typography called "information graphics". He was author of "Design for Point of Sale", 1952, "Package Design: The Force of Selling", 1953, and "Visual Design in Action", 1961. Sutnar also created corporate image products for McGraw-Hill and Printex. Died 1976.
Location of Other Archival Materials Note:
Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, Drawings and Prints Department.Seven posters, one magazine cover, two designs for glassware, and some duplicates of the archival material.
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Applied Arts Department. One ceramic coffee service, one glass tea service.
Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C.Business and personal correspondence, biographical data, sketches, photographs, clippings, and other print miscellany, circa 1927-1976.
Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y.Approximately 215 items dating from 1940 to 1970 include printed samples of Sutnar's designs for periodical covers, advertisements, catalogs, books, displays, and posters.
Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities, Special Collections, Los Angeles, C.A.Papers relating to Sutnar's designs and exhibitions, 1928-1969.
Provenance:
The Sutnar Papers were donated to Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, in 1977 by Radoslav L. Sutnar and Citislav Sutnar.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use onsite by appointment. Permission of staff required to photograph material.
Topic:
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Letterheads -- Design  Search this
Graphic arts -- United States  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Glassware -- Czech Republic -- Bohemia  Search this
Porcelain -- Czech Republic  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Graphic arts -- Czech Republic  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements
Layouts
Brochures
Correspondence
Sketches
Sales catalogs
Photographs
Identifier:
SIL-CH.2001-26-1
Archival Repository:
Smithsonian Libraries
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sc24bdec8cb-8083-4b6f-9928-6bf3813f1e2a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-sil-ch-2001-26-1

Dan Friedman Papers

Creator:
Friedman, Dan, 1945-1995  Search this
Names:
Allgemeie Gewerbeschule  Search this
Anspach Grossman Portugal, Inc.  Search this
Bergdorf Goodman (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Bonwit Teller & Co.  Search this
Citibank (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Gran Fury  Search this
Hochschule für Gestaltung (Ulm, Germany)  Search this
Jeffrey Deitch Art Advisory Services  Search this
National Public Radio (U.S.)  Search this
Neotu (Gallery)  Search this
Pentagram Design  Search this
State University of New York at Purchase  Search this
WilliWear (Firm)  Search this
Yale University  Search this
Deitch, Jeffrey  Search this
Haring, Keith  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Stationery
Clippings
Statistics
Correspondence
Photographs
Lecture notes
Speeches
Sketches
Slides
Brochures
Mechanicals
Transparencies
Financial records
Articles
Date:
1967 - 1995
Scope and Contents:
General correspondence files contain all communications that do not pertain to a specific project. Because Friedman's personal life and business were so interconnected, many of his business associates also shared personal correspondence with the designer.,Materials in this collection document Friedman's work from 1967, as a student, until his death in 1995.

Files that document his affiliations with Yale University and the State University of New York at Purchase include administrative memos, proposals, lecture outlines, syllabi, bibliographies, examples of students' work, and design projects Friedman did for each school. A copy of the goals and objectives of the Division of Visual Arts within the School of the Arts at SUNY Purchase written by Friedman is included.

Project files include business correspondence, invoices, sketches, contracts, clippings, photographs, and slides. In the case of his graphic projects, some samples of stationery and brochures are included. Extensive documentation exists for Friedman's projects for Citibank, WilliWear, National Public Radio, and Bonwit Teller. Some correspondence is in German. Friedman's lecture notes, proposals for articles and books, and drafts of many articles are included. Clippings of articles on the designer and his work are arranged chronologically.

Research files consist of articles and Friedman's notes on topics of interest to him, such as typography, structure, simultaneity, and information theory. Photographs, slides, and transparencies of many of Friedman's projects, his sources of inspiration, and the work of his students are included.
Arrangement:
Record Groups include:

1: General Correspondence

2: University Affiliations

3: Project Files

4: Lectures and Writings

5: Clippings

6: Research Materials

7: Photographs and Slides
Biographical / Historical:
Educator, graphic and furniture designer. Born in Cleveland, Ohio, 1945. Friedman recieved a BFA from Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburg, PA. He studied graphic design at Hochschule fur Gestaltung, Ulm, and studied with Armin Hofmann and Wolfgang Weingart at Allgemeine Gewerbeschule, Basel. Friedman returned to America in 1969 and began his career as graphic designer for large corporations.

He worked with the firm Anspach Grossman Portugal as a senior designer from 1975 to 1977. Friedman contributed significantly to what came to be known as "post-modern" or "new wave" typography in the 1970s. He taught graphic design at Yale University, 1970-73. He became Assistant Professor and Chairman of the Board of Study in Design at the State University of New York at Purchase, 1972-1975. Friedman designed catalogs and brochures for both universities. Friedman worked with Pentagram Design in New York City from 1979 to 1984. He designed corporate identity programs, posters, publications, packaging, letterheads, and logos, for clients such as Citibank, and Williwear.

