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Modjeski and Masters Company Records

Creator:
Modjeski and Masters  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Names:
Masters, Frank, 1883-1974  Search this
Modjeski, Ralph, 1861-1940  Search this
Interviewer:
Vogel, Robert M.  Search this
Extent:
60 Cubic feet (140 boxes, 23 map folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Oral history
Lantern slides
Photographs
Drawings
Contracts
Letterpress books
Correspondence
Place:
Harrisburg (Penn.)
Pennsylvania
Date:
1870-1979
bulk 1900-1940
Summary:
The records document the work of consulting engineers and bridge builders, Ralph Modjeski (1861-1940) and Frank Masters (1883-1974) of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the civil engineering career of Ralph Modjeski (1861-1940) and Frank masters (1883-1974). The materials include bound volumes and loose photographs of bridge work-in-progress; printed reports; articles, pamphlets; drawings, blue prints and tracings of bridges; letterpress books of correspondence; contracts; reports; studies of bridge materials; and glass plate negatives and lantern slides depicting bridges.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1915-1986

Series 2: Letter Press Books, 1898-1906

Series 3: Photographs, 1878-1979

Series 4: Contracts, 1895-1960

Series 5: Printed Materials, 1862-1969

Series 6: Newspaper Clippings, 1924-1941

Series 7: Lantern Slides, undated

Series 8: Glass Plate Negatives, 1906-1926

Series 9: Film Negatives, 1924, undated

Series 10: Drawings, 1901-1952
Biographical / Historical:
Rudolphe Modrzejewski was born to Helena Jadwiga Opid (d.1909) and Gustav Sinnmayer Modrzejewski (d. 1901) on January 27, 1861, in Cracow, Poland. His mother was an internationally known stage actress who went by the name Helena Modrzejewska. In 1868, Helena married Count Karol Bożenta Chłapowski. In July 1876, Helena and Rudolphe emigrated to America, where, for purposes of American citizenship, the Polish form of their surname was later changed to Modjeski (feminine form Modjeska). Modjeski became a naturalized citizen in 1883 in San Francisco, California.

In 1882, Modjeski returned to Europe to study at the Ecole Des Ponts et Chaussees and graduated in 1885 with a degree in civil engineering. Modjeski worked with prominent civil engineer and "Father of American Bridge Building," George S. Morison, on the Union Pacific Railroad Bridge over the Missouri River at Omaha as an assistant engineer. He remained with Morison from 1885 to 1892. Some of his assignments included working in the shops which produced steel sections; the design office where he advanced to chief draftsman; and as an inspector of quality control in shops that fabricated steel elements. Modjeski worked with Morison on his Willamette, Nebraska City, Sioux City, Winona, Cairo, and Memphis bridges across the Mississippi River. The Memphis bridge was the longest span cantilever in the country at the time.

In 1893, Modjeski opened a civil engineering practice in Chicago with S. Nicholson. After some financial difficulties, Nicholson and Modjeski dissolved their partnership. Modjeski's first individual large commission was the bridge at Rock Island, Illinois (1895) across the Mississippi River where he designed and supervised the construction of the bridge for the federal government and the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company.

In 1902, Modjeski went into partnership with fellow civil engineer, Alfred Noble (1844-1914) forming the firm of Noble and Modjeski. He went into partnership with Walter Angier, under the name Modjeski and Angier, civil and inspecting engineers, between 1912 and 1924 with several offices around the United States. Angiers had worked with him beginning in 1902 on the bridge across the Mississippi at Thebes, Illinois. Modjeski partnered, in 1924, with Frank Masters (1883-1974), who had worked with him and Angiers between 1904 and 1914 on the Memphis and Louisville Bridges, forming Modjeski and Masters. Clement E. Chase and Montgomery B. Case later joined the firm as partners. In 1937, Masters assumed full control and ownership of the firm which specialized in the design and construction supervision of large bridges and other structures, rehabilitation and reconstruction of existing bridges, the design of highways and expressways, subways and wharves, the design of large and complex foundations, inspection of construction materials, and the creation of surveys, investigations and reports.

Modjeski built and/or consulted on over forty bridges in his lifetime. He built truss, steel arch, and suspension bridges. He introduced steel tower pylons in place of masonry towers and he used better grades of steel, such as new steel alloys with improved strength and durability. He also introduced advancements in the design of cable configurations and deck-stiffening beams. Some of his major projects included: the Columbia River and Willamette bridges, McKinley Bridge at St. Louis; the Celilo Railroad Bridge at Celilo, Ohio; the Thebes Bridge over the Mississippi; the Quebec Bridge over the St. Lawrence River; the Delaware River Bridge; the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, the Manhattan Bridge, and the Mid-Hudson Bridge.

On December 28, 1885, Modjeski married Felicie Benda (d. 1936) in New York and the couple had three children: Felix Bozenta Modjeski (1887); Marylka Stuart Modjeski (1894) and Charles Emmanuel John Modjeski (1896-1944). Ralph and Felicie divorced in 1931. He later married Virginia Giblyn on July 7, 1931. Modjeski died in Los Angles on June 26, 1940.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Bollman Truss Bridge Collection, 1852-1986 (AC1064)

Canadian Bridges Photograph Albums, 1873-1911 (AC1025)

Victor C. Darnell Bridge Construction Photographs, 1911-1913 and undated (AC1018)

Beata Drake Covered Bridge Collection, 1954-1981 (AC0998)

Ben Franklin Bridge Photograph Album, 1922-1926 (AC1029)

Hartford, Connecticut Bridge Collection, 1903-1905 (AC1066)

Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad Bridge Profiles, 1877-1896 (AC1073)

Richard H. Miller Bridge Collection : postcards and slides, circa 1950-1988 and undated, #950

George S. Morison Collection, 1846-1903 (AC0978)

Niagara Falls Bridge Commission Records, 1848-1946 (bulk 1890-1929) (AC1060)

Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge Construction Photograph Album, 1883-1884 (AC1030)

David Plowden North American Bridge Photographs, 1970-1976 (AC1019)

Quebec Bridge Photograph Collection, 1905-1986 (bulk 1905-1916) (AC1026)

Railroad Bridges Construction Photograph Album, circa 1905-1914 (AC1024)

Samuel Reed Bridge Collection, 1947-1964 (AC1001)

Rip Van Winkle Bridge Photographs, 1933-1935 (AC1027)

John A. Roebling Collection,1836-1975 (bulk 1930-1950) (AC0981)

Holton Duncan Robinson Papers, 1889-1938 (AC0963)

Lucinda Rudell Covered Bridges Collection, 1942-1979 (AC1028)

Lester Shanks Collection of Covered Bridge Photographs and Ephemera, 1876-2010 (bulk 1973-2008) (AC1244)

Washington, D.C. Bridges Collection, 1900-1905 (AC01095)

Raymond E. Wilson Covered Bridge Collection, 1958-1974 (AC0999)

Materials at Other Organizations

Southern Illinois University, Morris Library Special Collections

Walter E. Angier photograph collection, 1901-1915

Walter E. Angier Vertical File Manuscript, 1924

Michigan Historical Collections, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan

Alfred Noble Papers, 1862-1922
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Modejeski and Masters Consulting Engineers, through Joseph J. Scherrer, October 2, 1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil engineering  Search this
Bridge failures  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history -- 1950-1970
Lantern slides
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Drawings
Contracts
Letterpress books
Photographs -- 19th century
Correspondence
Citation:
Modjeski and Masters Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0976
See more items in:
Modjeski and Masters Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep827750b46-05ec-4519-8a2c-dddf6ab57d6e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0976
Online Media:

Curatorial Records, 1952-1989

Creator:
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Engineering and Industry  Search this
Subject:
Multhauf, Robert P  Search this
Vogel, Robert M  Search this
Battison, Edwin A  Search this
Stephens, Carlene E. 1949-  Search this
Mayr, Otto  Search this
Post, Robert C  Search this
Noble, David F (David Franklin) 1935-  Search this
Stine, Jeffrey K  Search this
United States National Museum  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
United States National Museum Division of Engineering  Search this
Physical description:
5 cu. ft. processed holdings
1.5 cu. ft. unprocesed holdings
Type:
Manuscripts
Black-and-white photographs
Black-and-white transparencies
Date:
1952
1952-1989
Topic:
Engineering--History  Search this
Industries--History  Search this
Museum curators  Search this
Documentary films  Search this
Textile factories  Search this
Museums--Collection management  Search this
Local number:
SIA RS00537
See more items in:
Curatorial Records 1952-1989 [National Museum of American History (U.S.) Division of Engineering and Industry]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_219694

Worthington Corporation Records

Creator:
Holly Manufacturing Company  Search this
Worthington Corporation  Search this
Names:
Henry R. Worthington Pump Works  Search this
International Steam Pump Company  Search this
Jeanesville Iron Works  Search this
Worthington Pump and Machinery Corporation  Search this
Grace, John F.  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (54 boxes, 1 map folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Financial records
Trade catalogs
Reports
Sketchbooks
Advertisements
Patents
Photographs
Newsletters
Minute books
Legal documents
Correspondence
Place:
England
London
Hazelton (Penn.)
Buffalo (N.Y.)
Holyoke (Mass.)
Cincinnati (Ohio)
Date:
1840-1982
Summary:
This collection documents the products and business activities of the Worthington Corporation, its predecessors and its subsidiaries. The records focus on the products that the Worthington Corporation produced, including steam pumps, hydraulic pumps and gas engines.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the products and business activities of the Worthington Corporation, its predecessors and its subsidiaries. It consists of annual and monthly reports, correspondence, legal filings, trade literature, photographs, airbrushed photographs and product illustrations, financial reports, meeting minutes, newsletters, company histories and research notes, patents, blueprints, engineering sketchbooks, lecture notes, publications, and promotional materials for several World's Fairs where Worthington products were exhibited.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into five series.

