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Peter A. Bradley papers

Creator:
Bradley, Peter, 1940-  Search this
Names:
Perls Galleries  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Gelfman, Robert  Search this
Lowenthal, Karl S.  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1966-1976
2003
2014
Summary:
The papers of African American painter and former art dealer Peter A. Bradley measure 0.3 linear feet and date from 1966 to 1976 with additional material dating from 2003 and 2014. The papers include correspondence from Klaus Perls, Anthony Caro, Robert Gelfman and attorney Karl S. Lowenthal. Included with correspondence is a recommendation for Bradley written by Klaus Perls. The papers include photographs of Alexander Calder and his family, as well as a photograph of Bradley with Calder's work at Perls Galleries, Bradley with Kenneth Noland and Bradley with Steven Cannon. Printed material consists of a 1971 Picasso exhibition catalog and a 2014 issue of Gulf Coast. Also included are architectural plans and notes for Bradley's studio designed by John Johansen as well as personal financial information.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of African American painter and former art dealer Peter A. Bradley measure 0.3 linear feet and date from 1966 to 1976 with additional material dating from 2003 and 2014. The papers include correspondence from Klaus Perls, Anthony Caro, Robert Gelfman and attorney Karl S. Lowenthal. Included with correspondence is a recommendation for Bradley written by Klaus Perls. The papers include photographs of Alexander Calder and his family, as well as a photograph of Bradley with Calder's work at Perls Galleries, Bradley with Kenneth Noland and Bradley with Steven Cannon. Printed material consists of a 1971 Picasso exhibition catalog and a 2014 issue of Gulf Coast. Also included are architectural plans and notes for Bradley's studio designed by John Johansen as well as personal financial information.
Arrangement:
Due to the small size of this collection the papers are arranged as one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Peter A. Bradley (1940–) is an African American painter and former art dealer in New York. He served as the associate director of the Perls Galleries in New York from 1968 to 1975.

Bradley was born in Connellsville, Pennsylvania and grew up alongside celebrated jazz musicians such as Miles Davis and Thelonious Monk, whose music influenced the colorful abstract work he is known for. He is credited with influencing the "New New Painters" movement in the late 1970s and curated The Deluxe Show in 1971, which is viewed as one of the earliest racially integrated modernist art exhibitions. His work is held in the permanent collections of the Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, as well as The Museum of Fine Arts Houston, among others. He is a recipient of an Andy Warhol Foundation Exhibition Grant and a two-time recipient of the Pollock Krasner Award.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by Peter A. Bradley in 2009 and 2018.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Citation:
Peter A. Bradley papers, 1966-1976, 2003, 2014. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.bradpete
See more items in:
Peter A. Bradley papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-bradpete
Online Media:

Avanti Adios, (painting)

Painter:
Noland, Kenneth 1924-2010  Search this
Medium:
Acrylic on canvas
Type:
Paintings
Owner/Location:
Johnson Collection, The 100 Dunbar Street, Suite 203 Spartanburg South Carolina 29306 Accession Number: 2015.03.01
Date:
1978
Topic:
Abstract  Search this
Control number:
IAP 68670790
Data Source:
Art Inventories Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museums
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_ari_477726

Oral history interview with Sam Gilliam

Interviewee:
Gilliam, Sam, 1933-  Search this
Interviewer:
Young, Kenneth, 1933-  Search this
Names:
University of Louisville -- Students  Search this
Downing, Thomas, 1928-1985  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Extent:
1 Sound cassette (Sound recording)
28 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1984 Sept. 18
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Sam Gilliam conducted 1984 Sept. 18, by Kenneth Young, for the Archives of American Art.
Gilliam speaks of his childhood in the South; discovering his talent and his early attraction to art; his education at the University of Louisville; how his philosophy of art developed; the influence of music; techniques and materials; early shows of his work; Washington artists he knew. He recalls Thomas Downing and Kenneth Noland.
Biographical / Historical:
Sam Gilliam (1933- ) is a painter from Washington, D.C.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives' Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Topic:
Painting -- Equipment and supplies  Search this
Painting -- Technique  Search this
African American artists  Search this
African American painters  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.gillia84
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gillia84

Clemens Kalischer papers

Creator:
Kalischer, Clemens, 1921-  Search this
Names:
Bennington College  Search this
Black Mountain College (Black Mountain, N.C.)  Search this
MacDowell Colony  Search this
Abate, Peter  Search this
Abe, Kongō, 1900-1968  Search this
Abel, Cora-Beth  Search this
Adler, Samuel, 1898-  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Aschenbach, Paul, 1921-  Search this
Bengtz, Ture, 1907-1973  Search this
Borowski, Wiesław  Search this
Coonhan, Ms  Search this
Cox, Jan, 1919-1980  Search this
Cunningham, Merce  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
Dehner, Dorothy, 1901-1994  Search this
Der Hovanesian, Garabed  Search this
Dombek, Blanche, 1914-  Search this
Doubrova, Jan, 1912-  Search this
Epping, Franc, 1910-  Search this
Fimple, Vernon  Search this
Forst, Miles, 1923-  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983  Search this
Gil, David  Search this
Glickman, Maurice, 1906-  Search this
Granda, Julio  Search this
Grausman, Philip, 1935-  Search this
Gray, Cleve  Search this
Hayter, Stanley William, 1901-1988  Search this
Kilbourn, Victoria  Search this
Lieberman, Alexander  Search this
Mazur, Michael, 1935-2009  Search this
Meštrović, Ivan, 1883-1962  Search this
Morris, George L. K., 1905-1975  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Neel, Alice, 1900-1984  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Okubo, Miné  Search this
Prestopino, Gregorio  Search this
Rockwell, Norman, 1894-1978  Search this
Rosenberg, Jakob, 1893-  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Torres, John, 1939-  Search this
Tsʻai, Wen-ying, 1928-  Search this
Voulis, Asapia  Search this
Whitecross, Iain  Search this
Wildenhain, Marguerite  Search this
Extent:
276 Items ((on one microfilm reel))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
ca.1946-1966
Scope and Contents:
276 photographs, ca. 1946-1966, taken by Kalisher of artists teaching at Bennington College, Bennington, Vermont, Black Mountain College, North Carolina, and the MacDowell Colony, Peterborough, New Hampshire.
Artists include: Peter Abate, Kongo Abe, Cora-Beth Abel, Samuel M. Adler, Paul Aschenbach, Josef Albers, Ture Bengtz, Wieslaw Borowski, Ms. Coonhan, Jan Cox, Merce Cunningham, Dorothy Dehner, Elaine de Kooning, Garabed der Hovanesian, Blanche Dombek, Jan Doubrova, Franc Epping, Vernon Fimple, Miles Forst, Helen Frankenthaler, Buckminster Fuller, David Gil, Maurice Glickman, Julio Granda, Philip Grausman, Cleve Gray, Stanley William Hayter, Victoria Kilbourn, Oskar Kokoschka, Alexander Lieberman, Michael Mazur, ? McKenzie, Ivan Mestrovic, George L. K. Morris, Robert Motherwell, Alice Neel, Kenneth Noland, Mine Okubo, Gregorio Prestopino, Norman Rockwell, Jakob Rosenberg, David Smith, John Torres, Wen Ying Tsai, Asapia Voulis, Iain Whitecross, Marguerite Wildenhain, and ? Zhermansky.
Biographical / Historical:
Photographer.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming 1982 by Clemens Kalischer.
Restrictions:
The Archives of American art does not own the original papers. Use is limited to the microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Photographers  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- United States -- Photographs  Search this
Artist colonies -- Photographs  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.kaliclem
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kaliclem