Friedman was a long-time friend of artist Keith Haring, and designed the book, "Keith Haring", 1982. He was the author of "Dan Friedman: Radical Modernism", 1994, and co-authored with Jeffrey Deitch, "Cultural Geometry", 1988, and "Artificial Nature", 1990. He designed the books "New Italian Design", 1990, and "Post Human", 1992. He also designed furniture, lighting, screens, wall elements, and interiors. Many of his furniture designs were done especially for Galerie Noetu in Paris. Among his best known furniture designs are the 1989 Virgin Screen, 1989 Zoid sofa and chair, and the Three Mile Island lamps.

Friedman served as the Frank Stanton Professor of Graphic Design at the Cooper Union in New York city, from 1994 until his death in 1995.
Related Materials:
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Drawings and Prints Department

Hundreds of designs for letterheads, logos, business cards, invitations, greeting cards, furniture, lighting, screens, office interiors, shoppings bags and gift boxes, calendars, packaging, weather pattern diagrams and maps, book covers, and posters

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Applied Arts Department

"U.S.A." table and dome-shaped floor lamp.,.

Friedman's work can be found in the collections of the following museums: Museum of Modern Art, New York City; Museum of Decorative Arts, Montreal, Canada; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Seibu, Tokyo; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, VA; and Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the museum by the designer's brother, Ken Friedman in 1995.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Graphic designers  Search this
Packaging designers  Search this
Topic:
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Design education -- United States  Search this
Graphic arts -- United States  Search this
Furniture design -- United States  Search this
Signs and symbols -- Design  Search this
Letterheads -- Design  Search this
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Printing  Search this
Postmodernism -- United States  Search this
Posters -- Design  Search this
Book design -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stationery
Clippings
Statistics
Correspondence
Photographs -- 20th century
Lecture notes
Speeches
Sketches
Slides
Brochures
Mechanicals
Transparencies
Financial records
Articles
Citation:
Dan Friedman Papers, 1967-1995, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1277
See more items in:
Dan Friedman Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c9370065-18f4-4795-a44a-a44bdc444b6b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1277
Online Media:

Saul Nesbitt Papers

Creator:
Nesbitt, Saul, 1920-1993  Search this
Names:
Archway Cookies, Inc.  Search this
Borden's Farm Products Co. of Illinois  Search this
Campbell Soup Company  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Eastman Kodak Company  Search this
Florists' Telegraph Delivery Association  Search this
Franco American Food Co.  Search this
Lever Brothers and Unilever, ltd.  Search this
National Distillers and Chemical Corporation  Search this
Nesbitt Associates, Ltd.  Search this
P. Ballantine & Sons  Search this
Philip Morris Incorporated  Search this
Revlon, Inc.  Search this
Schick (Firm)  Search this
Scott Paper Company  Search this
Seagram Company  Search this
Collector:
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
Extent:
3.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Slides
Sketches
Transparencies
Press releases
Correspondence
Photographs
Media lists
Blueprints
Drawings
Clippings
Client lists
Date:
1951-1984
Scope and Contents:
Background and biographical information consists of Nesbitt's resume, an artist/designer statement, list of clients and accomplishments of Nesbitt Associates, Ltd., press releases, articles, and photographs of the designer.,The materials in this collection document Nesbitt's work from 1951 through 1984.
The records of the office of public relations cover the years 1955-1963 and include press releases and clippings describing some Nesbitt's products, his theories on consumer motivation, and the results of his surveys, as well as correspondence with members of the press. General office correspondence is boxed separately.
Color slides, color and black & white transparencies, and black & white photographs of most of Nesbitt's designs for packaging from 1951-1981 are included. Oversized materials include books jackets and booklets designed by Nesbitt, as well as some renderings for packaging designs done in color.
Three samples of fitted presentation boxes designed by Nesbitt are included, as well as a prototype for a design award for Parsons School of Design in New York, and two "Multiplication" cubes commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
Arrangement:
This collection has been reboxed in archivally-sound containers, but the materials have only been partially processed and arranged. Record groups include: 1) Backgound and Biographical Information; 2) Records of the Public Relations Office, 1955-1963; 3) Correspondence; 4) Slides, Transparencies, and Photographs; 5) Oversized Materials; and 6) Samples.
Biographical / Historical:
Packaging, industrial, and graphic designer. Born in New York City, August 10, 1920. Nesbitt was a student of sculptor Chaim Gross and studied art at many New York institutions including: Art Students League; New York University; Columbia University; Pratt Institute of Art; and the New School.

He served in the U.S. Army from 1942 to 1945 where he worked as a cartographer and as the head of the visual aid section in a military intelligence training center. In 1945, he joined the staff of Harper's Bazaar magazine where he was an illustrator assisting art director Alexey Brodovich. In 1946, Nesbitt was hired by the industrial design studio of Raymond Loewy as a handletterer and packaging designer.

