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Marion Walton papers, 1915-1976

Creator:
Walton, Marion, 1899-1996  Search this
Subject:
Kádár, Béla  Search this
Seeger, Pete  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Carmer, Carl Lamson  Search this
Williams, Shirley  Search this
Beard, Mary Ritter  Search this
Daniels, Jonathan  Search this
Cowell, Henry  Search this
Sargent, John Singer  Search this
Gage-Colby, Ruth  Search this
Kent, Rockwell  Search this
Jameson, Storm  Search this
Walton, Blanche Wetherill  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor  Search this
Marsh, Frederick Dana  Search this
Shaw, Charles Green  Search this
Stamos, Theodoros  Search this
Giacometti, Alberto  Search this
Forrestal, James  Search this
Ruggles, Carl  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Thayer, A. H. (Abbott Handerson)  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Women sculptors  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6984
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209116
AAA_collcode_waltmari
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209116
Online Media:

Carl Zigrosser papers, 1891-1971

Creator:
Zigrosser, Carl, 1891-1975  Search this
Subject:
Spratling, William  Search this
Flannagan, John Bernard  Search this
Barr, Alfred H.  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Colker, Ed  Search this
Seidenberg, Roderick  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
Dehn, Adolf Arthur  Search this
Kohn, Misch  Search this
Rönnebeck, Arnold H.  Search this
Wright, Frank Lloyd  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Weston, Edward  Search this
Lankes, Julius J.  Search this
Rose, Ruth Starr  Search this
Cook, Howard Norton  Search this
Michener, James A. (James Albert),  Search this
Yunkers, Adja  Search this
Valentin, Curt  Search this
Kimball, Fiske  Search this
Kent, Rockwell  Search this
Rosenwald, Lessing J. (Lessing Julius)  Search this
Hall, E. Boyd  Search this
Hayter, Stanley William  Search this
McNulty, Kneeland  Search this
Nalbandian, Karnig  Search this
Wickey, Harry  Search this
Pach, Walter  Search this
Arms, John Taylor  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Norman, Dorothy  Search this
Huntley, Victoria Ebbels Hutson  Search this
Schniewind, Carl Oscar  Search this
Ruellan, Andrée  Search this
Durieux, Caroline  Search this
Keppel, Frederick  Search this
Warneke, Heinz (Heinrich)  Search this
Mitchell, Marian  Search this
Ingersoll, R. Sturgis (Robert Sturgis)  Search this
Spruance, Benton  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Girard, André  Search this
Teng, Kuei  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Mauzey, Merritt  Search this
Castellón, Federico  Search this
Carrington, Fitz Roy  Search this
Sternberg, Harry  Search this
Dwight, Mabel  Search this
Lasansky, Mauricio  Search this
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Tamarind Lithography Workshop  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Print Club (Philadelphia, Pa.)  Search this
Print Council of America  Search this
Weyhe Gallery  Search this
American Artists Group  Search this
Art in America  Search this
John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation  Search this
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum  Search this
Independent Citizens Committee for the Arts, Sciences and Professions  Search this
International Exhibition of Modern Art (1913 : New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Topic:
Modern school magazine  Search this
Prints  Search this
Prints, American  Search this
Prints, European  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10859
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214612
AAA_collcode_zigrcarl
Theme:
Diaries
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214612

Whitney Museum of American Art artists' files and records, 1914-1966

Creator:
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Subject:
Henri, Robert  Search this
Stella, Joseph  Search this
Cadmus, Paul  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Kuhn, Walt  Search this
Gatch, Lee  Search this
Harnett, William Michael  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Karfiol, Bernard  Search this
Baziotes, William  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Marsh, Reginald  Search this
Eilshemius, Louis M. (Louis Michel)  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
Schnakenberg, H. E. (Henry Ernest)  Search this
Graves, Morris  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Rimmer, William  Search this
Twachtman, John Henry  Search this
Reder, Bernard  Search this
Hofmann, Hans  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Burlin, Paul  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Gross, Chaim  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Inness, George  Search this
Bellows, George  Search this
Grosz, George  Search this
Motherwell, Robert Burns  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Bloom, Hyman  Search this
Cassatt, Mary  Search this
Walkowitz, Abraham  Search this
Dickinson, Edwin Walter  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
MacIver, Loren  Search this
Wyant, A. H. (Alexander Helwig)  Search this
Pène Du Bois, Guy  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
De Creeft, José  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel Charles Adrian  Search this
Blashki, Philip Howard  Search this
Curry, John Steuart  Search this
Rivers, Larry  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Sloan, John French  Search this
Glackens, William J. (William James)  Search this
Mount, William Sidney  Search this
Young, Mahonri Mackintosh  Search this
Ryder, Albert Pinkham  Search this
Lawson, Ernest  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston  Search this
Pereira, I. Rice (Irene Rice)  Search this
Whitney Studio Club  Search this
Whitney Studio Galleries  Search this
Topic:
Artists  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6584
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215886
AAA_collcode_whitmuse
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215886

Oral history interview with Terry Dintenfass, 1974 December 2-1975 January 13

Interviewee:
Dintenfass, Terry, 1920-2004  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-  Search this
Subject:
Erpf, Armand  Search this
Alan, Charles  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Goodman, Sidney  Search this
Baron, Herman  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault  Search this
Samuel, Halpert  Search this
Bloom, Hyman  Search this
Blashki, Philip Howard  Search this
Terry Dintenfass, inc.  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art dealers  Search this
Women art dealers  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12643
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212027
AAA_collcode_dinten74
Theme:
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212027

Oral history interview with Charles Alan, 1970 August 20-25

Interviewee:
Alan, Charles, 1908?-1975  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul, 1933-  Search this
Subject:
Conner, Bruce  Search this
Shan, Benjamin  Search this
Hirshhorn, Joseph H.  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Root, Edward Wales  Search this
Levi, Julian E. (Julian Edwin)  Search this
Allen, Lawrence  Search this
Askew, R. Kirk (Ralph Kirk)  Search this
Washburn, George  Search this
Breinin, Raymond  Search this
Samuel, Halpert  Search this
Levine, Jack  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Landau, Felix  Search this
Geddes, Norman Bel  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph)  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
Baker, Richard Brown  Search this
Harnett, William Michael  Search this
Downtown Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Yale School of Drama  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Set designers  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11699
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212203
AAA_collcode_alan70
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212203
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Paul Burlin, 1962

Interviewee:
Burlin, Paul, 1886-1969  Search this
Interviewer:
Seckler, Dorothy Gees, 1910-1994  Search this
Subject:
Samuel, Halpert  Search this
Matisse, Henri  Search this
Gleizes, Albert  Search this
Huneker, James  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Boas, Franz  Search this
Works Progress Administration  Search this
National Academy of Design (U.S.)  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Downtown Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
American Artists' Congress.  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Southwestern States  Search this
Painters  Search this
Art  Search this
Fauvism  Search this
Pop art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Europe  Search this
Cubism  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)11640
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212588
AAA_collcode_burlin62
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_212588
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Edith Gregor Halpert, 1962-1963

Interviewee:
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Interviewer:
Phillips, Harlan B. (Harlan Buddington),, 1920-  Search this
Subject:
Steichen, Edward  Search this
Knox, Seymour H.  Search this
Kroll, Leon  Search this
Kuhn, Walt  Search this
Stein, Gertrude  Search this
Field, Hamilton Easter  Search this
Whitney, Gertrude Vanderbilt  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Fergusson, John Duncan  Search this
LÔeger, Fernand  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu  Search this
Saarinen, Aline B. (Aline Bernstein)  Search this
Sandburg, Carl  Search this
Wittenberg, Philip  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster),  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Hirsch, Stefan  Search this
Barrie, Erwin S.  Search this
Locke, Charles  Search this
Demuth, Charles  Search this
Cary, Elisabeth Luther  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Chase, William Merritt  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Saklatwalla, Beram K.  Search this
Greenberg, Clement  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
Bacon, Peggy  Search this
Pincas, Julius Mordecai  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Force, Juliana  Search this
Brackman, Robert  Search this
Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Frost, Robert  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Halpert, Samuel  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Soutine, Chaim  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Goodyear, A. Conger (Anson Conger),  Search this
Levine, Jack  Search this
Dudensing, F. Valentine  Search this
Williams, William Carlos  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Vollard, Ambroise  Search this
Deskey, Donald  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Robinson, Edward G.  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell  Search this
Daniel, Charles  Search this
Hopkinson, Charles  Search this
Ford, Ford Madox  Search this
Barr, Alfred H.  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin  Search this
Mellon, Paul  Search this
Shan, Benjamin  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O.  Search this
Bridgman, George Brant  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Dove, Arthur Garfield  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Brixey, Richard de Wolfe  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Pound, Ezra  Search this
Montross, N. E. (Newman E.),  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Mercer, Henry Chapman  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Johns, Jasper  Search this
Crowninshield, Frank  Search this
Stern, Louis E.  Search this
Laurent, Robert  Search this
McBride, Henry  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Tannahill, Robert Hudson  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Montross Gallery  Search this
Grand Central Art Galleries  Search this
C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries  Search this
New Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Downtown Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Daniel Gallery  Search this
Ferargil Galleries  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Camouflage  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13220
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214627
AAA_collcode_halper62
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214627
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Peter Agostini, 1968