Oral history interview with Richard Gray

Interviewee:
Gray, Richard, 1928-2018  Search this
Interviewer:
McElhinney, James Lancel, 1952-  Search this
Names:
University of Illinois. -- Student  Search this
Boris, Harry  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Fabricant, Andrew  Search this
Gaudí, Antoni, 1852-1926  Search this
Gray, Paul  Search this
Klamen, David, 1961-  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Plensa, Jaume, 1955-  Search this
Stone, Allan  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Sound recording, master: 1 sound disc (1 hr., 45 min.), digital, 2 5/8 in.)
41 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
2007 Dec. 9
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Richard Gray conducted 2007 Dec. 9, by James McElhinney, for the Archives of American Art, at Carlyle Hotel, in New York, N.Y .
Gray speaks of being born in Chicago, Ill. and attending high school in Hyde Park; required coursework in art and music; his father's childhood in Poland; attending the University of Illinois in Chicago before transferring to the main campus in Champaign-Urbana; studying architecture but then becoming more interested in art; the influence of an early mentor; joining the air force and being stationed in France in the early 1950s; traveling throughout France, Spain, and Germany; visiting Barcelona to see Antoni Gaudí's architecture; returning to the United States, meeting his wife on a blind date, and marrying her within a year; being moved by the musical and artistic environment of his in-laws' home; owning a manufacturing business for 10 years; restructuring his father's summer resort in Michigan following his death; hosting music festivals and Harry Boris as artist-in-residence at the resort; following Boris's suggestion to open an art gallery in Chicago; his first art purchases from Allan Stone and André Emmerich in New York; his first gallery space off of Michigan Avenue on East Ontario Street in the same building as B.C. Holland and Noah Goldowsky; his second gallery space on Michigan Avenue; showing Color Field artists including Kenneth Noland, Morris Louis, and Jules Olitski; dealers as collectors; seeing himself more as a collector than a dealer at this time in his life; his diverse collection of drawings spanning many time periods; his past practice of buying works of art in shares with other dealers; the competition between art dealers and auction houses; his belief in free-market opportunities; handling the sale of Willem de Kooning's Woman V; the gallery's representation of Jaume Plensa and David Klamen; the future direction of the gallery at both the Chicago and New York City locations; the changing market in international art; recently being designated a Living Landmark by the Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois; and his strong presence and activity in Chicago's cultural community. Gray also recalls André Emmerich, Andrew Fabricant, Paul Gray, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
Richard Gray (1928-2018) was an art dealer from Chicago, Ill. Interviewer James McElhinney is a painter and educator from New York, N.Y.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Topic:
Art dealers -- Illinois -- Chicago -- Interviews  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Color-field painting  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- Illinois -- Chicago -- Interviews  Search this
Function:
Art galleries, Commercial -- Illinois -- Chicago
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.gray07
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gray07

Oral history interview with Adele S. Brown and William H. Calfee

Interviewee:
Brown, Adele Smith, 1910-  Search this
Calfee, William H. (William Howard), 1909-1995  Search this
Interviewer:
Kirwin, Liza  Search this
Names:
Phillips Studio House  Search this
Acheson, Alice  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme, 1896-1986  Search this
Crosby, Caresse, 1892-  Search this
Cross, Bernice  Search this
Gates, Robert Franklin, 1906-1982  Search this
Groves, George  Search this
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Phillips, Marjorie, 1895-1985  Search this
Taylor, Prentiss, 1907-1991  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Watkins, Law Bradley  Search this
West, Hal, 1902-1968  Search this
Extent:
33 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1995 January 11
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Adele S. Brown and William H. Calfee conducted 1995 January 11, by Liza Kirwin, at Calfee's home in Chevy Chase, Maryland, for the Archives of American Art.
Brown and Calfee speak of their roles in Phillips Studio House. They recall Law Watkins, Karl Knaths, Duncan Phillips, Bernice Cross, Bob Gates, Marjorie Phillips, Alice Acheson, John Marin, George Groves, Harold West, Adelyn Breeskin, Kenneth Noland, Jack Tworkov, Caresse Crosby, Prentiss Taylor, and many others.
Biographical / Historical:
Brown, an art administrator in Washington, D.C., managed the sales gallery of the Phillips Studio House from 1933-1937. Calfee, a painter and sculptor, taught at the art school affiliated with Studio House from 1933 until it closed in 1945. Phillips Studio House, founded by C. Law Watkins, Associate Director of the Phillips Memorial Gallery, was both an art school and commercial gallery. It opened in November 1933, and closed in 1945 upon Watkins' death. In 1946 Calfee and a group of artists affiliated with the school were asked to form the first art department faculty at American University for which he served as its department head until 1954.
General:
Originally recorded on 1 sound cassette. Reformatted in 2010 as 2 digital wav files. Duration is 1 hr., 33 min.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and administrators.
Restrictions:
Transcript available on the Archives of American Art website.
Occupation:
Art teachers -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Painters -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Arts administrators -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Sculptors -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Function:
Art Schools -- Washington (D.C.)
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.brown95
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-brown95

André Emmerich Gallery records

Creator:
André Emmerich Gallery  Search this
Names:
Galerie André Emmerich  Search this
Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co.  Search this
Sotheby's (Firm)  Search this
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Emmerich, André  Search this
Francis, Sam, 1923-1994  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Hockney, David  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pepper, Beverly  Search this
Extent:
311.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Date:
circa 1929-2009
Summary:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.4 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich. TheA small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Scope and Content Note:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers measure 311.4 linear feet and date from 1929 to 2009. The collection documents the business of the André Emmerich Gallery as well as André Emmerich's life and activities related to the business of selling art. Gallery records include correspondence; appointment books; administrative and subject files; exhibition files; artist files and accounts; inventory, sales, purchase, and consignment records; chronological files; financial and legal records; printed materials; original artwork; photographic and audiovisual materials. Also found are personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich.

The records document the gallery's daily business operations, exhibitions, and relationships with artists, dealers, clients, galleries, and museums. Artists particularly well-represented throughout the collection include Anthony Caro, Sam Francis, Helen Frankenthaler, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, and Beverly Pepper.

Records pre-dating the gallery's establishment in 1954 are primarily newspaper and magazine clippings related to artists, personal photographs and photographs of artists, an original etching, and some of André Emmerich's personal records including biographical materials, correspondence, writings, and legal and financial records. Records post-dating the gallery's closure in 1998 are primarily residual business records related to the final disposition of artwork, clippings, photographs of André Emmerich and gallery staff, biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings, legal and financial records, and condolences received by Emmerich's wife upon his death in 2007.

Correspondence is primarily with galleries, museums and clients about business matters. Correspondence files also cover topics such as appraisals, authentications, offers of sale, artists seeking representation, image requests, job applications and recommendations. Also included are the New York gallery's copies of correspondence between the New York staff and the Zurich staff.

André Emmerich's appointment books document appointments, notes, and reminders about Emmerich's business and personal activities. Four appointment books relating to the birth of Emmerich's three sons and second marriage were kept by the family. The appointment books are access restricted and require written permission to use.

Administrative files include corporate records establishing the Andre Emmerich gallery's structure, records documenting the gallery's daily operations, advertising and publicity material, and records about the Sotheby's acquisition. There are also materials related to Top Gallant Farm, from its establishment to its closure. Travel records relate to André Emmerich's business trips and vacations along with some files on the travels of a several staff members at the gallery. Files about the operations of the Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich, Switzerland are included in the series as well.

Subject files relate to Emmerich's gallery business as well as personal and political interests, such as antiquities, art fairs and exhibitions, lecture research, art associations, and sculpture parks. There are several files on the art critic Clement Greenberg and former president of Gay Men's Health Crisis, Nathan Kolodner, who was also an art dealer and director of the Andre Emmerich Gallery.

Exhibition files contain numerous exhibition catalogs and printed materials related to exhibitions held or organized by the André Emmerich Gallery in Manhattan and Galerie André Emmerich in Zurich. The files contain materials ranging such as exhibition invitations, posters, printed materials, press releases, and guest books. Photographs of exhibitions can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist files include biographical materials, clippings, correspondence, mailing lists, price lists, printed materials, and occasionally lectures, writings, and audiovisual materials for many of the artists represented or shown by André Emmerich Gallery. The General Correspondence files might contain duplicates or expanded versions of some of the correspondence. Photographs of artists can be found in the Photographic Materials series.

Artist accounts comprise account statements prepared periodically by the gallery documenting each artist's expenses and sales. Ledgers and general accounting files can be found in the Other Financial and Legal Records series.

Inventory records include inventory cards describing artwork entering and leaving the gallery and files containing various gallery inventories. Artist inventory cards, representing artists from both the New York and Zurich galleries, list the artist, title, date, media and measurements of an artwork. The cards also indicate whether the work was ultimately sold, returned to the artist, consigned, etc., and divided into categories accordingly. Inventory files show various gallery inventories.

Sales records document gallery sales and include paid invoices, records relating to Zurich sales, general sales records such as price lists and canceled sales, and Sotheby's Parke-Bernet auction reports. There are gaps in sales invoices in 1961-1964 and 1969-1971.

Purchase records include correspondence and invoices related to purchases and offers; annotated invoices for works of art bought by the gallery; André Emmerich, Inc. related purchase records; "Non-Modern" art related purchase records.

Consignment records include correspondence and consignment agreements documenting consignments to and from the André Emmerich Gallery; consignments from other galleries to André Emmerich, Inc.; and general consignment records.

Chronological files include copies of invoices or cover letters documenting the movement of artwork into and out of the gallery through sales, consignments, loans, and approvals. Records dating January through August 1968, January through March 1969, and September 1969 through July 1971 are missing.