Series 1: Historical and Reference Materials, 1847-1965

Series 2: Administrative and Business Records, 1856-1963

Series 3: Publications, 1872-1982

Series 4: Photographs, 1840-1964

Series 5: Sketchbooks and Notebooks, 1882-1964
Biographical / Historical:
Henry R. Worthington (December 17, 1817-December 17, 1880) was an innovator in the world of 19th century steam pumps earning patents for a direct-acting steam pump (US Patent 6274) and a duplex steam pump (US Patent 116,131). Initially, Worthington partnered with William H. Baker to found the Worthington & Baker Works in 1845, with the works based in Brooklyn. Worthington's company began by producing various pumps for naval craft, including pumps installed on the USS Monitor, the first ironclad ship of the US Navy. After Baker's death, Worthington changed the name of his business to the Henry R. Worthington Corporation and expanded into the production of water works pumps for major cities. Worthington pumps gained international acclaim at World's Fairs in the latter half of the 19th century. Fountains at the Centennial Exposition of 1876 and Columbian Exposition of 1893 and the hydraulic pumps for the Eiffel Tower's elevators at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 were all powered by Worthington products.

In 1899, Worthington was purchased and merged into the International Steam Pump Company, along with the Blake and Knowles Steam Pump Company, Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Company, the Snow Steam Works, the Deane Steam Pump Company and several smaller works. After the acquisition of these different works, the International Steam Pump Company's product line expanded to include gas engines and mining machinery.

International Steam Pump reverted to the Worthington name, first as Worthington Pump and Machinery Corporation (1916-1952) and then as the Worthington Corporation (1952-1967). It was also during this time when Worthington relocated its main works from Brooklyn to Harrison, New Jersey in 1917. All the while, the company continued to produce hydraulic engines, gas engines and water works pumps. Through various mergers the company also diversified into refrigeration and air conditioning. In 1967, the Worthington Corporation merged with the Studebaker Automobile Manufacturing Company, becoming Studebaker-Worthington.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Pumps (AC0060)

Division of Political and Military History

The Division of Political and Military History holds photographs of a World War I bond drive at the Deane Works of Holyoke, Massachusetts. See accessions: 1979.0015.01 and 1979.0015.04.

Division of Medicine and Science

The Division of Medicine and Science holds several Watch Dog Water Meters produced by the Worthington-Gamon Meter Company. See accessions PH.325890 and PH.325891.

Smithsonian Institution Libraries Trade Literature Collection

The libraries contain trade literature on Worthington and its subsidiaries.
Provenance:
Donated to the Smithsonian in the 1960s by Studebaker Worthington, Inc.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Business -- History  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Diesel engines  Search this
Pumping machinery  Search this
Steam-turbines  Search this
Rock-drills  Search this
Genre/Form:
Financial records -- 20th century
Trade catalogs
Reports
Sketchbooks
Advertisements
Patents
Photographs -- 19th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Minute books
Legal documents
Correspondence -- 19th century
Citation:
Worthington Corporation Records, 1840-1982, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0916
See more items in:
Worthington Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89e217554-152e-41b8-b888-036c9647c15f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0916
Online Media:

Lawrence Talma Smith Papers

Creator:
Smith, Lawrence Talma, 1899-  Search this
Names:
Armour Institute of Technology  Search this
Chicago Park District  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Theses
Reports
Specifications
Photographs
Contracts
Drawings
Place:
Ohio Turnpike (Ohio)
Date:
circa 1927-1966
Scope and Contents:
The collection includes engineering reports, contract specifications, construction photographs, and drawings for South Park Commissioners and Chicago Park District projects, 1927, 1931, 1935-1940; Ohio Turnpike projects, 1951; railway bridges, 1953-1954; and Northern Illinois Toll Highway projects, 1954-1956. Also included are a copy of Smith's thesis for the Civil Engineering degree from Armour Institute of Technology, 1940; an article by Smith, 1940; engineering periodicals; and unidentified photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence Talman Smith was a structural engineer who worked on various projects from 1924-1940, including the Holland Tunnel in New York, Florence Lake Tunnel in California, construction projects in China, and Chicago Park District projects. Following service in the United States Army from 1940-1945, Smith set up a private consulting practice.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad bridges  Search this
Roads  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles
Theses
Reports
Specifications
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Contracts
Drawings
Citation:
Archives Center, Lawrence Talma Smith Papers, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0988
See more items in:
Lawrence Talma Smith Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a85a1ce7-7fe9-43cc-95c7-511a98defa23
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0988

Herbert S. Grassman Papers

Creator:
Grassman, Herbert S.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
0.6 Cubic feet (3 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Contracts
Stats (copies)
Specifications
Photostats
Place:
Grand Coulee Dam (Wash.)
Hoover Dam (Ariz. and Nev.)
Detroit (Mich.)
Date:
1915-1939
Scope and Contents note:
These papers contain photographs, contracts, specifications, and reports for projects consulting engineer, Herbert Grassman worked on.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: Photographs, 1928-1930

Series 2: Specifications, 1927-09-17-1939

Series 3: Contracts, 1915-1931

Series 4: Reports, 1921-1942
Biographical/Historical note:
Herbert S. Grassman, Oak Park, Illinois, consulting engineer.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquistion unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Dams  Search this
Tunnels  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Contracts
Stats (copies)
Specifications
Photostats
Citation:
Herbert S. Grassman Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0955
See more items in:
Herbert S. Grassman Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81370a1e0-1510-4427-922a-ccb18230c5e3
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0955

Donald M. Burmister Papers

Creator:
Burmister, Donald, 1895-1981  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
5.5 Cubic feet (14 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diagrams
Articles
Reports
Correspondence
Specifications
Photographs
Date:
1927-1974
Scope and Contents Note:
Collection consists primarily of reports, prepared by Burmister, relating to consulting projects concerning beach erosion, building and bridge foundations, airports, highways, docks, piers, bulkheads, and land development. Most of the reports were prepared under the Soil Mechanics Laboratory, Columbia University. The laboratory was established by Burmister in 1933 as one of the first soil mechanics laboratories in the United States. It is now equipped with several unique apparatuses for advanced soil testing and research.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Projects, 1934-1966

Series 2: Publications and Writings, 1927-1974
Biographical/Historical note:
Born in Arizona in 1895, Donald M. Burmister emerged as a valuable contributor to the field of civil engineering during his career as a consulting engineer and university professor. After being drafted for service in the first World War, Burmister enlisted in the American military between 1918 and 1919. He later earned his B.A. (1926), B.S.(1927), C.E.(1928), and PhD (1938) from Columbia University pioneering achievements in the fields of civil engineering and soil mechanics. Burmister taught civil engineering at Columbia University from 1928-1963, specializing in soil mechanics and foundational engineering. He died in 1981 in Calhoun, Michigan at the age of 86.
Provenance:
Donated to the National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History) by Donald Burmister.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Beach erosion  Search this
Civil engineering  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Docks  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Foundations  Search this
Piers  Search this
Soil mechanics  Search this
Airports  Search this
Roads -- Design and construction  Search this
Roads  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diagrams
Articles
Reports
Correspondence -- 20th century
Specifications
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Donald M. Burmister Papers, 1927-1974, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1068
See more items in:
Donald M. Burmister Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85755a674-db3f-4d59-a097-824f2dd149be
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1068

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records

Author:
Garrett, John W. (John Work), 1820-1884  Search this
Latrobe, Benj. H. (Benjamin Henry), 1807-1878  Search this
Creator:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
33 Cubic feet (76 boxes, 46 map-folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Tracings
Correspondence
Drawings
Date:
1827-1987
Summary:
The collection consists of correspondence, invoices, drawings, photographs, and negatives and other printed literature documenting the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of correspondence, engineering drawings, notes, photographs, transparencies, negatives, glass plate negatives, printed materials, and newspaper clippings documenting the Baltimore and Ohio railroad from its inception in 1827 to its merger with the Chesapeake and Ohio in the 1960s.
Arrangement:
The records are arranged into ten series.