Interviewee:
Agostini, Peter, 1913-1993  Search this
Interviewer:
Roberts, Colette Jacqueline, 1910-1971  Search this
Subject:
Cézanne, Paul  Search this
Hare, David  Search this
Lassaw, Ibram  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Chryssa  Search this
Kline, Franz  Search this
Smith, Tony  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Sugarman, George  Search this
Chamberlain, John Angus  Search this
Mondrian, Piet  Search this
Flannagan, John Bernard  Search this
Heukelekian, Haig  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Kaprow, Allan  Search this
Roszak, Theodore  Search this
Whitman, Walt  Search this
Kienholz, Edward  Search this
Dove, Arthur Garfield  Search this
Judd, Donald C. (Donald Clarence)  Search this
Lachaise, Gaston  Search this
Di Suvero, Mark  Search this
Dubuffet, Jean  Search this
Matisse, Henri  Search this
Kolbe, Georg  Search this
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton  Search this
Manship, Paul Howard  Search this
Lippold, Richard  Search this
Lipton, Seymour  Search this
La Tour, Onya  Search this
De Chirico, Giorgio  Search this
Pompon, Fran­cois  Search this
Spaventa, George  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu  Search this
Segal, George  Search this
Stankiewicz, Richard  Search this
Oldenberg, Kla'es  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Giacometti, Alberto  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Bontecou, Lee  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Silvers, Herbert Ferber  Search this
Reinhardt, Adolph Dietrich Friedrich  Search this
Demuth, Charles  Search this
Cornell, Joseph  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Escobar, Maria Sol  Search this
Samaras, Lucas  Search this
Kohn, Gabriel  Search this
Scarpitta, Salvatore  Search this
Maillol, Aristide  Search this
Morris, Robert  Search this
Greenberg, Clement  Search this
Nakian, Reuben  Search this
Poe, Edgar Allan  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Melville, Herman  Search this
Marca-Relli, Conrad  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Works Progress Administration  Search this
Columbia University  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12490
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215743
AAA_collcode_agosti68
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_215743
Online Media:

Peter Howard Selz papers, 1929-2018, bulk 1950-2005

Creator:
Selz, Peter Howard, 1919-2019  Search this
Subject:
Bury, Pol  Search this
Paris, Harold Persico  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques  Search this
Golub, Leon  Search this
Baykam, Bedri  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel Charles Adrian  Search this
Chatzes, Demetres  Search this
Dubuffet, Jean  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Lindner, Richard  Search this
Reinhardt, Adolph Dietrich Friedrich  Search this
Giacometti, Alberto  Search this
Graves, Morris  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Tinguely, Jean  Search this
Conner, Bruce  Search this
Petlin, Irving  Search this
Chase-Riboud, Barbara  Search this
Lebrun, Rico  Search this
Onslow-Ford, Gordon  Search this
Bergman, Ciel  Search this
Benton, Fletcher Chapman  Search this
Beckmann, Max  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Christo  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Institute of Design (Chicago, Ill.)  Search this
Marlborough Gallery  Search this
San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (Calif.)Art Council  Search this
University of California, Berkeley.University Art Museum  Search this
College Art Association (U.S.)  Search this
Pomona College (Claremont, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Video recordings
Topic:
Ceramics  Search this
Political cartoons  Search this
Painting, Abstract  Search this
Art  Search this
Realism in art  Search this
Pop art  Search this
San Francisco Bay Area (Calif.)  Search this
Environmental art  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8464
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)210640
AAA_collcode_selzpete
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_210640
Online Media:

Elsa Schmid papers, 1910-1967

Creator:
Schmid, Elsa, 1897-1970  Search this
Subject:
Neumann, J. B. (Jsrael Ber)  Search this
Poor, Varnum  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Barr, Alfred H.  Search this
Dewey, John  Search this
Walkowitz, Abraham  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Morgan, Barbara Brooks  Search this
Brooks, Van Wyck  Search this
Chase, Helen  Search this
D'Arcy, Martin Cyril  Search this
Wheelock, Warren  Search this
Forbes, Edward  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Anrep, Boris  Search this
Kelekian, Dikran  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Mosaics  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)8833
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211018
AAA_collcode_schmelsa
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211018

E.P. (Edgar Preston) and Constance Richardson papers, 1814-1996, bulk 1921-1996

Creator:
Richardson, Edgar Preston, 1902-1985  Search this
Subject:
Watkins, Franklin Chenault  Search this
McDermott, John Francis  Search this
Speck, Walter  Search this
Heil, Walter  Search this
Flexner, James Thomas  Search this
Bostick, William A.  Search this
Boyd, Julian P. (Julian Parks),  Search this
Vose, Robert C. (Robert Churchill)  Search this
Castano, John  Search this
Garrison, Eve Josephson  Search this
Jungwirth, Irene G. (Irene Gayas),  Search this
Mast, Gerald  Search this
Richardson, Constance Coleman  Search this
Wedda, John  Search this
Aram, Siegfried F.  Search this
Copeland, Lammot du Pont  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich)  Search this
Freeman, Michael W.  Search this
Peale, Charles Willson  Search this
Lewis, W. S. (Wilmarth Sheldon),  Search this
Lee-Smith, Hughie  Search this
Bishop, Isabel  Search this
Soria, Regina  Search this
Simpson, Corelli C. W.  Search this
Fredericks, Marshall M.  Search this
Oliver, Andrew  Search this
Hardy, Jeremiah Pearson  Search this
Rutledge, Anna Wells  Search this
Andrews, Wayne  Search this
Groce, George C.  Search this
Peale fam, Peale family  Search this
Lynes, Russell  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew  Search this
Frankenstein, Alfred Victor  Search this
Allen, Joseph  Search this
Marsh, Reginald  Search this
Rockefeller, John D.  Search this
Cohn, Harold  Search this
Bouché, Louis George  Search this
Allston, Washington  Search this
Sellers, Charles Coleman  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Stevens, William B.  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Morse, John D.  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Woolfenden, William E. (William Edward)  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Culver, Charles B.  Search this
Middeldorf, Ulrich Alexander  Search this
Spark, Victor D. (Victor David)  Search this
Moser, Liselotte  Search this
Pleasants, J. Hall (Jacob Hall),  Search this
Simper, Fred  Search this
Krentzin, Earl  Search this
Fleischman, Lawrence Arthur  Search this
Ripley, S. Dillon (Sidney Dillon),  Search this
Valentiner, Wilhelm Reinhold  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Historical Society of Pennsylvania  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.)  Search this
Archives of American Art  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Castano Galleries (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Macbeth Gallery  Search this
Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum  Search this
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
United States.Department of Agriculture  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Topic:
Detroit (Mich.)  Search this
Art  Search this
Romanticism in art  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10104
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212990
AAA_collcode_richedga
Theme:
Diaries
Art Theory and Historiography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212990
Online Media:

Raymond Jonson papers, 1910-1964

Creator:
Jonson, Raymond, 1891-1982  Search this
Subject:
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Nordfeldt, B.J.O.  Search this
Wells, Cady  Search this
O'Hara, Eliot  Search this
Pelton, Agnes  Search this
Bloch, Albert  Search this
Cheney, Sheldon  Search this
Hiler, Hilaire  Search this
Bisttram, Emil  Search this
Levy, Beatrice S. (Beatrice Sophia)  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Dasburg, Andrew Michael  Search this
Xceron, Jean  Search this
Federal Art Project (N.M.)  Search this
United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Section of Fine Arts  Search this
Jonson Gallery  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Art and state  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9289
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211484
AAA_collcode_jonsraym
Theme:
Diaries
Government Sponsorship of the Arts
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211484

Dorothy C. Miller papers, 1853-2013, bulk 1920-1996

Creator:
Miller, Dorothy Canning, 1904-2003  Search this
Subject:
Guggenheim, Peggy  Search this
Barr, Alfred H.  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Gorky, Arshile  Search this
Chryssa  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Charlton, Maryette  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Christo  Search this
Sage, Kay  Search this
Coggeshall, C. (Calvert)  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel Charles Adrian  Search this
Canady, John  Search this
Johns, Jasper  Search this
Still, Clyfford E.  Search this
Pereira, I. Rice (Irene Rice)  Search this
Levy, Julien  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich)  Search this
Karpel, Bernard  Search this
Alcopley  Search this
Reinhardt, Adolph Dietrich Friedrich  Search this
Scharf, William  Search this
Newman, Barnett  Search this
Steinberg, Hedda  Search this
Cahill, Holger  Search this
Hicks, Edward  Search this
DeFeo, Jay  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Feitelson, Lorser  Search this
Noguchi, Isamu  Search this
Matisse, Pierre  Search this
Bontecou, Lee  Search this
Byars, James Lee  Search this
Horwitt, Will  Search this
Rothko, Mark  Search this
Asher, Elise  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Mather, Eleanore Price  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.  Search this
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
World Trade Center  Search this
Chase Manhattan Bank  Search this
Federal Art Project  Search this
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey  Search this
Smith College  Search this
Mark Rothko Foundation  Search this
PepsiCo, inc  Search this
Rockefeller University  Search this
Smith College.Museum of Art  Search this
Municipal Art Exhibition  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Topic:
Art, Modern  Search this
Art historians  Search this
Art  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Corporations  Search this
Art museum curators  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6469
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215653
AAA_collcode_milldoro
Theme:
Art Theory and Historiography
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_215653
Online Media:

Jerry Bywaters papers, [ca. 1900-1979]

Creator:
Bywaters, Jerry, 1906-1989  Search this
Subject:
Head, Matthew  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew  Search this
Nicholson, Ben  Search this
Goodrich, Lloyd  Search this
Hurd, Harold  Search this
Dobie, J. Frank (James Frank)  Search this
Bellows, Emma Louise Story  Search this
Staub, John F.  Search this
Benton, Thomas Hart  Search this
Hertzog, Carl  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Lea, Tom  Search this
D'Harnoncourt, Rene  Search this
Albright, Ivan  Search this
Barr, Alfred H.  Search this
Mayor, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt)  Search this
Cisneros, José  Search this
Cullinan, Nina J.  Search this
Kimball, Fiske  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Dallas Art Association  Search this
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Architects  Search this
Art patrons  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5444
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211288
AAA_collcode_bywajerr
Theme:
Latino and Latin American
Lives of American Artists
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Art Theory and Historiography
Architecture & Design
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211288

Imogen Cunningham papers, 1903-1991

Creator:
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976  Search this
Subject:
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
White, Minor  Search this
Mann, Margery  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, László  Search this
Bristol, Horace  Search this
Noskowiak, Sonya  Search this
Coburn, Alvin Langdon  Search this
Partridge, George Roy  Search this
Weston, Edward  Search this
Van Dyke, Willard  Search this
Adams, Ansel Easton  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Kanaga, Consuelo  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel Charles Adrian  Search this
Andreson, Laura F.  Search this
Schoener, Allon  Search this
Witkin, Lee D.  Search this
Steinert, Otto  Search this
Newhall, Beaumont  Search this
Bullock, Wynn  Search this
Taylor, Dorothea Lange  Search this
Butler, John Davidson  Search this
Steichen, Edward  Search this
Toklas, Alice B.  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Hellman, Lillian Florence  Search this
Aalto, Alvar  Search this
Bourke-White, Margaret  Search this
Bissantz, Edgar  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Graves, Morris  Search this
Struss, Karl  Search this
Strand, Paul  Search this
George Eastman House  Search this
Group f.64  Search this
Henry Art Gallery  Search this
Witkin Gallery  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Topic:
Photography, Artistic  Search this
Portrait photography  Search this
Women photographers  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9453
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211651
AAA_collcode_cunnimog
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Photography
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211651
Online Media:

Downtown Gallery records, 1824-1974, bulk 1926-1969

Creator:
Downtown Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Levi, Julian E. (Julian Edwin)  Search this
Storrs, John Henry Bradley  Search this
Burlin, Paul  Search this
Pattison, Abbott Lawrence  Search this
Nakian, Reuben  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite  Search this
Reynal, Kay Bell  Search this
Siegel, Adrian  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Sunami, Soichi  Search this
Siporin, Mitchell  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Shan, Benjamin  Search this
Karolik, Maxim  Search this
Cikovsky, Nicolai  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Bry, Doris  Search this
Van Vechten, Carl  Search this
Breinin, Raymond  Search this
Levine, Jack  Search this
Doi, Isami  Search this
Garbisch, Edgar  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley  Search this
Samuel, Halpert  Search this
Webb, Electra Havemeyer  Search this
Pollet, Joseph C.  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Tannahill, Robert Hudson  Search this
Valente, Alfredo  Search this
Stasack, Edward  Search this
Hart, George Overbury  Search this
Karfiol, George  Search this
Guglielmi, Louis  Search this
Lea, Wesley  Search this
Adams, Ansel Easton  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Wilde, Isabel Carleton  Search this
Crawford, Ralston  Search this
Yavno, Max  Search this
Dove, Arthur Garfield  Search this
Coleman, Glenn O.  Search this
Carlen, Robert  Search this
Pippin, Horace  Search this
Dole, William  Search this
Tseng, Yu-ho  Search this
Stella, Joseph  Search this
Steig, William  Search this
Broderson, Morris  Search this
Klein, Carl  Search this
Demuth, Charles  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Karfiol, Bernard  Search this
Brook, Alexander  Search this
Lewandowski, Edmund  Search this
Ray, Man  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Harnett, William Michael  Search this
Hopper, Jo N. (Josephine Nivison),  Search this
Zajac, Jack  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Morris, George L. K. (George Lovett Kingsland)  Search this
Spencer, Niles  Search this
Lane, William H.  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Steichen, Edward  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Halpert, Samuel  Search this
Fredenthal, David  Search this
Bennett, Rainey  Search this
Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich  Search this
Pincas, Julius Mordecai  Search this
Davis, Stuart  Search this
Saklatwalla, Beram K.  Search this
Walters, Carl  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Maya, Otto  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Tam, Reuben  Search this
Boris Mirski (Gallery : Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Felix Landau Gallery  Search this
American Folk Art Gallery  Search this
Our Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Topic:
Chalkware  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Weather vanes  Search this
Art  Search this
Figureheads of ships  Search this
Folk art  Search this
Fraktur art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6293
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)221206
AAA_collcode_downgall
Theme:
African American
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_221206
Online Media:

American Federation of Arts records, 1895-1993, bulk 1909-1969

Creator:
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Subject:
Whistler, James McNeill  Search this
Whittredge  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Altman, Harold  Search this
Henri, Robert  Search this
Crawford, Ralston  Search this
Dubuffet, Jean  Search this
Bishop, Isabel  Search this
Avery, Milton  Search this
Frasconi, Antonio  Search this
Kelly, Ellsworth  Search this
Goodnough, Robert  Search this
Stella, Joseph  Search this
Albert, Calvin  Search this
Hayter, Stanley William  Search this
Kahn, Max  Search this
Zoellner, Richard  Search this
Pereira, I. Rice (Irene Rice)  Search this
Tomlin, Bradley Walker  Search this
Jorn, Asger  Search this
Mechlin, Leila  Search this
Goya, Francisco  Search this
Parks, Gordon  Search this
Demuth, Charles  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Gatch, Lee  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard  Search this
Steinberg, Hedda  Search this
Antreasian, Garo Z. (Garo Zareh)  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Rembrandt  Search this
Heliker, John Edward  Search this
Xceron, Jean  Search this
Wyeth, Andrew  Search this
Margo, Boris  Search this
Nicholson, Ben  Search this
Baziotes, William  Search this
Baskin, Leonard  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
LÔeger, Fernand  Search this
Summers, Carol  Search this
Reinhardt, Adolph Dietrich Friedrich  Search this
Sato, Tadashi  Search this
Force, Juliana  Search this
Marsh, Reginald  Search this
Perlmutter, Jack  Search this
Moller, Hans  Search this
Eilshemius, Louis M. (Louis Michel)  Search this
Moore, Henry  Search this
Seligmann, Kurt  Search this
Morris, George L. K. (George Lovett Kingsland)  Search this
Neuberger, Roy R. (Roy Rothschild)  Search this
Spruance, Benton  Search this
Stamos, Theodoros  Search this
Graves, Morris  Search this
Spaeth, Eloise O.  Search this
Tobey, Mark  Search this
Gwathmey, Robert  Search this
Sheeler, Charles  Search this
Steichen, Edward  Search this
Hartley, Marsden  Search this
Von Wicht, John  Search this
Chase, William Merritt  Search this
Tchelitchew, Pavel  Search this
Moy, Seong  Search this
Hofmann, Hans  Search this
Pollock, Jackson  Search this
Savelli, Angelo  Search this
Arp, Jean  Search this
Jones, John Paul  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Francis, Sam  Search this
Peterdi, Gabor  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Von Wiegand, Charmion  Search this
Sterne, Maurice  Search this
Bertoia, Arieto  Search this
Hopper, Edward  Search this
Berman, Eugene  Search this
Meeker, Dean  Search this
Zao, Wou-ki  Search this
Eakins, Thomas  Search this
Weir, Julian Alden  Search this
Saetti, Bruno  Search this
Bingham, George Caleb  Search this
Breuer, Marcel  Search this
Wald, Sylvia  Search this
Treiman, Joyce Wahl  Search this
Day, Worden  Search this
Luks, George Benjamin  Search this
De Diego, Julio  Search this
Prendergast, Maurice Brazil  Search this
Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite  Search this
Callahan, Kenneth L.  Search this
Miró, Joan  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault  Search this
Suzuki, James  Search this
Knaths, Karl  Search this
Ernst, Jimmy  Search this
Schongauer, Martin  Search this
Picasso, Pablo  Search this
Bellows, George  Search this
Thon, William  Search this
Ruckstull, F. W. (Fred Wellington),  Search this
Walkowitz, Abraham  Search this
Tamayo, Rufino  Search this
Stone, Edward Durell  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
Shan, Benjamin  Search this
Brooks, James  Search this
De Kooning, Willem  Search this
Takal, Peter  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert  Search this
Levine, Jack  Search this
Schanker, Louis  Search this
Steg, J. L.  Search this
Turner, Joseph Mallord William  Search this
Wines, James  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Roszak, Theodore  Search this
Gottlieb, Adolph  Search this
Braque, Georges  Search this
Zorach, William  Search this
Fine, Perle  Search this
Hassam, Childe  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen  Search this
Coen, Eleanor Jean  Search this
Santomaso, Giuseppe  Search this
Thrall, Arthur  Search this
Porter, Fairfield  Search this
Chagall, Marc  Search this
Sargent, John Singer  Search this
Roderick, Nathan Joseph  Search this
Schrag, Karl  Search this
Schramm, James S  Search this
Soyer, Raphael  Search this
Whiting, Frederic Allen  Search this
Vespignani, Renzo  Search this
Kohn, Misch  Search this
MacIver, Loren  Search this
Gonzalez, Xavier  Search this
Blume, Peter  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Ratkai, George  Search this
Klee, Paul  Search this
Citron, Minna Wright  Search this
Adams, Ansel Easton  Search this
Renoir, Auguste  Search this
Chesney, Lee  Search this
Pozzatti, Rudy O.  Search this
Sloan, John French  Search this
Yunkers, Adja  Search this
Feininger, Lyonel Charles Adrian  Search this
Dove, Arthur Garfield  Search this
Conover, Robert F. (Robert Fremont)  Search this
Degas, Edgar  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Ryder, Albert Pinkham  Search this
Murch, Walter Tandy  Search this
Clements, Geoffrey  Search this
Kienbusch, William Austin  Search this
De Rivera, José Ruiz  Search this
Rivers, Larry  Search this
Daumier, Honoré  Search this
Albers, Annie  Search this
Barnet, Will  Search this
Lipchitz, Jacques  Search this
Hartigan, Grace  Search this
George, Thomas  Search this
Tiepolo, Giovanni Domenico  Search this
Casarella, E. (Edmond)  Search this
Okada, Kenzo  Search this
Tooker, George  Search this
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5411
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209113
AAA_collcode_amerfeda
Theme:
The Art Market
Lives of American Artists
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209113
Online Media:

Albert M. Bender papers, 1909-1941

Creator:
Bender, Albert M. (Albert Maurice), 1866-1941  Search this
Subject:
Leon, Judah  Search this
Adams, Virginia Best  Search this
Danysh, Joseph A.  Search this
Magnes, Beatrice L.  Search this
Morgan, Julia  Search this
Partridge, George Roy  Search this
Kanaga, Consuelo  Search this
Stackpole, Ralph  Search this
Nash, John Henry  Search this
Burgess, Gelett  Search this
Adams, Ansel Easton  Search this
Kahlo, Frida  Search this
Liebes, Dorothy  Search this
Raphael, Johanna  Search this
Dixon, Maynard  Search this
Bufano, Beniamino  Search this
Rivera, Diego  Search this
Bremer, Anne  Search this
Partridge, Marian  Search this
Gogarty, Oliver St. John  Search this
Raphael, Joseph  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Bufano, Virginia  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9895
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)212397
AAA_collcode_bendalbe
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_212397

N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records

Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Names:
American Telephone and Telegraph Company -- Advertisements  Search this
Cunningham & Walsh.  Search this
Hixson & Jorgenson  Search this
United Air Lines, Inc. -- Advertisements  Search this
Ayer, Francis Wayland  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia, 1887-1986  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (1169 boxes )
7 Film reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Film reels
Business records
Interviews
Oral history
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Date:
1817-1851
1869-2006
Summary:
Collection consists of records documenting one of the oldest advertising agencies created in Philadelphia. The company then moves to New York and expanses to international markets. During its history NW Ayer & Sons acquires a number of other advertising agencies and is eventually purchased. The largest portion of the collection is print advertisements but also includes radio and television. NW Ayer is known for some of the slogans created for major American companies.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists primarily of proof sheets of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son, Incorporated for their clients. These materials are in series one through thirteen and consist primarily of print advertisements. There are also billboards, radio and television commercials. The advertisements range from consumer to corporate and industrial products. The majority of the advertisements were created for Ayer's New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and international offices. Printed advertisements created by Cunningham & Walsh, Hixson & Jorgensen and Newell-Emmett are also included among these materials. Researchers who are interested in records created by Ayer in the course of operating an advertising agency will find these materials in Series fourteen-nineteen.

Series fourteen consists of advertisements created by NW Ayer & Son to promote their services to potential clients.

Series fifteen are scrapbooks of some of the earliest advertisements created by the company. Series sixteen are publications. Some of the publications were created by Ayer while others were about Ayer or the advertising industry in general. Provides good background materials and puts the company in perspective. Series eighteen are the legal records. Materials relating to employees including photographs, oral histories etc. are found in series nineteen.

Series twenty is one of the smallest amounts of materials and includes information relating to the history of NW Ayer & Son.

The container lists for series one-thirteen are part of a database and are searchable. The list has been printed for the convenience of the researcher and is included in this finding aid. Series fourteen-twenty container lists are also a part of the finding aid but are not in a searchable format.

Series 1, Scrapbooks of Client Advertisements, circa 1870-1920, is arranged into three boxes by chronological date. There are two bound scrapbooks and one box of folders containing loose scrapbook pages. NW Ayer & Son compiled an assortment of their earliest ads and placed them into scrapbooks. Besides the earliest advertisements, the scrapbooks contain requests to run advertisements, reading notices and listings of papers Ayer advertised in. The early advertisements themselves range from medical remedies to jewelry to machines to clothing to education and more. Most of the advertisements in the bound scrapbooks are dated.

Series 2, Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930, NW Ayer was fond of creating scrapbooks containing proofsheets. The series contains proofsheets created between 1892 and 1930, organized into 526 boxes. For convenience of storage, access and arrangement, the scrapbooks were disassembled and the pages placed in original order in flat archival storage boxes. The proofsheets are arranged by book number rather than client name. Usually the boxes contain a listing of the clients and sometimes the dates of the advertisements to be found within the box.

Series 3, Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975, is organized into 532 oversize boxes, and contain proofsheets and tearsheets created between 1920 and 1972. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by company name (occasionally subdivided by brand or product), and thereunder chronologically by date of production. Many major, national advertisers are represented, including American Telephone & Telegraph, Armour Company, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Carrier Corporation, Domino Sugar, Caterpillar tractor company, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, Goodyear, Hills Bros. Coffee, Ladies Home Journal, National Dairy, Plymouth (Chrysler Corporation), Steinway, TV Guide, United Airlines and the United States Army. Also contained in this series are three scrapbooks of client advertisements including Canada Dry, Ford Motor, and Victor Talking Machine.

Series 4, 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001, is organized into ninety three oversized boxes,one folder and contains proofsheets for select Ayer clients, created between 1975 and 2001. Within this series, materials are arranged alphabetically by client name and there under chronologically by date of production. Major national advertisers represented include American Telephone & Telegraph, Avon, the United States Army, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Dupont, TV Guide, Sealtest, Kraft Foods, Gillette, General Motors, Cannon Mills.

Series 5, Billboards, circa 1952-1956, consists of mounted and un-mounted original art/mock-ups. Twenty-two pieces of original art created as mock-ups for Texaco billboards.

Series 6, Film and Video Commercials, 1967-1970,

Series 7, Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated, is arranged into eight boxes and includes radio scripts, television scripts, and story boards for commercials.

Subseries 7.1, Scripts and storyboards for Radio and Television Commercials, dates Scripts for radio and television commercials includes title, date, length of commercial, advertising agency, client information

NW Ayer's radio and television materials mainly focus on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Some of Ayer's materials relate to Bell Telephone Hours.

Storyboards are used in television and film to assist the director in working with crew to tell the story. To show the viewer through the use of figures, visual effects and camera angles. When directors first start thinking about their storyboard they create a story in their mind. They think of all the camera angles, visual effects and how the figures will interact in their mind. They try to create an extraordinary story in their head to attract the viewer (YOU) In order for the storyboard to be entirely effective it can't be a passive document. When done properly, a storyboard serves as a central design, meeting the needs of many team members including graphics artists, video personnel and programmers.

Another function of a storyboard is to help the team communicate during the training development process. This communication is very important in working with a large team as in the movie King, produced in 1996. Figures help the director explain to the crew how they are going to record the film and how to present it to the audience. Sometimes the director wants special effects to be added to the film, but his budget might not be that big so the director will have to change the story to fit their budget.

The Visual Effects are an important part in the storyboards it adds a special touch of creativity to your film. Camera angles are an important expects in your film because the camera angles determine where the viewing audience will look. If you want your audience to look at a certain object you must turn their attention to it by focusing on that object and maybe you might try blocking something out. Then you will have your audience's attention and you may do whatever else you have to, it could be scaring them are just surprising them or whatever you do.

Also included is talent information and log sheets relating to the storage of the commercials.

Bell Telephone Hour Program, 1942-[19??], The Bell Telephone Hour, also known as The Telephone Hour, was a five minute musical program which began April 29, 1940 on National Broadcasting Company Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone showcased the best in classical and Broadway music, reaching eight to nine million listeners each week. It continued on television from 1959 to 1968.