Financial and legal records include client and partner account statements, resale and exempt organization certificates, accounting ledgers, and legal files related to disputes involving or of interest to the gallery.

Printed materials include auction catalogs and reports, books, and clippings describing André Emmerich, the galleries in New York and Zurich, Top Gallant Farm, and the art world. Also included is a large scrapbook created by the gallery containing clippings and gallery announcements dated 1955-1958. Clippings relating to particular artists can be found in the Artists Files series.

There are two pieces of original artwork in the collection. One is a 1974 print of a 1933 composite etching by Esther Dick Gottlieb, Adolphe Gottlieb, Edgar Levy, Lucille Corcos Levy, David Smith, and Dorothy Dehner Smith. The second is a 1998 lithograph by Louise Bourgeoise, called The Face of the Critic. The artist gave the lithograph as a gift in honor of Robert Hughes and the Archives of American Art and is numbered 61 out of a series of 300.

Photographic materials include prints, slides, negatives, and transparencies. Subjects include artists, André Emmerich, gallery installations, Top Gallant Farm, events, artists' studios, gallery staff, gallery space, and artwork. Photographs which show André Emmerich are indicated as such in the finding aid.

Audiovisual materials includes videocassettes and one audiocassette related to the art world. Videocassettes related to specific artists can be found in the Artists Files series. Videocassettes related to André Emmerich can be found in the André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records series. Videocassettes related to Top Gallant Farm and Sotheby's can be found in the Administrative Files series.

Personal papers and records relating to André Emmerich include biographical materials, personal correspondence, writings and lectures, and legal and financial records. The biographical materials include an address book, interviews and identifying documents. Writings include articles, edits, dissertations, lectures, etc. There are also some miscellaneous correspondence which is organized chronologically.

The small addition received in 2014 includes general correspondence, administrative files, exhibition files, artists' files, inventory records, consignment records, printed material, photographic materials, and André Emmerich personal papers and records.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 19 series:

Series 1: General Correspondence Files, 1958-2006 (boxes 1-18, OV 314-315; 18.2 linear feet)

Series 2: André Emmerich Appointment Books, 1954-2007 (boxes 19, 325, 326; 1.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Administrative Files, 1954-2003 (boxes 20-31, 306, OV 314, OV 316-319; 11 linear feet)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1958-1967, 1971-2000 (boxes 31-32, 306, OV 318, OV 320; 2 linear feet)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, circa 1954-1998 (boxes 32-40, 306, 307, OV 318-322; 8.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Artists Files, 1929-1932, 1938-2007 (boxes 40-68, 307, 308, OV 320-323; 28 linear feet)

Series 7: Artist Accounts, 1958-1998 (boxes 68-81; 13.5 linear feet)

Series 8: Inventory Records, circa 1954-2000(boxes 82-128; 46.5 linear feet)

Series 9: Sales Records, 1959-1998 (boxes 128-168; 40 linear feet)

Series 10: Purchase Records, 1961-1966, 1972-1994 (boxes 168-170; 2 linear feet)

Series 11: Consignment Records, 1961-2002 (boxes 170-177; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 12: Chronological File of Incoming and Outgoing Artwork, 1968-1998 (boxes 178-185; 8 linear feet)

Series 13: Other Financial and Legal Records, 1956-1999 (boxes 186-202; 16.5 linear feet)

Series 14: Printed Materials, 1955-1960, 1965-2008 (boxes 202-204, 308, 309; 3 linear feet)

Series 15: Original Artwork, 1933, 1974, 1998 (box 205, 310; 0.7 linear feet (2 folders))

Series 16: Photographic Materials, circa 1930-1935, 1941-1998, circa 2005 (Boxes 205-296, 311-313, OV 324; 92.8 linear feet)

Series 17: General Audio and Video Recordings, 1985, 1990-1995 (Boxes 297-298; 1.3 linear feet)

Series 18: André Emmerich Personal Papers and Records, 1937-1940, 1946-2008 (Boxes 298-305, OV 321, OV 323; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 19: Addition to the The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, 1956-2009 (Boxes 328-329, OV 330; 2.1 linear feet)
Historical Note:
André Emmerich (1924-2007) was one of America's most noted contemporary art dealers and opened the André Emmerich Gallery in New York in 1954. The gallery showcased contemporary art, particularly Color Field painting and monumental sculpture.

André Emmerich was born on October 11, 1924 in Frankfurt, Germany. From age 7 he was raised in Amsterdam before emigrating with his family to New York City in 1940. He studied at Oberlin College and developed an interest in pre-Columbian art and antiquities. After graduation, he spent ten years in Paris working as a writer and editor before returning to New York. He married Constance Emmerich and the couple had three sons, Adam, Noah, and Toby.

In 1954 Emmerich opened the André Emmerich Gallery at 18 East 77th Street and initially specialized in contemporary American and European art and pre-Columbian antiquities. In 1956, the gallery moved to 17 East 64th Street, and in 1959 to the Fuller Building at 41 East 57th Street. Emmerich wrote two books about pre-Columbian art, Art Before Columbus in 1963 and Sweat of the Sun, Tears of the Moon: Gold and Silver in Pre-Columbian Art in 1965.

In 1961, Emmerich learned that French and Company, a gallery advised by art critic Clement Greenberg, was closing its department of contemporary art. French and Company had represented Color Field painters Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, and Jules Olitski. Emmerich immediately invited Louis and Noland to be represented by his gallery. In 1966 he extended the invitation to Olitski as well, and Helen Frankenthaler joined soon after. The gallery's reputation as one of the earliest and most important promoters of Color Field painters was launched.

In addition to Color Field painters, the gallery represented, among others, Pierre Alechinsky, Karel Appel, Milton Avery, Herbert Ferber, Sam Francis, John Graham, Al Held, David Hockney, Hans Hofmann, John Hoyland, Judy Pfaff, Miriam Schapiro, and Anne Truitt.

Until January 1983, sales of pre-Columbian art primarily went through an entity called André Emmerich Inc. (AE Inc.), while sales of contemporary went through the André Emmerich Gallery Inc. (AEG). In 1983, the two entities were merged and operated under the name André Emmerich Gallery Inc.

In 1971, Emmerich began operating a downtown gallery at 420 West Broadway, in SoHo, in space shared with Leo Castelli, Virginia Dwan, and Ileana Sonnabend. In 1972, Emmerich opened a branch of his gallery in Zurich. He incorporated the Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh primarily for the purpose of leasing gallery space in Zurich. Until February 1974, sales of Pre-Columbian art in Zurich were made by an entity called André Emmerich Gallery Inc., New York Filiale Zurich. The Galerie André Emmerich Gmbh was officially liquidated in May 1982. The Filiale was formally closed in October 1996. Galerie André Emmerich also enjoyed a short-lived joint venture with Gimpel & Hanover.

André Emmerich served as president of the Art Dealers Association of America from 1972-1974 and again from 1991-1994.

Emmerich opened a private 150 acre sculpture park, Top Gallant Farm, on his estate in Pawling, New York, in 1982, where he stored and exhibited monumental sculptures by artists his gallery represented including Anthony Caro, Beverly Pepper, Alexander Liberman, Alexander Calder, Mark di Suvero, George Rickey, and Keith Haring. David Hockney painted waves onto floor of the property's swimming pool in 1986. Emmerich operated the sculpture park until 1996.

Emmerich sold his gallery to Sotheby's in 1996. He continued to be affiliated with the gallery until Sotheby's closed the gallery in 1998. Emmerich then began work on his memoir, My Life With Art, excerpts of which have been published in Art News, the Wall Street Journal, and The New Criterion.

