Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
1,198 documents - page 1 of 60

Agency history, 1946-

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Subject:
Garber, Paul Edward 1899-1992  Search this
Mitman, Carl Weaver 1889-  Search this
Taylor, Frank A (Frank Augustus) 1903-2007  Search this
Zisfein, Melvin B  Search this
Harwit, Martin 1931-  Search this
Tyler, James C. 1935-  Search this
Boyne, Walter J. 1929-  Search this
Collins, Michael 1930-  Search this
Engen, Donald Davenport 1924-1999  Search this
Johnston, S. Paul (Samuel Paul) 1899-  Search this
Dailey, John R  Search this
Hinners, Noel W  Search this
Hopkins, Philip S  Search this
Lopez, Donald S. 1923-2008  Search this
Stofan, Ellen Renee 1961-  Search this
Browne, Christopher  Search this
National Air Museum (U.S.)  Search this
United States National Museum  Search this
Arts and Industries Building (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.) Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility  Search this
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center  Search this
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Place:
Outer space
Date:
1946
1946-
Topic:
Airplanes  Search this
Aeronautical museums  Search this
Astronautical museums  Search this
Space vehicles  Search this
Space flight  Search this
Exploration  Search this
Local number:
SIA AH00009
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_218080

1903 Wright Flyer Drawings

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Ford Motor Company.  Search this
Science Museum of London  Search this
Names:
Ford Motor Company.  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Science Museum of London  Search this
Christman, Louis  Search this
Taylor, Charles Edward, 1868-1956  Search this
Wright, Orville, 1871-1948  Search this
Wright, Wilbur, 1867-1912  Search this
Extent:
9.3 Cubic feet ((3 48"x36"x3" drawers))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1928-1986
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of drawings of the 1903 Wright Flyer executed at various times during the life of the aircraft: Science Museum of London Drawings -- commissioned when the aircraft was on loan to the Museum; Ford Drawings -- sponsored by the Ford Motor Company which were supervised by Orville Wright and Charles Taylor; Christman Drawings -- drafted by Louis Christman who consulted with Orville Wright and other sources; and the National Air and Space Museum Drawings -- commissioned by the Museum during the 1985 restoration of the Wright 1903 Flyer. These drawings include three view drawings as well as both the airframe and engine components.
Biographical / Historical:
The Wright 1903 Flyer holds a special place in aviation history as the vehicle in which mankind first achieved controlled, powered, and sustained flight. The Wrights made no drawings of the aircraft when they originally built it and they continuously modified the craft during flight tests. The aircraft also underwent modifications due to damage suffered following its last flight, and the reconstruction work of 1916 and 1925-1927. Thus, there will always be some doubt about the exact configuration of the aircraft during the 1903 flights.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
NASM, Science Museum of London, Ford Museum, Gift/Transfer, 1986-0152, Some NASM
Restrictions:
Some restrictions on distribution.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1903-1916  Search this
Wright (Brothers) 1903 Flyer  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.1986.0152
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1986-0152

Paul E. Garber Collection

Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
National Air Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Tusch, Mary E. "Mother"  Search this
Extent:
241.95 Cubic feet (488 boxes plus flat files)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1824-1992
Summary:
The Paul E. Garber Collection documents Paul Edward Garber's life, both personal and professional, prior to and during his 72-year tenure at the National Air and Space Museum.
Scope and Contents:
The Paul E. Garber Collection includes material from both the personal and professional realms of Garber's life. It is centered on the following three areas: Garber's personal life; his aeronautics interests; and his association with the Smithsonian Institution—the National Air Museum, and later the National Air and Space Museum. The collection is a particularly rich source of material relating to Garber's development of the military target kite, his involvement in a multitude of aviation-related clubs and organizations, and as a record of his daily work duties and influence upon the National Air and Space Museum. The following types of materials, dating from 1824 to 1992, are included: correspondence; diaries; notes and writings by Garber regarding a variety of aeronautical and museum topics; lectures and interviews; scrapbooks; newspaper clippings; magazine articles; photo albums; photographs, slides, negatives, and lantern slides; pamphlets and brochures; drawings; newsletters; and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
Little emphasis has been placed on dividing this collection between Garber's personal and professional lives, as the two capacities intersected in almost every way. Whenever possible, Garber's original folder titles and order have been preserved. All titles that appear in [brackets] are the archivist's.

