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National Congress of American Indians records

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Names:
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Rights Fund  Search this
United Effort Trust  Search this
United States. American Indian Policy Review Commission  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Indian Claims Commission  Search this
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat  Search this
Curry, James E., 1907-1972  Search this
Deloria, Vine  Search this
Harjo, Suzan Shown  Search this
McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977  Search this
Peterson, Helen L.  Search this
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Tonasket, Mel  Search this
Trimble, Charles E.  Search this
Extent:
251 Linear feet (597 archival boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Date:
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
Summary:
The National Congress of American Indian (NCAI), founded in 1944, is the oldest nation-wide American Indian advocacy organization in the United States. The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The collection is located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) reflect the operations of its Washington, DC, headquarters and, in particular, the activities and responsibilities of its executive director. The papers primarily cover the period 1943 to 1990, although some documents pre-dating NCAI are present. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. Materials found throughout the collection include letters, memoranda, handwritten notes, speeches, press releases, newspaper clippings, publications, minutes of meetings, transcripts, reports, agenda, programs, financial records, legislative materials, photographs, and sound recordings.
Arrangement:
The National Congress of American Indians records are arranged in 21 series:

Series 1 -- : NCAI Conventions and Mid-Year Conferences

Series 2 -- : Executive Council and Executive Committee Files

Subseries 2.1: Executive Council

Subseries 2.2: Executive Committee

Subseries 2.3: Executive Committee: Benefit Awards

Series 3 -- : Correspondence Files

Subseries 3.1: Name Files

Subseries 3.2: Chronological Files

Subseries 3.3: Miscellaneous Files

Series 4 -- : Tribal Files

Subseries 4.1: Individual Tribes, Bands and Reservations

Subseries 4.2: Intertribal Organizations

Subseries 4.3: Special Issues

Subseries 4.4: Miscellaneous Tribal Files

Series 5 -- : Records of Indian Interest Organizations

Subseries 5.1: Other Indian Organizations

Subseries 5.2: Non-Indian Support Groups

Subseries 5.3: General Indian Interest Groups

Series 6 -- : NCAI Committees and Special Issue Files

Subseries 6.1: Alaskan Natives

Subseries 6.2: Policy Conference

Subseries 6.3: Religious Freedom and Related Cultural Concerns

Subseries 6.4: Hunting and Fishing Rights

Subseries 6.5: Natural Resources and Indian Water Rights

Subseries 6.6: Nuclear Waste

Subseries 6.7: Solar Bank

Subseries 6.8: AIMS [American Indian Media Surveillance] Committee

Subseries 6.9: HCR 108 and Federal Termination Policies

Subseries 6.10: Emergency Conference of 1954

Subseries 6.11: Jurisdiction --NCAI Commission and Federal Legislation

Subseries 6.12: Law Enforcement

Subseries 6.13: Litigation Committee

Subseries 6.14: Annual Litigation Conference

Subseries 6.15: Trail of Broken Treaties Impact Survey Team

Subseries 6.16: Block Grants

Subseries 6.17: Health and Welfare

Subseries 6.18: Self-Determination and Education

Subseries 6.19: National Conference on Federal Recognition

Subseries 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development

Series -- 7: United Effort Trust (UET)

Subseries 7.1: NCAI and NTCA Joint Committee

Subseries 7.2: Issues

Subseries 7.3: Legislation

Subseries 7.4: News Releases

Subseries 7.5: Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.6: Inter-Tribal Organizations

Subseries 7.7: Non-Indian Organizations

Subseries 7.8: Tribes

Series 8 -- : Attorneys and Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.1: Attorneys

Subseries 8.2: Legal Interest Groups

Subseries 8.3: Legal Services

Series 9 -- : Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files

Subseries 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force

Series 10 -- : Bureau of Indian Affairs

Series 11 -- : State and Local Government Organizations

Series 12 -- : Census

Series 13 -- : General Alpha-Subject Files

Series 14 -- : Records of Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble

Series 15 -- : Records of Suzan S. Harjo

Subseries 15.1: Indian Claims: Eastern Land Claims

Subseries 15.2: Indian Claims: Statute of Limitations

Subseries 15.3: Conference on -- The Indian Reorganization Act - An Assessment and Prospectus Fifty Years Later

Subseries 15.4: Inter-American Indian Institute (IAII)

Subseries 15.5: Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)

Subseries 15.6: Institute of the American West (IAW)

Subseries 15.7: Common Cause

Subseries 15.8: Office Files

Series 16 -- : Fund Raising

Subseries 16.1: Gifts, Bequests, and Contributions

Subseries 16.2: Foundations

Subseries 16.3: General --Arrow and NCAI Fund

Series 17 -- : Business and Financial Records Files

Subseries 17.1: Personnel

Series 18 -- : "Give-Away" Files

Series 19 -- : Publications

Subseries 19.1: -- News/Sentinels -- and -- Sentinel Bulletin

Subseries 19.2: Other Publications

Series 20 -- : Photographs

Series 21 -- : Audio and Film Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
The National Congress of America Indians, which describes itself as the oldest and largest American Indian and Alaskan Native organization in the United States, was founded on November 16, 1944, in Denver, CO. NCAI was intended to serve as a link between individual tribal councils and the United States government, by defining and helping to crystallize Indian thought on the administration of Indian affairs. The Congress also aimed to educate the general public about Indians, preserve Indian cultural values, protect treaty rights with the United States, and promote Indian welfare.

At the first convention, delegates representing fifty tribes ratified the constitution and by-laws, drafted resolutions determining the direction of NCAI policy, and elected the organizations' first officers, with Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee) as president. The officers, as well as eight elected council members, formed the Executive Council. The Council chose the Executive Director; Ruth Muskrat Bronson (Cherokee) was the organization's first director, from 1944-1948. "Persons of Indian blood" could join the organization either as individuals or as groups. In 1955, however, the constitution was revised to restrict group membership to recognized tribes, committees, or bands, and to make the Executive Council chosen by tribal representatives. These changes gave control of the organization to governing bodies of organized tribes, rather than individuals. A further amendment that year created a five-member Executive Committee, headed by the president, which had all the powers of the Executive Council between council meetings.

Conventions have been held annually in the fall since the formation of the NCAI in 1944. Since 1977, mid-year conferences have been held in May or June of each year, to allow more frequent and thorough discussion of issues. The resolutions passed at these conventions are the basis for all policy of the Executive Committee and Executive Director between meetings. The conventions are also used for informational sessions and meetings of standing and special committees of NCAI. One or two-day workshops may also be held on special topics or Congressional issues of particular concern.

NCAI created a tax-exempt arm in 1949 to accept charitable contributions and apply for grants, the NCAI Fund, which soon changed its name to ARROW, Inc. By 1957, however, ARROW had split off to become an independent organization, and NCAI started a new arm, again called the NCAI Fund. In the coming decades, the NCAI Fund would obtain grants from sources including the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Veteran Affairs, Indian Health Service, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Ford Foundation, humanities councils and others, which they used for conferences, workshops, publications, and other projects.

In its early years, NCAI fought for the recognition of land claims of Alaska natives, the enfranchisement of Arizona and New Mexico Indians, the equitable settlement of tribal land claims, and the right of Indians to select their own attorneys. The NCAI lobbied vigorously for an Indian Claims Commission Bill, which became law in August 1946. NCAI's lobbying efforts on behalf of this act set the pattern for the organization's future role in legislative matters: keeping member tribes abreast of proposed legislation and ascertaining their views, and maintaining a presence in Congress through lobbying and testimony.

