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Notropis rubellus

Place:
Missouri: Indian Creek McDonald County., McDonald County, Missouri, United States, North America
Collection Date:
29 Oct 1891
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Ostariophysi, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae
Published Name:
Notropis rubellus
Notropis rubrifrons
Accession Number:
163614
USNM Number:
125076
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3af881267-17f9-443b-b234-f46e774db2f2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5040200

Tinca tinca

Place:
Missouri: Indian Creek McDonald County., McDonald County, Missouri, United States, North America
Collection Date:
29 Oct 1891
Taxonomy:
Animalia, Chordata, Vertebrata, Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii, Neopterygii, Ostariophysi, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae
Published Name:
Tinca tinca
Accession Number:
051510
USNM Number:
73666
See more items in:
Vertebrate Zoology
Fishes
Data Source:
NMNH - Vertebrate Zoology - Fishes Division
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3241020ab-5df5-436b-b66f-d615dab03f6b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhvz_5023382

Herman J. Viola photograph collection of Star Hawk Pow Wow, American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, and acquisition trips for NAA

Creator:
Viola, Herman J.  Search this
Names:
American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program  Search this
Smithsonian Institution, Department of Anthropology, National Anthropological Archives, Native American Cultural Resources Training Program  Search this
Hunt, Wolf Robe, 1905-1977  Search this
Photographer:
Genete, Rev. Salvatore  Search this
Krantz, Victor  Search this
Neufeld, Harry B.  Search this
Warren, Dave.  Search this
Extent:
120 Negatives (circa, 35 mm)
31 color slides
300 Prints (circa, silver gelatin)
310 Negatives (circa, acetate)
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Oneida Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Pima Indians  Search this
Paiute Indians  Search this
Cree Indians  Search this
Spokane Indians  Search this
Makah Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Hupa Indians  Search this
Yakama Indians  Search this
Yavapai Indians  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Sihasapa Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Coos Indians  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Salish Indians  Search this
Acoma Indians  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Wyandot Indians  Search this
Clallam Indians  Search this
Kiowa Apache Indians  Search this
Nez Percé Indians  Search this
Wintu Indians  Search this
Missouri Indians  Search this
Shawnee Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Nisqually Indians  Search this
Menominee Indians  Search this
Hidatsa Indians  Search this
Southern Paiute Indians  Search this
Puyallup Indians  Search this
Chickasaw Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Sauk Indians  Search this
Seneca Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Klamath Indians  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Tunica Indians  Search this
Gros Ventre Indians (Montana)  Search this
White Mountain Apache Indians  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Wampanoag Indians  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Tlingit Indians  Search this
Cayuga Indians  Search this
Tulalip Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives
Color slides
Prints
Photographs
Date:
1970-1991
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs made by Herman J. Viola, depicting the 1973 Institute of American Indian Art meeting, Wolf Robe Hunt and his Acoma pottery, the transfer of Blue Eagle collection from Mae Abbott home to National Anthropological archives, and the 1974 Star Hawk Pow Wow in Watonga, Oklahoma. Additionally, there are photographs of NAA staff and the 1974 Acee Blue Eagle reception at NAA, possibly made by Viola. The collection also contains some photographs of Wounded Knee taken by Rev. Salvatore Genete, and copies of official portraits of Governor Aquillar of San Ildefonso Pueblo made by Harry B. Neufeld. There are also National Archives photographs of Chinese Boxer Rebellion prints, and Young watercolors and Alden sketches of American landscapes.