The collection is organized into the following 15 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, circa 1901-circa 1992 and undated

Series 2: Invitations and Programs, 1910-1988 and undated

Series 3: National Air and Space Museum (NASM), 1916-1992 and undated

Series 4: World War II Target Kites and Naval Reserve, 1919-1986 and undated

Series 5: Manuscripts and Speeches, 1925-1989 and undated

Series 6: Personal Materials, 1824-1992 and undated

Series 7: Personal Interest, circa 1908-circa 1992 and undated

Series 8: Organizations, 1908-1992 and undated

Series 9: Newsletters, 1938-1992 and undated

Series 10: Biographical Files, circa 1910-circa 1992 and undated

Series 11: Subject Files, 1909- circa 1990 and undated

Series 12: Photographs, circa 1880-1992 and undated

Series 13: Negatives, Transparencies, Film, and Slides, circa 1940s-circa 1970s and undated

Series 14: Oversize Materials, 1842-1990 and undated

Series 15: Audio Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
Paul Edward Garber (1899-1992) was instrumental in obtaining a substantial portion of the National Air and Space Museum's aircraft collection. His 72-year tenure with the Smithsonian Institution and his dedication to the belief that aeronautics artifacts were worthy of preservation for the sake of National memory effectively make him the progenitor of the National Air and Space Museum we know today.

Garber was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on 31 August 1899, a few years prior to the development of powered flight. Growing up during this exciting time, young Garber was exposed to a number of experiences that ignited his interest in aeronautics. Garber recalled that, while visiting Washington, D.C., in 1909, he took a streetcar across the Potomac River to watch Orville Wright fly the world's first military airplane at Fort Myer, Virginia.

The Garber family eventually left Atlantic City and permanently settled in Washington, D.C. In 1913 Garber and his schoolmates formed the Capital Model Aeroplane Club, organizing competitions for the making and flying of model aircraft and kites. In 1915, after visiting the Smithsonian Institution, Garber made a copy of Octave Chanute's biplane glider. After testing a smaller model, which he flew as a kite, Garber constructed a 20-foot wingspan version, using barrel staves sawed into thirds as ribs and covering them in red chintz fabric. Over several weekends, Garber made numerous towed take-offs and glides. These flights would eventually qualify him for membership into the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Between 1917 and 1918 Garber studied at the McKinley Technical School in Washington, D.C., and the University of Maryland, College Park. He also studied Aeronautical Engineering at the Research University, Washington, 1920-1921. He never received a degree from any institution he attended. Garber finished his teen years by joining the Army in 1918 and was about to begin flight training at College Park when World War I ended. Afterwards, he took a job as a ground crewman and messenger with the United States Post Office Department's Air Mail Service.

In 1920 Garber began his career with the Smithsonian Institution, starting as a "Preparator," dealing with the maintenance of exhibits. Advancing through the ranks, he was at various times an Aide, Assistant Curator, and Associate Curator. During World War II, Garber's talents in modeling and kite making allowed him to accept a commission in the U.S. Navy at the rank of Lt. Commander. His military target kites became an important part of gunnery training, serving as both targets and examples for identifying enemy aircraft. Following the ending of the war, Garber resigned at the rank of Commander and returned to the Smithsonian where, in 1952, he became the first Curator of the National Air Museum, which was created by act of Congress in 1946.

