51 Linear feet (115 document boxes, 2 card file boxes, 1 5x6x2.5" box, and 1 record storage box)
Scope and Contents:
While these papers primarily consist of Waldo's archeological work in the field and his many publications, the collection also contains Mildred's correspondence and manuscripts, most of which concern her ethnohistorical and archeological work, conferences in which she participated, and her publications, particularly those on La Harpe. Most of the material dates between 1930 and 1990.
A useful way to consider these materials is to conceptualize them as a continuum from project proposals to funding, into fieldwork materials, and ultimately toward manuscripts and publications. These texts generate reputations in academic and museum circles, in this case, drawing Waldo into various organizations and conferences throughout his career. As he rose through the ranks of the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian, his responsibilities and visibility within the museum also increased. This gradual transformation is reflected in the correspondence, organizational and administrative, and research and field work series. Because these and other facets of Waldo's career both constantly and consistently interfaced, the boundaries between the various series and types of materials contained in this collection are highly permeable. This should be kept in mind when reviewing them.
Among Waldo's correspondence are letters from A.T. Hill, F.M. Setzler, and W.D. Strong. The Organizational and Administrative Material contains material from the Department of Anthropology, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Foundation, the River Basin Survey, and Tulumniu research. Also included is material from the 5th through the 44th Plains conferences, as well as material from Society for American Archaeology meetings and seminars. Writings include both published and unpublished works. The published works are mainly those by Waldo, however, there are several publications from Mildred. Many of the publications are articles from journals, such as the American Anthropologist and American Antiquity. Drafts and writing notes of both Waldo and Mildred make up the bulk of the writings series. The Research and Fieldwork Materials contains papers relating to Waldo's fieldwork on the River Basin Surveys, as well as his work in Kansas, Missouri and Michigan. In addition, there is material relating to his expert testimony in claims cases brought by the Missouri and Oto, Pawnee, and Kansa Indians (which also involved Mildred) during the 1940s and 1950s. The series of Photographs consists of lantern slides, prints, and negatives. There are extensive photographs of Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska, including field sites, artifacts, bones and landscape. The Personal series contains a miscellany of Waldo's materials, such as his business card and materials from his days as a study at UC Berkeley. Finally, there are several drawers of site maps, topographic maps, aeronautical maps and county maps of Kansas, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Missouri.
Please note that the contents of the collection and the language and terminology used reflect the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology and considered offensive today. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution or National Anthropological Archives, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
The papers of Waldo Wedel and Mildred Wedel are organized into the following series: Correspondence; Organizational and Administrative Material; Writings; Research and Fieldwork Materials; Personal; Photographs; Printing Blocks; and Maps.
Waldo R. Wedel was born in Newton, Kansas in 1908. He grew up in and around Newton with Emil Haury. He graduated from Bethel Academy in 1928 and earned his B.A. at the University of Arizona in 1930. It was at Arizona that Waldo began his development as a field archeologist, working under Dean Cummings and Haury. He continued his education at University of Nebraska, where he was a student of William Duncan Strong, who trained him in Plains archeology and introduced him to the direct historical approach. Through an apprenticeship under Strong, Waldo conducted fieldwork in Signal Butte, Loup River Valley, and in eastern Nebraska during 1930-1933. After earning his M.A. in 1931, he enrolled in the doctoral program at University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1936). During his education at Berkeley, although his chief mentor was Alfred Kroeber, he was strongly influenced by the ecological ideas of geographer Carl Sauer. In the late 1930's, Wedel began to concentrate on a survey of his native Kansas, a region little known archeologically. The Kansas survey began during the field seasons of 1937 and 1938. 1n 1938, he also excavated at a Hopewell site in Platte County, Missouri. In the summer of 1946, Wedel was detailed to establish and direct the Missouri Basin Project (MBP) of the Bureau of American Ethnology's River Basin Surveys (RBS). He continued as the MBP director until 1950 and was detailed each summer to the MBP headquarters in Lincoln, Nebraska. He also worked at sites in South Dakota, Colorado, and the Texas Panhandle from the 1950s to the 1970s.