Much of the collection consists of portraits of participants in the NAA's American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program made by Smithsonian photographers, including Victor Krantz. These individuals include: Harry Walters, Navajo; Anna Walters, Otoe-Pawnee; George Sutton, Southern Arapaho; Sarah Yazzie, Navajo; Rubie Sootkis, Norther Cheyenne; David Fanman, Cheyenne; Augustine Smith, Navajo; Lorraine Bigman, Navajo; Jim Jefferson, Southern Ute; Rose Marie Pierite Gallardo, Tunica-Biloxi; George Horse Capture, Gros Ventre; Violet Zospah, White Mountain Apache; Gloria Anderson, Mille Lacs; Wenonah Silva, Wampanoag; Claire Lamont, Oglala; George Wasson, Coos-Coquille; Virginia Martin, Yakama; Gary Roybal, San Ildefonso; Richard Ground, Sihasapa; Almeda Baker, Hidatsa; June Finley, Hidatsa; Lida Young Wolf, Hidatsa; Christine Webster, Menominee; Rose Marie Roybal, Puyallup; Vivienne Jake, Kaibab-Paiute; Kim Yerton, Hupa; Dean Jacobs, Ojibwa; Lois Nowlin, Shawnee; Bonita McCloud, Nisqually; Gloria Maude Blackbird Cheswalla, Osage; Emily Peake, Ojibwa; Gordon McLester, Oneida; Mary Seth, Nez Perce; Bill Tohee, Oto-Missouria; Frank LaPena, Wintu; Juanita McQuistion, Wyandot; Carson Waterman, Seneca; Elton Stumbling Bear, Kiowa Apache; Patrick Chief Stick, Chippewa-Cree; Lynne Walks-on-Top, Spokane; Ethelyn Garfield, Paiute; Nora Dauenhauer, Tlingit; Caroline B. Jones, Tulalip; Grace F. Thorpe, Sauk and Fox; Dixie Lee Davis, Yavapai; Lynn D. Pauahty, Kiowa; David Lee Harding, Ojibwa; Robert V. Bojorcas, Klamath; Patty Leah Harjo, Seneca-Cayuga; Steven DeCoteau, Clallam; Robert Van Gunten, Ojibwa; Danny K. Marshall, Steilacoom; Meredith P. Flinn, Makah; Rhonda Hulsey, Chickasaw; Betty J. Brown, Choctaw; Vernon Calavaza, Zuni; Jack Bowen Jr., Upper Skagit; and Harry William Jr., Pima.
Biographical/Historical note:
Herman Joseph Viola is a historian of the American Indian who was director of the National Anthropological Archives from 1972-1989 and founding editor of Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives. In 1973, he launched the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, designed to entice American Indians into becoming professional archivists, librarians, curators, and historians through research and internships at the NAA.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 74-17
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds Viola's papers from 1980-1981.
Records relating to the American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the Records of the National Anthropological Archives.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Archives -- Acquisitions  Search this
Powwows  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 74-17, Herman J. Viola photograph collection of Star Hawk Pow Wow, American Indian Cultural Resources Training Program, and acquisition trips for NAA, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.74-17
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-74-17

Records of the Field Offices for the State of Arkansas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
23 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 23 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1901. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Arkansas staff offices and subordinate field offices of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters and endorsements sent and received, monthly reports, applications of freedmen for rations, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and homesteads.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this microfilm publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, letters and orders received, registers of freedmen issued rations, special orders and circulars issued, registers of bounty claimants, and monthly reports forwarded to the Assistant Commissioner. The unbound documents consist of letters and orders received, unregistered letters and narrative reports received, special orders and circulars issued, and general orders and circulars received. The unbound records also contain monthly reports; amnesty oaths; applications of freedmen for rations; and records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M1901.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau, was established in the War Department by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507). The life of the Bureau was extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). The Bureau was responsible for the supervision and management of all matters relating to refugees and freedmen, and of lands abandoned or seized during the Civil War. In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson appointed Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard as Commissioner of the Bureau, and Howard served in that position until June 30, 1872, when activities of the Bureau were terminated in accordance with an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366). While a major part of the Bureau's early activities involved the supervision of abandoned and confiscated property, its mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient. Bureau officials issued rations and clothing, operated hospitals and refugee camps, and supervised labor contracts. In addition, the Bureau managed apprenticeship disputes and complaints, assisted benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, helped freedmen in legalizing marriages entered into during slavery, and provided transportation to refugees and freedmen who were attempting to reunite with their family or relocate to other parts of the country. The Bureau also helped black soldiers, sailors, and their heirs collect bounty claims, pensions, and back pay.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of Assistant Commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the former Confederate states, the border states, and the District of Columbia. The Bureau's operations began in Arkansas in May 1865, when Brig. Gen. John W. Sprague took command as Assistant Commissioner. By order of Commissioner Howard in Circular No. 5, dated May 30, 1865, he established headquarters at St. Louis, MO, the next month. Bvt. Maj. Gen. Edward O. C. Ord relieved Sprague in October 1866 and was succeeded by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles H. Smith in March 1867.