Series 1, Historical Background, 1827-1987

Series 2, Bridge Histories, 1867-1966

Series 3, President's Office, 1826-1880

Series 4, Correspondence, 1826-1859

Series 5, Business Records, 1894-1914, and undated

Series 6, Agreement, 1870

Series 7, Drawings, 1858-1957, and undated

Subseries 7.1, Indices and Lists, 1924-1943, undated

Subseries 7.2, Bailey's Station, 1887; 1899; 1901

Subseries 7.3, Baltimore Belt Railroad, 1895, undated

Subseries 7.4, Bay View and Canton Bridges, 1884-1885

Subseries 7.5, Big Seneca Creek Viaduct, 1905

Subseries 7.6, Bollman Bridges, undated

Subseries 7.7, Boyds, Maryland Station, 1886; 1927

Subseries 7.8, Bridewell Station, undated

Subseries 7.9, Bridges (general), 1893-1917

Subseries 7.10, Brunswick, Maryland, 1890-1907

Subseries 7.11, Building Materials List, undated

Subseries 7.12, Building Signs, 1911-1912

Subseries 7.13, Camden Station, 1881-1942 (not inclusive)

Subseries 7.14, Camden Station (related), 1881-1915

Subseries 7.15, Centenary Bridge Models, 1927

Subseries 7.16, Central Office Building, undated

Subseries 7.17, Chestnut Street Station, 1925-1952

Subseries 7.18, Coaling facilities, water tanks, turntables, and miscellaneous structures, 1888-1912

Subseries 7.19, Cumberland Station, 1910-1955

Subseries 7.20, Curtis Bay Branch, 1900-1911

Subseries 7.21, Frederick Station, 1908-1915

Subseries 7.22, Hyattsville Station, 1913

Subseries 7.23, Keedysville Station, undated

Subseries 7.24, Laurel Station, undated

Subseries 7.25, Ledger, undated

Subseries 7.26, Lieperville Station, 1889

Subseries 7.27, Locust Point, 1881-1957

Subseries 7.28, Maps, 1862; 1918

Subseries 7.29, Martinsburg, West Virginia, 1913-1927

Subseries 7.30, Miscellaneous Buildings, 1875-1956

Subseries 7.31, Miscellaneous Large Photographs, undated

Subseries 7.32, Miscellaneous Structures, 1890-1916

Subseries 7.33: Mt. Clare (general)

Subseries 7.34, Mt. Clare New Blue Line Stable, 1899; 1905

Subseries 7.35, Mt. Clare New Car Shops, undated

Subseries 7.36, Mt. Royal Station, undated

Subseries 7.37, Newton Falls and Fairpoint, Ohio, 1909

Subseries 7.38, Patapsco River Bridge, 1883

Subseries 7.39, Plans for house no. 1846 (N. Gay Street, Baltimore, Maryland), undated

Subseries 7.40, Point of Rocks Station, 1951

Subseries 7.41, Scales, 1903

Subseries 7.42, Signal towers, 1900-1908

Subseries 7.43, Stations (general), 1866-1907

Subseries 7.44, Sykesville Station, undated

Subseries 7.45, Untitled, undated

Subseries 7.46, Warnings, 1894-1911

Subseries 7.47, Woodstock Station, undated

Subseries 7.48, Miscellaneous (rolled), 1858-1930 (not inclusive)

Series 8, Photographs and Copy Prints, 1872-1980s (not inclusive)

Subseries 8.1, Photographs, 1872-1980s

Subseries 8.2, Copy prints, 1901-1931, undated

Subseries 8.3, Indices and Lists, 1909-1920

Series 9, Negatives, 1850-1983 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.1, Glass plate negatives (unidentified), undated

Subseries 9.2, Glass plate negatives (numbered), 1850-1957 (bulk 1920s-1930s)

Subseries 9.3, Negatives by number, undated

Subseries 9.4, Negatives by location, 1870; 1978-1983

Subseries 9.5, Negatives by subject, 1922-1930s, undated

Series 10, Stations and Buildings, 1884-1982
Biographical / Historical:
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was the nation's first extensive steam powered railroad. It was founded by Baltimore merchants in 1827 as a means of promoting trade and making Baltimore competitive with other east coast ports. The original intent of the founders was to provide direct and fast access to the Ohio River, and the markets that the river reached. The railroad, however, went beyond the Ohio River and its lines went as far west as St. Louis and Chicago. The B&O was also known for its use of an electric locomotive in the mid 1890s. It also had a completely air conditioned train, and it was a forerunner in the use of diesel-electric locomotives. Company activities paralleled those of other American railroads and over the course of its life included expansion, near bankruptcy, innovations, regulations, and finally buy out. In February 1963, the Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) completed its purchase of the B&O. Today, B&O is part of the CSX Transportation (CSX) network.

John Work Garrett president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1858-1884, was born in Baltimore, Maryland July 31, 1820. He was the second son of Elizabeth Stouffer and Robert Garrett. He married Rachel Ann Harrison, the daughter of Thomas Harrison, a Baltimore merchant. They had one daughter, Mary and two sons Robert and Thomas Harrison Garrett.

After attending Lafayette College (Pennsylvania) for two years John W. Garrett left in 1836 to become associated with his father's commission business in Baltimore. The commission house which dealt in wholesale groceries, produce, forwarding and a commission business expanded to establish direct connections with Latin America, seek outlets in Europe and develop its own banking operations. In time its financial operations overshadowed the commission and shipping business.

When John W. Garrett began to invest heavily in Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, the road was in competition with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the stock was not popular. Its value rose steadily over the years. Mr. Garrett was elected a director of the railroad in 1855. His report as chairman of a subcommittee on the need for additional funds to complete the line to the Ohio River led to his election to the presidency of the road on November 17, 1858, a position he held for 26 years. New policies with emphasis on economy, personal supervision and gradual expansion were inaugurated and consistently maintained, in spite of a general financial crisis, Mr. Garrett's first year in office showed a net gain in earnings.

Sympathetic to his southern friends during the Civil War, Mr. Garrett nevertheless supported the Union. He recognized the inevitability of Confederate defeat by superior northern resources. Confederate leaders blamed him for their inability to seize Washington and he received warm appreciation for his services to the Union cause from President Lincoln. The railroad stretched along the theater of war and twice crossed Confederate territory. It was, therefore, a main objective for southern attack. Branches were frequently damaged by Confederate raids, but the main line to Washington became important for the transport of troops and supplies. The Baltimore and Ohio carried out the first military rail transport in history and the transfer of 20,000 men from the Potomac to Chattanooga in 1863 was a major triumph for its president.

With the advent of peace Mr. Garrett turned to rebuilding and strengthening the railroad. He replaced equipment and track damaged by the war, then extended the system by securing direct routes to Pittsburgh and Chicago and arranging an independent line into New York. Wharves were built at Locust Point for ocean liners and a system of elevators erected. The B&O. built its own sleeping and dining cars, established hotels in the mountains and created its own express company. By 1880, after battles over rates with other trunk lines, a costly rivalry with the Pennsylvania Railroad over the eastern route and charges of discrimination against local shippers Mr. Garrett was at the height of his success. He cooperated in establishing the B. and 0. Employees Relief Association for accident and life insurance, a hospital system, saving and building funds, and arrangements for improving sanitation in the work place. He was on friendly terms with Johns Hopkins, a trustee of John Hopkins Hospital, and with George Peabody, founder of the Peabody institute of which he was also a trustee. Garrett County, Maryland was named in his honor.

John W. Garrett died on September 26, 1884 within a year of his wife's death in a carriage accident. During his connection with the railroad the stock increased from $57 to $200; at the outbreak of the Civil War the railroad was operating 514 miles of rail, gross earnings were $4,000,097 and net per mile was $4246.1 By 1864 gross earnings were $10,138,876 and net per mile, $7113.2 By the end of his presidency mileage had increased to 1711 miles and net earnings were $4535 per mile.3

References

1 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

2 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3

3 -- National Cyclopedia of American Biography -- Vol. 18:3
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Maryland Historical Society

Baltimore and Ohio Museum
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the 1960s.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs and glass plate negatives with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroads  Search this
Engineering -- 19th century  Search this
Repairing -- Railroads  Search this
Railway engineering -- 1860-1890  Search this
Bridges  Search this
Construction  Search this
Genre/Form:
Tracings
Correspondence -- 19th century
Drawings -- 1860-1890
Citation:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1086
See more items in:
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e652d903-bb57-46a8-a205-c7cbfe89f444
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1086
Online Media:

McIntosh, Seymour and Company Records

Creator:
McIntosh, Seymour and Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
93.6 Cubic feet (174 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Notebooks
Manuals
Blueprints
Drawings
Place:
Auburn (N.Y.)
Date:
circa 1886-1939
Summary:
The records document the design, manufacture, and operation of steam and diesel engines by McIntosh, Seymour and Company of Auburn, New York.
Scope and Contents:
These records relate to the design, manufacture, and operation of diesel engines by McIntosh, Seymour and Company of Auburn, New York. Included are letter books, instruction manuals; price and data sheets; notebooks; design notes, blueprints and drawings; calculations and specifications, sketches; and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into ten series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1889-1980

Series 2: Letter Books, 1895-1901

Series 3: Sketches, 1900-1941

Series 4: Shop Books, 1897-1924

Series 5: Calculation Books and Sheets, 1903-1915

Series 6: Drawings, 1899-1922

Series 7: Instructions, 1899-1941

Series 8: Technical Data, 1901-1923

Series 9: Photographs, 1915
Biographical / Historical:
John E. McIntosh (1858-1916) and James A. Seymour invented the centrifugal governor (US 346,302) in 1886 made possible the beginning of McIntosh and Seymour Company which was founded in 1886 in Auburn, New York. The centrifugal governor is a specific type that controls the speed of an engine, regulating the amount of fuel and maintaining a constant speed. The company manufactured and sold large steam engines for stationary generators and marine use. By 1910, the company introduced diesel engines for railroads.
Provenance:
Originally collected for the division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now the Division of Work and Industry). Exact date and source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Topic:
Diesel engines  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Engine design  Search this
Manufacturing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Notebooks
Manuals
Blueprints
Drawings
Citation:
McIntosh, Seymour and Company Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0985
See more items in:
McIntosh, Seymour and Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85ce8461d-744f-4a23-b929-e8a6b013f5f6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0985