On 10 May 1952 Garber married Irene Tusch, daughter of the aeronautical enthusiast Mary E. "Mother" Tusch. Throughout the next decade plus, Garber received promotions to Head Curator and Senior Historian, serving in this last position until 1965. From 1965 to 1969, Garber was the Assistant Director of Aeronautics. Forced to retire by Federal law upon reaching the age of 70, Garber received the honorary lifetime titles of Historian Emeritus and Ramsey Fellow.

Garber wrote several books on aeronautics and flight: Building and Flying Model Aircraft. A Guide for Youthful Beginners in Aeronautics, 1920; We: The Story of Achievement in Aviation, 1929; Kites and Kite Flying, 1931; Flying in Safety, 1939; and Navy Target Kites, 1944. He wrote multiple editions on the National Aircraft/Aeronautical Collections (1941, 1949, 1956, and 1965), as well as numerous pamphlets, handbooks, encyclopedia entries, and articles on aviation-related subjects.

In addition to his writing and lecturing, he was the recipient of many awards and trophies, including: the Washington Air Derby Association Trophy, 1954; the Air Line Traffic Association Citation, 1955; the Frank G. Brewer Trophy for Youth Education, 1959; the Elder Statesman of Aviation Award, 1964; the Trasvolata Atlantica Medal from Italy, 1964; the Santos-Dumont Medal of Merit from Brazil, 1966; the Paul Tissandier Diplome from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (F.A.I.), 1968; the Smithsonian Institution's Gold Medal, 1969; the Order Rio Branco, 1969; the Mérito Aeronáutico Medal from Brazil, 1974; named an honorary pilot in the Brazilian Air Force, 1982; recipient of the Medalha Mérito Tamandaré of Brazil, 1983; named to the OX-5 Club's Aviation Hall of Fame, 1974; and received the Laskowitz Gold Medal from the New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. Garber was also made Honorary Naval Aviator #17 during the mid-1980's. He was a member of the National Aeronautics Association, the Air Mail Pioneers, the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. (Secretary, 1956-1960; President 1968, 1976-77), the Connecticut Aeronautical Historical Society, the National Aviation Club, and the National Space Club.

Paul Garber died in his sleep at Arlington Hospital on 23 September 1992. His acquisition efforts and advocacy on behalf of the National Air and Space Museum continue to live on in the form of its rich aircraft collections. The National Air and Space Museum's Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility, formerly known as "Silver Hill," is named in his honor.
Provenance:
Paul Garber, Gift, 1991, NASM.1991.0063
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Kites  Search this
Models and modelmaking  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0063
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0063
Online Media:

"The Flying Machines" Souce Material

Topic:
The Flying Machines (documentary film)
Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.). Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility  Search this
Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome, Old Rhinebeck, New York  Search this
Ezell, Linda Neuman.  Search this
Genotti, George  Search this
Heinzel, Karl  Search this
Horrigan, Richard  Search this
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Paget, Bob  Search this
Schneide, Karl S.  Search this
Shot, John  Search this
Extent:
6.54 Cubic feet ((6 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Videotapes
Date:
1989
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of ninety-six videotapes relating to the The Flying Machines' production. Besides the finished project, this collection consists of the project's source material including footage of the restoration facility, footage of aircraft being restored, and interviews with Cole Palen and the NASM staff, including: Robert Mikesh, John Shot, Karl Schneide, Karl Heinzel, George Genotti, Richard Horrigan, Bob Paget, and Lin Ezell. The documentary also includes vintage film clips of aviation from NASM's Film Archives, as well as shots of artifacts in the Museum's collection.
Biographical / Historical:
The Flying Machines was a Smithsonian produced documentary about the National Air and Space Museum (NASM). The emphasis of the video was on the Paul E. Garber Restoration Facility at Silver Hill, Maryland, with a side trip to Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome near Old Rhinebeck, New York.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
SI Home Video, Transfer, 2002, 2002-0010, Smithsonian Institution
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautical museums  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Videotapes
Identifier:
NASM.2002.0010
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2002-0010