When Sprague arrived in St. Louis, his jurisdiction encompassed areas outside Arkansas, including Missouri, Indian Territory, parts of Kansas (around Fort Leavenworth and Fort Scott), and Illinois (around Quincy and Cairo). By September 1865, Commissioner Howard felt that the laws of Missouri afforded enough protection to freedmen for the Bureau's activities to cease there. On October 16, 1865, Sprague received orders from Commissioner Howard to transfer headquarters from St. Louis to Little Rock, Arkansas, and operations of the Bureau were by-in-large withdrawn from Missouri. However, in April 1867 Frederick. A. Seely was assigned as a disbursing officer for Missouri with headquarters at St. Louis, a position he held until February 1872. Although much of Seely's work related to the processing and payment of claims, he was also in charge of freedmen's affairs in Missouri. The headquarters remained in Little Rock until the Bureau's activities were terminated. While the work performed by Assistant Commissioners in each state was similar, the organizational structure of staff officers varied from state to state. At various times, the staff could consist of a superintendent of education, an assistant adjutant general, an assistant inspector general, a disbursing officer, a chief medical officer, a chief quartermaster, and a commissary of subsistence. Subordinate to these officers were the assistant superintendents, or subassistant commissioners as they later became known, who commanded the subdistricts. The major subordinate field offices for the Bureau at Arkansas, for example, included those with headquarters at Arkadelphia, Augusta, Batesville, Camden, Lewisburg, Devall's Bluff, Fort Smith, Hamburg, Hampton, Helena, Jacksonport, Lake Village and Luna Landing, Lewisville, Little Rock, Madison, Magnolia, Marion, Monticello, Napoleon, Osceola, Ozark, Paraclifta, Pine Bluff, Princeton, South Bend, Union, and Washington. Under the direct supervision of the subassistant commissioners were the civilian and military agents. Occasionally, the Bureau retained military officers in a civilian capacity after the termination of their military service. For a list of known Arkansas subordinate field office personnel and their dates of service, see the Appendix.

The Assistant Commissioner corresponded extensively with both his superior in the Washington Bureau headquarters and his subordinate officers in the subdistricts. Based upon reports submitted to him by the subassistant commissioners and other subordinate staff officers, he prepared reports that he sent to the Commissioner concerning Bureau activities in areas under his jurisdiction. The Assistant Commissioner also received letters from freedmen, local white citizens, state officials, and other non–Bureau personnel. These letters varied in nature from complaints to applications for jobs in the Bureau. Because the assistant adjutant general handled much of the mail for the Assistant Commissioner's office, it was often addressed to him instead of to the Assistant Commissioner.

In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard in July 1865, the Assistant Commissioners were instructed to designate one officer in each state to serve as "General Superintendents of Schools." These officials were to "take cognizance of all that is being done to educate refugees and freedmen, secure proper protection to schools and teachers, promote method and efficiency, correspond with the benevolent agencies which are supplying his field, and aid the Assistant Commissioner in making his required reports." In October 1865, a degree of centralized control was established over Bureau educational activities in the states when Rev. John W. Alvord was appointed Inspector of Finances and Schools. In January 1867, Alvord was divested of his financial responsibilities, and he was appointed General Superintendent of Education.

An act of Congress, approved July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), ordered that the Commissioner of the Bureau "shall, on the first day of January next, cause the said bureau to be withdrawn from the several States within which said bureau has acted and its operation shall be discontinued." Consequently, in early 1869, with the exception of the superintendents of education and the claims agents, the Assistant Commissioners and their subordinate officers were withdrawn from the states.

For the next year and a half the Bureau continued to pursue its education work and to process claims. In the summer of 1870, the superintendents of education were withdrawn from the states, and the headquarters staff was greatly reduced. From that time until the Bureau was abolished by an act of Congress approved June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366), effective June 30, 1872, the Bureau's functions related almost exclusively to the disposition of claims. The Bureau's records and remaining functions were then transferred to the Freedmen's Branch in the office of the Adjutant General. The records of this branch are among the Bureau's files.

Constrained by limited resources, Southern opposition, and the politics of Reconstruction, the Bureau faced an enormous challenge in its efforts to assist the freedmen and refugees. Its relief efforts, without question, saved thousands of southerners from starvation. Its attempts to assist freedmen to become self-sufficient, to provide public education, administer justice, and, to a lesser degree, to provide land, all worked with varying degrees of success to lessen the difficulties during the transition from slavery to freedom. One of the Bureau's greatest legacies is the body of records it created and received during the course of its operations. These records are arguably some of the most important documents available for the study of the Federal Government's policies, efforts to reconstruct the South, and Southern social history and genealogy.