Earlier shows featured James Melton and Francia White as soloists. Producer Wallace Magill restructured the format on April 27, 1942 into the "Great Artists Series" of concert and opera performers, beginning with Jascha Heifetz. Records indicate that the list of talents on the program included Marian Anderson, Helen Traubel, Oscar Levant, Lily Pons, Nelson Eddy, Bing Crosby, Margaret Daum, Benny Goodman, José Iturbi, Gladys Swarthout and .The series returned to radio in 1968-1969 as Bell Telephone Hour Encores, also known as Encores from the Bell Telephone Hour, featuring highlights and interviews from the original series.

National Broadcasting television specials sponsored by the Bell System, 1957-1987includes information relating to Science series, Bell system Theshold Series, Bell telephone hour and commercial and public sponsored programs

Series 8, Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989, is arranged alphabetically by the name of the client in ninety boxes and six oversize folders. Clients include Illinois Bell Telephone (1955-1989), Microswitch (1969-1989), Teletype (1975-1984), John Deere (1974-1989) and Caterpillar (1966-1972) are particularly well represented. Other clients of interest include Dr. Scholl's shoes (circa 1968-1972), the Girl Scouts (1976-1980), Sunbeam Personal Products Company (1973-1981), Bell and Howell (1974-1983) and Alberto Culver shampoos (1967-1971), Honeywell, Incorporated, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Associations, Kraft, Incorporated, Sears, Roebuck and Company, and YMCA.

Series 9, Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987, include printed advertisements created by this office and information relating to the employees.

Subseries 9.1, Print Advertisements, 1977-1987, printed advertisements arranged in one box alphabetically by client. There is a sparse sampling of clients from this particular Ayer branch office. The majority of the advertisements contained within this series are from Pizza Hut (1986-1987). Also included are Computer Automation (1977-1978), State of the Art, Incorporated (1982) and Toshiba (1986).

Subseries 9.2, Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s, includes cards of employees who worked in the Los Angeles office. Information on the cards includes name, address, telephone number, birthday, date hired, departure date and why (retired, terminated, resigned, etc) and position. Not all cards have all information. There is also a photograph of the employees on the cards.

Series 10, Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated, NW Ayer maintained partnerships with international companies such as Sloanas Ayer in Argentina, Connaghan & May Paton Ayer in Australia, Moussault Ayer in Belgium, NW Ayer, LTD. in Canada, GMC Ayer in France, Co-Partner Ayer in Germany, Wong Lam Wang in Hong Kong, MacHarman Ayer in New Zealand, Grupo de Diseno Ayer in Spain, Nedeby Ayer in Sweden, and Ayer Barker in United Kingdom. This group of material is a small sampling of advertisements created from these International offices. It is arranged alphabetically by client. There are quite a few automobile advertisements (i.e. Audi, Fiat, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, and Volkswagen). In addition there are numerous advertisements for various personal items from MacLean's toothpaste to Quick athletic shoes to Labello lip balm, etc. Most of the advertisements have the creator's name printed on the advertisements.

Series 11, Cunningham & Walsh, Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated contains 98 boxes 11 folders materials from the New York advertising agency acquired by NW Ayer in the 1960s. The company began with Newel-Emmett, an agency of nine men which broke up in 1949. Two of the men Fred Walsh and Jack Cunningham formed this agency in bearing their names in 1950. The agency created "let your fingers for the walking campaign for American Telephone & Telegraph, Mother Nature for Chiffon, and Mrs. Olson for Folgers's coffee and let the good times roll for Kawasaki motorcycle. In 1986, NW Ayer Incorporated purchased Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated.

Subseries 11.1, Print Advertisements, 1915-1987, are contained in ninety eight boxes of primarily print advertisements arranged alphabetically by client name. Clients that are particularly well represented are Graybar (electrical implements, circa1926-1937), Johns-Manulle (circa1915-1971), Smith and Corono typewriters (circa 1934-1960), Sunshine Biscuit Company (circa 1925-1961), Texaco Company (circa 1936-1961), Western Electric (circa 1920- 1971) and Yellow Pages (circa 1936-1971). Cunningham and Walsh also represented several travel and tourism industry clients, including Cook Travel Services (circa 1951-1962), Italian Line (circa 1953-1961), Narragansett and Croft (circa 1956-1960) and Northwest Airlines (circa 1946-1955). There are photographs of Texaco advertisements dating from 1913-1962. There is also a scrapbook of advertisements from the Western Electric Company dating from 1920-1922.

Subseries 11.2, Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967, consist of materials created for Western Electric. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 11.3, Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated include client lists, information relating to NW Ayer purchase and annual report 1962.

Series 12, Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, a Los Angeles advertising company, merged with Ayer in 1969. This series is housed in one box. Within the box are four scrapbooks and folders with a hodgepodge of materials relating to advertising. Of most interest are the scrapbooks. Two scrapbooks deal with Hixson and Jorgensen's self promotion ad campaign "the right appeal gets action" (1953-1957). The other two scrapbooks contain news clippings about the company and its activities (1959-1971).

Series 13, Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957, founded in 1919 and governed in the 1940s by a partnership of nine men. The partnership broke up in 1949 when the men went their separate ways. The materials consist of print advertisements for one of client, Permutit Company, a water conditioning company. The materials are arranged in one box in chronological order.

Series 14, House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991, 16 boxes consists of advertisements or self-promotion advertisements to campaign for new clients. The series is arranged chronologically by date into fifteen boxes. Within the series are two scrapbooks containing self promotion ads from 1888-1919 and 1892-1895. Numerous house ads relate to Ayer's "Human Contact" campaign. In addition to the self promotion ads, Ayer ran advertisements expounding about particular concepts or themes for example, one month the concept would "understand" while another month would be "teamwork" and yet another would be on "imagination". Some of the self promotion ads target specific groups like Philadelphia businessmen. Other advertisements incorporate the fine arts.

Series 15, Scrapbooks, 1872-1959, relates to company events, records and news clippings about Ayer's history. The six boxes are arranged by chronological date. Two of the boxes focus solely on the death of founder F.W. Ayer (1923). Another box houses a scrapbook that showcases Ayer's annual Typography Exhibition (1931-1959). One box contains a scrapbook that specifically deals with correspondences relating to Ayer's advertising. Yet another box's contents are folders of loose pages from scrapbooks that have newspaper clippings, order forms, correspondences and other company records. In one box, a bound scrapbook houses a variety of materials relating to Ayer and advertising (i.e. newspaper clippings, competitor's advertisements, NW Ayer's advertisements, correspondences for advertisements, clippings regarding the "theory of advertising."

Series 16, Publications, 1849-2006, are housed in thirty four boxes and are arranged into three main categories.

Subseries 16.1, House Publications, 1876-1994, covers diverse topics; some proscriptive works about the Ayer method in advertising, some commemorating people, anniversaries or events in the life of the agency. Materials consist of scattered issues of the employee newsletter The Next Step 1920-1921. The materials are arranged in chronological order by date of publication. Ayer in the News, The Show Windows of an Advertising Agency, 1915, book form of advertisements published on the cover of Printer's Ink, highlighting Ayer's relations with advertisers. The Story of the States, 1916, Reprint in book form of a series of articles published in Printer's Ink for the purpose of adding some pertinent fact, progressive thought and prophetic vision to the Nationalism of Advertising highlights major businesses, manufacturer, natural resources and other qualities or attractions of each state. The Book of the Golden Celebration, 1919, includes welcome address and closing remarks by founder F. Wayland Ayer, The Next Step, 1920 employee newsletter with photographs, employee profiles, in-house jokes, etc., Advertising Advertising: A Series of Fifty-two Advertisements scheduled one time a week. Twenty-seven, thirty and forty inches, a day of the week optional with publisher, 1924

Subseries 16.2, Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-2006, includes a book first published in 1939. Includes articles, documenting events and is arranged chronologically by date of publication.

Subseries 16.3, General Publications about Advertising, 1922-1974, are arranged chronologically by date of publication and relate primarily to the history of advertising.

Subseries 16.4, Publications about Other Subjects, 1948-1964, include four books about the tobacco industry primarily the history of the American Tobacco Company and Lorillard Company from the Cunningham and Walsh library.

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1, Contracts, 1885-1908, undated, are arranged alphabetically and span from 1885-1908. The majority of the contracts are with newspaper and magazine publishers from around the country.

Subseries 17.2, General client information, 1911-1999, undated, including active and cancelled lists with dates, client gains, historical client list, (should move this to series 20) Ayer Plan User Guide Strategic Planning for Human Contact, undated

Subseries 17.3, Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated, contain information used by Ayer to create advertisements for some of its clients. American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate Case History, American Telephone &Telegraph Corporate advertisement memo, commissioned artists for DeBeers advertisements, DeBeers information relating to the creative process and photography credits, a case history for DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., The Diamond Engagement Ring, Managing Communication at all levels, DuPont publications, JC Penny Marketing Communication Plan Recommendation, Leaf, Incorporated, Saturn presentation, and USAREC oral presentation.