Beginning in 1954, the threat of termination pushed NCAI into a period of increased activity. Although some tribes were ready to terminate their relationship with the federal government, much of Indian Country felt threatened by the government's new stated policy. NCAI therefore organized an Emergency Conference of American Indians for February 1954 to protest this new termination policy. An agreement was forged at the conference between the NCAI and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to work together toward slowly liquidating the BIA. The termination period of the 1950s and 1960s, while challenging, saw NCAI increase in confidence and political acumen.

During the 1960s, a number of other activist Indian groups sprang up and began to dilute the singular influence which NCAI had commanded. Newer, more militant groups often considered themselves at odds with NCAI, which was increasingly perceived as conservative. As the number of Indian advocacy groups grew in the 1960s and 1970s, however, NCAI actively partnered with other organizations, particularly the National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) and Native American Rights Fund (NARF), on a variety of projects.

Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (Oglala Dakota) served as Executive Director of NCAI in 1972 until 1977, when he resigned to lead the United Effort Trust, a project designed to fight white backlash to Indian rights. NCAI spent most of the next two years trying to find another permanent director. In 1979, Ronald P. Andrade (Luiseno-Diegueno) joined NCAI and unfortunately found a group that was demoralized and underfunded. He was able to return the organization to good health but left in 1982. Si Whitman (Nez Perce), his successor, remained at NCAI for less than a year.

Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne-Creek) became director of NCAI on May 1, 1984. Prior to taking this postions, she had served as Congressional Liaison for Indian Affairs at the Department of the Interior during the Carter administration and as legislative liaison for the Native American Rights Fund, as well as working for NCAI during the mid-1970s. Harjo was also an active and published poet, as well as a frequent speaker at events around the country. The National Congress of American Indians was particularly active on Capitol Hill while Harjo was director, advocating for government-to-government status, the Tribal Government Tax Status Act of 1983, repatriation legislation, and economic development programs, among other issues. Harjo was herself very involved in the establishment of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC.

The NCAI Fund was very successful in receiving grants during this period, although they were chronically short of operating funds. Some of their most active projects during this period were the Indian and Native Veterans Outreach Program (INVOP), Inter-generational Health Promotion and Education Program (IHPEP), Environmental Handbook and related educational seminars, Solar Bank, nuclear waste disposal and transportation information sessions, and voter registration.

For years, NCAI's operating expenses had been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). In 1985, the director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, opposing the use of Federal monies to support outside organizations, began to block the payment for services due to the NCAI. This created a financial crisis from which the NCAI did not recover during Harjo's tenure, and it became the major issue for which she was not rehired in October 1989.

Following the 1989 Annual Convention, Wayne Ducheneaux (Cheyenne River Sioux) became President of NCAI and A. Gay Kingman (Cheyenne River Sioux) was appointed Executive Director. Their first efforts were focused on recovering the financial well-being of the organization, which meant that less attention was devoted to issues in Congress. One of the successful projects NCAI pursued during the next two years was organization and presentation of the Indian pre-conference of the White House Conference on Library and Information Science, which was held in early 1991.

The National Congress of American Indians is still active today, continuing its work of lobbying, support for tribal governments, and advocacy for American Indian issues.
Related Materials:
Other collections at the NMAI Archives Center that include information on the National Congress of American Indians include:

Arrow, Inc., and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges records, 1949-1999 (NMAI.MS.013) James E. Curry papers, 1935-1955 (NMAI.MS.015) National Tribal Chairmen's Association records, 1971-1978 (NMAI.MS.014) Helen L. Peterson papers, 1944-1992 (NMAI.MS.016) Reuben Snake papers, 1971-1996 (NMAI.MS.012)
Provenance:
The National Congress of American Indians designated the National Anthropological Archives (NAA) as its official repository in 1976. This collection was received by NAA in four accessions between 1976 and 1991. It was transferred from NAA to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1934-  Search this
Indians of North America -- Politics and government  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Indians of North America -- Legal status, laws, etc.  Search this
Indian termination policy  Search this
Alaska Natives -- Land tenure  Search this
Indians of North America -- Civil rights  Search this
Indians of North America -- Economic conditions -- 20th century  Search this
Radioactive wastes -- United States -- Management  Search this
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Videotapes
Correspondence
Administrative records
Financial records
Audiotapes
Clippings
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.010
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-010
Online Media:

PCIRE [Responses from National Tribal Chairmen's Association - NTCA]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 424
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 6: NCAI Committees and Special Issues Files / 6.20: Economic and Reservation Development
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref6168

Correspondence from NTCA [National Tribal Chairmen's Association]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 466
Type:
Archival materials
Graphic Materials
Date:
1975
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 9: Federal Indian Policy and Legislation Files / 9.1: American Indian Policy Review Task Force
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref7313

[National] Tribal Chairmen's Association

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 152
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1971
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1966

National Tribal Chairmen's Association [Proposal]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 152
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1967

National Tribal Chairmen's Association

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 152
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1972
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1968

National Tribal Chairmen's Association [1 of 2]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 152
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1972-1973
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1969

National Tribal Chairmen's Association [2 of 2]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 152
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1972-1973
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1970

National Tribal Chairmen's Association

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 153
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1973
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1971

[National Tribal Chairmen's Association - Correspondence]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 153
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1974
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1972

National Tribal Chairmen's Association

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 153
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1977
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1973

[National Tribal Chairmen's Association - Convention]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 153
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1977
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1974

National Tribal Chairmen's Association [8th Annual Convention]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 153
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1980
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1975

National Tribal Chairmen's Association

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 153
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1982
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1982

NTCA [National Tribal Chairmen's Association - Miscellaneous]

Collection Creator:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
Container:
Box 154
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
National Congress of American Indians records
National Congress of American Indians records / Series 5: Records of Indian Interest Organizations / 5.5: Other Indian Organizations
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-010-ref1985

Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records

Creator:
Hunter, Dwight  Search this
American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association  Search this
Superneau, Regina  Search this
Arrow, Inc.  Search this
Names:
American Indian Tribal Court Clerks Association  Search this
Great Lakes Intertribal Council -- justice  Search this
United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs  Search this
United States. Department of Justice  Search this
United States. Department of Labor  Search this
Extent:
96.5 Linear feet (55 Paige boxes of unprocessed material. 96 Hollinger boxes of processed material.)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Proposals
Project files
Minutes
Correspondence
Date:
circa 1949-1999
Summary:
These records, located in the Cultural Resources Center at NMAI, contain organizational records from ARROW, Inc. and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA). Included in this collection are both processed and unprocessed materials relating to the work conducted by these two organizations providing educational, financial and legal assistance to Native American communities.
Scope and Contents:
Virtually all the records in this collection concern projects undertaken by Arrow, Inc., and most are projects whose sponsorship was shared with the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association. Included are porposals, reports, relevant correspondence, and training materials. Most of these projects had been supported by the Department of Justice Legal Enforcement Assistance Administration, United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, and United States Department of Labor.
Arrangement note:
Records of Arrow, Inc., including (1) Industrial Park in Indian Areas; (2) supplemental scholarship assistance, 1961-1974; (3) monthly scholarship assistance, 1970-1972; (4) material concerning Crimial Court Procedures Manual: A Guide for American Indian Court Judges; (5) automatic diagnotic computer project, 1970; (6) Operation Mainstream; (7) social services case studies;

Records of the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association, including (8) family law/child welfare projects, circa 1974-1985; (9) American Indian court judges training project, circa 1971-1980; (10) criminal law training program, circa 1975-1984; (11) long-range planning study, 1976-1979; (12) court clerk training program, circa 1978-1983; (13) linkages for indian child welfare programs; (14) parenting program; (15) Indian child welfare training, 1982-1983; (16) child welfare act of 1978; (17) model court development project; (18) civil law training project; (19) Dwight Hunter's Portland area needs assessment; (20) technical proposal, 1981; (21) Warm Springs tribal court manual; (22) research grant, 1970-1971; (23) juvenile law and juvenile delinquency training project, 1971-1972; (24) resource directory/social services, 1977; (25) Regina Superneau correspondence; (26) international year of the child; (27) joint training sessions, NAICJA and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, Albuquerque, 1979; (28) criminal justice development project for the Great Lakes Intertribal Council, Inc.; (29) studies for American Indian Court Judges; (30) justice and the American Indian project; (31) reference material