THE FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN ARKANSAS

The major activities of the Freedmen's Bureau in Arkansas and Missouri generally resembled those conducted in other states. The Bureau issued rations to both freedmen and white refugees, supervised labor contracts between planters and freedmen, administered justice, worked with benevolent societies in the establishment of schools, and assisted freedmen in locating land.

To prevent widespread starvation and destitution in Arkansas and Missouri, the Freedmen's Bureau issued some 1,705,055 rations to both blacks and whites from June 1865 to September 1866. In May 1865, prior to the Bureau's relief efforts in the Arkansas district, the Federal Government had issued 75,097 rations to refugees and 46,845 to destitute freedmen. After late October 1865, the Bureau's ration–relief efforts were discontinued in Missouri. Because civil authorities in the Arkansas district failed to provide medical assistance to the "Destitute and Starving," the Bureau, with assistance from Northern societies, established asylums, hospitals, and various kinds of relief camps. By the fall of 1866, with two commissioned medical officers, contract physicians, and male and female attendants, the Bureau had treated more than 100 refugees and over 1,500 freedmen. In late October 1866, Assistant Commissioner John W. Sprague reported that Arkansas hospitals alone had given medical aid to 3,260 people, nearly 200 of them freedmen. By the end of June 1868, Bureau hospitals in Arkansas had treated four times as many patients as in previous years, and greatly curtailed the attacks of smallpox and cholera.1

The regulation of written labor contracts between planters and freedmen was a major concern of the Bureau in Arkansas. In Circular Number 16, issued October 26, 1865, Commissioner Sprague outlined the rules governing the free labor system in Arkansas. Sprague ordered that all contracts in the Arkansas district were to be in writing with the approval of a Bureau official. Labor agreements were not to exceed 1 year, and no fixed rates were to be established. A 10–cent fee paid by the planter was required for each laborer. Generally, men could earn $16 per month, women $10, and children $6. First–class laborers could earn $20 per month, and received room and board, medical attention, and other essentials. In some cases, freedmen worked for a share of the crop. Whatever the agreement, subordinate Bureau officers were required to keep a record of labor contacts that they approved and witnessed, and freedmen were free to seek employment where they wished. Bureau officials often encouraged freedmen to give special consideration to employers who offered schools for their children.2

In response to Commissioner Howard's orders of July 12, 1865, concerning the education of refugees and freedmen, Assistant Commissioner Sprague appointed William M. Colby as general superintendent of refugee and freedmen schools. Colby was instructed "to cooperate with the state authorities and if possible work out a general system of education for those classes." Colby faced a great deal of opposition from southern whites who felt that freedmen taught by "evil emissaries from the North" encouraged social equality, an idea that they vehemently opposed. In spite of this bitter opposition, however, Bureau officials in Arkansas furnished buildings for schools, and sent agents throughout the district to advise freedmen about education. From November 1865 to September 1866, working with such groups as the Indiana Friends and the Western Department of the American Freedmen's Aid Commission, the Bureau paid more than 30 percent of the cost for instructing freedmen in the alphabet, arithmetic, geography, and writing. By the summer of 1868, there were more than 30 teachers and over 1,000 pupils attending some 27 day and night schools. Some 118 teachers were instructing over 1,800 students in 24 Sabbath schools.3

In January 1869, Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles H. Smith, then Assistant Commissioner for Arkansas, reorganized the education branch into three districts, with an assistant superintendent for each, for the purpose of cooperating with State officials in the transfer of the Bureau schools to the State's system. William M. Colby, David C. Casey, and James T. Watson were appointed to these new positions. General Smith held the position of chief superintendent of education. The Assistant Commissioner's office was abolished in April 1869, and Commissioner Howard reappointed Colby as the superintendent of education on May 1, 1869. Colby held that position until July 1870. By that time the Bureau had turned over most of the schools to the State Board of Education.