James Leffel and Company Records

Creator:
James Leffel and Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
20 Cubic feet (42 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Business records
Charts
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Order books
Patents
Photographs
Specifications
Trade catalogs
Glass plate negatives
Place:
Springfield (Ohio)
Date:
circa 1848-1976
Summary:
Collection documents James Leffel and Company of Springfield, Ohio, manufacturer of turbines, water wheels and engines.
Scope and Contents:
The records contain business and legal records; correspondence; patents and patent files; specifications; charts; blueprints; mechanical drawings and original catalog art; photographs and negatives; catalogs, and clippings documenting James Leffel and Company.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eight series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1974-1978

Series 2: Patent Materials, 1848-1931

Series 3: Testing Data, 1913-1966, bulk 1920s

Series 4: Catalogs, 1870-1946

Series 5: Catalog Artwork, 1919-1959

Series 6: Trade Literature, 1890s-1976

Series 7: Photographs, 1908-1929

Series 7: Writings and Journal Articles, 1881-1854

Series 8: Glass Plate Negatives, 1890s-1950s, undated
Biographical:
James Leffel was born in 1806 in Botetourt County, Virginia to John and Catherine Leffel. The family moved to Ohio, settling near Springfield. where John Leffel established saw and grist mills. Leffel grew up surrounded by mills and and developed a strong interest in water wheels. Leffel trained as a millwright acquiring skills in metal work to make sickles, knives, and other small iron implements. In the late 1830s, Leffel established his first foundry and machine shop near Springfield, Ohio, quickly expanding and taking on two partners, William A. John and T.Y. Ferrell and adding mill gearing and stoves to their line of products. By 1845, Leffel ended his business relationship with John and Ferrell and formed a partnership with William Blackeney, a machinist who helped him support the foundry and its work. In 1846, Andrew Richards joined Leffel to build a cotton mill and machine shop. Leffel envisioned the utilization of water power in Springfield. Ohio, with the establishment of mills along a race--a dug channel leading from a creek or river to the mill--that would eventually bring trade. With the help of Samuel and James Barnett, gristmill operators, Leffel was able to "cut a race" and erect a Water Power and Flouring Mill. Leffel was especially interested in water wheel development and would receive patent US34,150 for a water wheel (1862) which later reissued as RE1791 and RE1792 in 1864.

Leffel also patented cooking stoves (US6775) in 1849 which became known as the "Buckeye," "Double Oven" and "Red Cook Stove" that were successful and earned him a strong reputation. In 1852, Leffel broke with Richards, and Nathaniel Cook, a machinist, joined Leffel and Blackeney. With his 1862 patent for a water wheel, Leffel focused his attention on demonstrating the water wheel and speaking about its productive uses. Numerous test runs of the water wheel convinced Leffel that he could sell the wheel to mills and factory operators. Leffel marketed the wheel as the "American Double Turbine" an efficient, cheap turbine for the mass market (Layton page 86 ). In 1863, Leffel and Blackeney formed a new firm, along with Perry Betchel and Leander Mudge to create a foundry designed solely for the production of the wheel. Leffel later joined forces with John Foos, a mill operator and James S. Goode, a lawyer, to form the James Leffel and Company. Leffel sold his water wheel to flour mills, woolen goods manufacturers, paper mills and farm equipment manufacturers. The company became one of the leading manufacturers of waterwheels and turbines and today continues to operate under the name of James Leffel and Company as part of Canyon Hydro which acquired the company in 2019.

Leffel died in 1866.

Source

Becker, Carl M. "James Leffel: Double Turbiner Water Wheel Inventor, Ohio History, Volume 75, No. 4, Autumn 1966, pages 200-211.

Layton, Edwin. "Scientific Technology, 1845-1900: The Hydraulic Turbine and the Origins of American Industrial Research," Technology and Culture, January 1979, Vol. 20, No. 1, pages 64-89.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Trade Literature Collection

Pelton Water Wheel Collection, NMAH.AC.1093

Lombard Governor Company Records, NMAH.AC.1091

Niagara Falls Power Company Photographs, NMAH.AC.0949

J. & W. Jolly Company Records, NMAH.AC.1009

Uriah Boyden Papers, NMAH.AC.0982

William R. Hutton Papers, NMAH.AC.0987

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Series: Waterworks

Materials at Other Organizations

Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio

James Leffel & Company Records, 1867-1971

The James Leffel and Company Records consist of ledgers, journals, order books, inventories, cash and day books, payroll files, correspondence, photographs, publications, and scrapbooks of a late 19th and early 20th century Springfield, Ohio manufacturer of turbines, water wheels and engines.

Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio

James Leffel and Company Records, 1845-1890

Records of water-wheel company of Springfield, Ohio including a letter press book, notebook of hydraulic tables, and patents for water wheels and cooking stoves.
Provenance:
Collected for the National Museum of American History.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Hydraulic turbines  Search this
Steam-boilers  Search this
Stokers, Mechanical  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Valves  Search this
Water-wheels  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Business records
Charts
Clippings
Correspondence
Drawings
Order books
Patents
Photographs -- 19th century
Specifications
Trade catalogs
Glass plate negatives
Citation:
James Leffel and Company Records, 1867-1957, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0960
See more items in:
James Leffel and Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b36140e4-0b0b-4f5c-8c2e-f3cfb0a2abf0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0960
Online Media:

Erasmus D. Leavitt Papers

Creator:
Calumet and Hecla Mining Company.  Search this
Leavitt, Erasmus D., 1836-1916  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
20.4 Cubic feet (4 boxes, 82 folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Account books
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Letterpress books
Notebooks
Scrapbooks
Place:
Upper Peninsula (Mich.)
Date:
1861-1955
Summary:
Papers document prominent nineteenth-century steam engineer Erasmus D. Leavitt.
Scope and Contents note:
The Leavitt Papers include a Civil War diary, personal account books, photographs, drawings, and engineering materials relating to steam engines.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1: Engineering Materials, 1861-1955

Series 2: Photographs, 1890s, undated

Series 3: Engineering Drawings, 1874-1906
Historical:
The Calumet and Hecla Company, which was formed in about 1866, was one of the largest mining operations in the Lake Superior region of Upper Michigan. Over 3 billion pounds of copper were removed from its extensive mines by the time operations ceased in 1939. To facilitate the work in both the mines and smelting plants, the company installed some the largest steam engines ever built. The aggregate amounted to over 55,000 horsepower.

Noted 19th century steam engineer Erasmus Darwin Leavitt was hired to design the series of huge multi-cylinder engines. Each had sufficient power to support several operations at one time. While an engine drove one of the hoists, it might also power pumping, conveying, and air compressing machinery. At the peak of operations there were at least 50 steam engines of all sizes providing power to Calumet and Hecla. Falling copper prices during the 1920s and the economic depression of the 1930s ultimately forced the mines to close. The engines were of no further use and their countless tons of cast iron and steel ended up in the scrap drives of World War II.
Biographical:
Erasmus Darwin Leavitt was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1836 and died in 1916 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was educated in the Lowell public schools, entered the machine shop of the Lowell Manufacturing Company in 1852, and served three years as an apprentice. He spent one year with Corliss and Nightingale and was later assistant foreman of the City Point works in South Boston, where he was in charge of building the engines for the flagship "Hartford." From 1859 to 1861 he was chief draftsman for Thurston, Gardiner & Co., of Providence, Rhode Island, leaving to enter the United States Navy in the summer of 1861.

Leavitt served during the Civil War and he was detailed to the Naval Academy at Annapolis as instructor in steam engineering. Resigning in 1867, he resumed the practice of mechanical engineering, making a specialty of pumping and mining machinery. He was consulting engineer of the Calumet and Hecla Mining compan from 1874 to 1904 during which time he designed the equipment. He was also consulting engineer for Henry R. Worthington, the Dickson Manufacturing Company, City of Boston and City of Cambridge, and designed the pumping engine for the City of Louisville, Kentucky. He was advisory engineer and designed machinery for the Bethlehem Steel Company and for South African mining companies. He was a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and formerly its president; the American Society of Civil Engineers, American Institute of Mining Engineers, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, American Society of Naval Engineers, an honorary member of the British Society for the Advancement of Science, life member of Franklin Institute, and member of Institution of Civil Engineers and of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of Great Britain. He was also a fellow of American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

In 1884 Mr. Leavitt received the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology of New Jersey. Leavitt retired from active practice in 1904. He married Annie Elisabeth Pettit in 1867, and had three daughters, Mary, Margaret and Annie.

Source

Cambridge Chronicle, March 18, 1916
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Michigan Technological University Archives and Copper Country Historical Collections

Calumet and Hecla Mining Company Collection
Provenance:
Collection materials donated by Calumet and Hecla, Inc. in 1960 and by Thomas E. P. Rice, 1977.