Except for early work for the Nebraska Historical Society and Gila Pueblo Foundation, Waldo's institutional affiliation was with the Smithsonian Institution. In 1936, he was appointed assistant curator under Neil M. Judd in the Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (USNM). He was made associate curator in 1942. During World War II, he was detailed for a brief period to the Military Planning Division of the Quartermaster Corps, charged with analysis of captured foreign material. In 1950, he was named curator of archeology at the USNM. In 1962, he became head curator of the Department of Anthropology, and in 1964-1965, he was acting head of the newly organized Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. He became Senior Archeologist in 1965. In 1977, he retired from what had become the Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History and became curator emeritus. He continued activity with the department until 1990 when he moved to Boulder, Colorado. He died in 1996.
Mildred Mott was born in Marengo, Iowa on September 7, 1912. She was trained in history at the University of Iowa (A.B. 1934) and in anthropology with an emphasis on archeology at the University of Chicago (M.A., 1938). She also attended University of New Mexico Jemez Field School in the summer of 1933. She conducted fieldwork under Ellison Orr at Hill Mound Group (13AM105) and Brazell's Island Bear Effigy Mound (13AM81) in Allamakee County in 1936. In the following year, she worked at the Kincaid site in Illinois. She also assisted Florence Hawley in the University of Chicago Dendrochronology Laboratory (1937-38). In 1938, she served as field director for Charles Keyes' archaeological excavation near Webster City, Iowa.
In 1939, Mildred married Waldo Wedel and afterwards accompanied him on many trips to the field. In addition, she pursued an interest in ethnohistory that she developed in school. In particular, she worked on the ethnohistory of regions where her husband was working, often taking advantage of field seasons to retrace routes of early European explorers. Thus, she carried out intensive work on French explorations in the Plains areas (particularly Jean-Baptiste Bénard, Sieur de la Harpe; Pierre-Charles Le Sueur; Claude-Charles Dutisne; and Jean-Baptiste Teuteau). She also published on Plains Caddoan origins and on the Iowa and the Wichita. In 1978-1979, under contract with the Corps of Engineers, she studied the ethnohistory of a Wichita village and French post at the Deer Creek site, Kay County, Oklahoma.
In 1974, Mildred was appointed a Smithsonian Institution research associate in anthropology. In 1985, she was one of several women honored by the American Anthropological Association for their long-time involvement in anthropology. She died in 1995.
Waldo R. Wedel (see also Appendix A: Fieldwork of Waldo R. Wedel)
1908 -- Born in Newton, Kansas
1930 -- B.A. from University of Arizona
1930-1933 -- Apprenticeship under William Duncan Strong at Signal Butte, Loup River Valley, Nebraska
1931 -- M. A. from University of Nebraska
1936 -- Assistant Curator under Neil M. Judd, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (USNM) Ph.D. from University of California at Berkeley
1937-1938 -- Field work in Kansas
1938 -- Excavation at a Hopewell site in Platte County, Missouri
1939 -- Married Mildred Mott Wedel
1942 -- Associate Curator, Division of Archeology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum (USNM)
1946 -- Established Missouri Basin Project (MBP) of the Bureau of American Ethnology's River Basin Surveys (RBS), serves as Director
1946-1950 -- Served with Military Planning Division of the Quartermaster Corps
1950 -- Curator of Archeology, United States National Museum (USNM)
1962 -- Head Curator of the Department of Anthropology
1964-1965 -- Acting Head of newly organized Smithsonian Office of Anthropology
1965 -- Senior Archeologist, Smithsonian Office of Anthropology
1977 -- Curator Emeritus, retired from Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History
1977-1990 -- Continued involvement with Department of Anthropology
1990 -- Moved to Boulder, Colorado
1996 -- Died
Mildred Mott Wedel
1912 -- Born in Marengo, Iowa
1933 -- Attended University of New Mexico Jemez Field School during the summer
1934 -- A.B. from University of Iowa
1936 -- Fieldwork under Ellison Orr at Hill Mound Group (13AM105) and Brazell's Island Bear Effigy Mound (13AM81) in Allamakee County
1937 -- Fieldwork at Kincaid Site in Illinois Assisted Florence Hawley in the University of Chicago Dendrochronology Laboratory
1938 -- M.A. from University of Chicago Field director for Charles Keyes' archaeological excavation near Webster City, Iowa
1939 -- Married Waldo R. Wedel
1974 -- Research associate, Department of Anthropology in the National Museum of Natural History
1978-1979 -- Studied the ethnohistory of a Wichita village and French post at the Deer Creek site, Kay County, Oklahoma
1990 -- Moved to Boulder, Colorado
1995 -- Died
Appendix A: Fieldwork of Waldo R. Wedel:
This timeline was created by Waldo R. Wedel in the 1990s.