When Commissioner Sprague established his headquarters in St. Louis, several benevolent societies had already begun work on the establishment of schools for freedmen in Missouri. In 1864, the American Missionary Society established a freedmen school at Warrensburg, and the Western Freedmen Aid Society (WFAC) assisted military officials in the education of freedmen at Benton Barracks. By the time disbursing officer Frederick A. Seely opened his office in Missouri in 1867, there were more than 1,000 students attending some 30 schools in St. Louis alone. Seely, however, did provide support and assistance to local groups in the construction of additional schools in St. Louis, Warrensburg, Kansas City, Westport, and Carondolet.4

Safeguarding rights and securing justice for freedmen was of paramount concern to the Freedmen's Bureau. Following the Civil War, several Southern states enacted a series of laws commonly known as "Black Codes," which restricted the rights and legal status of freedmen. Freedmen were often given harsh sentences for petty crimes and in some instances were unable to get their cases heard in state courts. In a circular issued by Commissioner Howard on May 30, 1865, Assistant Commissioners were directed to "adjudicate, either themselves or through officers of their appointment, all difficulties arising between Negroes themselves, or between Negroes and whites or Indians." In the Arkansas district, freedmen were tried in both provost courts and freedmen courts. Freedmen courts were used when Bureau officials determined that freedmen were being treated unjustly. A freedmen court consisted of a Bureau official and two citizens of a given county. The three–member court had jurisdiction over all matters involving labor disputes and other cases relating to freedmen and refugees that did not exceed $300, 30 days in prison, or a fine of $100. In October 1865, Sprague appointed civilian superintendents to administer justice, especially in instances where freedmen were denied the right to testify in courts. Superintendents were told to follow state court procedures and laws as long as the laws made "no distinctions on account of color." By summer 1866, despite continued allegations of mistreatment of freedmen, all cases except those relating to labor contracts were being handled by state courts or military authorities. In 1867, when reconstruction acts placed Arkansas under the fourth military district, both state and Bureau courts were put under military supervision.5

The Freedmen's Bureau in the Arkansas district sought, with limited success, to secure land for refugees and freedmen. It intended to establish freedmen on lands under its control that had been abandoned or confiscated. However, its efforts were nullified by President Andrew Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of May 29, 1865, which provided pardons and the restoration of lands to Confederates who took an oath of allegiance to the Federal Government. To minimize the impact of Johnson's Proclamation, the Bureau required that refugees and freedmen occupying land under cultivation be allowed to remain on the land until crops were harvested or just compensation was rendered. It also required that existing lease agreements be honored until they expired and that refugees and freedmen would not be moved from the land until arrangements could be made for them elsewhere. There was no complete effort to restore lands to their original owners in Arkansas until the Freedmen's Bureau was withdrawn from the State.6

The Southern Homestead Act (14 Stat. 66), approved by Congress on June 21, 1866, made available for public settlement 46 million acres of public lands in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Nine million acres of this Federal land was located in Arkansas. Because the Act specifically prohibited discrimination against applicants due to race, it offered an opportunity for Arkansas freedmen and others to become landowners. Generally, the Freedmen's Bureau, through "Locating Agents," assisted interested freedmen in finding plots, and provided them with 1–month subsistence, free transportation to their prospective tracts of land, and seeds for the initial planting. Despite his concerns that a large percentage of the Arkansas land was worthless and that many freedmen who were under labor agreements for the year would not be able to take full advantage of the Southern Homestead Act, Assistant Commissioner Sprague hired Dr. W. W. Granger as locating agent for Arkansas freedmen. By early summer 1867, Granger had located 1.5 million acres of land available for entry (application) and recommended more than 400,000 acres for settlement. By fall 1867, Granger reported that of the 243 tracts he had surveyed, freedmen had entered 116 of the 143 that were suitable for settlement. A total of 26,395 entries were made in Arkansas under the Southern Homestead Act during the 10 years of the Act's existence. Less than 11,000, however, were carried to completion. Of the approximately 250 freedmen who eventually made land entries, only 25 percent completed them. Whites made most of the entries in Arkansas, and many of the freedmen who sought land there came from Georgia.7

ENDNOTES

1 Thomas S. Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874 (New York: 1923), pp. 205 – 207.

2 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1256, pp. 77 and 255.

3 Thomas S. Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, pp. 207 – 210.

4 Richard O. Curry, ed. Radicalism, Racism, and Party Realignment: The Border States during Reconstruction (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1969), pp. 258 – 259.

5 House Ex. Doc. No. 11, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., Serial Vol. 1255, p. 45; Staples, Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874, pp. 211 – 215.