Website Records, 2019

Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Subject:
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center  Search this
Apollo 11 (Spacecraft)  Search this
Exploring the Planets (Online exhibition)  Search this
Apollo to the Moon (Online exhibition)  Search this
A New Moon Rises: Views from the Lunar Reconaissance Orbiter Camera (Online exhibition)  Search this
Outside the Spacecraft: 50 Years of Extra-Vehicular Activity (Online exhibition)  Search this
Hawaii by Air (Online exhibition)  Search this
Fifty Years of Human Space Flight (Online exhibition)  Search this
Out of This World (Online exhibition)  Search this
America by Air (Online exhibition)  Search this
The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Aerial Age (Online exhibition)  Search this
Explore the Universe (Online exhibition)  Search this
Star Wars: The Magic of Myth (Online exhibition)  Search this
Space Race (Online exhibition)  Search this
Looking at Earth (Online exhibition)  Search this
Type:
Electronic records
Collection descriptions
Web sites
Date:
2019
Topic:
Aeronautical museums  Search this
Astronautical museums  Search this
Web sites  Search this
Museums--Public relations  Search this
Special events  Search this
Museums--Educational aspects  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Buildings--Repair and reconstruction  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 20-061
See more items in:
Website Records 2004, 2009-2020 [National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_399130

Website Records, 2018

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Uniform title:
Facebook (Electronic resource)  Search this
Subject:
National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
Lemelson Center Spark!Lab  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program  Search this
National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Smithsonian Enterprises  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service Museum on Main Street  Search this
Smithsonian Magazine  Search this
Smithsonian/Folkways Recordings  Search this
Smithsonian Institution Office of Advancement Smithsonian Women's Committee  Search this
United States Agency for International Development  Search this
My Armenia Program  Search this
Smithsonian Affiliations (Program)  Search this
George Washington University  Search this
Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access  Search this
Smithsonian Craft2Wear (Craft show)  Search this
Type:
Electronic records
Collection descriptions
Web sites
Date:
2018
Topic:
Museums--Public relations  Search this
Web sites  Search this
Online social networks  Search this
Social media  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 20-051
See more items in:
Website Records 1995-2020 [Smithsonian Institution]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_404485

Donald J. Ritchie Collection

Creator:
Ritchie, Donald Jeanne, 1920-  Search this
Names:
Bendix Aviation Corp. Research Laboratory Division  Search this
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
United States. Air Force. Systems Command. Foreign Technology Division  Search this
Ritchie, Donald Jeanne, 1920-  Search this
Extent:
13.08 Cubic feet (12 records center boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Reports
Publications
Drawings
Photographs
Clippings
Date:
1955-1976
bulk 1960-1970
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Ritchie's research files. The material consists of newspaper and magazine clippings, photos, drawings, and Soviet books detailing Russian missile and rocket development during the 1960s. The collection also includes copies of Ritchie's reports during his tenure at Bendix and manuscripts of various chapters of his book 'Rocket and Missile Systems Development in the Soviet Union.
Biographical / Historical:
Donald Jeanne Ritchie (1920- ) is a mathematician and physicist who has been active in missile guidance system design and development and in arms control and disarmament studies. He began work as a production engineer at Bell Aircraft Corp (1940-42) before joining the Design Branch of Wright Air Development Center, Wright Field, OH (1942-45), where he participated in preliminary design work on jet aircraft. Following World War II, he attended Wayne University, completing degrees in Mathematics and Physics (BS, 1949) and Applied Mathematics (MS, 1951). He spent most of the next two decades at Bendix's Research Laboratory Division (Senior Mathematician, 1949-54; Project Engineer, 1955-57; Supervisory Mathematician, 1958-65; Assistant Department Head, Surveillance, Navigation, and Guidance, 1965-67) working on missile systems. He spent several brief periods outside Bendix, at Atomic Power Development Associates (Senior Mathematician, 1954-55), Crosley Division, Avco Manufacturing Co (Supervisor, Missile Systems, 1957), and Corvy Division, Melpar Inc, Scientific Analysis Office (Branch Leader, 1957-58). He then joined the faculty of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Institute (now Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University) as Professor of Aeronautical Engineering, Director of Research, and Chairman of the Aeronautical Engineering Division (1967-?). During this time he also worked as a consultant to the United States Air Force Foreign Technical Intelligence Division and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Baron von Ritchie?, Gift, unknown, XXXX-0088, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Rockets (Ordnance) -- Soviet Union  Search this
Aeronautics, Military -- Research  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics)  Search this
Rockets (Aeronautics) -- Guidance systems  Search this
Ballistic missiles  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts
Reports
Publications
Drawings
Photographs
Clippings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0088
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0088