1929 -- Place: Arizona (Turkey Hill Pueblo, near Flagstaff)Organizational Affiliation: University of Arizona field party (BC)
1930 -- Place: Nebraska, eastern and southern (Rock Bluffs, Gates, Dooley, Hill sites)Organizational Affiliation: University of Nebraska field party (WDS)Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1935. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. SMC 93:10.
1931 -- Place: Nebraska, Loup valley (Burkett, Gray‑Wolfe, Sweetwater sites)Organizational Affiliation: University of Nebraska field party leaderReported in: Dunlevy, M. L. 1936. A Comparison of the Cultural Manifestations of the Burkett (Nance County) and Gray‑Wolfe (Colfax County) sites.Reported in: Chapters in Nebraska Archeology, pp. 147‑247.Reported in: Champe, J. L. 1936. The Sweetwater Culture Complex. Chapters in Nebraska Archeology, pp. 249‑299.
1932 -- Place: Nebraska (Signal Butte) and South Dakota (Leavenworth)Organizational Affiliation: Bureau of American Ethnology (WDS)Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1935. An Introduction to Nebraska Archeology. SMC 93:10.Reported in: Strong, W. D. 1933. Studying the Arikara and their Neighbors on the Upper Missouri. Explor. and Field Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1932.
1933 -- Place: Nebraska (Medicine Creek)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska State Historical Society (ATH)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1934. Preliminary Notes on the Archeology of Medicine Valley in Southwestern Nebraska. Nebraska History Magazine, 14:3:144-166. Place: Oklahoma (Comanche ethnography near Layton)Organizational Affiliation: Laboratory of Anthropology Fellow (R Linton)
1933-1934 -- Place: California (Buena Vista Lake)Organizational Affiliation: CWA relief expedition (WDS)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1941. Archeological Investigations at Buena Vista Lake, BAE Bulletin 130.
1934 -- Place: Nebraska and Kansas (Republican Valley; Minneapolis, Paint Creek)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska State Historical Society (ATH)Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1935. Reports on Field Work by the Archeological Survey of the Nebraska State Historical Society, May 1 to July 23, 1934. Nebraska History Magazine, 15:3:130-256.
1935 -- Place: California (Sacramento Valley: Howells Point, Redding; San Francisco Bay shellmounds)Organizational Affiliation: University of California field party leader
1936 -- Place: Nebraska (survey in Loup River drainage)Organizational Affiliation: Nebraska Historical Society and Gila Pueblo
1937 -- Place: Missouri and Kansas (Renner, Doniphan, Manhattan)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1943. Archeological Investigations in Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri. U.S.N.M., Bulletin 183.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An IntroductionReported in: To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.
1938 -- Place: Missouri, Colorado (Steed-Kisker, vault mounds; Purgatoire survey)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1943. Archeological Investigations in Platte and Clay Counties, Missouri. U.S.N.M., Bulletin 183.
1939 -- Place: Kansas (Scott and Lane Counties)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An Introduction To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.
1940 -- Place: Kansas (Rice and Cowley Counties)Organizational Affiliation: U. S. National Museum field party leaderReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1959. An Introduction To Kansas Archeology. Bur. Amer. Ethnology, Bulletin 174.
1943 -- Place: Mexico (La Venta)Organizational Affiliation: Smithsonian‑National Geographic Society expedition under MWSReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1952. Structural Investigations in 1943. In: La Venta, Tabasco, a Study of Olmec Ceramics and Art, by P. Drucker, BAE ‑ Bull. 153, pp. 34-79.