6 House Ex. Doc. 70, 39th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 70 – 71.

7 Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, eds., The Freedmen's Bureau and Reconstruction: Reconsiderations (New York: Fordham University Press, 1999), pp. 73–77; see also Claude F. Oubre, Forty Acres and a Mule: The Freedmen's Bureau and Black Land Ownership (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1978), p. 109.
Freedmen's Bureau Personnel in Arkansas:
This list provides the names and dates of service of known Freedmen's Bureau personnel at selected subordinate field offices in Arkansas. Additional information regarding persons assigned to various field offices might be found among the Bureau's Washington headquarters station books and rosters of military officers and civilians on duty in the states and other appointment–related records.

ARKADELPHIA (Clark County)

July–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent William A. Stuart

Dec. 1865–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent William A. Britton

Oct. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Anthony E. Babricht

AUGUSTA (Woodruff County)

Nov. 1865–Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent John Thorp

Nov. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Sebastian Geisreiter

BATESVILLE (Independence County)

Dec. 1865–ca. June 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Reuben Harplam

July 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. William Brian

Apr. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. Walter O. Lattimore

Apr.–Nov. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. Albert H. Andrews

Nov.–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. John Harold

Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Capt. William J. Lyster

CAMDEN (Ouchita County)

July 1865–June 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Lewis H. Carhart

June–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Nathan Cole

Oct. 1866–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Joseph L. Thorp

DEVALL'S BLUFF (Prairie County)

June 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent Willis Davis

July 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent William McCullough

July–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Hiram Willis

Dec. 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William McCullough

FORT SMITH (Sebastian County)

Oct. 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Francis Springer

Mar.–May 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Thomas Abel

May–Aug. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Sebastian Geisreiter

Aug. 1866–May 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Charles Banzhaf

May–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Elihu G. Barker

Aug.–Oct. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Charles Banzhaf

Nov. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Pinkney Lugenbeel

HAMBURG (Ashley County)

Mar.–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Fred A. Tencate

July 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Lt. Isaiah S. Taylor

Nov. 1867–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent George Towle

July–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Sebastian Geisreiter

HAMPTON (Calhoun County)

Oct. 1865–Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent John Scroggins

HELENA (Phillips County)

1864–65 -- Superintendent and Agent H. Sweeney (Superintendent of Freedmen)

1867 -- Superintendent and Agent H. Sweeney (Superintendent)

1869–71 -- Superintendent and Agent James T. Watson (Claims Agent)

JACKSONPORT (Upper White River District)

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- General Superintendent J. M. Bowler

Mar. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- General Superintendent J. T. Watson

JACKSONPORT (Jackson County)

May–Aug. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent Jonas Lindale (also Provost Marshal for the Department of Arkansas)

Aug.–Oct. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent William Tisdale (also Provost Marshal for the Department of Arkansas)

Oct.–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent J. M. Bowler

Dec. 1865–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Robert Anderson

Mar. 1866–Feb. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

Feb. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William Brian

LAKE VILLAGE AND LUNA LANDING (Chicot County)

July–Oct. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Thomas Abel

Nov. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter

Dec. 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Hersey

July–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent G. Benson

Dec. 1867–Nov. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. G. Cunningham

LEWISBURG (Conway County)

Feb.–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent John Vetter

June 1866–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent William Morgan

LEWISVILLE (Lafayette County)

Oct. 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent Nathan Cole

July 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent V. V. Smith

LITTLE ROCK (Pulaski County)

Feb.–Sept. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent J. Raines (Superintendent of Freedmen until July 1865)

Nov. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent W. Tisdale

July 1866–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent F. Gross

Aug. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent James T. Watson

Sept. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

LITTLE ROCK

Jan.–Mar. 1864 -- Superintendent of Freedmen W. G. Sargent (Superintendent at Helena)

Apr. 1864–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent of Freedmen W. G. Sargent

MADISON (St. Francis County)

Apr.–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent A. S. Dyer

Oct. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Williams

MARION (Crittenden County)

Sept. 1866–Oct. 1867 -- Agent James R. Walker

Oct. 1867–Aug. 1868 -- Agent E. G. Barker

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Agent Main

MONTICELLO

July 1865–ca. Jan. 1866 -- General Superintendent for the South Eastern District of Arkansas E. G. Barker (Agent)

Jan. 1866–Jan. 1867 -- General Superintendent for the South Eastern District of Arkansas E. G. Barker (General Superintendent)

MONTICELLO (Drew County)

Jan.–Oct. 1866 -- Agent G. Duvall

OSCEOLA (Mississippi County)