Andre Emmerich died in New York 2007 and is survived by his second wife, Susanne Emmerich.
Related Material:
Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with André Emmerich conducted by Mona Hadler on January 18, 1993.
Provenance:
The André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers were donated to the Archives of American Art by André Emmerich in eight accretions between 1999 and 2002. Two additional accretions were donated by Emmerich's wife Susanne in 2008 and 2009; and by James Yohe, Emmerich's former business partner, in 2009 and 2014.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Access of diaries and appointment books required written permission.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Sculpture, Abstract  Search this
Color-field painting  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- Switzerland -- Zurich  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Visitors' books
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Scrapbooks
Etchings
Citation:
André Emmerich Gallery records and André Emmerich papers, circa 1929-2009. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.andremmg
See more items in:
André Emmerich Gallery records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-andremmg
Online Media:

Mitch Tuchman papers relating to the book Painters Painting

Creator:
Tuchman, Mitch  Search this
Names:
Albers, Josef  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
De Antonio, Emile.  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Geldzahler, Henry  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Hess, Thomas B.  Search this
Johns, Jasper, 1930-  Search this
Johnson, Philip, 1906-2005  Search this
Kramer, Hilton  Search this
Leider, Philip, 1929-  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Pavia, Philip, 1915-2005  Search this
Poons, Larry  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Rivers, Larry, 1925-2002  Search this
Rubin, William Stanley  Search this
Scull, Ethel  Search this
Scull, Robert C.  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987  Search this
Extent:
0.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Date:
1980-1989
Scope and Contents:
Papers related to Tuchman's co-authoring with Emile de Antonio the book Painters Painting: A History of American Modernism in the Words of Those Who Created It (Abbeville Press, 1984). The book was based on uncut transcripts and the film script from de Antonio's 1972 film Painters Painting, inspired by the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition, New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940-1970, curated by Henry Geldzahler. Included are correspondence; transcripts of interviews conducted by de Antonio of painters, critics, curators, and collectors; notes; drafts of the book; and a subject card file.
Interviewees include: Josef Albers, Leo Castelli, Willem de Kooning, Helen Frankenthaler, Henry Geldzahler, Clement Greenberg, Thomas Hess, Jasper Johns, Philip Johnson, Hilton Kramer, Philip Leider, Robert Motherwell, Louise Nevelson, Barnett Newman, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Philip Pavia, Larry Poons, Robert Rauschenberg, Larry Rivers, William Rubin, Ethel and Robert Scull, Frank Stella, and Andy Warhol.
Biographical / Historical:
Tuchman is an author and editor; Los Angeles, Calif.
Provenance:
Donated 1994 by Mitch Tuchman.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Art critics -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Editors -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- Interviews  Search this
Art museum curators -- United States -- Interviews  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.tuchmitc
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tuchmitc

Knute Stiles papers

Creator:
Stiles, Knute, 1923-  Search this
Names:
Bolotowsky, Ilya, 1907-1981  Search this
Coplans, John  Search this
Fiore, Joseph A., 1925-  Search this
Krikorian, Leo  Search this
Leider, Philip, 1929-  Search this
Mason, Alice Trumbull, 1904-1971  Search this
Masurovsky, Gregory, 1930-  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Thomas, Dylan, 1914-1953  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet ((on 2 partial microfilm reels))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1947-1971
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, sketches, collages, writings and printed material.
REEL 2291: Letters from Ilya Bolotowsky, Joseph A. Fiore, Leo Krikorian, and Alice Trumbull Mason; illustrated letters from Gregory Masurovsky and Kenneth Noland; memos from Philip Leider and John Coplans concerning articles written by Stiles for Artforum Magazine; 8 pen drawings by Dylan Thomas; 2 exhibition announcements; and miscellany.
REEL 4046: 9 letters from Ilya Bolotowsky to Stiles; and a letter from Stiles to Archives of American Art staff in which he comments upon the nature of his correspondence with Bolotowsky.
Unmicrofilmed Framed watercolor by Kenneth Noland.
Biographical / Historical:
Collage artist and writer; San Francisco, Calif.
Provenance:
Donated 1980-1987 by Knute Stiles.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Microfilmed materials must be consulted on microfilm. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
Reel 2291: Authorization to publish, quote or reproduce requires written permission from Andrew Bolotowsky. Contact Reference Services for more information.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Authors -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Collagists -- California -- San Francisco  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.stilknut
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stilknut

Oral history interview with Frank Stella

Creator:
Stella, Frank  Search this
Interviewer:
Tillim, Sidney, 1925-  Search this
Names:
Bannard, Walter Darby, 1934-  Search this
Fried, Michael  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Seitz, William Chapin  Search this
Extent:
32 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Interviews
Date:
1969
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Frank Stella conducted in 1969, by Sidney Tillim, for the Archives of American Art.
Stella speaks of his expectations and ambitions regarding his painting career; the development of his artistic ability as a child; his early tendencies to rebel against convention in art; the influence of other abstract expressionists, particularly Kenneth Noland; his education at Princeton; studying under William Seitz; and the present status of figurative painting. He recalls Walter Darby Bannard and Michael Fried.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Stella (1936- ) is a painter from New York, New York.
Provenance:
This interview is part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.stella69
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stella69

Alan R. Solomon papers

Creator:
Solomon, Alan R., 1920-1970  Search this
Names:
Albright-Knox Art Gallery  Search this
Amsterdam (Netherlands). Stedelijk Museum  Search this
Art Gallery of Ontario  Search this
Artforum  Search this
Biennale di Venezia  Search this
Centro de Artes Visuales (Asunción, Paraguay)  Search this
Cornell University. -- Faculty  Search this
Expo 67 (Montréal, Québec)  Search this
Harvard University -- Students  Search this
Institute of Contemporary Art (Boston, Mass.)  Search this
Jewish Museum (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Leo Castelli Gallery  Search this
Los Once (Artists' group)  Search this
Pasadena Art Museum  Search this
San Francisco Art Institute  Search this
University of California (System)  Search this
Velvet Underground (Musical group)  Search this
Bontecou, Lee, 1931-  Search this
Castelli, Leo  Search this
Chamberlain, John, 1927-2011  Search this
Childs, Lucinda  Search this
Dine, Jim, 1935-  Search this
Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968  Search this
Dunn, Judith  Search this
Fahlström, Öyvind, 1928-1976  Search this
Finkelstein, Nat  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Greenberg, Jeanine  Search this
Grisi, Laura  Search this
Hay, Alex  Search this
Hay, Deborah  Search this
Johns, Jasper, 1930-  Search this
Kron, Joan  Search this
Lichtenstein, Roy, 1923-1997  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
MacElroy, Robert R.  Search this
Moore, Peter  Search this
Morris, Robert  Search this
Mulas, Ugo  Search this
Namuth, Hans  Search this
Newman, Barnett, 1905-1970  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Novick, Elizabeth  Search this
Oldenburg, Claes, 1929-  Search this
Oldenburg, Patty  Search this
Paxton, Steve  Search this
Picasso, Pablo, 1881-1973  Search this
Poons, Larry  Search this
Provinciali, Michele  Search this
Rainier, Yvonne  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Redon, Odilon, 1840-1916  Search this
Reed, Lou  Search this
Rosenquist, James, 1933-  Search this
Sabol, Audrey, 1922-  Search this
Schute, Terry  Search this
Scull, Ethel  Search this
Scull, Robert C.  Search this
Segal, George, 1924-2000  Search this
Sisler, Mary  Search this
Sonnabend, Ileana  Search this
Stella, Frank  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-  Search this
Whitman, Robert  Search this
Extent:
9.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Transcripts
Photographs
Interviews
Lithographs
Place:
Italy -- Venice
Date:
1907-1970
bulk 1944-1970
Summary:
The papers of New York art historian, museum director, curator, writer, and educator, Alan R. Solomon, measure 9.9 linear feet and date from 1907-1970, with the bulk of the material dating from 1944-1970. Through biographical material, correspondence, interview transcripts, writings and notes, teaching and study files, subject files, exhibition files, business records, printed material, and photographs, the collection documents Solomon's education, his early teaching appointments at Cornell University, and his subsequent direction of many diverse curatorial and research projects relating to contemporary American art, particularly the transition from Abstract Expressionism to later modern movements, and the thriving New York City art scene.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of New York art historian, museum director, curator, writer, and educator, Alan R. Solomon, measure 9.9 linear feet and date from 1907-1970, with the bulk of the material dating from 1944-1970. Through biographical material, correspondence, interview transcripts, writings and notes, teaching and study files, subject files, exhibition files, business records, printed material, and photographs, the collection documents Solomon's education, his early teaching appointments at Cornell University, and his subsequent direction of many diverse curatorial and research projects relating to contemporary American art, particularly the transition from Abstract Expressionism to later modern movements, and the thriving New York City art scene.

Biographical material includes résumés, an engagement book, and a monthly planning book from 1965, identification cards, and educational transcripts.

Correspondence documents Solomon's education at Harvard College and Harvard University, and his teaching appointments at Cornell University. Correspondence also provides some documentation of his involvement with museums and arts organizations, including the Jewish Museum, Stedlijk Museum, the San Francisco Art Institute, the University of California, and Centro de Artes Visuales; his submission of writings for publications including Artforum, Art International, and Konstrevy; and his relationships with artists and colleagues including Jim Dine, Joan Kron, Audrey Sabol, and Ileana Sonnabend. Also found is correspondence related to Solomon's work for Mary Sisler, who employed Solomon to sell her collection of artwork by Marcel Duchamp in the late 1960s.

One series comprises transcripts of interviews with many of the artists who were central to the transition from Abstract Expressionism to later modern movements that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s, such as Neo-Dada and Pop art. Artists represented in the interviews include Jim Dine, Helen Frankenthaler, Jasper Johns, Barnett Newman, Kenneth Noland, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, and Andy Warhol.