The Unprocessed Matrial from Arrow, Inc. is unnaranged. It is still in its original shipping order.
Biographical/Historical note:
Arrow, Inc. ("Americans for Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs," frequently ARROW, Inc.) was initially known as the National Congress of American Indians Fund. It was incorporated in April 1949 under the laws of the District of Columbia by three trustees--Ruth M. Bronson, D'Arcy McNickle, and N.B. Johnson. Its founding was prompted by the involvement of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) in alleviating the suffering of certain Southwestern tribes brought by a particularly harsh winter. Since the NCAI was engaged in political activities, its donors could not receive tax deductions for their contributions. In contrast, the NCAI Fund was dedicated to charitable and educational work among American Indians and was initially granted tax exempt status. Thus, its donors could receive tax benefits for contributions in spite of the fact that the Fund was regarded as an arm of the NCAI, itself essentially a political lobbying organization.

In time, questions arose about the close connection between the NCAI and the NCAI Fund and caused considerable anxiety for Fund officers since it potentially threatened the tax status. In October 1949, desire for greater distance from NCAI led to the adopition of the name Arrow, Inc. In truth, however, the close connections with the NCAI continued, for the NCAI business committee had the power to appoint and remove Arrow trustees. In 1952, NCAI abolished its business committee; and, with the approval of NCAI's officers, Arrow took the opportunity to eliminate references to NCAI from its bylaws. Nevertheless, close cooperation still continued for many years.

Starting in 1952, Arrow was an autonomous organization managed by a board of directors appointed by its members. Operating largely through grants and donations, Arrow used some of its funds to finance a publications program, including a newsletter called Arrow or, in a latter-day interpretation of ARROW as an acronym, American for the Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs. Most monies, however, went into a wide variety of education and charitable projects. In the year 2000 Arrow, Inc. closed its doors.

A project undertaken by Arrow to improve tribal courts led directly to establishing the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA) in 1968. This ongoing organization, now with membership represeting almost all Indian Court judges, not only grew out of an Arrow activity but continued a close association with Arrow. only sharing executive director with Arrow as well as sponsorhsip of its projects with Arrow. Generaly, such projects involved educational activities designed to raise the standards and professionalism of Indian courts. In 1980, the National American Indian Court Clerks Association was established as an auxiliary of AITCJA.
Provenance:
The first two record groups in this collection, The Records of Arrow, Inc. and the Records of the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association were transferred from the National Anthropological Archives to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2007. The unprocessed materials from Arrow, Inc. were donated directly from Arrow, Inc. in 2001 following the closure of the organization.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
American Indians -- Operation Mainstream  Search this
Child welfare -- American Indian  Search this
American Indians -- legal system  Search this
Warms Springs -- court manual  Search this
American Indians -- scholarships  Search this
Family law -- American Indian  Search this
Parenting -- American Indian  Search this
Juvenile law -- American Indian  Search this
Genre/Form:
Proposals
Project files
Minutes
Correspondence
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.013
See more items in:
Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-013

Reuben Snake papers

Writer of accompanying material:
Snake, Reuben, 1937-1993  Search this
Names:
National Congress of American Indians  Search this
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Native American Church of North America  Search this
Extent:
1.25 Linear feet (3 archival boxes)
Culture:
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Writings
Biographies
Obituaries
Correspondence
Biography files
Interviews
Reports
Date:
1970-1996
Summary:
The Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, contain writings, correspondence, biographical materials, and written materials relating to the Native American Church which document the literary and political activities of this Winnebago tribal leader.
Scope and Contents:
The Reuben Snake Papers encompass original writings by Snake, correspondence, biographical materials, and written materials relating to Reuben's activism on behalf of the Native American Church.