Apr. 1866–Oct. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Eli Mix

PARACLIFTA (Sevier County)

Dec. 1865–Dec. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent A. W. Ballard

Dec. 1866–Oct. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Hiram Willis

PINE BLUFF (Arkansas River District)

July 1866–Jan. 1867 -- General Superintendent William J. Dawes

Jan.–Feb. 1867 -- General Superintendent William D. Hale

Feb. 1867 -- General Superintendent William J. Dawes

PINE BLUFF (Jefferson County)

Dec. 1864–Nov. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent S. W. Mallory (Superintendent of Freedmen until July 1865)

Dec. 1865–Jan. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent D. H. Williams

Jan.–Mar. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent A. Coats

Mar.–Sept. 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent E. Wallace

Sept. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter

Mar.–May 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent W. J. Dawes (Agent)

May1867–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Geisreiter (Agent)

Aug.–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent R. W. Barnard

PRINCETON (Dallas County)

1866 -- Superintendent and Agent Stubblefield

1866–68 -- Superintendent and Agent George W. Mallett

SOUTH BEND (Arkansas County)

May 1866–June 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent William D. Hale

June–Sept. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent S. Hersey

Sept. 1867–Mar. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent A. Coats

Mar.–July 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent DeWolf

UNION (Fulton County)

Oct. 1866–Sept. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent Simpson Mason

Sept.–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent John Martin

WASHINGTON (South West District of Arkansas)

Nov. 1865–Oct. 1866 -- General Superintendent E. W. Gantt

Oct. 1866–Mar. 1867 -- General Superintendent F. Thibant

WASHINGTON (Hemstead)

July–Dec. 1865 -- Superintendent and Agent John R. Montgomery

Dec. 1865–July 1866 -- Superintendent and Agent James Williams

July 1866–Dec. 1867 -- Superintendent and Agent F. Thibant

Dec. 1867–Dec. 1868 -- Superintendent and Agent C. C. Gilbert
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1901
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Arkansas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1901

Records of the Field Offices for the State of Missouri, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872

Extent:
24 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1872
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 24 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M1908. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Office of the Disbursing Officer for Missouri, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872. The records of the disbursing officer are the only field records for Missouri, but they reflect his overall responsibility for freedmen affairs in the state. These records consist of bound volumes and unbound records, containing materials that include letters sent and received, registers of marriages, and other records relating to freedmen's claims and bounty payments.
Records Description:
These records consist of volumes and unbound records. The volumes reproduced in this publication were originally arranged by the Freedmen's Bureau by type of record and thereunder by volume number. No numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes. Years later, all volumes were assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office (AGO) of the War Department after the records came into its custody. In this publication, AGO numbers are shown in parentheses to aid in identifying the volumes. The National Archives assigned the volume numbers that are not in parentheses. In some volumes, particularly in indexes and alphabetical headings of registers, there are blank numbered pages that have not been filmed.

The volumes consist of letters and endorsements sent and received, press copies of letters sent, registers of letters received, registers of bounty claimants, and a marriage register. The unbound documents consist of registered letters, registered letters received by endorsement, and unregistered letters received.
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M1908
See more items in:
Records of the Field Offices for the State of Missouri, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1872
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m1908

Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Arkansas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869

Extent:
52 Reels
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Reels
Date:
1865–1869
Summary:
The collection is comprised of digital surrogates previously available on the 52 rolls of microfilm described in the NARA publication M979. These digital surrogates reproduced the records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Arkansas, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865–69. The records consist of 24 volumes and some unbound documents. The volumes include letters, telegrams, and endorsements sent; circulars and special orders issued; registers of letters and telegrams received; bound letters sent and received; a register of abandoned and confiscated lands in the State of Arkansas; and a station book of officers and civilians employed by the Bureau. The unbound documents consist primarily of letters and reports received.
Historical Note:
[The following is reproduced from the original NARA descriptive pamphlet for M979.]

HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION

The Freedmen's Bureau, as the Bureau was commonly known, was established in the War Department by an act of March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. 507), and extended twice by acts of July 16, 1866 (14 Stat. 173), and July 6, 1868 (15 Stat. 83). Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard, appointed Commissioner by the President in May 1865, served in that position throughout the life of the Bureau. In January 1869, in accordance with an act of July 25, 1868 (15 Stat. 193), its operations in the States were terminated except for educational functions and collection of claims. These activities were terminated June 30, 1872, as required by an act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 366).