Solomon's writings include many of his essays for exhibition catalogs, magazines, and journals, and are in a combination of annotated manuscript and published formats. There are writings on Jim Dine, Barnett Newman, Robert Rauschenberg, and Jasper Johns, and on the new movements in theater and performance art of the 1960s. His writings also document the art history education which informed all of his later work, with the inclusion of papers written as a student and teacher, his honors thesis on Odilon Redon, and his dissertation on Pablo Picasso. This material is supplemented by notes, and teaching and study files, documenting courses taken and taught at Harvard and Cornell universities. Also found is the manuscript of the text for New York: The New Art Scene, accompanied by a partial published copy of the book and photographs by Ugo Mulas.

Solomon's subject files augment several of the other series, comprising material on various art related subjects and individual painters and sculptors, arranged alphabetically. Material found here includes printed matter documenting exhibitions and other events, scattered letters from artists, related writings, and photographs.

One series documents Solomon's involvement with the First New York Theater Rally, which he co-produced with Steve Paxton in 1965. This material includes a drawing each by Jim Dine and Alex Hay, pieces of a combine by Robert Rauschenberg, and photographs of the group including Dine, Hay, and Rauschenberg, as well as Lucinda Childs, Judith Dunn, Deborah Hay, Robert Morris, Claes Oldenburg, the Once Group, Steve Paxton, Yvonne Rainier, Alan Solomon, and Robert Whitman. The series includes multiple contact sheets of photos of First New York Theater Rally events, by Peter Moore, Elizabeth Novick, and Terry Schute.

Exhibition files document Solomon's role as an organizer and curator for some of his most well-known exhibitions, including American Painting Now (1967) for Expo '67 in Montreal; Andy Warhol (1966) at the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston; Dine-Oldenburg-Segal (1967) at the Art Gallery of Ontario and Albright-Knox Gallery; the American exhibition at the 1964 Venice Biennale; Young Italians (1968) at the Institute of Contemporary Art; and Painting in New York 1944-1969, a major retrospective installed for the opening of the new Pasadena Art Museum in fall, 1969. Records include correspondence, lists and notes, financial records, printed material, and photographs of artists and installations, including a series by Ugo Mulas taken at the Venice Biennale.

Solomon's business records include lists, notes, contracts, expense forms, vouchers, purchase orders, and receipts. They provide scattered documentation of exhibition-related expenses and purchases of artwork, as well as Solomon's income from teaching appointments, lectures, honorariums, and writings. Amongst Solomon's general business records is an American Federation of Musicians agreement between the Institute of Contemporary Art and "Louis Reed," with booking agent Andy Warhol, for a performance by the Velvet Underground and Nico, performing as The Exploding Plastic Inevitable on October 29, 1966. This seemingly mundane item documents an event that accompanied Solomon's landmark Warhol exhibition of nearly forty iconic works, and the accompanying show by The Exploding Plastic Inevitable was hailed by the Boston Phoenix newspaper as one of the greatest concerts in Boston history.

Printed material includes announcements, catalogs, and posters for exhibitions and art related events, including two Jasper Johns lithographs for a 1960 exhibition at Galerie Rive Droite, and a 1963 exhibition at Leo Castelli Gallery. Also found are news clippings, press releases, and other publications.

Photographs are of Solomon, artists, friends and colleagues, exhibitions and other events, and artwork. They include snapshots of Solomon, and a series of photographs of him at various events and parties, many taken by Ugo Mulas, as well as a photo taken by Robert Rauschenberg of Ugo Mulas, Michele Provinciali, and Solomon. Additional photos by Ugo Mulas include some which were probably taken for New York: The New Art Scene, and a series of photos of Robert Rauschenberg and others at the Venice Biennale. Photos of artists include Lee Bontecou, John Chamberlain, Jim Dine, Marcel Duchamp, Öyvind Fahlström, Laura Grisi, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Morris Louis, Barnett Newman, Kenneth Noland, Claes and Patty Oldenburg, Larry Poons, James Rosenquist, George Segal, Frank Stella, and Andy Warhol and The Factory. Photos of others include Leo Castelli, Clement and Jeanine Greenberg, and Ethel and Robert Scull. Also found are photos of the exhibition Toward a New Abstraction (1963), at The Jewish Museum, photos of Venice, and photos of artwork by many of the above named, and other, artists. In addition to Ugo Mulas, photographers represented in this series include Nat Finkelstein, Robert R. McElroy, and Hans Namuth.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as eleven series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1938-1968 (5 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1930-1970 (0.66 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Interviews, 1965-1969 (0.25 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, 1945-1969 (1.35 linear feet; Boxes 1-3, 11)

Series 5: Teaching and Study Files, 1944-1958 (0.25 linear feet; Box 3)

Series 6: Subject Files, 1907-1969 (2.92 linear feet; Boxes 3-6, 1, OV 12)

Series 7: First New York Theater Rally, 1963-1965 (0.15 linear feet; Boxes 6, 11)

Series 8: Exhibition Files, 1954-1969 (1.42 linear feet; Boxes 6-7, 11, OV 12)

Series 9: Business Records, 1945-1970 (0.3 linear feet; Boxes 7-8)

Series 10: Printed Material, 1914-1970 (0.8 linear feet; Boxes 8-9, OV 12)

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1951-circa 1970 (1.7 linear feet; Boxes 9-11, OV 13)
Biographical / Historical:
New York art historian, museum director, art consultant, educator, writer, and curator, Alan R. Solomon (1920-1970), organized over two hundred exhibitions in the course of his career. He was known for his skill in exhibition design, and for bringing the perception and understanding of an art historian to the field of contemporary art.

Solomon was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, and educated at Harvard College and Harvard Graduate School. In 1953, during his 1952-1962 tenure with the Cornell University department of art history, he established the Andrew Dickson White Museum of art. Solomon served as the museum's first director until 1961, whilst simultaneously pursuing his doctorate, which he received from Harvard University in 1962.

In 1962 Solomon was hired by the Jewish Museum in New York, New York, and immediately began to take the institution in a more contemporary direction, mounting Robert Rauschenberg's first retrospective in 1963, and a major Jasper Johns retrospective in 1964. Also, in 1963, Solomon was appointed the United States Commissioner for the 1964 Venice Biennale. He was determined to show "the major new indigenous tendencies, the peculiarly America spirt of the art" in works by two consecutive generations of artists, including Jasper Johns, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, and Robert Rauschenberg. With this in mind, and given the inadequacy of the existing space to house the installation he envisaged, Solomon secured a verbal agreement from Biennale officials to approve additional space for the American exhibition in an annex at the former American Consulate. The agreement was never formalized, however, and a series of administrative problems and controversies over the eligibility of the American submissions threatened to undermine Solomon's efforts. Nevertheless, Robert Rauschenberg became the first American to take the Grand Prize for foreign artist, and the attention garnered by the American exhibition monopolized press coverage of the Biennale. In response, Solomon stated publicly that "it is acknowledged on every hand that New York has replaced Paris as the world art capital."

Solomon subsequently left the Jewish Museum, having engendered resistance to leading the museum in a more experimental direction, away from the traditional Jewish educational aspects of its mission. In the mid-sixties he worked as a consultant and writer for a National Educational Television series entitled "U. S. A. Artists," which drew on artist interviews, many conducted by Solomon. He also wrote the text for Ugo Mulas's classic photographic study, New York: The New Art Scene (1967: Holt Rinehart and Winston).

In 1966 Solomon was hired by the United States Information Agency to organize the United States contribution to the Canadian World Exhibition in Montreal, known as Expo '67. His stunning American Painting Now installation placed large scale paintings by twenty-three artists, including Jim Dine, Ellsworth Kelly, Roy Lichtenstein, Barnett Newman, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, and James Rosenquist, inside Buckminster Fuller's twenty-story Biosphere of Montreal.

Other important exhibitions organized by Solomon included Andy Warhol (1966) at the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, which was only the second of two exhibitions dedicated to the artist; Dine-Oldenburg-Segal (1967) at the Art Gallery of Ontario and the Albright-Knox Art Gallery; and Young Italians (1968) at the Institute of Contemporary Art.

Solomon was also interested in contemporary theater and organized the First New York Theater Rally with Steve Paxton in 1965, a series of performances which combined new dance and a revival of the Happenings of the early 1960s, in which Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine and others were involved.