Thomas Taylor Neill Collection

Creator:
Neill, Thomas Taylor, 1903-1988  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
United States. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics  Search this
United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration  Search this
United States. National Bureau of Standards. Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory  Search this
Neill, Thomas Taylor, 1903-1988  Search this
Extent:
17.25 Cubic feet ((2 legal document boxes) (15 records center boxes))
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Financial records
Photographs
Drawings
Logs (records)
Manuscripts
Publications
Reports
Date:
1926-1972
bulk 1938-1943
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the research material that Neill used in compiling his book. The material consists of correspondence and reports dealing with inspection, specifications, and performance tests of automobile and aircraft engines and fuels from 1926 to 1944. There are also reports, articles, and log books of specific engine types, both aeronautical and automotive, collected from all over the world, as well as a rough manuscript copy of Neill's book.
Biographical / Historical:
Thomas Taylor Neill (1903-1988) was an aeropropulsion engineer and author. Following the completion of his degrees at Catholic University of America (BS.ME 1925) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MS 1926) he went to work in the Aircraft Engine Research lab at the United States National Bureau of Standard (engineer 1926-39). He served as an ignition engineer for the Army Air Corps in Dayton, OH (1939-42). He then spent nearly twenty years in research for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (Assistant to the Director of Research 1942-58) and its successor the National Aeronautics and Administration (NASA; Chief of Research Administration Division, Office of Advanced Research Programs 1958-61; Chief of Research and Technical Reports, Office of Advance Research and Technology, 1961-70). Following his retirement from NASA, Neill worked as a consultant to the National Air and Space Museum (1971- ) where he began compiling a book on aviation engines in the inter-war period.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Thomas Neill, transfer, unknown, XXXX-0181, unknown
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautical engineers  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aircraft engines  Search this
Airplanes -- Rocket engines  Search this
Airplanes -- Motors  Search this
Airplanes -- Jet propulsion  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Financial records
Photographs
Drawings
Logs (records)
Manuscripts
Publications
Reports
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0181
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0181

Exhibition Flight Collection

Topic:
Exhibition Flight. 1973
Creator:
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Mikesh, Robert C.  Search this
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
Extent:
1.09 Cubic feet ((1 records center box))
1.04 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Date:
1911-1973
bulk 1911-1940
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the research material used by curators Robert Mikesh and Claudia Oakes to prepare Exhibition Flight (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1973), a companion volume to the Exhibition Flight exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC.
General:
NASMrev
Provenance:
Claudia M. Oakes, Transfer from National Air and Space Museum Aeronautics Department, XXXX-0423
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Stunt flying  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0423
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0423

Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection

Topic:
Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation
Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Names:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum -- Exhibitions  Search this
Extent:
13.38 Cubic feet (11 legal document boxes, 1 shoe box (5 x 8 inches), 6 records center boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1917-2000
bulk 1981-1986
Summary:
This collection consists of background material collected in support of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" (opened in 1982) and its companion book (published 1983) by curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano, a related symposium, educational materials, and a travelling version of the exhibit. The collection contains photographs and textual materials used in the exhibit and book, internal correspondence and memoranda, and a large amount of material gathered for research purposes but not used in any "Black Wings" production.
Scope and Contents:
The core of the collection covers activities of American Black aviators between 1917 and 1981, from Eugene Bullard's service as a pilot in World War I through the first Black astronauts assigned to the Space Shuttle program in the early 1980s. Curators Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano and other Museum staff collected and generally grouped materials to fit the four chronological sections of the "Black Wings" exhibit and related book, with a strong emphasis on the stories of individual people.