He worked with Lippincott Industrial Design from 1948 to 1951. Nesbitt opened his own design studio, Nesbitt Associates, Ltd. in 1951. The firm specialized in package design, trademarks, and corporate identities. Some of his most recognizable designs were for the label for Campbell's Soup and the Florists' Telegraph Delivery (F.T.D.) Winged Mercury 'Interflora' figure, still used today. Nesbitt's other clients included: Franco American; Revlon; Ballantine Beer; Borden; Champion spark plugs; Kodak; Philip Morris cigarettes; Schick razors; and Archway cookies. In addition, Nesbitt developed the "Karry Kit" for Ballantine Beer which came to be widely used and known as the six pack.

Nesbitt was known for his revealing studies and surveys of the buying needs and preferences of the "average American housewife" and consumers in general. His opinions on what he referred to as "underpackaging" were widely publicized in professional magazines and journals. In 1984, Nesbitt retired from the design field and went to California to resume his career as a sculptor until his death in 1993.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the designer's wife, Mrs. Saul Nesbitt, in 1994.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Industrial designers  Search this
Packaging designers  Search this
Graphic designers  Search this
Topic:
Consumers -- Research  Search this
Consumers' preferences -- United States  Search this
Housewives as consumers  Search this
Labels -- Design  Search this
Corporate image -- Design  Search this
Logos (Symbols) -- Design  Search this
Graphic arts -- United States  Search this
Design, Industrial -- United States  Search this
Packaging -- Design  Search this
Genre/Form:
Slides
Sketches
Transparencies
Press releases
Correspondence
Photographs -- 20th century
Media lists
Blueprints
Drawings
Clippings
Client lists
Citation:
Saul Nesbitt Papers, 1951-1984, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1275
See more items in:
Saul Nesbitt Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep857e2f039-d3d5-4307-a474-a5e5072e4e74
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1275

Hanna Lore Hombordy Papers

Creator:
Hombordy, Hanna Lore  Search this
Names:
A.W. Lewin (Firm)  Search this
Colonial House Candies  Search this
Cooper-Hewitt Design Archive  Search this
General Electric Company  Search this
Houbigant, Inc.  Search this
Kohn Bros.  Search this
L.S. Brach Manufacturing Corporation  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Pratt Institute. Dept. of Graphic Arts  Search this
Berkowitz, Irving  Search this
Schaus, Christian Frederick, 1959-  Search this
Young, Bill  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Drawings
Trade catalogs
Advertisements
Clippings
Date:
[194-]-1955
Scope and Contents:
The project files include booklets: "Elements of Design" (1953-54); "Appearance Design" (1954); packaging and label designs and prototypes, photographs of drawing machinery, clippings, and misc. designs and printed advertisements for shoes, antennas, and candies.,This collection documents Hombordy's work as a graphics designer in the late 1940s and 1950s while employed at A.W. Lewin, General Electric, and Houbigant, Inc.
Arrangement:
Unprocessed; The archive material consists of labels, booklets, drawings, photographs and printed materials related to Hanna Lore Hombordy's work while employed at A.W. Lewin advertising agency, General Electric and Houbigant, Inc. in the 1940s-1950s.
Biographical / Historical:
Hanna Lore Hombordy (née Galle) holds a BFA, with honors, from the School of Art and Design, Pratt Institute, New York. Before moving to Ventura, Calif. in 1973 her main occupation was in the field of creative design and graphic arts. She was employed as a designer by General Electric Co. in the Appearance and Design department; Houbigant, Inc. doing packaging design; and advertising agencies in New York doing catalog design, newspaper ads, and illustrations. Since 1973 most of her art has been three-dimensional.

Recent work has been included in twenty national juried shows and in 1987 she received the Monarch Best Tile Award. In California, she won an Award of Merit at the State Fair. Locally, she has received numerous awards, among them 1st place in the Thousand Oaks City Competition, the Oxnard Art Association Competition, the Ventura Assembly of the Arts and the Ventura County Fair. She has had fourteen solo exhibits in the southern California area. Hombordy works at her studio home in Ventura, Calif. She creates clay and sculpture and vessels as well as decorative custom tiles and house numbers. She does research and experimental work in clay and uncommon fine art materials such as expanded polystyrene foam. Discoveries in airbrushing on clay are documented in the December 1991 issue of Ceramics Monthly. An article on her work has been published in Ceramic Review, the British ceramics magazine. Recent publications include: Pottery Making Illustrated (Spring 1999) and Clay Times (November 2000 and 2001).
Related Archival Materials:
Works by Hombordy are in the Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art collection in Logan, Utah; Moorpark College, UCSD, Santa Paula Savings and Loan, and Monarch Tile Co., in Texas.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Hanna Lore Hombordy in 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Packaging designers -- United States  Search this
Graphic designers -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Commercial art -- Sources -- History -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 20th century
Drawings
Trade catalogs
Advertisements
Clippings
Citation:
Hanna Lore Hombordy Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1273
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81b8d8577-d3cb-483e-b69d-21ba5fa1a25d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1273

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