Following a six-week appointment as a senior lecturer at the University of California, Irvine, in spring 1968, Solomon became chairman of the University's art department and director of the art gallery. His last exhibition, Painting in New York, 1944-1969 (1969-1970), was held at the Pasadena Art Museum and closed in January 1970, just a few weeks before Solomon's sudden death at the age of forty-nine.
Provenance:
The Leo Castelli Gallery served as executor of Solomon's estate, and donated his papers to the Archives of American Art in 1974 and 2007.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art historians -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Painters  Search this
Topic:
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
Art -- History -- Study and teaching  Search this
Performance art  Search this
Art, Abstract -- United States  Search this
Art -- Exhibitions  Search this
Art -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Educators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Curators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Theater  Search this
Pop art  Search this
Museum directors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Transcripts
Photographs
Interviews
Lithographs
Citation:
Alan R. Solomon papers, 1907-1970, bulk 1944-1970. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.soloalan
See more items in:
Alan R. Solomon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-soloalan
Online Media:

David Smith papers

Creator:
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Names:
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
Cherry, Herman  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Rickey, George  Search this
Willard, Marian, 1904-  Search this
Extent:
6 Microfilm reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Microfilm reels
Date:
1926-1965
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence; sketchbooks; sketches; scrapbooks; exhibition catalogs; photographs; business records; and printed material.
Correspondence, mostly routine business dealing with exhibitions, sales, purchases of equipment, and other business matters, and from family and friends in the art world, including Alexander Calder, Herman Cherry, Robert M. Coates, Helen Frankenthaler, Clement Greenberg, Robert Motherwell, Kenneth Noland, George Rickey, Marian Willard and others; sketchbooks, sketches, and notebook, annotated and relating to his sculptural work, 1930s-1940s; lectures, speeches, and writings; an 18 page transcript of an interview of Smith conducted by Thomas Hess, June 1964; photographs, mostly small snapshots of Smith's work, often annotated with descriptive information; scrapbook materials; articles; exhibition catalogs and announcements; and publications.
Biographical / Historical:
David Smith (1906-1965) was a sculptor from Bolton Landing, N.Y. Began his career as a painter. Studied at Art Students League. Married artist Dorothy Dehner. Was one of the first sculptors to develop a uniquely American abstract style. Worked in monumental style, incorporating painted metal and welding techniques into his work. Smith died in an automobile accident in May 1965.
Provenance:
Lent for microfilming by Rebecca and Candida Smith.
Restrictions:
ACCESS RESTRICTED; written permission required.
Patrons must use microfilm copy.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- Bolton Landing  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Sculpture, American  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.smitdavp
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-smitdavp

Merle Schipper Papers

Creator:
Schipper, Merle, 1922-2001  Search this
Names:
ArtScene (periodical)  Search this
Bengston, Billy Al  Search this
Biederman, Charles Joseph, 1906-2004  Search this
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Diebenkorn, Richard, 1922-1993  Search this
Guston, Philip, 1913-1980  Search this
Holty, Carl, 1900-1973  Search this
Hélion, Jean, 1904-1987  Search this
Mullican, Matt, 1951-  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Orr, Eric, 1939-1998  Search this
Smith, Kiki, 1954-  Search this
Spratling, William, 1900-1967  Search this
Tworkov, Jack  Search this
Extent:
12.1 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Photographs
Prints
Transcripts
Drawings
Place:
France -- Paris -- Photographs
Los Angeles (Calif.) -- Social life and customs
Date:
circa 1930s-1999
Summary:
The papers of Los Angeles art historian, art critic, and writer Merle Schipper measure 12.1 linear feet and date from circa 1930s to 1999. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writing and research project files, printed material, writings by others, photographs, and artwork.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Los Angeles art historian, art critic, and writer Merle Schipper measure 12.1 linear feet and date from circa 1930s to 1999. The papers include biographical material, correspondence, writing and research project files, printed material, writings by others, photographs, and artwork.

Biographical material consists of a notebook planner and professional contact addresses, as well as Schipper's resume and bibliography. Scattered correspondence is both personal and professional with family and colleagues.

Over one-half of the collection consists of Schipper's writing, research, project, and exhibition files. There are drafts, essays, manuscripts, notes, and research documentation about California art and artists, an exhibition of craftsman William Spratling curated by Schipper, Schipper's dissertation and additional projects on Jean Helion, the exhibition Americans in Paris in the 1950s (1997), additional exhibitions, as well as transcripts of interviews with artists. The research files on Helion include an interview transcript with Willem de Kooning about Helion and correspondence with artists about Helion, including Charles Biederman, Alexander Calder, Philip Guston, Carl Holty, Jack Tworkov, and others. Additional exhibition files are found for Visions of Inner Space (1988) and Marmo: The New Italian Stone Age (1989). Artists interviewed by Schipper include Billy Al Bengston, Willem de Kooning, Richard Diebenkorn, Laddie John Dill, Kenneth Noland, Eric Orr, and others.

Extensive printed materials include clippings and copies of journals and periodicals containing Schipper's writings.

There are a few scattered writings by others about art and artists. Photographs are of Schipper, artists, artwork, and places, including Paris. Artwork includes one original poster print by Kiki Smith and one drawing by Matt Mullican.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1970s-1998 (5 folders; Box 1)

Series 2: General Correspondence, 1944-circa 1998 (0.3 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Writing and Research Project Files, circa 1930s-1999 (7.8 linear feet; Boxes 1-9)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1933-1997 (3.1 linear feet; Boxes 9-12, OV14-16)

Series 5: Writings By Others, circa 1944-1991 (0.2 linear feet; Box 12)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1960s-circa 1992 (0.6 linear feet; Boxes 12-13)

Series 7: Artwork, 1982-1992 (0.1 linear feet; Box 13, OV16)
Biographical / Historical:
Merle Schipper (1922-2001) was an art historian, writer, and art critic active in Los Angeles, California.

Born in Toronto, Canada, Merle Solway Schipper was naturalized in Los Angeles in 1950 and received a PhD in art history from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1974. Schipper was a familiar figure on the Los Angeles art scene. Her primary scholarly focus grew out of her dissertation research on Jean Helion, but much of her writing attention was devoted to Los Angeles artists and art world events. She was a regular contributor to many art periodicals, including ArtScene, Images and Issues, Artweek, ARTnews, and the Los Angeles Daily News.

As an independent curator, Schipper's research interests led to several exhibitions, including Americans in Paris: the 50s (1979) at California State University, Northridge, Visions of Inner Space (1988) co-curated with Lee Mullican at UCLA's Frederick S. Wight Art Gallery, Marmo: the New Italian Stone Age (1989), Being There/Being Here: Nine Perspectives in New Italian Art (1991), traveling exhibition sponsored by the Italian Cultural Institute, and an exhibition of William Spratling for the Craft and Folk Art Museum in 1997. Schipper also taught and lectured at UCLA, USC, CSU Northridge, and Claremont Graduate School.

Merle Schipper died in 2001.
Provenance:
The Merle Schipper papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in 2002 by the Merle Schipper Estate via Schipper's daughter Amy Schipper Howe.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Art critics -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Art historians -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Authors -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Topic:
Artists -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- California -- Los Angeles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Photographs
Prints
Transcripts
Drawings
Citation:
Merle Schipper papers, circa 1930s-1999. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.schimerl
See more items in:
Merle Schipper Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-schimerl