Headwinds (1917-1939) covers pioneer fliers such as Bullard and Bessie Coleman; Black aviation activities in the Chicago and Los Angeles areas; early aviators and organizers including William J. Powell, Willa Brown, and Cornelius Coffey; and long distance flights by James Herman Banning and Thomas C. Allen, and C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson and Dr. Albert E. Forsythe.

Flight Lines (1939-1945) includes the 1939 flight of Dale L. White and Chauncey E. Spencer to Washington, D.C.; the Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPT); the start of training of Black military pilots at Tuskegee Army Air Field during World War II; and training of the all-Black 477th Bombardment Group. This section and the next include U.S. Army Air Force documents and photography, and materials obtained from individual Tuskegee Airmen.

Wings for War (1943-1945) covers the experiences of the men of the 99th Fighter Squadron and later the 322nd Fighter Group, all-Black fighter units which participated in the Allied campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy during World War II, and their commander, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.

Era of Change (1945-1981), including many materials from the U.S. armed forces and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), covers the desegregation of the armed forces; military pilots' participation in the Korean and Vietnam wars (featuring William Earl Brown, Jr.; Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr.; Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.); general aviation (John W. Green, Jr.; Neal Loving); commercial aviation (Perry H. Young, Jr.; James O. Plinton, Jr.); and the U.S. space program, including not just the first Black astronauts (Guion S. Bluford, Jr.; Ronald E. McNair; Frederick D. Gregory; Charles F. Bolden) but many other NASA professional men and women from Project Mercury through the beginning of the Space Shuttle era.

Most of the material was photocopied from other sources such as books, newspapers, periodicals, and other archival collections, but many copy photographs and anecdotes were obtained from the aviators themselves (or their families), particularly those active in the 1930s and 1940s. The collection also contains internal Museum documents, notes, and memoranda regarding the development and implementation of the various "Black Wings" productions, including portions of exhibit scripts, book manuscripts, ephemera, and Museum photography taken at the exhibit opening and the symposium. Photographic formats include prints, copy prints, 4 x 5 inch black and white copy negatives and color transparencies, and 35mm copy slides. Quality of the photography is often fair to poor, as the copies are several generations removed from the original images.