1946-1949 -- Place: Missouri River BasinOrganizational Affiliation: Field director Missouri Basin Project, River Basin Surveys, Smithsonian InstitutionReported in: Wedel, W. R., 1947. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program: Summary Report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1946. SMC. 107:6:1‑17.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1948. SMC 111:2.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1953. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 1; BAE ‑ Bull. 154, pp. 1‑59.Reported in: Wedel, W. R. 1953. River Basin Surveys Papers, No. 2; BAE ‑ Bull. 154, pp. 61‑101.
1951 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief
1952 -- Place: Wyoming (Horner site)Organizational Affiliation: Archeologist on Smithsonian-Princeton expedition.Reported in: Frison, Geo. C. and L. C. Todd, eds. I987 The Horner Site: Type Site of the Cody Cultural Complex. Ch. 2 History of the Princeton and Smithsonian Investigations. Academic Press, Orlando, Fla.
1955 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief
1956 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST1)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief
1957 -- Place: South Dakota (39ST203)Organizational Affiliation: River Basin Surveys party chief
1964 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Southwestern KansasOrganizational Affiliation: NSF grant GS-556
1965 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co)Organizational Affiliation: NSF grant GS-556
1966-1967 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co)Organizational Affiliation: NSF grant 05-556; Smithsonian Res. Award. 3301
1971 -- Place: Archeological investigations in Central Kansas (Rice Co.)
1972-1973 -- Place: Archeological investigations at Chalk Hollow, Palo Duro Canyon, TexasOrganizational Affiliation: Smithsonian Research AwardReported in: Wedel, W. R. 1975. Chalk Hollow: Culture sequence and chronology in the Texas panhandle. Proceedings, XLI International Congress of Americanists, Mexico, Sept. 2-7, 1974, pp270-278.
Additional correspondence from Waldo Wedel can be found in various collections at the National Anthropological Archives, including the William Duncan Strong papers, Albert Clanton Spaulding papers, Donald Lehmer papers, Frederick Johnson papers, Manuscript 4846, Manuscript 4192, Department of Anthropology records, River Basin Surveys records, Society for American Archaeology records, Central States Anthropological Society records, and Anthropological Society of Washington records. Photographs of Waldo can be found in Photo lot 33, Photo 83-13, Photo 58, Photo Lot 85-12, Manuscript 4261(1), Negative MHT 65124, Negative 728413, and the Source Print Collection. Manuscript 7450 is a recording of Waldo and others giving a talk on the history of anthropology at the Smithsonian. See Manuscript 2011-29 for an oral history interview with Waldo, conducted by Larry Banks.
Correspondence from Mildred can be found in the Robert King Harris papers and the William Duncan Strong papers. Manuscript 7293 is a recording of the Ewers-Wedel symposium, at which Mildred was a speaker.
At the Smithsonian Institution Archives, photos of Waldo can be found in the Kjell Bloch Sandved Photographic Files and the Smithsonian Institution Office of Public Information, Productions records.
The following films were separated from the collection and transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives:
6 reels of 16MM kodachrome film-original reversal 5 reels of Medicine Creek...1947-48 (includes Boysen Camp (1947) and Brule Flat site) 1 reel of Bison Kill (Powder River) Ghost Cave near Billings, MT., 1947
The following artifacts were separated from the collection and transferred to the ethnology and archaeology collections of the Department of Anthropology:
Sherds from Peppiatt-Lyons Metal ice shoe cleats Glass beads
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel in 1990. Additional materials were donated by their son, Waldo M. Wedel in 2011.
The Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers are open for research. Personnel files and grant proposals sent to Waldo Wedel to review are restricted. Waldo and Mildred Wedel's monographs are stored at an off-site facility.
Access to the Waldo R. Wedel and Mildred Mott Wedel papers requires an appointment.
North Island. WNW of Cape Rodney. Near Goat Island (Motu Hawere). Goat Island Marine Reserve, offshore from the University of Auckland's Leigh Marine Laboratory. Coordinate values estimated from Google Earth for boat ramp in Omaha Bay to the south of Cape Rodney., Northland, New Zealand, Australasia
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes photographic negatives, photo albums, lantern slides, journals, scrapbooks and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909. Initially assigned as a revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation and later as an Indian Inspector reviewing boarding schools, Frank's assignments took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities shooting photographs and taking notes.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection includes 1430 photographic negatives, 29 photo albums containing 3710 photographic prints, 325 lantern slides, and 3 linear feet of journals, scrapbooks, and other documents created and compiled by the Churchills over the course of Frank's career as a special agent and Indian Inspector for the Department of the Interior between 1899 and 1909.
Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903, includes 11 photo albums and 357 negatives from Frank Churchill's original assignment as revenue collector to the Cherokee Nation. Locations include Indian Territory (Oklahoma) [bulk], Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Arkansas, and Missouri. The Native communities visited and photographed in this series include— Oklahoma Cherokee, Oklahoma Muskogee (Creek), Quapaw, Osage, Miami, Wyandotte [Oklahoma], Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), Winnebago [Nebraska], Eastern Shawnee [Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma], Ponca, Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee), Oto, Sioux [Crow Creek], Kaw (Kansa), Chickasaw, Modoc, Kiowa, Choctaw.
Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, Califonia, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1903-1907, includes 9 photo albums and 832 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment as an Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in this series, though there are two photo albums with Southwest photographs included in Series 4. Locations in this series includes Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Native Communities visited and photographed in this series include—A:shiwi (Zuni), Diné (Navajo), Acoma Pueblo, Akimel O'odham (Pima), Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cochiti Pueblo, Hopi Pueblo, Isleta Pueblo, K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo), Kumeyaay (Diegueño), Laguna Pueblo, Luiseño (Luiseno), Mescalero Apache, Mojave (Mohave), Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), Picuris Pueblo, Piipaash (Maricopa), Puye Pueblo, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), San Carlos Apache, Taos Pueblo, Tohono O'odham (Papago).
Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905), includes four photograph albums and 71 negatives from Frank Churchill's appointment as special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska in the summer and fall of 1905. Two of the albums were not made by the Churchills. The first of these (Box 20) includes photographs by William Hamilton and the second (Box 21) includes photographs by W. T. Lopp. Locations in Alaska include St. Lawrence Island, Nuwukmiut/Point Barrow, Teller, Diomedes Islands, Nome, Kotzebue, Wrangell, Port Clarence Bay, Unalaska Island and Baranof Island. There are a number of photographs aboard the U.S. Cutter "Bear" and aboard the mailboat "Georgia." Native communities photographed include—Yuit (Siberian Yup'ik), Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo), Bering Strait Inupiaq [Diomedes], Alutiiq (Pacific Eskimo), Tlingit.
Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909, includes five photograph albums and 163 negatives from Frank Churchill's assignment at Indian Inspector. Because the Churchills visited some of the same locations in the Southwest (Arizona and Utah) on multiple occasions, it has been hard to date some of the negatives. For that reason, all the negatives made in the Southwest have been included in Series 3. Locations include Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota and Florida. Native communities visited and photographed include-Diné (Navajo), Hopi Pueblo, Kaibab Paiute, Quechan (Yuma/Cuchan), Eastern Band of Cherokee, Pikuni Blackfeet (Piegan), Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe], Turtle Mountain Chippewa, Seminole. There is restricted material in Box 23 (Album P23380).
Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vacation, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials, 1898-1913, includes four photograph albums from vacations and other visits made by the Churchills unrelated to Frank's activities as Indian Inspector.
Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928 (bulk 1899-1909), includes three linear feet of materials arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1, Clara Churchill, includes 16 journals, 12 scrapbooks and various other manuscript materials written and accumulated by Clara Churchill during their travels. Many of the journals include personal writings as well as several photographs that are duplicated in the photograph albums. The journals and scrapbooks encompass the full range of the Churchills' travels and include notes from Indian Territory, Southwest, Midwest, Southeast, Plains and Alaska. Subseries 6.2, Colonel Frank C. Churchill, includes official documents around Churchill's assignments as well as the reports Frank submitted back to the Secretary of the Interior (Box 41 and 42). Subseries 6.3, Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous, includes catalogs and other notes related to the large collection of Native American objects amassed by Frank and Clara. Clara also collected other items such as shells, minerals, and sand.
Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, includes 325 hand colored glass lantern slides. These were made by the Churchills from existing negatives and used for lectures. Lantern slides #1-#121 include views photographed in Alaska in 1905. Sldes #122-#325 include an assortment of views from Oklahoma (Indian Territory), Nebraska, Montana, Minnesota, California, Arizona and New Mexico photographed between 1900 and 1909.
The Frank C. and Clara G. Churchill collection has been arranged in seven series by material type and then chronologically. The first five series are then divided into subseries by "Photo Albums" and "Negatives." These include--Series 1: Photographs in Indian Territory (Oklahoma): Muskogee, Tahlequah, Sulphur Springs and Other Assignments, 1899-1903; Series 2: Photographs in the Southwest and Midwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1907-1907; Series 3: Photographs in Alaska and Oregon, 1905-1910 (bulk 1905-1905); Series 4: Photographs in Arizona, Utah, North Carolina, Montana, North Dakota, Florida and Miscellaneous, 1907-1909; Series 5: Non-Native Photographs: Colorado Vaction, Lebanon, New Hampshire, and other Materials.
Series 6: Manuscripts: Journals, Documents and Scrapbooks, 1880-1928, is arranged in three subseries. Subseries 6.1: Clara G. Churchill, Subseries 6.2: Frank C. Churchill, and Subseries 6.3: Churchill Museum and Miscellaneous. Series 7: Lantern Slides for Lectures, 1899-1909, is arranged in orginal number order from the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Carroll Churchill was born August 2, 1850 to Benjamin P. Churchill and Susanna Thompson in West Fairlee, Vermont. Frank was educated at Thetford Academy in Thetford, VT and worked as a clerk for D.C. Churchill & Co. in Lyme, NH between 1869-1870. Between 1870 and 1877, Churchill was employed by H.W. Carter as a wholesale merchant in Lebanon, New Hampshire. During this time, Churchill met Clara Corser Turner and they were married on June 11, 1874.
Clara G. (Turner) Churchill was born December 16, 1851, to Colonel Francis H. Corser and Sarah Hook (Perkins) Corser. Colonel Corser and his wife died young, and Clara was adopted by George and Abby H. Turner of Concord, New Hampshire.
In 1877, in association with William S. Carter, Frank Churchill opened the business "Carter & Churchill" which was in this business for 21 years. Churchill held various political offices from 1879-91. He served as chairman of the Republican town committee of Lebanon and of the Republican State committee in 1890 and 1891. He served on the staff of Governor Natt Head in 1879 and 1880, with the rank of Colonel. He was chairman of the New Hampshire delegation at the Republican National Convention which nominated President Harrison and represented the Fourth District in the Executive Council in 1889-1890 during the administration of Governor David. H. Goodell.
In 1899 Frank was appointed revenue inspector for the Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory and was later appointed a special agent for the Interior Department to formulate a system of public schools in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and across the Southwest. In 1905, he was appointed special agent, by President Roosevelt, to investigate the condition of the school & reindeer service and other affairs in Alaska and was reappointed Indian Inspector between 1905-1909. In 1909, Churchill resigned due to failing health and died November 5, 1912. Clara accompanied Frank on all his travels between 1899 and 1909 (see below chronology for full details) maintaining journals and writing articles for publication in "WHAT." Clara was also a painter, producing watercolors and hand-painting many of the photographs she and Frank made on their travels. Following Frank's death, Clara maintained their collection of Native artifacts and photographs in their home in Lebanon, New Hampshire. Clara died April 16, 1945, bequeathing the full collection to Dartmouth College.
Frank Churchill's assignments as Special agent and Indian Inspector from 1899-1909 took him all over the United States including Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), Missouri, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Florida, North Carolina and Alaska. During this time the Churchills visited over 80 different Native communities. For more details, see the chronology below.
Travels in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and other assignments, 1899-1903
1899, June 29 -- Churchills arrive in Muskogee, Indian Territory (Oklahoma).
1899, July-October -- Visit to Fort Gibson, Tahlequah, Sallisaw, and Vinita (Indian Territory/Oklahoma). Visit to Noel and South west City, Missouri. Visit to Chelsea and Coffeyville, Kansas. Visit to Fort Smith, Arkansas.
1899, November -- Visit Tahlequah while the Cherokee Nation legislature was in session.