The collection came to the Smithsonian in 1960 from Calumet & Hecla, Inc. In the course of a reorganization in 1952 mining had been dropped from the company name as the emphasis was on chemicals, foundry work, and forest products. Its remaining mining activites in other areas of Michigan were phased out during the 1960s and in 1968 Calumet & Hecla merged with Universal Oil Products, Inc. Late in 1970 Universal Oil Products scrapped what was left of the Calumet & Hecla physical plant and its remaining assests were auctioned off.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engines  Search this
Hoisting and conveying  Search this
Mineral industries  Search this
Mining  Search this
Pumping  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Waterworks  Search this
Genre/Form:
Account books
Blueprints
Diaries
Drawings
Letterpress books
Notebooks
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Erasmus D. Leavitt Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0966
See more items in:
Erasmus D. Leavitt Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c5e7ffde-5f5f-415c-ae48-45a3c941509b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0966

Cass Gilbert Collection

Creator:
Valentine, P. O. (33 Homestead, Park, Newark)  Search this
Gilbert, Cass, 1859-1934  Search this
Belden & Company (45 Clinton Street, Newark, N.J.)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Names:
New York Life Insurance Building.  Search this
Seaside Sanatorium (Waterford, Conn)  Search this
Supreme Court Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Woolworth Building (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
15 Cubic feet (71 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Business records
Clippings
Contracts
Personal papers
Photographs
Pastels (visual works)
Pencil works
Pamphlets
Booklets
Specifications
Correspondence
Statistics
Sketchbooks
Date:
1897-1963
bulk 1897-1936
Scope and Contents:
The contents of the collection date from 1897 to 1936. The bulk of the collection consists of loose-leaf binders of photo prints of forty-one Cass Gilbert buildings under construction between 1908 and 1936. (This represents less than half of his firm's total output.) The volumes are arranged alphabetically by name of building. A few additional photo prints of buildings under construction are found in the unbound materials.

The collection also includes correspondence (1919-1932), contracts, statistical data, news clippings, booklets, and other miscellaneous Gilbert papers. There are three volumes of correspondence, specifications and blueprints, 1932-1935, for the construction of the U.S. Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. Also included are twenty pencil and pastel sketch books of Gilbert's travels in Europe, 1897 to 1932, and miscellaneous loose sketches (including photo prints and negatives of his studies for the George Washington Bridge. The photographic prints are mostly mounted on cloth in loose-leaf binders. Some of the photographers are identified, although many are not. Photographers included P.O. Valentine of 33 Homestead Park, Newark, New Jersey.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into six series.

Series 1: Correspondence, 1919-1932

Series 2: Personal Papers, 1914-1963

Series 3: New York Life Insurance Building Contracts, 1934-1935

Series 4: Woolworth Building, 1911-1913

Series 5: Sketches and Sketch Books, 1897-1932

Series 6: Photoprints, 1908-1936
Biographical / Historical:
Cass Gilbert, 1859-1934, was a prominent American architect best known for his commercial and public buildings. Gilbert was born in Zanesville, Ohio and educated in St. Paul, Minnesota. After only a year of study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequent travels in Europe, he began working for the New York firm of McKim, Mead, and White in 1880. In 1883 he returned to St. Paul where he practised briefly with James Knox Taylor, a classmate at M.I.T., designing private homes, churches, and commercial buildings. His first major commission was the Minnesota State Capitol (1895), which he modeled after the National Capitol and the dome of St. Peter's, Rome. Gilbert returned to New York in 1899 when he won the prized commission for the design of the U.S. Customs House. This was followed by many other major projects. The most famous of these was the Woolworth Building in New York (1913); with its fifty‑five stories and Gothic ornament it is considered Gilbert's greatest achievement. Firmly supportive of the European tradition and eastern academic architecture, Gilbert continued his numerous and successful designs until his death in 1934. Among his many familiar public buildings are the Treasury Annex and the Supreme Court in Washington, DC, the state capitol buildings of West Virginia and Arkansas, and the public libraries of St. Louis and Detroit.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Library of Congress

Cass Gilbert Archive, 1890-1939

Montana Historical Society

Cass Gilbert Papers, 1902-1910

Oberlin College Archives

Cass Gilbert Collection, 1903-1984, 2000

University of Minnesota, Archives and Special Collections

Cass Gilbert Collection, 1909-1910

United States Supreme Court, Office of the Curator
Provenance:
Gift of Emily Gilbert and Cass Gilbert, Jr. through Mr. Silvio Bedini, November 30, 1961, January 15, 1962, and later in 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engineering -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Bridges -- 1890-1940  Search this
Civil engineering -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Civil engineers  Search this
Commercial buildings -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Architects -- 1890-1940  Search this
Architecture -- 1890-1940 -- United States  Search this
Public architecture -- 1890-1940 -- U.S.  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings -- 1890-1940
Business records -- 1880-1950
Clippings -- 1900-1950
Contracts -- 1890-1940
Personal papers -- 1890-1940
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- 1900-1950
Pastels (visual works)
Pencil works
Pamphlets
Booklets
Specifications
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Statistics
Sketchbooks -- 1890-1940
Citation:
Cass Gilbert Collection, 1897-1936, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0214
See more items in:
Cass Gilbert Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8476cd02d-1b0d-4583-a43f-663208d06e16
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0214
Online Media:

Cooper-Bessemer Corporation Records

Creator:
Cooper-Bessemer Corporation (Mt. Vernon, Ohio)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
27 Cubic feet (68 boxes, 1 map-folder)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertising
Airbrushing
Cashbooks
Correspondence
Catalogs
Drawings
Financial records
Letterpress copybooks
Photographs
Price lists
Newsletters
Trade literature
Date:
1870-1961
Summary:
These records document the activities of the Cooper-Bessemer Corporation of Mt. Vernon, Ohio, and Grove City, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of steam, gas, and oil engines, compressors, and furnaces.
Scope and Contents note:
These records document the activities of the Cooper-Bessemer Corporation of Mt. Vernon, Ohio, manufacturers of steam, gas, and oil engines; compressors; and furnaces through correspondence, financial materials, trade literature and photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into eleven series.

Series 1: Background Materials, 1895-1944

Series 2: Correspondence, 1866-1961

Series 3: Financial Materials, 1888-1929

Series 4: Newsletters, 1917-1942

Series 5: Product and Sales Materials, 1870-1961

Series 6: Advertising Materials, 1921-1945

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1902-1953

Series 8: Photographs, 1881-1930s

Series 9: Air Brushed Photographs/Renderings, 1909-1930s, undated

Series 10: Glass Plate Negatives, 1906-1913, undated

Series 11: Drawings, 1906-1944
Biographical / Historical:
C. & G. Cooper Company was founded by Charles (1811-1891) and Elias Cooper (1814-1848) in 1833 in Mt. Vernon, Ohio. Situated in Central Ohio, abundant supplies of coal, iron and natural gas were available to the Cooper brothers as well as proximity to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad lines. Previously, the brothers opened a coal mine in 1832 and then a foundry for casting metals. Their principal products were plows, carding machines, and special power machinery. In 1848, Elias Cooper died and Charles Cooper sold an interest in the Company to T.L. Clark and the firm changed its name from to C. & E. Cooper to Cooper & Clark. In 1852, John Cooper (1824-1916), the younger brother of Charles and Elias, joined the company and became known as Coopers & Clark. T.L. Clark retired in 1853 and the company became C. & J. Cooper.

In 1852, the company built its first blowing engine and with the growth of the railroad system and a demand for railroad equipment, the company responded with manufacturing steam locomotives. In 1865, F.L. Fairchild (d. 1912) joined the company as a partner and the firm became known as C.& J. Cooper & Company. J.C. Debes, a mechanical engineer formerly of the George H. Corliss Works, began working for the company in 1865 designing Corliss engines that came to market in 1869. Corliss engines would become a principal product of the company by 1886. Colonel George Rogers (son-in-law of Elias Cooper) joined the company when John Cooper retired and the name once gain changed to C. & G. Cooper & Company. By 1881, Desault B. Kirk (son-in-law of Charles Cooper) and son, C.F. Cooper (d. 1894) along with E.H. Fairchild and B.F. Williams became active partners in the company. In 1929, Cooper merged with Bessemer Gas Engine Co. of Grove City, Pennsylvania, to form Cooper-Bessemer Corporation. Cooper Machinery Services is the current equipment manufacturer for Cooper-Bessemer engines.

During World War One and World War Two, the company made munitions—steel shells, special purpose lathes, surface grinders and multiple-head cutting off machines—to aid the Allies. Its work contributed to faster and more efficient production for the war effort and earned it the Maritime "M" and Army/Navy "E" Awards. Over the years, the company's products included: simple and compound Corliss engines, gas and diesel engines, rolling mill engines, marine engines, compressors, and power units for ice and refrigeration, cotton-ginning and oil-milling.