Subseries 17.4, Potential Clients, 1993, includes grouping has a questionnaire sent to Ayer by a potential client. Questionnaire response for Prudential Securities, 1993 Prudential Securities advertising account review, 1993.

Subseries 17.5, Financial Records, 1929-1938, includes balance sheet, 1929 May 1 Balance sheet and adjustments Consolidated statement of assets and liabilities, Expenses 191936-37 Business review and expenses, 1937 and 1938 Business review and expenses comparative statement, 1937 and 1938.

Series 18, Legal Records, circa 1911-1982, Ayer's legal records are arranged by twelve subject groupings within four boxes. The twelve groupings are advertising service agreements (circa 1918-1982), bylaws, copyright claims, correspondences, international correspondences, dissolution of trusts, stock information, agreements between partners, incorporation materials, reduction of capital, property information and miscellaneous materials. The bulk of the materials are the advertising service agreements. These agreements are between Ayer and their clients and state the services Ayer will offer and at what cost. The bylaws are Ayer's company bylaws from 1969 and 1972. The copyright claims are certificates stating Ayer's ownership over certain published materials (i.e. "Policy", Media Equalizer Model, and Don Newman's Washington Square Experiment). The correspondences relate to either the voting trust and receipts for agreement or the New York Corporation. The international correspondences are from either Ayer's Canadian office or London office. The dissolutions of trusts contains materials about the dividend trust of Wilfred F. Fry, the investment trust of Winfred W. Fry, the voting trust, and the New York corporation. The stock information has stock certificates and capital stock information. The agreements between partners (1911-1916) specify the terms between F.W. Ayer and his partners. The incorporation materials (circa 1929-1977) deal with Ayer advertising agency becoming incorporated in the state of Delaware. The reduction of capital grouping is a notification that shares of stock have been retired. The property information grouping contains property deeds and insurance policy (circa 1921-1939), a property appraisal (1934), and a bill of sale (1948). The miscellaneous grouping contains a house memo regarding a set of board meeting minutes and a registry of foreign companies in Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1929-1954).

Subseries 18.1, Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2, Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4, Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5, International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6, Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7, Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8, Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9, Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10, Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11, Property Information, 1921-1948

Subseries 18.12, Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19, Personnel Records, circa 1889-2001, are arranged into eight groupings within eight boxes. The groupings are employee card files, photographs, Ayer alumni, biographies, speeches, recollections, oral histories, and miscellaneous. Typed manuscript of book A Copy Writer Speaks by George Cecil, NW Ayer, Incorporated copy head 1920s-1950s

Subseries 19.1, Employee card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963, consists of index cards with the name, age, job title, date and wage increases, date of hire/fire, as well as remarks about the employee's service and/or reasons for seeking or leaving the job. Materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the employee within three boxes.

Subseries 19.2, Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated, are housed in two boxes. The photographs grouped together by subjects i.e. personnel, company events, Ayer buildings, and miscellaneous. This grouping primarily consists of personnel photographs. Includes a glass plate negative dated 1924 of NW Ayer.

Subseries 19.3, Ayer Alumni, circa 1989-98, include employees who have left Ayer. There is a listing of Ayer "graduates" and their current job. Emeritus, Ayer's alumni newsletter 1989-1996, makes up the majority of materials in this grouping. The newsletter keeps the alumni up to date with the happenings of Ayer and what has become of former Ayer employees. Emeritus is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the activities, thoughts and feelings of Ayer alumni a body of people who consists of retirees and former employees.

Subseries 19.4, Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994, undated, prominent members of Ayer's operations had biographical sketches completed of them. This was true for the bio sketches of Robert Ervin, Louis T. Hagopian, and George A. Rink. There is a substantial file on Dorothy Dignam ("Mis Dig"), a leading woman in the advertising world from the 1930s to the 1950s. Also of interest is a video ("The Siano Man") compiled by Ayer employees to commemorate Jerry Siano's retirement from Ayer in 1994. The series is arranged alphabetically by last name.

Subseries 19.5, Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975, contains speeches made by Wilfred W. Fry and Neal W. O'Connor. Wilfred W. Fry had various speaking engagements connected with Ayer. Contained in this group is a sampling of his speeches from 1919 to 1931. Neal O'Connor's speech "Advertising: Who Says It's a Young People's Business" was given at the Central Region Convention for the American Association of Advertising Agencies in Chicago on November 6, 1975. The speeches are arranged alphabetically by the speaker's last name.

Subseries 19.6, Recollections, 1954-1984, undated, are arranged alphabetically by last name. These are recollections from Ayer employees about the company and its advertisements. Some recollections are specifically about certain types of advertisements, like farm equipment while others reflect on F. W. Ayer and the company.

Subseries 19.7, Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991, include interviews with key NW Ayer personnel, conducted by Ayer alumnae Howard Davis, Brad Lynch and Don Sholl (Vice President creative) for the Oral History Program. The materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.8, Oral History Interview Audio Tapes, 1985-1990, include interviews on audiotape the materials are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the interviewee.

Subseries 19.9, Internal Communications, 1993-1999, includes information sent to employees relating to retirements, management changes, awards won by the company, promotions, potential new accounts, free items, grand opening of Ayer Café, donation events, sponsorship programs, holiday schedules, discounts for employees from clients, Ayer joins MacManus Group.

Subseries 19.10, General Materials, 1940; 1970, includes agency directory entry including a list of the employees, 1970s, annual banquet program for the Curfew Club May 22, 1940 a group formed by the Philadelphia employee in 1938. It sponsored numerous sports, social and educational activities. Groups were formed in public speaking, music appreciation and a series of talks on Monday evenings title the modern woman. The front page was a series of talks for general interest. A list of officers, 1991, Twenty five year club membership, 1973 December 1, List of NW Ayer graduates, 1970, List of Officers, 1991 May 31, Obituary for Leo Lionni, 1999 October 17, List of photographers of advertisements, 2001

Series 20, Background and History Information, 1817-1999, undated includes a chronology, 1817-1990, quick reference timeline, 1848-1923, loose pages from a scrapbook containing examples of correspondence, envelopes, advertisements dating from 1875-1878; slogans coined by NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1899-1990, history of management, 1909-1923, articles and photographs about the building and art galleries, 1926-1976, publications about the Philadelphia building, 1929, pamphlet relating to memories of NW Ayer & Sons, Incorporated, 1930s-1950s, television history, 1940-1948, Article about the history of the company, 1950 January, pocket guide, 1982, AdWeek reports about standings for advertising agencies, information relating to Human Contact which is NW Ayer's Information relating to Human Contact, undated which is their philosophy on advertising.

Series 21, Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated, consists of print advertisements collected by Ayer from other major advertising companies. The companies include Doyle Dane Bernback, Incorporated, Leo Burnett Company, Grey Advertising Agency, D'Arcy Ad Agency, Scali, McCabe, Sloves, Incorporated and Erwin Wasey Company. The materials are arranged in alphabetical order by client and include products from Ralston Purina and Van Camp (Chicken of the Sea), Kellogg, American Export Lines and No Nonsense Fashions.

Series 22, 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1999, undated, includes material given to the Archives Center in 2010. It is organized into seventy one oversized boxes and contains proofsheets of print advertisements for select Ayer clients. These are arranged alphabetically by client name and include substantial quantities of materials from American Telephone &Telegraph (1945-1996), Bahamas Ministry of Tourism (1967-1987), Carrier (1971-1981), Citibank (1973-1991), DeBeers (1940s-1960s and1990s), Electric Companies Advertising Program [ECAP] (1942-1970s), General Motors (1989-1998), J.C. Penney (1983-1986), Newsweek (1966-1975), and Proctor and Gamble (1980s-1890s). There are also numerous other clients represented by smaller quantities of materials.

Subseries 22.1, Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2, Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated, include Cannon towels, Cheny Brothers silks, Cornish & Company organs and pianos, Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 1879 sad iron, an ad from Harper's Weekly 1881 for ladies clothing, Ostermoor & Company mattresses, Pear's soap, Porter's cough balsam, Steinway pianos.

Series 23, Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985, consists of three boxes of printed advertisements for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. Some of the same advertisements might also be found in series two, three and four.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-three series.