Also included in this collection are video and audio tapes that contain interviews, talks, radio broadcasts, and other orally and visually transmitted items. These materials have been transferred to the NMAI Media Archives. All photographs have been transferred to the NMAI Photo Archives.
Arrangement:
The Reuben Snake papers are divided into four series:

Series 1, Writings, (undated, 1972-1993),

Series 2, Correspondence (undated, 1982-1996),

Series 3, Biographical (undated, 1985-1996),

Series 4, Native American Church (1971-1993)
Biographical / Historical:
Reuben A. Snake, Jr. was born January 12, 1937 at Winnebago, Nebraska, the youngest child of Reuben Harold and Virginia Greyhair Snake. Reuben's mother divorced her husband and later remarried, but Reuben's early life was fraught with hardships, including a period of separation from his parents and siblings. When the family's financial situation improved, parents and children were able to reunite and eventually settled in Hastings, Minnesota.

Reuben entered Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1950 but later dropped out due to problems with alcohol. He joined the Army in 1956, from which he was honorably discharged, and two years later he married Kathy McKee, with whom he raised four daughters and two sons. In 1965 he quit drinking.

Reuben was active in the American Indian Movement (AIM) in the 1970s and organized many demonstrations during his tenure as national chairman of that organization. After being elected chairman of the Winnebago tribe, Reuben reorganized the tribe, centralizing its administration and improving funding and accountability. Reuben was involved with educational issues as well, serving on education committees for the National Congress of American Indians and the National Tribal Chairman's Association. He worked both nationally and internationally to help make more widely known issues of Indian health, education, and religious freedom.

Reuben began to renew his spiritual and cultural ties with the Native American Church in the 1970s and eventually became a Roadman for the church. With the help of Senator Daniel Inouye from Hawaii he fought judicial battles to legalize the importation of peyote from Mexico for use in sacramental ceremonies. In 1990, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that the sacred use of peyote was not protected by the Constitution, Reuben became the official spokesperson for the Native American Church to educate the public about church philosophy and history. He organized the Native American Religious Freedom Project to lobby for national legislation what would amend and strengthen the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

Reuben had suffered a major heart attack in 1986, and by the early 1990s, his health was deteriorating. He died on June 28, 1993. Reuben did not live to see the results of his hard work on behalf of Native American religious freedom, Amendments to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, which President Clinton signed into law in October, 1994. These amendments protected the religious use of peyote by Indians.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Kathy Snake in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from the Archivist of the National Museum of the American Indian. Please submit a written request to NMAIArchives@si.edu. Copyright vested in Reuben A. Snake, Jr. has not passed to the National Museum of the American Indian; researchers are responsible for determining any other copyright questions.
Topic:
Peyote  Search this
Function:
American Indian Movement
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Writings
Biographies
Obituaries
Correspondence
Biography files
Interviews
Reports
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.012
See more items in:
Reuben Snake papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-012

Correspondence with Indian Tribes

Collection Creator:
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Collection Source:
Toda, Chinzu  Search this
Youpee, William  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Records of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.014, Series 8
See more items in:
National Tribal Chairmen's Association records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-014-ref15

Administrative Files

Collection Creator:
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Collection Source:
Toda, Chinzu  Search this
Youpee, William  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
1971-1978
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Records of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.014, Series 10
See more items in:
National Tribal Chairmen's Association records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-014-ref17

Personnel Files

Collection Creator:
National Tribal Chairmen's Association  Search this
Collection Source:
Toda, Chinzu  Search this
Youpee, William  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
This series, including box 63 and 64, contains the resumes and SF 171s of tribal leaders. The list is incomplete.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Records of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.014, Series 11
See more items in:
National Tribal Chairmen's Association records
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-014-ref18

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