1899, December -- Travel in Colorado.
1900, March -- Return to Muskogee and Fort Gibson.
1900, Sept 17-Oct 5 -- Dawes Commission in Vinita.
1901, Mar-Apr 3 -- Visit to the Quapaw Agency, Wyandotte Reservation and school, Modoc reservation and the town of Miami.
1901, April -- Visit to Denison, Texas. Visit to Checotah, Eufaula, South McAlester (Choctaw nation).
1901, Summer -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.
1901, October -- Visit to Tishomingo, seat of government of the Chickasaws.
1902, January -- Trip to the Chickasaw Nation Visit to Anadarko, Indian Agency of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache, Fort Sill, Wichita Mountains, and Lawton.
1902, May -- Frank is dispatched to Sioux City, Iowa.
1902, July -- Visit to St. Paul, Minnesota and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, (Chippewa Falls). Frank is sent to Sulphur Springs, Texas, to author a report.
1902, August -- Churchills return to Muskogee, IT.
1902, September-October -- Trip to White Eagle, Ponca Agency for a month. Visit to Otoe school, Pawnee School, Shawnee, Sac and Fox reservations.
1902, November-December -- Visit to Crow Creek Agency.
1903, January -- Return to Sulpher Springs, Texas.
1903, March -- Visit to Pawhuska, Osage Nation.
1903, April -- Visit to Colorado.
1903, May-October -- Visit to 23 towns in Oklahoma (IT) with the Secretary of the Interior.
Travels in New Mexico, Arizona and California, 1903-1905
1903, November -- Frank receives orders to proceed to Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico.
1903, December 9 -- Visit to Zuni, followed by Canyon de Chelly, Hubbell's Ranch, Keams Canyon.
1903, December 21 -- Visit to Hopi Pueblo. Walpi, Polacca Day School, Oraibi, Shumopavi (Shungopavi/Songoopavi), Shipaulovi (Supawlavi) and Mishongnovi (Musungnuvi).
1903, December 28 -- Visit to Fort Defiance.
1904, January -- Travel in New Mexico. Visit to Gallup, Laguna Pueblo, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Albuquerque, Isleta Pueblo, Santa Fe, Ohkay Owingeh (San Juan Pueblo), K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo).
1904, February -- Visit to Sacaton, Akimel O'odham (Pima) Reservation and Casa Grande ruins in Arizona.
1904, March -- Visit to Lehi Day School, Salt River Day School, Phoenix Indian School, Gila River Crossing Day School and Maricopa Day School, Arizona.
1904, March 10-26 -- Visit to Fort Mojave and Chemehuevi.
1904, March 30-April -- Visit to Riverside, California, Sherman Institute and Perris School. Side trip to Yuma, Arizona.
1905, January-February -- Visit to Sulphur, IT.
1905, March -- Visit to Mescalero Apache Agency, San Carlos Apache Agency, Geronimo Settlement, Rice Station School at Talkalai.
1905, April 10-20 -- Return to Sherman Institute in Riverside, California. Visit to San Jacinto, Perris, Saboba, Cahuilla, San Manuella (Band of Mission Indians), Coachella, Torres Reservation, Martinez Reservation Day School, Cabazon Reservation, Protrero Reservation and Day School.
1905, April 22-May -- Visit to Temecula, Pechanga Day School, Pala Mission, Campo Reservation, Mission of San Luis Rey, Rincon Day School, Mesa Grande School, Santa Ysabel (Diegueno), Volcan Mountain Day School.
Travels in Alaska, 1905
1905, June -- Frank receives an assignment in Alaska.
1905, July -- Board the U.S. Revenue Cutter "Bear" in Nome. Visit to Reindeer Station in Teller, Cape Prince of Wales, Kotzebue Sound, Cape Thompson, Point Hope and Point Barrow.
1905, August -- Visit to Wainwright Inlet, return to Nome. Visit to Anvil Creek, Gologin (Golovin) Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Pribilof Islands (Seal Islands), St. George, Dutch Harbor and Unalaska.
1905, September -- Board the "Dora" anchored near Belkofski, Cold Bay, Karluk, Afgonak, and Kodiak. Stop in Homer, Seldovia and Seward. Visit to Sitka.