Series 1: Scrapbooks of Client Print Advertisements, circa 1870-1920

Series 2: Proofsheets, circa 1870-1930

Series 3: Proofsheets, circa 1920-1975

Series 4: 2001 Addendum, circa 1976-2001

Series 5: Billboards, circa 1952-1956

Series 6: Audiovisual Materials

Series 7: Radio and Television Materials, 1933-1993, undated

Series 8: Chicago Office Print Advertisements, 1954-1989

Series 9: Los Angeles Office Materials, 1950s-1987

Subseries 9.1: Printed Advertisements, 1977-1987

Subseries 9.2: Personnel Files, 1950s-1970s

Series 10: Foreign Print Advertisements, 1977-1991, undated

Series 11: Cunningham & Walsh Incorporated Materials, 1915-1987, undated

Subseries 11.1: Printed Advertisements, 1915-1987

Subseries 11.2: Radio and Television Advertisements, 1963-1967

Subseries 11.3: Company Related Materials, 1962-1986, undated

Series 12: Hixson & Jorgensen Materials, 1953-1971, undated

Series 13: Newell-Emmet, 1942-1957

Series 14: House Print Advertisements, 1870-1991

Series 15: Scrapbooks, 1872-1959

Series 16: Publications, 1849-2006

Subseries 16.1: House Publications, 1876-1994

Subseries 16.2: Publications about NW Ayer, 1949-1995

Subseries 16.3: General Publications about Advertising, 1922-2006

Subseries 16.4: Publications about other Subjects, 1948-1964

Series 17, Business Records, circa 1885-1990s

Subseries 17.1: Contracts, 1885-1908, undated

Subseries 17.2: General Client Information, 1911-1999, undated

Subseries 17.3: Individual Client Account Information, 1950s-1990s, undated

Subseries 17.4: Potential Clients, 1993

Subseries 17.5: Financial Records, 1929-1938

Series 18: Legal Records, circa 1911-1984

Subseries 18.1: Advertising Service Agreements, 1918-1982

Subseries 18.2: Bylaw Materials, 1969-1972

Subseries 18.3, Copyright Claims, 1962-1969

Subseries 18.4: Correspondence, 1928-1933

Subseries 18.5: International Office Correspondence, 1947-1948

Subseries 18.6: Dissolution of Trusts, 1934-1937

Subseries 18.7: Stock Information, 1934-1974

Subseries 18.8: Agreements between Partners, 1911-1916

Subseries 18.9: Incorporation Materials, 1929-1977

Subseries 18.10: Certificates of Reduction of Capital, 1937; 1975

Subseries 18.11: Property Information

Subseries 18.12: Miscellaneous Materials, 1929-1977

Series 19: Employee Materials, circa 1889-2001

Subseries 19.1: Employee Card files, circa 1892-1915; 1929-1963

Subseries 19.2: Photographs, circa 1924-1984, undated

Subseries 19.3: Alumni Publications, circa 1989-1998

Subseries 19.4: Biographical Information, circa 1889-1994

Subseries 19.5: Speeches, circa 1919-1931; 1975

Subseries 19.6: Recollections, 1954-1984, undated

Subseries 19.7: Oral History Interview Transcripts, 1983-1985; 1989-1991

Subseries 19.8: Oral History Audiotapes, 1985-1990

Subseries 19.9: Internal Communications, 1993-1999

Subseries 19.1: General Materials, 1940-2001

Series 20: History and Background Information about the Company, 1817-1999, undated

Series 21: Materials Created by other Advertising Agencies, 1945-1978, undated

Series 22: 2010 Addendum of Print Advertisements, circa 1879s-1990s, undated

Subseries 22.1: Print Advertisements, 1930-1990, undated

Subseries 22.2: Print Advertisements on Glass Plate Negatives, 1879-1881, undated

Series 23: Microfilm of Print Advertisements, circa 1908-1985
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in Philadelphia in 1869, NW Ayer & Son is one of the oldest and largest advertising agencies in America. For most of its history, it was the undisputed leader and innovator in the field of advertising. In 1876, NW Ayer & Son pioneered the "open contract", a revolutionary change in the method of billing for advertising which became the industry standard for the next hundred years. NW Ayer pioneered the use of fine art in advertising and established the industry's first art department. It was the first agency to use a full-time copywriter and the first to institute a copy department. The agency relocated to New York City in 1974. During its long history, the agency's clients included many "blue-chip" clients, including American Telephone & Telegraph, DeBeers Consolidated Diamond Mines, Ford Motor Company, Nabisco, R. J. Reynolds and United Airlines. However, in later years, the Ayer's inherent conservatism left the agency vulnerable to the creative revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the advertising industry restructuring of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s. The agency was bought out by a Korean investor in 1993. In 1996, NW Ayer merged with another struggling top twenty United States advertising agency, Darcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, under the umbrella of the McManus Group. Ayer continues to operate as a separate, full-service agency.

Through a series of buyouts and mergers, Ayer traces its lineage to the first advertising agency founded in the United States, a Philadelphia agency begun by Volney Palmer in 1841. Palmer began his career in advertising as a newspaper agent, acting as middleman between newspaper publishers and advertisers across the country. By 1849, Palmer had founded his own newspaper, V. B. Palmer's Register and Spirit of the Press, and had developed a complete system of advertising which included securing advertising space and placing ads in scores of commercial, political, religious, scientific and agricultural journals across the country. Palmer went one step further than the "space jobbers" of the day when he began offering "advertisements carefully drawn for those who have not the time to prepare an original copy." Always an enthusiastic promoter of advertising as an incentive to trade and American economic growth, Palmer promised advertisers that "every dollar paid for advertising in country newspapers will pay back twenty-fold" and encouraged skeptical consumers that "he who wishes to buy cheap should buy of those who advertise." When Palmer died in 1863, the agency was bought by his bookkeeper, John Joy, who joined with another Philadelphia advertising agency to form Joy, Coe & Sharpe. That agency was bought out again in 1868 and renamed Coe, Wetherill & Company. In 1877, Coe, Wetherill and Company was bought out by the newly formed NW Ayer & Son.

Francis Wayland Ayer was an ambitious young schoolteacher with an entrepreneurial streak. Having worked for a year soliciting advertisements on a commission basis for the publisher of the National Baptist weekly, Francis Ayer saw the potential to turn a profit as an advertising agent. In 1869, Ayer persuaded his father, Nathan Wheeler Ayer, to join him in business, and with an initial investment of only $250.00, NW Ayer & Son was born. Notwithstanding a smallpox epidemic in Philadelphia in 1871 and the general economic depression of the early 1870s, the agency flourished. The senior Ayer died in 1873, leaving his interest in the agency to his wife, but Francis W. Ayer bought her out, consolidating his interest in the company's management. In 1877, with Coe, Wetherill & Company (the successor to Palmer's 1841 agency) on the verge of bankruptcy and heavily indebted to Ayer for advertising it had placed in Ayer publications, Ayer assumed ownership of that agency. Thus did NW Ayer lay claim to being the oldest advertising agency in the country.

Both Nathan Wheeler and Francis Wayland Ayer began their careers as schoolteachers, and one of their legacies was a commitment to the cause of education: correspondence schools and institutions of higher learning were historically well-represented among Ayer clients. Just after World War I, the agency was heralded as "co-founder of more schools than any citizen of this country" for its conspicuous efforts to advertise private schools. Well into the 1960s, an "Education Department" at Ayer prepared advertisements for over three hundred private schools, camps and colleges, representing almost half the regional and national advertising done for such institutions. In fact, to its clients Ayer presented advertising itself as being akin to a system of education. In 1886, Ayer began promoting the virtues of the Ayer way advertising with the slogan, "Keeping Everlastingly at It Brings Success."

The agency's goals were simple: "to make advertising pay the advertiser, to spend the advertiser's money as though it were our own, to develop, magnify and dignify advertising as a business." Initially, Ayer's fortunes were tied to newspapers, and the agency began to make a name for itself as compiler and publisher of a widely used American Newspaper Annual. During the first years, Ayer's singular goal was "to get business, place it [in newspapers] and get money for it"; after several years as an independent space broker, however, Francis Ayer resolved "not to be an order taker any longer." This decision led NW Ayer and Son to a change in its mode of conducting business which would revolutionize the advertising industry: in 1876, Ayer pioneered the "open contract" with Diggee & Conard, Philadelphia raised growers and agricultural suppliers. Prior to the open contract, NW Ayer & Sons and most agencies operated as "space-jobbers," independent wholesalers of advertising space, in which the opportunities for graft and corrupt practices were virtually unlimited. In contrast, the open contract, wherein the advertiser paid a fixed commission based on the volume of advertising placed, aligned the advertising agent firmly on the side of the advertiser and gave advertisers access to the actual rates charged by newspapers and religious journals. The open contract with a fixed commission has been hailed by advertising pioneer Albert Lasker as one of the "three great landmarks in advertising history." (The other two were Lasker's own development of "reason-why" advertising copy and J. Walter Thompson's pioneering of sex appeal in an advertisement for Woodbury's soap.) Although the transition to the open contract did not happen overnight, by 1884, nearly three-quarters of Ayer's advertising billings were on an open contract basis. Since Ayer was, by the 1890s, the largest agency in America, the switch to direct payment by advertisers had a significant impact on the advertising industry, as other agencies were forced to respond to Ayer's higher standard. Just as important, the open contract helped to establish N W Ayer's long-standing reputation for "clean ethics and fair dealing" -- a reputation the agency has guarded jealously for over a century. The open contract also helped to establish Ayer as a full service advertising agency and to regularize the production of advertising in-house. From that point forward, Ayer routinely offered advice and service beyond the mere placement of advertisements. Ayer set another milestone for the industry in 1888, when Jarvis Wood was hired as the industry's first full-time copywriter. Wood was joined by a second full time copywriter four years later, and the Copy Department was formally established in 1900. The industry's first Art Department grew out of the Copy Department when Ayer hired its first commercial artist to assist with copy preparation in 1898; twelve years later Ayer became the first agency to offer the services of a full time art director, whose sole responsibility was the design and illustration of ads.