Sources

Cooper Machinery Services (last accessed on April 12, 2022 https://www.cooperservices.com/our-company/heritage/cooper-origins/the-history-of-cooper-bessemer/)

C. & G. Cooper Company, Seventy-Five Years of Engine Building, Mount Vernon, Ohio, 1900.

100 Years of Power, Cooper-Bessemer, 1833-1933, 1933.
Related Materials:
Materials at the National Museum of American History

Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Trade Literature Collection

Includes Cooper-Bessemer Corporation, Chapman Engineering Company, and Hope Engineering and Supply Company.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by the Cooper-Bessemer Corporation, through Robert S. Warren, Manager of Advertising and Public Relations, in 1965 and 1969.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Air-compressors  Search this
Engines  Search this
Diesel motor  Search this
Furnaces  Search this
Marine engines  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertising
Airbrushing
Cashbooks
Correspondence -- 1900-1950
Catalogs -- 20th century
Drawings -- 19th century
Drawings -- 20th century
Financial records
Letterpress copybooks
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Price lists
Newsletters
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Trade literature -- 20th century
Citation:
Archives Center, Cooper-Bessemer Corporation Records, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0961
See more items in:
Cooper-Bessemer Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88284a8f0-2012-488a-ba71-bd3925941302
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0961
Online Media:

Robert Wetherill Company Records

Creator:
Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company  Search this
Wetherill Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Names:
Wetherill Company  Search this
Extent:
80 Cubic feet (48 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Card files
Specifications
Drawings
Trade catalogs
Ledgers (account books)
Date:
ca. 1875-1930.
Scope and Contents:
These records document the activities of the Wetherill Plant of the Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, originally the Wetherill Company, particuarly the manufacture of steam and diesel engines. Included are engine specification cards; bound lists and charts of specifications and prices; a bound index of drawing numbers, 1886-1928; steam engine catalogs, ca. 1895-1910; drawings and plans for compound and Corliss steam engines, 1875-1921; engine record books, 1876-1902; order books, 1888-1891, 1895-1912; a delivery book, 1916; ledgers, 1876-1885; and drawings for the SunDoxford diesel engine, ca. 1920-1930.
Arrangement:
1 series. Arrangement: By type of material.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Steam-engines  Search this
Diesel engines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Card files
Specifications
Drawings
Trade catalogs
Ledgers (account books)
Citation:
Archives Center, Robert Wetherill Company Records, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0992
See more items in:
Robert Wetherill Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8a7c2333c-f002-405f-9cd4-e9d0b9f04153
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0992

Washington Society of Engineers Records

Creator:
Washington Society of Engineers  Search this
Author:
Remington, Charles E.  Search this
Donor:
Ellenberger, William J.  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
13.1 Cubic feet (30 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Business records
Minutes
Reports
Financial records
Ledgers (account books)
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1905-1985
bulk 1930-1979
Summary:
The Washington Society of Engineers was founded in 1905 with the objective to advance engineering knowledge and maintain a high professional standard among members. Membership was open to all individuals who were actively engaged in any branch of the engineering profession. The records contain membership records, meeting minutes and reports, financial records, correspondence, projects and events details, as well as research documents.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents work conducted by the Washington Society of Engineers. A large portion of the papers are from the offices of Charles E. Remington, former treasurer of the Society. The collection includes administrative records, organizational information, financial records, business records such as meeting minutes, general correspondence, reprints, records of programs and events, academic papers, and reference files about members and activities of the Society.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1: Membership Records, 1905-1985

Series 2: Meeting Minutes and Reports, 1905-1980

Series 3: Financial Records,1906-1984

Series 4: Correspondence, 1928-1980

Series 5: Project, Events, and Research Documents, 1931-1983
Biographical / Historical:
The Washington Society of Engineers was formed in 1905 to represent local engineers in the Washington (DC), Virginia, and Maryland areas, as well as serve as a resource for sharing ideas and networking with others within the engineering profession. Membership was open to all persons actively involved in the practice of any branch of engineering. The Society became part of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) and was also affiliated with the Washington Academy of Sciences. Other engineering societies were able to form due to the assistance of the Washington Society of Engineers such as the engineers including the Engineers Joint Council, the Washington Academy of Sciences, the DC Council of Engineering and Architectural Societies, and the American Association of Engineering Societies. The Washington Society of Engineers was absorbed into different national professional societies, such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE), both of which have DC metro area branches.
Provenance:
Immediate source of acquisition unknown.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Societies -- Professional  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 20th century
Business records -- 20th century
Minutes
Reports
Financial records -- 20th century
Ledgers (account books)
Citation:
Washington Society of Engineers Records, 1905-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0972
See more items in:
Washington Society of Engineers Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86d121619-a005-4784-b7f1-b10d21aa4c3c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0972

Washington, D.C. Bridges Collection

Creator:
Meigs, John  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
4.5 Cubic feet (20 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1900-1905.
Scope and Contents:
Photoprints and negatives documenting the construction of several Washington, D.C. bridges. The Washington Aqueduct Bridge is the subject of most of the images. The Washington Channel Bridge, the Potomac Highway Bridge, and the 11th Street Bridge are also included among the images. Additionally, there is a letterpress book, an employee time book, and a notebook containing diagrams and measurements.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical / Historical:
Meigs was a Washington, D.C. civil engineer.
Provenance:
Donated in the 1960s to the National Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History).
Restrictions:
Collection open for research on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Rivers -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Bridges -- Washington (D.C.)  Search this
Citation:
Washington, D.C. Bridges Collection, 1900-1905, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1095
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep809dae6b9-6971-411b-b65c-a1e72adff215
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1095

New York Central Railroad Valuation Negatives

Creator:
Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company  Search this
New York Central Railroad Company  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (36 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1914-1923
Summary:
The collection consists of photographic negatives relating to a valuation study of the New York Central Railroad dating from 1914 to 1923.
Scope and Contents:
Collection consists of over 3,500 photographic negatives relating to a valuation study of the New York Central Railway. These materials include images of bridges, structures, stations, railroad cars, and other subjects. Certain negatives also capture glimpses of everyday life including families outside of company-owned housing, railroad employees at work, busy city scenes, advertisements, automobiles, and in some cases, the surveyors at work. The negatives begin with valuation survey number twenty-seven and end with 145. These negatives date from 1914 to 1923 with the bulk dating from 1916 to 1921. The negatives are arranged sequentially according to their valuation survey (VS) numbers, which denote specific geographic areas along the railway lines. Geographic locations were identified using copies of valuation survey maps from the Pennsylvania State Archives.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series.
Related Materials:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Grand Central Terminal Collection (NMAH.AC1071)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (NMAH.AC.0060)

James Forgie Papers (NMAH.AC.0986)

Clayton M. Hall Collection of Railroad Photographs (NMAH.AC1168)

Foundation Company Records (NMAH.AC.0974)

Thomas Norrell Railroad Photographs Collection (NMAH.AC.1174)

John H. White, Jr. Railroad Reference Collection (NMAH.AC.0523)

Interstate Commerce Commission Locomotive Inspection Reports (NMAH.AC.0241)

Railroad Trade Literature (NMAH.AC.1136)

Cummings Structural Concrete Company Records (NMAH.AC.0218)
Provenance:
Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company donated the collection in 1986.
Restrictions:
Collection is opened for research. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction. Smithsonian Institution owns rights. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Railroad bridges  Search this
Railroad companies  Search this
Railroad cars  Search this
Railroads -- Trains  Search this
Railroad stations  Search this
Railroads -- 20th century  Search this
Railroads  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
New York Central Railway Valuation Negatives, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1072
See more items in:
New York Central Railroad Valuation Negatives
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8bcc38a77-143e-4a74-8714-8083a0b1b492
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1072
Online Media:

John A. Roebling Collection

Creator:
Roebling, Charles Gustavus, 1849-1918  Search this
Roebling, Ferdinand W. (Ferdinand William), 1842-1917  Search this
John A. Roebling's Sons Company  Search this
Roebling, John Augustus, 1806-1869  Search this
Roebling, Washington Augustus, 1837-1926.  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
18.5 Cubic feet (62 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Specifications
Reports
Price lists
Photographs
Newsletters
Letterpress books
Correspondence
Blueprints
Ledgers (account books)
Genealogies
Notebooks
Patents
Date:
1836-1975
bulk 1930-1950
Summary:
Collection documents the work of the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, builders of bridges. The materials consist primarily of photograph albums documenting some of the bridges, tramways, ski lifts and chair lifts that Roebling's Sons Company was involved with. The documentation also includes specifications, patents, and reference materials about the engineering process of building bridges and bridges in general.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the work of the John A. Roebling's Sons Company, builders of bridges. The materials consist primarily of photograph albums documenting a variety of bridges, mostly in the United States. The documentation also includes specifications, patents, and reference materials about the engineering process of building bridges and bridges in general.

Series 1, Historical background materials, 1895-1958, is divided into two subseries: Subseries 1, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949 and Subseries 2, Newsletters, 1929-1931.

Subseries 1, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949, contains a variety of items related to the company such as historical narratives, correspondence, price lists, testing data, and a ledger with cost estimates. The correspondence is partially bound (pages 1 to 104) from a letter press book (handwritten and typescript) belonging to John A. Roebling's and Sons Company. William Hildebrand and Charles G. Roebling are the chief correspondents. The correspondence documents daily activities related to the design and erection of bridges as well as finances and supplies. Charles G. Roebling's notebook, undated, contains calculations and notes about various bridge projects.

Subseries 2, Newsletters, 1929-1931, contain copies of Blue Center and Wire Engineering, which were John A. Roebling's and Sons Company publications intended for employees. The newsletters were apparently used as scrapbooks, with black-and-white photographs pasted into the pages. Found among the pages of Blue Center are photographs of the Hudson River Bridge and in Wire Engineering, there are photographs of the Maysville, Kentucky Bridge.

Series 2, Photographs, 1926-1975, comprises the largest series in the collection. The photographs are primarily black-and-white and document aerial tramways, tramways for logging or mining, chair lifts, ski lifts, floods, and bridge construction projects. The latter makes up the majority. Most photographs were assembled into albums with corresponding captions and dates, and almost all of the photographs document bridges in the United States. There is one exception, the Yauricocha Tramway in Peru. In some instances, the captions are recorded on the back of the photographs, and others were recorded on album pages. The series is arranged alphabetically by name of bridge and/or project.

Series 3, Specifications, 1855-1962, consists of printed textual documents (both bound and loose) that contain information for bidders, proposals, contracts, and bonds, and the detailed specifications. This series is arranged alphabetically by bridge name.

Series 4, Reports, 1928-1938, contains bound reports (both progress and final) detailing problems, requirements, research, manufacture, plant installation, cable equipment, strand adjustments, and Roebling Company developments. This series is arranged alphabetically by bridge/and/or project.