Oral history interview with V. V. Rankine

Interviewee:
Rankine, V. V., 1920-2004  Search this
Interviewer:
Kirwin, Liza  Search this
Names:
Betty Parsons Gallery  Search this
Black Mountain College (Black Mountain, N.C.)  Search this
David Herbert Gallery  Search this
Institute of Contemporary Arts (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Jefferson Place Gallery  Search this
Albers, Josef  Search this
Bader, Franz, 1903-1994  Search this
Brooks, James, 1906-1992  Search this
Callahan, Harry M.  Search this
Cunningham, Merce  Search this
Davis, Gene, 1920-1985  Search this
De Kooning, Elaine  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Denney, Alice  Search this
Dorrance, Nesta  Search this
Downing, Thomas, 1928-1985  Search this
Duncan, Augustin  Search this
Fuller, R. Buckminster (Richard Buckminster), 1895-1983  Search this
Gabo, Naum, 1890-1977  Search this
Gilliam, Sam, 1933-  Search this
Gorky, Agnes  Search this
Gorky, Arshile, 1904-1948  Search this
Graham, John, 1887-1961  Search this
Guston, Philip, 1913-1980  Search this
Halle, Kay  Search this
Hare, David, 1917-1992  Search this
Helburn, Theresa, 1887-1959  Search this
Johnson, Ray, 1927-1995  Search this
Kennedy, Kit  Search this
Kiesler, Frederick  Search this
Kinney, Gilbert H.  Search this
Krasner, Lee, 1908-1984  Search this
Lassaw, Ibram, 1913-2003  Search this
Leopold, Richard  Search this
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Magruder, Esther  Search this
Merrill, Kevin  Search this
Nelson, Wretha  Search this
Nevelson, Louise, 1899-1988  Search this
Newman, Bonnie  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Ozenfant, Amédée, 1886-1966  Search this
Pace, Stephen, 1918-2010  Search this
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Penn, Arthur, 1922-  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Pollock, Jackson, 1912-1956  Search this
Rauschenberg, Robert, 1925-2008  Search this
Renault, Jean  Search this
Richman, Robert  Search this
Russo, Alexander  Search this
Sheridan, Walt  Search this
Sherman, Saul  Search this
Snelson, Kenneth, 1927-2016  Search this
Soyer, Moses, 1899-1974  Search this
Soyer, Raphael, 1899-1987  Search this
Sweeney, James Johnson, 1900-  Search this
Thomas, Dylan, 1914-1953  Search this
Truitt, Anne, 1921-2004  Search this
Warhol, Andy, 1928-1987  Search this
Yektai, Manoucher, 1922-  Search this
Youngerman, Jack, 1926-2020  Search this
Extent:
34 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1990 Mar. 2-22
Scope and Contents:
An interview of V. V. Rankine conducted 1990 Mar. 2-22, by Liza Kirwin, for the Archives of American Art.
Rankine discusses the evolution of her nickname, V.V.; discovering her dyslexia; growing up in Boston; auditioning for a part in, "The Philadelphia Story"; her art studies with Amedee Ozenfant from 1944 to 1946; her studies at Black Mountain College with Josef Albers and Willem De Kooning in 1947; her friendship with Morris Louis and watching him work; living with her brother-in-law Arshile Gorky, in New York City; her first one-woman show at the David Herbert Gallery in New York in 1962; exhibiting at the Betty Parsons Gallery in New York and at the Jefferson Place Gallery in Washington, D.C.; Robert Richman and the Institute of Contemporary Arts; the relationship between her painting and her sculpture; favorite shapes and materials; and her summer home in East Hampton and artist friends there. Rankine also recalls Robert Rauschenberg, Jack Youngerman, Manoucher Yektai, Betty Parsons, Ibram Lassaw, Buckminster Fuller, Elaine De Kooning, Arthur Penn, Richard Leopold, John Cage, Merce Cunningham, Ken Noland, Morris Louis, Ray Johnson, Kenneth Snelson, David Hare, Frederick Kiesler, Raphael Soyer, Moses Soyer, Jean Renault, Agnes Gorky, Esther Magruder, James Johnson Sweeney, Jim Brooks, John Graham, Phillip Guston, Duncan Phillips, Theresa Helburn, Augustine Duncan, Tom Downing, Gene Davis, Alice Denney, Nesta Dorrance, Kevin Merrill, Sam Gilliam, Dylan Thomas, Kay Halle, Kit Kennedy, Naum Gabo, President Lyndon B. Johnson, Anne Truitt, Wretha Nelson, Franz Bader, Louise Nevelson, Andy Warhol, Jackson Pollock, Bonnie Newman, Alexander Russo, Walt Sheridan, Gilbert Kinney, Saul Sherman, Steve Pace, Lee Krasner, and others.
Biographical / Historical:
V.V. Rankine (1920-2004) was a painter and sculptor from Washington, D.C. Variable forms of the artist's name are notably E. R. (Elvine Richard) Rankine, Vivian Scott Rankine, and her married name, Mrs. Paul Scott.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 5 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hrs., 53 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Sculptors -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Women artists -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.rankin90
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-rankin90

Photographs of artists by Fred McDarrah

Photographer:
McDarrah, Fred W., 1926-2007  Search this
Names:
Beal, Jack, 1931-  Search this
Bluhm, Norman, 1921-1999  Search this
Christo, 1935-  Search this
De Kooning, Willem, 1904-1997  Search this
Freckelton, Sondra  Search this
Kline, Franz, 1910-1962  Search this
Motherwell, Robert  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Wilke, Hannah  Search this
Extent:
8 Items (photographic prints)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Date:
1963-1976
Scope and Contents:
Photographs of Norman Bluhm, Robert Motherwell, Franz Kline, Willem De Kooning, Kenneth Noland, Hannah Wilke, Christo, and Jack and Sandra (Freckleton) Beal.
Biographical / Historical:
Fred W. McDarrah (1926-2007) is a photographer, New York, N.Y.
Provenance:
Donated 1977 by Fred W. McDarrah.
Rights:
The donor has retained all intellectual property rights, including copyright, that they may own.
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Topic:
Artists at or with their work  Search this
Identifier:
AAA.mcdafred
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-mcdafred

Oral history interview with Kenneth Noland

Interviewee:
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Interviewer:
Cummings, Paul  Search this
Extent:
50 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1971 Oct. 9-Dec. 21
Scope and Contents:
Interview of Kenneth Noland conducted 1971 October 9-December 21, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.
Biographical / Historical:
Kenneth Noland (1924-) is a painter from New York, N.Y.
General:
Sound quality is poor.
Originally recorded on 2 sound tapes. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hrs., 31 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.noland71
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-noland71

Kenneth Noland papers relating to David Smith

Creator:
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Names:
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound recordings
Date:
[ca. 1952-1984]
Scope and Contents:
Correspondence, printed material, photographs and an audio cassette relating to the sculptor David Smith and his works.
Letters from and about Smith; Smith's funeral bill; 7 snapshots taken by Stanley Twardowicz at the Noland home in 1964 of Noland, Smith and Jules Olitski; negatives of unidentified people; photographs and negatives of work by Smith; and clippings. Also included is a recorded interview with Leon Pratt, Smith's assistant (interviewer unidentified), 1960s.
Biographical / Historical:
Kenneth Noland (1924-2010) was a painter, educator in South Salem, New York, and friend of David Smith.
Provenance:
Donated 1988 by Kenneth Noland.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Occupation:
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- Bolton Landing  Search this
Topic:
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Steel sculpture  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Identifier:
AAA.nolakenn
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-nolakenn

Oral history interview with Kenneth Noland

Interviewee:
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Interviewer:
Berman, Avis  Search this
Names:
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Kainen, Jacob  Search this
Smith, David, 1906-1965  Search this
Extent:
39 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1987 July 1-16
Scope and Contents:
An Interview of Kenneth Noland conducted 1987 July 1-16, by Avis Berman, for the Archives of American Art.
Noland speaks of his interest in working in series, as influenced by David Smith; the influence of other artists and art movements, and the problems caused by this influence; the Washington art scene in the 1950s; self criticism; his philosophy of drawing; subject matter and content; abstract expressionism and its development; painting and its relationship to architecture; collectors; his work in sculpture; the relationship of sculpture to his painting. He recalls David Smith, Jacob Kainen, and Clement Greenberg.
Biographical / Historical:
Kenneth Noland (1924-2010) was a painter and educator in South Salem, N.Y., and friend of David Smith.
General:
Originally recorded on 3 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 5 digital wav files. Duration is 3 hrs., 27 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.
Restrictions:
This transcript is open for research. Access to the entire recording is restricted. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Topic:
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Painting -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.noland87
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-noland87

Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate papers

Artist:
Louis, Morris, 1912-1962  Search this
Names:
André Emmerich Gallery  Search this
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden  Search this
Robert Pierce/Films, Inc.  Search this
Bocour, Leonard, 1910-1993  Search this
Brenner, Marcella, 1912-2007  Search this
Faatz, Anita J. (Anita Josephine)  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen, 1928-2011  Search this
Greenberg, Clement, 1909-1994  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Truitt, Anne, 1921-2004  Search this
Extent:
17.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
circa 1910s-2007
bulk 1965-2000
Summary:
The Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate papers measure 17.8 linear feet and date from circa 1912-2007, with the bulk of the material dating from 1965-2000. The collection documents Morris Louis' career as a Color Field painter and founding participant in the Washington Color School, as well as the subsequent administration of his estate by his wife Marcella Brenner. Found within Morris Louis' papers are biographical materials, correspondence, photographs, scattered financial records, notes, writings, printed materials, and a canvas sample. The Morris Louis Estate papers include records of gallery exhibitions, mostly André Emmerich Gallery; artwork inventories; legal records concerning the lawsuit Bernstein v. Brenner; financial records of the sale of Louis' artwork; printed materials; writings about Louis; photographs of exhibition installations and artwork; and project files which include documentation of film projects by Robert Pierce Productions, a catalog raisonne, documentation of PBS documentaries, video recordings of the exhibition "Morris Louis Now", and numerous sound recordings of interviews with artists discussing Morris Louis conducted by Anita Faatz.
Scope and Contents:
The Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate papers measure 17.8 linear feet and date from circa 1912-2007, with the bulk of the material dating from 1965-2000. The collection documents Morris Louis' career as a Color Field painter and founding participant in the Washington Color School, as well as the subsequent administration of his estate by his wife Marcella Brenner. Found within Morris Louis' papers are biographical materials, correspondence, photographs, scattered financial records, notes, writings, printed materials, and a canvas sample. The Morris Louis Estate papers include records of gallery exhibitions, mostly André Emmerich Gallery; artwork inventories; legal records concerning the lawsuit Bernstein v. Brenner; financial records of the sale of Louis' artwork; printed materials; writings about Louis; photographs of exhibition installations and artwork; and posthumous project files which include documentation of film projects by Robert Pierce Productions, a catalog raisonne, PBS documentaries, video recordings of the exhibition "Morris Louis Now", and numerous sound recordings of interviews with artists, many with transcripts, discussing Morris Louis and conducted by Anita Faatz.