Ayer's leadership in the use of fine art in advertising has roots in this period, but achieved its highest expression under the guidance of legendary art director Charles Coiner. Coiner joined Ayer in 1924, after graduating from the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Despite early resistance from some clients, Coiner was adamant that "the use of outstanding palette and original art forms bring a greater return in readership, in impact and prestige for the advertiser." To this end, Coiner marshaled the talents of notable painters, illustrators and photographers, including N.C. Wyeth and Rockwell Kent (Steinway), Georgia O'Keefe (Dole), Leo Lionni (DuPont), Edward Steichen (Steinway, Cannon Mills), Charles Sheeler (Ford), and Irving Penn (DeBeers). Coiner believed that there was a practical side to the use of fine art in advertising, and his success (and Ayer's) lay in the marriage of research and copywriting with fine art, an arrangement Coiner termed "art for business sake." Coiner's efforts won both awards and attention for a series completed in the 1950s for the Container Corporation of America. Titled "Great Ideas of Western Man" the campaign featured abstract and modern paintings and sculpture by leading U.S. and foreign artists, linked with Western philosophical writings in an early example of advertising designed primarily to bolster corporate image. In 1994, Charles Coiner was posthumously named to the American Advertising Federation's Hall of Fame, the first full time art director ever chosen for that honor.

Coiner and fellow art director Paul Darrow also created legendary advertising with the "A Diamond Is Forever" campaign for DeBeers; ads featured the work of Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and other modernist painters. The "A Diamond is Forever" tagline was written in 1949 by Frances Gerety, a woman copywriter at Ayer from 1943 to 1970. In 1999, Ad Age magazine cited "A Diamond is Forever" as the most memorable advertising slogan of the twentieth century.

Coiner also earned respect for his volunteer government service during World War II; he designed the armbands for civil defense volunteers and logos for the National Recovery Administration and Community Chest. As a founding member of the Advertising Council in 1945, Ayer has had a long-standing commitment to public service advertising. In the mid-1980s, Ayer became a leading force in the Reagan-era "War on Drugs". Lou Hagopian, Ayer's sixth CEO, brokered the establishment of the Partnership for a Drug-Free America, a media coalition which generated as much as a million dollars a day in donated advertising space and time to prevent the use and abuse of illegal drugs. Famous names appear among NW Ayer's clientele from the very earliest days of the agency. Retailer John Wanamaker, Jay Cooke and Company, and Montgomery Ward's mail-order business were among the first Ayer clients. The agency has represented at least twenty automobile manufacturers, including Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Plymouth, and Rolls-Royce. Other major, long-term clients through the years have included American Telephone & Telegraph, Canada Dry, Cannon Mills, Hills Bros. Coffee Company, Kellogg's, R. J. Reynolds, Steinway and Sons, United Airlines, and the United States Army. By the time of Ayer's hundredth anniversary in 1969, some of these companies had been Ayer clients for decades if not generations, and the longevity of those relationships was for many years a source of Ayer's strength.

But the advertising industry began to change in the late 1960s and 1970s, due in part to a "creative revolution." Small advertising agencies won attention with provocative copywriting and art direction that more closely resembled art than advertising. Advances in market research allowed clients to more narrowly tailor their advertising messages to distinct groups of consumers, and this led to a rise in targeted marketing which could more readily be doled out to specialized small agencies than to larger, established firms like NW Ayer & Son. The civil rights and anti-war movements also contributed to increasing public skepticism with the values of corporate America, and by extension, with some national advertising campaigns. Older, more conservative firms like Ayer were hard pressed to meet these new challenges.

About 1970, in an effort to meet these challenges and to establish a foothold on the West Coast, Ayer bought out two smaller agencies--Hixson & Jorgenson (Los Angeles) and Frederick E. Baker (Seattle). The agency relocated from Philadelphia to New York City in 1974 in an attempt both to consolidate operations (Ayer had operated a New York office since the 1920s) and to be closer to the historic center of the advertising industry. Riding the wave of mergers that characterized the advertising industry in the late 1980s and 1990s, Ayer continued to grow through the acquisition of Cunningham & Walsh in 1986 and Rink Wells in 19xx.

During this transitional period, Ayer received widespread acclaim for its work for the United States Army, which included the widely recognized slogan "Be All You Can Be". Ayer first acquired the Army recruitment account in 1967 and with help from its direct marketing arm, the agency was widely credited with helping the Army reach its recruitment goals despite an unpopular war and plummeting enlistments after the elimination of the draft in 1973. Ayer held the account for two decades, from the Vietnam War through the Cold War, but lost the account in 1986 amid government charges that an Ayer employee assigned to the account accepted kickbacks from a New York film production house. Despite Ayer's position as the country's 18th largest agency (with billings of $880 million in 1985), the loss of the agency's second largest account hit hard.

NW Ayer made up for the loss of the $100 million dollar a year Army account and made headlines for being on the winning end of the largest account switch in advertising history to date, when fast food giant Burger King moved its $200 million dollar advertising account from arch-rival J. Walter Thompson in 1987. Burger King must have had drive-thru service in mind, however, and Ayer made headlines again when it lost the account just eighteen months later in another record-breaking account switch. Another devastating blow to the agency was the loss of its lead position on the American Telegraph and Telephone account. Ayer pioneered telecommunications advertising in 1908, when the agency was selected to craft advertising for the Bell System's universal telephone service. Despite valiant efforts to keep an account the agency had held for most of the twentieth century, and for which they had written such memorable corporate slogans as American Telephone &Telegraph "The Voice with a Smile" and "Reach Out and Touch Someone", the agency lost the account in 1996.

After a wave of mergers and acquisitions in the late 1980s, the economic recession of the early 1990s hit Madison Avenue hard, and Ayer was particularly vulnerable. Despite the agency's long history and roster of "blue-chip" clients, Ayer was not known for cutting-edge creative work. Moreover, though the agency had offices overseas, Ayer had never built a strong multinational presence, and many of the smaller international offices were sold during the financial turmoil of the 1980s. This left a real void in the new climate of global marketplace consolidation. By about 1990, earnings were declining (although Ayer was still among the top twenty United States agencies in billings), and the agency was suffering from client defections, high management turnover, expensive real estate commitments and deferred executive compensation deals, all fallout of the high-flying 1980s. This was the atmosphere in 1993, when W.Y. Choi, a Korean investor who had already assembled a media and marketing empire in his homeland, began looking for an American partner to form an international advertising network. Jerry Siano, the former creative director who had recently been named Ayer's seventh CEO, was in no position to refuse Choi's offer of $35 million to buy the now floundering agency. The infusion of cash was no magic bullet, however. Choi took a wait-and-see approach, allowing his partner Richard Humphreys to make key decisions about Ayer's future, including the purging of senior executives and the installation of two new CEOs in as many years.

The agency's downward trend continued with the loss of another longtime client, the DeBeers diamond cartel in 1995. Adweek reported that Ayer's billings fell from $892 million in 1990 to less than $850 million in 1995. Several top executives defected abruptly, and the agency failed to attract major new accounts. Ayer was facing the loss not merely of revenue and personnel, but the loss of much of the respect it once commanded. Ayer remained among the twenty largest U.S. agencies, but an aura of uncertainty hung over the agency like a cloud. A new CEO was appointed, and Mary Lou Quinlan became the agency's first woman CEO in 1995. A year later, Ayer and another struggling top twenty agency, D'arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles, combined as part of the McManus Group of companies. In 1998, the McManus Group had worldwide billings of more than $6.5 billion.

Under the McManus Group, Ayer was able to expand its international operations and begin to rebuild a stronger global presence. Several important new clients were won in 1997 and 1998, including Avon, General Motors, Kitchenaid, several Procter & Gamble brands and, most notably, Continental Airlines worldwide accounts. Born in the nineteenth century, Ayer may be one of a very few advertising agencies to successfully weather the economic and cultural transitions of both the twentieth and twentieth first centuries. Ayer was eventually acquired by the Publicis Groupe based in Paris, France which closed down the N.W. Ayer offices in 2002.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC0060)

Hills Bros. Coffee Incorporated Records (AC0395)
Provenance:
The collection was donated by N W Ayer ABH International, April 15, 1975 and by Ayer & Partners, October 30, 1996.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply. Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. All duplication requests must be reviewed and approved by Archives Center staff. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies.
Topic:
Advertising agencies  Search this
advertising  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 1840-2000
Interviews -- 1980-2000
Oral history -- 1980-1990
Print advertising
Proof sheets
Proofs (printed matter)
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Trade literature
Tear sheets
Advertisements
Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0059
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0059
Online Media:

Keith Warner papers, 1935-1975

Creator:
Warner, Keith, 1895-1959  Search this
Subject:
Macdonald-Wright, Stanton  Search this
Weber, Max  Search this
Russell, Morgan  Search this
Rosenburg, Paul  Search this
O'Keeffe, Georgia  Search this
Mondrian, Piet  Search this
Stieglitz, Alfred  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Warner, Keith  Search this
Dorcely, Roland  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
American Place (Gallery)  Search this
291 (Gallery)  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Art, Abstract  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Synchromism (Art)  Search this
Art, Modern  Search this
Art criticism  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10964
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214754
AAA_collcode_warnkeit
Theme:
The Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214754
Online Media:

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