Series 5, Patent materials, 1849-1952, consists of issued patents (to a variety of individuals) for cable and cable appliances, cables, and cable apparatus, cableways and tramways, and grips. The patents are arranged by subject area, then by patent number.

Series 6, Reference materials, 1836-1964, contains a wide range of materials—articles, biographical files, drawings, photographs, newspaper clippings, advertising, correspondence, notes—documenting all aspects of bridges. This series is arranged alphabetically by topic.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1, Historical background materials, 1895-1958, undated

Subseries 1, Biographical, 1900-1958, undated

Subseries 2, John A. Roebling's and Sons Company materials, 1895-1949

Subseries 3, Newsletters, 1929-1931

Series 2, Photographs, 1926-1975

Series 3, Specifications, 1855-1962

Series 4, Reports, 1928-1938

Series 5, Patent materials, 1849-1952

Series 6, Reference materials, 1836-1964
Biographical / Historical:
John Augustus Roebling (1806-1869) was the founder and proprietor of John A. Roebling's Sons Company. Born in Mühlhausen, Germany, he was a civil engineer famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge. Roebling married Johana Herting in 1836 and they had nine children: Washington A. Roebling (1837-1926); Laura R. Methfessel (1840-1873); Ferdinand W. Roebling (1842-1917); Elvira R. Stewart (1844-1871); Josephine R. Jarvis (b. 1847); Charles Gustavus Roebling (1849-1918); Edmund Roebling (1854-1930); William Roebling (b. 1856, d. 1860); and Hannah Roebling (died in infancy). Roebling's three sons, Washington Augustus Roebling; Ferdinand William Roebling and Charles Gustavus Roebling, worked for the company.

Roebling's Sons Company was active in the design and manufacture of wire rope used in the erection of suspension bridges since the 1840s. Roebling devised a system of spinning the wires together where weights and swivels turned the wire coils in the opposite direction from the twisting, thereby removing kinks. Method of and Machine for Manufacturing Wire Rope (US Patent # 2,720) issued on July 16, 1842. Roebling would adapt this wire rope to his suspension bridge principle. In 1848, he established a company—John Roebling's Sons Company—in Trenton, New Jersey, to manufacture his wire rope. Roebling manufacturing plants were sold in 1952 to the Colorado Fuel and Iron (CF&I) Company of Pueblo, Colorado. In 1968, the Crane Company purchased the CF& I.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

George S. Morison Collection (AC0978)

Modjeski and Masters Company Records (AC0976)

Materials at Other Organizations

The Rutgers University, Special Collections and University Archives

Roebling family papers, cicra 1820s-1950s
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Blair Birdsall, former chief engineer at John A. Roebling's Sons Company in 1981.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bridges -- New York (N.Y.)  Search this
Bridge construction industry -- United States  Search this
Bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Iron industry and trade -- United States  Search this
Iron industry and trade -- Colorado  Search this
Wire industry -- New Jersey  Search this
Suspension bridges -- Design and construction  Search this
Ski lifts  Search this
Wire-rope industry -- New Jersey  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Specifications
Reports
Price lists
Photographs -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 1920-1940
Letterpress books
Correspondence
Blueprints
Ledgers (account books)
Genealogies
Notebooks
Patents
Citation:
John A. Roebling Collection, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0981
See more items in:
John A. Roebling Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8419ecb5a-d411-4efa-b829-43d8cc9002ec
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0981
Online Media:

Southwark Foundry and Machine Company Records

Creator:
Baldwin-Southwark Corporation  Search this
Baldwin Locomotive Works  Search this
Southwark Foundry and Machine Company  Search this
De La Vergne Engine Company  Search this
Donor:
Baldwin-Hamilton Company  Search this
Fenerty, Paul C.  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
342 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Bulletins
Engineering drawings
Financial records
Lists
Manuals
Patents
Reports
Specifications
Date:
circa 1868-1945.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of engineering drawings of steam engines, blowing engines, turbines, generators, testing machinery, steam hammers, boilers, machine tools, and other machinery manufactured by the Southwark Foundry and Machine Company, circa 1880-1916; transfers of patent rights, reports, lists, financial documents, and other material concerning Southwark and its predecessors, circa 1868-1885; and engineering drawings, specifications, production records, parts and drawing lists, repair manuals, bulletins, and publications concerning refrigeration machinery manufactured by the De La Vergne Engine Company and its predecessors and successors, circa 1890-1945.
Biographical / Historical:
The Southwark Foundry and Machine Company of Philadelphia was founded in 1836. The company, which manufactured engines, boilers, turbines, and other machinery, was acquired by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1930 and became the Baldwin Southwark Corporation, a subsidiary of the Works. The De La Vergne Engine Company of New York, some of whose records are included here, manufacturers of refrigeration machinery, engines, and other machinery, was acquired by Baldwin Southwark in 1931.
Provenance:
The largest portion of this collection was collected for the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (now part of the Division of Work and Industry), and information about its provenance is lost. A small portion was donated in 1971 by Paul C. Fenerty, mostly relating to the Porter-Allen steam engine. The Baldwin-Hamilton Company donated approximately 14,000 drawings of machinery built by Southwark Foundry and Machine Company in 1975.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the majority of it is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Engines  Search this
Heavy machinery  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Mechanical engineering  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Turbines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Bulletins
Engineering drawings
Financial records
Lists
Manuals
Patents
Reports
Specifications
Citation:
Southwark Foundry and Machine Company Records, circa 1868-1945, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1107
See more items in:
Southwark Foundry and Machine Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8fecadb55-a285-4439-8276-c571fd9aef65
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1107

Lockwood-Greene Records

Creator:
Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated  Search this
Lockwood-Greene Company  Search this
Whitman, David  Search this
Greene, Stephen  Search this
Lockwood, Amos  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of History of Technology  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
Extent:
270 Cubic feet (233 boxes, 850 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs
Trade literature
Date:
1784-2004, undated
bulk 1915-1930
Summary:
The engineering firm that became Lockwood Greene was founded by David Whitman, a mill engineer, in 1832. Amos D. Lockwood, a consultant, succeeded Whitman and entered a partnership with Stephen Greene in 1882. The firm specialized in industrial engineering and construction; they designed and built a wide variety of structures and work environments worldwide over the next century. Lockwood Greene was acquired by CH2M HILL in December, 2003. Before its acquisition by CH2MHILL it was reportedly the oldest industrial engineering, construction, and professional services firm in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Lockwood Greene records are a comprehensive range of documents related to the appraisal, building, construction, design, evaluation, and engineering of facilities for a variety of clients. The material covers the entire period of industrialization of the United States, and, provides a thorough record of the textile industry, both in New England and the South. Some of the textile mills are documented with unusual completeness, showing water and steam power layouts, factory village plans, and landscaping schedules. A broad range of other building typologies is also covered, including projects with public or retail functions, such as early automobile showrooms, hospitals, apartments and private dwellings, churches, and schools.

In-depth study of the company's earliest history is hampered by a scarcity of records, many of which were lost in the great fire that destroyed Boston's city center in 1872. Nevertheless, graphic and textual evidence does exist within the collection that illuminates these early projects, in addition to the fabric of surviving buildings. The Lockwood Greene records document several commissions that the firm would return to again and again over the course of many decades as clients requested plant additions, upgrades to mechanical and operating systems, and other substantive changes. Researchers are encouraged to examine the blueprints, elevations, and plans for these later additions in order to find illustrations of the firm's earlier interventions at the site. In addition to drawings, other visual evidence for nineteenth-century projects can be found in the company's extensive photo files, which often document structures for which drawings do not exist.

The Lockwood Greene records contain an abundance of graphic and textual evidence for structures designed after 1910 until the 1930s. After this period, visual documentation becomes much more limited. This is partially due to the evolution of drafting tools and information management technologies within the architecture and engineering profession. Lockwood Greene was an early adopter of technological innovations in rendering and data capture, beginning with the introduction of aperture cards and microfilm and extending to the adoption of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. These more modern formats were not part of the acquisition, and, at the time of writing, still reside with the company.

The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of interest to historians of architecture and engineering, as well as those that study the history of business and labor relations. It provides extensive textual and documentary evidence on the evolution and growth of American engineering and the increasing professionalization of the discipline through specialization during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rich holdings of architectural drawings, photographs, and specifications provide unparalleled resources that trace the evolution of industrial buildings and their typologies; experimentation with building materials and systems, particularly with regards to fireproofing; and the history of textile manufacture in the United States. In addition, there is also rich visual and documentary evidence of the changing relationships between corporations and their employees through photographs, plans, and designs for company towns and mill villages, as well as through corporate records that illustrate the work culture of Lockwood Greene itself. The Lockwood-Greene collection will be of special interest to historic preservationists as the awareness of the significance of industrial and vernacular buildings continues to grow, and detailed design drawings and other visual material will be of especial value for restoration, rehabilitation, and adaptive-reuse projects.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series.