1905, September 28 -- Board the steamer "Georgia" to Juneau and Skagway via Hoonah.
1905, October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.
Travels in Arizona, New Mexico, Minnesota, Wisconsin, California and Utah, 1906-1907
1906, March-April -- Re-assigned to Southwest and arrive in Tucson, Arizona. Visit to San Xavier Mission, Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation, Casa Grande, Sacaton, Maricopa, Gila Crossing, Salt River and Phoenix schools.
1906, May -- Return to New Mexico to visit Gallup and Zuni Day School.
1906, June -- Visit to St, Paul, Minnesota and the White Earth (Ojibwe) reservation and Wild Rice River School in Boliere.
1906, July -- Visit to Ashland, Wisconsin, Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, and Lac de Flambeau (La Pointe Agency.
1906, July-September -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.
1906, September -- Visit to Fond du Lac (Winnebago Lake), Wabeno, and Carter, Wisconsin.
1906, October -- Visit to Phlox, Wausau, Minocqua, Star Lake, Bark River and Wausaukee, Wisconsin.
1906, November-December -- Visit to Keshena (Green Bay Indian School), Menominee Reservation and Ashland, Wisconsin.
1906, December-January -- Stay in Washington, DC.
1907, February -- Return to Albuquerque, New Mexico.
1907, March -- Visit to Santa Fe and various Pueblos (Cochiti, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh [San Juan], Toas and Picuris).
1907, April -- Return to Albuquerque, visit to Pueblos (Isleta, Laguna, Mesita, Acomita, Paraje, Acoma, Seama).
1907, April -- Visit to Phoenix, Arizona (Phoenix Indian School), Fort McDowell and Salt River Day School.
1907, May -- Visit to Sacaton, Maricopa, Casa Grande, and Yuma, Arizona.
1907, June -- Visit to Riverside (Sherman Institute), and Pomona, California.
1907, June-July -- Travel to Salt Lake City, Utah. Visit Panguitch, Orton, Kanab, Escalante and Marysvale, Utah.
1907, July-August -- Return to Arizona. Visit Flagstaff, Tuba Indian School, as well as Hopi Pueblo (Walpi, Moencopi, and Oraibi).
1907, September-October -- Return to Lebanon, NH.
Travels in North Carolina, Montana and Florida, 1907-1909
1907, October 22 -- Assigned to Cherokee, North Carolina, to make a new roll of the Eastern Band of Cherokee.
1907, November -- Arrive in Cherokee, North Caolina.
1908, February -- Visit to Robbinsville and Big Cove
1908, April -- Cherokee council meeting regarding Churchill's new roll.
1908, May -- Completes assignment in North Carolina.
1908, June-September -- Return to Washington, DC and Lebanon, New Hampshire.
1908, September-October -- Trip to Montana. Visit to Browning, Blackfeet Reservation, Harlem, Fort Belknap and Fort Peck.
1908, November -- Visit to Spirit Lake (Devil's Lake) and Wahpeton, and Fort Totten, North Dakota.
1908, December -- Visit to Morris, Minnesota.
1909, January -- Trip to Washington, DC for the inauguration of President Taft.
1909, February -- Visit to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
1909, March-April -- Trip to Florida. Visit to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Gainesville, and St. Augustine.
1909, May -- Visit to Soco Creek and Cherokee, North Carolina.
1909, July -- Return to Lebanon, New Hampshire.
1909, August -- Resignation as Indian Inspector.
A large collection of Native American cultural objects and archaeology bequeathed by Clara Churchill can still be found at the Hood Museum at Dartmouth College.
Frederick Dockstader, former director of the Museum of the American Indian (MAI), Heye Foundation, illegally removed the majority of the photographs (photo albums, negatives) and manuscript material (journals, reports) from the Hood Museum of Art at Dartmouth College in 1955, before depositing them at the MAI. Those materials were officially gifted to NMAI in 2018 by the Hood Museum. Additional materials from the Churchill collection that remained at the Hood Museum (lantern slides, photographs, scrapbooks, journals) were donated in 2020. These materials have been noted in the finding aid.
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com).
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to firstname.lastname@example.org.