The last six boxes of the collection (currently unprocessed) consists of material collected circa 2000 by curator Cathleen S. Lewis and Ian Cook (NASM Department of Space History) for a proposed update to the "Black Wings" exhibit. After it became clear that the exhibit was not going to be updated, Lewis transferred the material to the NASM Aeronautics Department, as Hardesty and Pisano were contemplating an update to the Black Wings book. This, too, failed to materialize, and the material was transferred to the NASM Archives in May 2018 to be added to the existing Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection. This series was received by the Museum's Archives Division after the existing collection material had been scanned; it has not been scanned.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into six series. The first four roughly chronological series (Exhibit, Book, Educational Outreach, and Symposium) relate to the different "Black Wings" productions, and materials within each series often reflect the four-section groupings detailed in the Scope and Content note. The next series, Research Materials, has four sub-series: Biographical Files (alphabetical by last name), Subject Files and Study Materials (alphabetical by subject), Photographic Negatives, and Photographic Prints and Illustrations. The last series houses later additions to the collection which are currently unprocessed. Materials within folders are predominantly photocopies (xerographs) and often include numerous duplicates, many unlabeled, and in no specific order. Materials relating to an exhibit often include a NASM Exhibits Department reference number (example: SE:13-L73-P58 to P59) indicating the exhibit number (13), label number (L73), and position within the exhibit (P58 to P59). Some materials are not visible online due to copyright restrictions.
Biographical / Historical:
On September 23, 1982, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM) exhibit "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation" opened as part of the existing "Pioneers of Aviation" exhibit located in Gallery 208 of the museum's National Mall Building in Washington, D.C. The exhibit was dedicated to the American Black Aviator, who anonymously played a historic role in shaping the growth of modern aviation. "Black Wings" encompasses the men and women who had to overcome enormous social pressures in order to gain the right to pursue the dream of flight in both civilian, military, and commercial circles. The exhibit generated much public and media interest, and inspired the Museum to sponsor a symposium on February 25, 1983, entitled "The American Black in Aviation, A Decade of Change: 1939-1949," (working title: "Tuskegee Airmen at War") featuring presentations by historians and U. S. Army Air Forces veterans including Noel F. Parrish (Commander, Tuskegee Army Air Field, 1942-1946), George F. Roberts (Commander, 99th Fighter Squadron, September 1943 to April 1944), and pilots Lewis A. Jackson, Elwood T. Driver, and Louis R. Purnell. In conjunction with the exhibit, the Museum, working with Sid Aaronson Films, Inc., produced a set of sound filmstrip packages designed for elementary and secondary school use. In 1983, the Smithsonian Institution Press published a companion book, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, authored by the exhibit's curators, Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano; a second edition was issued the following year as part of the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight series. A Smithsonian Institution Travelling Exhibition Service (SITES) version of the exhibit began circulating to other museums and venues in June 1983, and a expanded version of the SITES exhibit (featuring additional artifacts, photography, and audio-visual materials) was displayed April 1 to August 5, 1984, at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (later know as the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum) in Washington, D.C. The original NASM "Black Wings" exhibit—with occasional updates—remained on display in the "Pioneers of Flight" gallery (later renamed the "Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery") until 2019 when the gallery was closed due to renovations to the Museum's National Mall Building.
Related Materials:
"Black Wings: African American Pioneer Aviators" NASM Website Collection, NASM.2004.0026 [finding aid not available online]
Provenance:
National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Department of Aeronautics, Transfer, 1993, NASM.1993.0060; additional material transferred from NASM Department of Space History, 2018
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
aeronautics, civil  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
African American air pilots  Search this
African American women air pilots  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Astronauts  Search this
Astronautics  Search this
United States Air Force  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Blacks -- United States  Search this
Korean War, 1950-1953  Search this
Vietnam War  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1993-0060
Online Media:

Exhibit

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Exhibit, "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation"; opened September 23, 1982, in Gallery 208 ("Pioneers of Aviation"), National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060, Series 1
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref505

Book

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Book, Von Hardesty and Dominick Pisano, Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation, Smithsonian Institution Press (Washington, D.C.), 1983.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060, Series 2
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref506

Educational Outreach

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060, Series 3
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref507

Symposium

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
Symposium, "The American Black in Aviation, A Decade of Change: 1939-1949," [working title: "Tuskegee Airmen at War"], Friday, February 25, 1983, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060, Series 4
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref508

Research Materials

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060, Series 5
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref509

Biographical Files

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref510

Subject Files and Study Materials

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 5: Research Materials
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref511

Later Additions to Collection (Unprocessed Materials)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1993.0060, Series 7
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref513

Book Text, Drafts and Proofs (1 of 4)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 2: Book
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref514

Book Text, Drafts and Proofs (2 of 4)

Collection Creator:
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hardesty, Von, 1939-  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Collection Citation:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection, Acc. NASM.1993.0060, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection
Black Wings Exhibit and Book Collection / Series 2: Book
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1993-0060-ref515

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By