Series 1, Project Drawings, Renderings, and Plans, 1784-1969, undated

Series 2, Photographs and Slides, 1881-2001, undated

Subseries 2.1: Photo Albums, 1906-1934

Subseries 2.2: Photographic Files, 1881-1956

Subseries 2.3: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1948-1974

Subseries 2.4: Spartanburg Office Photographic File, 1919-1999

Subseries 2.5: Project Negatives and Transparencies, 1956-1970

Subseries 2.6: Project Slides and Transparencies, 1985-2001

Subseries 2.7: Project Slides and Transparencies, Culls, 1974-2001

Subseries 2.8: Project Slides and Transparencies, Corporate Photography, 1976-1998

Subseries 2.9: Photograph Album Covers, 1920, undated

Series 3: Job Files, 1872-1957, undated

Subseries 3.1, Specifications, 1913-1942, undated

Subseries 3.2: List of Drawings, 1872-1951, undated

Subseries 3.3: Project Files, 1919-1969, undated

Subseries 3.4: Reports, 1913-1969

Subseries 3.5: Job Cost Records, 1913-1957, undated

Series 4, Corporate Records and History, 1881-2004, undated

Subseries 4.1: Meeting Minutes, 1913-1995

Subseries 4.2: Corporate Files, 1891-2004, undated

Subseries 4.3: Historical Research and Reference Files and Photographs, 1881-1983, undated

Subseries 4.4: Corporate Publications, 1917-2001, undated

Series 5, Non-Lockwood Greene Publications, 1910-1984, undated

Series 6, Audio-Visual, 1964
Biographical / Historical:
Lockwood Greene, one of the nation's oldest engineering firms, traces it roots to 1832, when Rhode Island native David Whitman began a machinery repair service. Riding the wave of the early industrial revolution in textile manufacturing, Whitman added mill design services to his repertoire, which formed the backbone of a flourishing consulting business for the rest of the century. Whitman was one of the first itinerant mill engineers or "doctors" that traveled throughout New England advising various industrialists on the placement, design, and construction of their factories and the layout of the complicated system of machinery and shafting that they contained. His largest commission was the design of the Bates Manufacturing Company complex in Lewiston, Maine, which was incorporated in 1850 and soon became one of the largest textile producers in New England.

Upon Whitman's death in 1858, his unfinished work was assumed by Amos D. Lockwood, a prominent mill agent and astute businessman who had built a name for himself in Connecticut and Rhode Island. The successful completion of the projects at Lewiston brought enough additional demand for Lockwood's services to prompt him to relocate to Boston, where he formally opened an independent consulting office with partner John W. Danielson in 1871. For the next ten years, A.D. Lockwood & Company was involved in a least eight major mill design projects, half of which were for new construction. One of these projects, the design and construction of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company in Greenville (now Piedmont), South Carolina was especially significant and is considered to be a prototype for the Southern textile industry.

In 1882, Lockwood established a new business, Lockwood, Greene and Company, with Stephen Greene, a professionally-trained civil engineer who had joined the firm in 1879. As the firm grew, it expanded its scope as consultants supplying all of the necessary architectural and engineering services a prospective owner needed to initiate, equip, and run a complete plant. Acting as the owners' representative, the company supervised construction and installation but did not directly act as builders or contractors. Lockwood

Greene's objective expertise was legendary and made it a leader in this emergent field. As Samuel B. Lincoln explains in his history of the company:

"The new firm's knowledge and experience in the textile industry enabled it to analyze samples of cloth and, from such samples, to provide everything necessary for a completed plant to make such goods in any desired quantity. It did not at any time act as selling agents for machinery or equipment, neither did it accept commissions or rebates from suppliers: by this policy it maintained a position as impartial and independent engineer." (pages 105-107)

Greene became president of the company upon Lockwood's death in 1884. Under his leadership, the company expanded into additional industries and designed an array of other industrial building types that would prefigure the diversity of later work. In 1893, the company revolutionized American industry by designing and constructing the first factory whose operating power was provided entirely over electric wires from a remote power plant, rather than relying upon a water source or a stockpiled fuel supply. The Columbia Mills project created a great deal of publicity for the firm and was a signal to other manufacturers that there were viable alternatives to the use of steam power.

As changing economic conditions led Lockwood Greene to move away from its traditional reliance upon the textile manufacturing industry, it was very successful at soliciting projects for a wide variety of structures, from newspaper plants and automotive factories to convention halls and schools. After 1900, Lockwood Greene expanded its operations and opened branch offices in other cities, including Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Atlanta, and Charlotte. In 1915, Edwin F. Greene, president and son of Stephen Greene, reorganized the firm as Lockwood, Greene & Company, Incorporated This new entity served as the parent company and controlled three subsidiaries: one to own and operate cotton mills that Greene had acquired; one to manage other companies' textile mills; and one to provide engineering services.

Lockwood Greene expanded its operations tremendously as the textile industry boomed under wartime demand and in the years following. The severe textile depression from 1923 to 1928 caused the collapse of this structure, however, as Lockwood Greene continued to suffer deep losses in the textile mills that it owned. The parent company was dissolved in 1928 and the engineering subsidiary, which had remained profitable, was salvaged as Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated.

After a rocky start with the onset of the Depression, the company began to prosper during the Second World War and its growth continued steadily throughout the next several decades. In the late 1960s, as a result of declining business, the company's headquarters was transferred from Boston to Spartanburg, South Carolina. In 1981, Phillipp Holtzman USA, a subsidiary of Phillipp Holtzman AG of Frankfurt, Germany, acquired a majority interest in Lockwood Greene. In 2003, CH2M Hill, a global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services based in Denver, Colorado, acquired the company.

From its beginnings under David Whitman, Lockwood Greene has become one of the most diversified engineering firms in the United States. The firm is best known as a designer of industrial and institutional buildings, but the company has become a leader in many additional areas in recent years. Lockwood Greene dominates the market in the design and production of the germ- and dust-free "clean room" facilities required by the pharmaceutical industry and micro-electronics manufacturers. The company has also developed expertise in designing integrated security and networking systems for industrial plants, international port facilities, and military installations worldwide.

Banham, Raynor. A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

Biggs, Lindy. The Rational Factory: Architecture, Technology, and Work in America's Age of Mass Production. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Bradley, Betsy Hunter. The Works: The Industrial Architecture of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Greene, Benjamin Allen. Stephen Greene: Memories of His Life, with Addresses, Resolutions and Other Tributes of Affection. Chicago, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, 1903.

Heiser, William J. Lockwood Greene, 1958-1968, Another Period in the History of an Engineering Business. Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated, 1970.

Lincoln, Samuel B. Lockwood Greene: The History of an Engineering Business, 1832-1958. Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1960.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated The Lockwood Greene Story: One-Hundred-Fifty Years of Engineering Progress. Spartanburg, South Carolina: Lockwood Greene Engineers, Incorporated; undated.
Related Materials:
Materials at the Smithsonian Instituion Libraries

"[Trade catalogs from Lockwood, Greene & Co.]", Trade Literature at the American History Museum Books, Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Lockwood Greene, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 1997 (original drawings). An addendum to the collection was donated by CH2M HILL in 2007.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. One film is tored at an off-site facility and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Architects  Search this
Architecture, Commercial  Search this
Architecture, Domestic  Search this
Building materials  Search this
Buildings  Search this
Construction industry  Search this
Company towns  Search this
Textile mills  Search this
Mills  Search this
Manufacturing industries  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Industrial buildings -- Design and construction  Search this
Industrial buildings  Search this
Engineering  Search this
Factories -- Power supply  Search this
Factories -- Design and construction  Search this
Factories  Search this
Cotton textile industry  Search this
Commercial buildings  Search this
Electric power production  Search this
Genre/Form:
Linen tracings
Paper flimsies
Business records
Design drawings
Blueprints
Patents
Specifications
Reports
Photograph albums
Photographs -- 21st century
Photographs -- 20th century
Trade literature
Photographs -- 1890-1900
Citation:
Lockwood Greene Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1113
See more items in:
Lockwood-Greene Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85090342a-0c7e-4667-8b37-fa0e8309b5ac
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1113
Online Media:

Erie City Iron Works Collection

Creator:
Erie City Iron Works.  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Work and Industry  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Drawings
Articles
Blueprints
Trade catalogs
Photographs
Proposals
Price lists
Date:
1869-1960
bulk 1875-1912
Summary:
The collection documents a company founded in the 1840s in Erie, Pennsylvania as Presque Isle Foundry. It changed its name to Erie City Iron Works in 1851. Erie City iron Works made engines (stationary, portable and agricultural), boilers, and circular saw mills. The documents include products through catalogs, trade literature, photographs, blueprints and drawings.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the Erie City Iron Works of Erie, Pennsylvania. It includes trade literature, catalogs, price lists and advertisements; drawings and blueprints; photographs of engines and boilers; and articles.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Catalogs/Pricelists, 1869-1953, undated

Series 2, Drawings 1884-1889; 1941-1953, undated

Series 3, Photographs, undated

Series 4, Miscellaneous, 1912, 1919, 1960
Biographical / Historical:
The Erie City Iron Works was founded in Erie, Pennsylvania in 1840 as Presque Isle Foundry. It changed its name to Erie City Iron Works in 1851. Over its history, it experienced several name changes: Zurn Industries' Energy Division, Aalborg Industries, and Erie Power Technologies, Inc. Today, the parent company, CMI Belgium, is a global supplier of steam-generating products and services to the power industry and general industrial steam market.
Provenance:
Source of acquisition unknown. Collected by the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, now known as the Division of Work and Industry.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Boilers  Search this
Engines  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Drawings
Articles
Blueprints
Trade catalogs
Photographs -- 20th century
Photographs -- 19th century
Proposals
Price lists
Citation:
Erie City Iron Works Collection, dates, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1050
See more items in:
Erie City Iron Works Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86741dbac-99bb-4186-be28-246844d82037
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1050

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