Within the Morris Louis papers (circa 3 linear feet) are scattered biographical materials for Morris Louis and Marcella Brenner. Correspondence is with family friends, artists, and galleries, the bulk of which consists of photocopies. Of note are letters from Helen Frankenthaler, Clement Greenberg, Leonard Bocour, Kenneth Noland, and Anne Truitt. Business records include lists of artwork, receipts for art supplies, and scattered tax records. Six notebooks belonging to Morris Louis contain miscellaneous notes about students, studio rental payments, addresses, travel expenses, and a short list of paintings. There is one notebook of Marcella Brenner's containing notes about expenses and addresses. Also found are printed materials, one canvas sample, and one embossing stamp. Photographs are of Morris Louis, Marcella Brenner, and the Bernstein family.

The majority of the collection (circa 15 linear feet) consists of records created and maintained by Marcella Brenner in the course of managing Louis' estate and posthumous exhibitions and projects. There are numerous gallery exhibition records for many posthumous and retrospective exhibitions between 1965 through 2002, including those held at the Andre Emmerich Gallery, the Hirshhorn Museum, and numerous other U.S. and international galleries and museums. Louis' artwork is documented in highly detailed inventory lists and cards. Legal records document the lawsuit brought by the Bernstein family against Marcella Brenner which began in 1964 and ended in 1970 in favor of Brenner. Financial records document sales.

Printed materials include clippings, exhibition catalogs and announcements, and other miscellaneous materials. Writings include essays about Louis and manuscript copies of the book Trustee for the Human Race: Litigation over the Morris Louis Paintings written by Ruth S. Blau under contract for Marcella Brenner. Photographs are primarily of artwork depicted in exhibition installations. Project files are found for several posthumous documentary film projects and a catalog raisonne, and include a series of audio recordings of interviews of 27 artists conducted by Anita Faatz in 1970-1971. Artists interviewed include Clement Greenberg, Leonard Bocour, Andre Emmerich, Helen Frankenthaler, Kenneth Noland, and many others.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 2 series.

Series 1: Morris Louis Papers, circa 1910s-1998 (2.9 linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 2: Morris Louis Estate Papers, 1947-2007 (14.9 linear feet; Boxes 3-19, OV 20)
Biographical / Historical:
Morris Louis (1912-1962) was one of the earliest American Color Field painters, and, along with other Washington, D.C., painters, formed the movement known as the Washington Color School.

Born in Baltimore, M.D., to Russian immigrants Louis Bernstein and Cecelia Luckman, Morris Louis attended the Maryland Institute of Fine and Applied Arts from 1927-1932 and served as president of the Baltimore Artists' Association in 1935. During the Depression, he worked in New York City on the steering committee of the Easel Division of the Federal Arts Projects of the Works Project Administration (WPA). He exhibited Broken Bridge at the WPA Pavilion of the New York World's Fair in 1939.

In 1947, Louis married Marcella (Siegel) Brenner, and moved to Silver Spring, Maryland, a close suburb of Washington, D.C., where he taught private art classes and continued painting, using his apartment bedroom as a studio. In 1948, Louis participated in the Maryland Artists, 16th Annual Exhibition at the Baltimore Museum of Art, and began using Leonard Bocour's Magna acrylic paint, which he would use exclusively for the rest of his painting career.

In 1952, Morris Louis and Marcella Brenner moved to Washington, D.C. and set up a studio in his home where he would complete his most notable canvases. He began teaching at the Washington Workshop Center for the Arts and met artist Kenneth Noland who was also exploring Color Field painting. Through Noland, Louis met art critic Clement Greenberg in 1953, and they visited artist studios in New York City to study abstract expressionist works, including those by Helen Frankenthaler, Jackson Pollock, and Franz Kline. Louis and Noland were greatly influenced by Frankenthaler's staining technique, and Louis began experimenting with staining methods upon his return to Washington. Clement Greenberg became a life-long advocate for Louis and, in 1954, included Louis in the seminal group exhibition, "Emerging Talent," organized by Greenberg for the Kootz Gallery. In 1960, Andre Emmerich became his dealer in the United States and Lawrence Rubin represented him in Paris.

Using thinned Magna paint and unstretched, unprimed canvases, Louis created his works by rotating the canvas as the paint moved across and soaked in. Between 1958 and 1962 Louis produced three major series of paintings—the Veils, the Unfurleds, and the Stripes. Each series numbered more than one hundred canvases. Louis never documented his exact painting methods and would not allow anyone to watch him work, including his wife. His own worst critic, Louis destroyed many of his paintings that did meet his standards, including a large number of his earliest works and many created between 1954 and 1957. He also designated numerous surviving works for destruction prior to his death.

Louis was diagnosed with lung cancer on July 1, 1962 and died a few months later. The Andre Emmerich Gallery held a previously scheduled exhibition as planned, a month following Louis' death, as a memorial exhibition.
Related Materials:
Also found at the Archives of American Art are the Marcella Brenner journals, 1962-2000. The Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) also holds papers of Morris Louis and the Morris Louis Estate in their Morris Louis Study Collection.
Provenance:
The Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate papers were donated by Marcella Brenner in several installments in 1976, 1986, and 1988. Subsequent donations in 2009 and 2012 were donated by Marcella Brenner via Ann M. Garfinkle, Executor. The Anita Faatz interviews were donated in 1976 by Marcella Brenner.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Washington, D.C. Research Center. Many of the audio recordings and transcripts of interviews with 26 artists conducted by Anita Faatz in 1970-1971 are access restricted and written permission is required from the person interviewed. Please contact reference services for more information. Any use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Painters -- United States  Search this
Topic:
Transcripts  Search this
Washington Color School (Group of artists)  Search this
Law and art -- United States  Search this
Color-field painting  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century  Search this
Abstract expressionism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate Papers, circa 1910s-2007, bulk 1965-2000. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.louimorr
See more items in:
Morris Louis and Morris Louis Estate papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-louimorr
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Rockne Krebs

Interviewee:
Krebs, Rockne, 1938-2011  Search this
Interviewer:
Forgey, Benjamin  Search this
Names:
Caro, Anthony, 1924-  Search this
Noland, Kenneth, 1924-2010  Search this
Olitski, Jules, 1922-2007  Search this
Extent:
164 Pages (Transcript)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Sound recordings
Interviews
Date:
1990 Jan. 27-Feb. 3
Scope and Contents:
An interview of Rockne Krebs conducted 1990 Jan. 27-Feb.3, by Benjamin Forgey, for the Archives of American Art.
Krebs discusses growing up in Kansas City; his early interest in art; childhood art classes at Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art; his family and their home; studying sculpture at the University of Kansas; influential teachers; attending Naval Officer's Training School; his U.S. Navy service and art education while in the Navy; working in Washington, D.C. as the Public Affairs Officer for Vice-Admiral Frost in the 1960s; his wife Denise and their daughter Heather; meeting Anthony Caro, Kenneth Noland, and Jules Olitski; his "Chevron" series; his interest in planes, light, space, and "dematerializing" sculpture; the influence of Walter Hopps; working with laser specialists and Hewlett Packard equipment; his outdoor city-scale laser sculpture; and his early principal patrons Mr. and Mrs. Philip M. Stern and works created for them. Krebs also describes in detail his laser sculptures for the New Orleans Museum of Art (1971) and St. Petersburg (1975-1976) and comments on economic, political and social aspects of the art world.
Biographical / Historical:
Rockne Krebs (1938-2011) was a sculptor from Washington, D.C.
General:
Originally recorded on 4 sound cassettes. Reformatted in 2010 as 14 digital wav files. Duration is 7 hrs., 27 min.
Provenance:
These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others. Funding for these interviews provided by the Lannan Foundation.
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Sculpture -- Technique  Search this
Sculptors -- Washington (D.C.) -- Interviews  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Identifier:
AAA.krebs90
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-krebs90

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