Although the Bureau was part of the War Department, its work was primarily social and economic in nature. It cooperated with benevolent societies in issuing supplies to destitute persons and in maintaining freedmen's schools; supervised labor contracts between black employees and white employers; helped black soldiers and sailors collect bounty claims, pensions, and backpay; and attended to the disposition of confiscated or abandoned lands and other property. In Arkansas, the Bureau had a difficult time in protecting freedmen from persecution, intimidation, and physical violence at the hands of whites or other freedmen.

The act of March 3, 1865, authorized the appointment of assistant commissioners to aid the Commissioner in supervising the work of the Bureau in the States. In Arkansas, operations began in May 1865 when Brig. Gen. John W. Sprague took command as Assistant Commissioner and 1 month later established headquarters at St. Louis, Mo. Bvt. Maj. Gen. Edward O. C. Ord relieved Sprague in October 1866 and was succeeded by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Charles H. Smith in March 1867.

When Sprague arrived in St. Louis, his jurisdiction encompassed areas outside Arkansas including Missouri, Indian Territory, and parts of Kansas (around Fort Leavenworth and Fort Scott) and Illinois (around Quincy and Cairo). Commissioner Howard felt by September 1865 that the laws of Missouri afforded enough protection to freedmen for the Bureau's activities to cease there. Therefore, on October 16, 1865, Sprague received orders from Commissioner Howard to transfer headquarters from St. Louis to Little Rock, Ark., and the operations of the Bureau were withdrawn from Missouri. The headquarters remained in Little Rock until the Bureau's activities were terminated.

The organization of the Bureau's staff in Arkansas was similar to that of the Bureau's headquarters in Washington, D. C. The Assistant Commissioner's staff consisted at various times of a Superintendent of Education, an Assistant Adjutant General, a Surgeon–in–Chief, a Chief Quartermaster, a Disbursing Officer, and an Assistant Superintendent of Education. Subordinate to these officers were the general superintendents or superintendents who commanded the subdistricts. The more important subdistricts in Arkansas included those with headquarters at Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Monticello, Washington, Jacksonport, Helena, and Fort Smith. Under direct supervision of the general superintendents or superintendents were the civilian and military agents. Occasionally military officers would be retained by the Bureau in a civilian capacity after the termination of their military service. Ultimately, Bureau personnel were stationed in 24 different counties.

GENERAL RECORDKEEPING PRACTICES

The correspondence of the Assistant Commissioner was handled in accordance with typical 19th–century recordkeeping practices. The letters sent are either fair or press copies. The fair copies are handwritten duplicates of the originals. They are clear and easy to read. The press copies were obtained by wetting a piece of thin paper and pressing it on the original letter through the use of a press–copying machine that caused the image to be transferred to the moistened paper. Because of the relative crudeness of this method, many of the press copies are difficult to read and some are virtually illegible. Because fair copies were not made of all the letters sent, some press copies are reproduced in this microfilm publication. Replies to incoming letters frequently were written on the letters themselves or on specially prepared wrappers. The replies, known as endorsements, were then copied into endorsement books, and the endorsed letter was returned to the sender or forwarded to another office. Endorsement books usually included a summary of the incoming letter and sometimes previous endorsements that were recorded on it. Incoming correspondence was frequently entered in the registers of letters received. In addition to a summary of the contents of the incoming letters, the registers usually included such identifying information as the name, and sometimes the office, of the writer; the date of receipt; the date of the communication; the place of origin; and the entry number assigned at the time of receipt.

The letters, telegrams, and endorsements sent; registers of letters and telegrams received; registered letters and telegrams received; and special orders, which are reproduced in this microfilm publication, are cross–referenced to each other by the use of various symbols. Letters sent (both fair and press copies) are designated "L. S.," or "L. B.," or "L. S. B.," followed by the page and sometimes by the volume number. Endorsement books are designated "E." or "E. & M." Registers of letters received are referenced as "L. R." or "L. R. B.," followed by the appropriate file number and sometimes the volume number. Special orders issued by the Assistant Commissioner are referred to by the symbol "S. O." followed by the number of the order.

The Assistant Commissioner utilized various types of issuances to convey information to staff and subordinate officers. Circulars and circular letters related to matters of general interest, including implementation of Bureau policies throughout the State, duties of subordinate personnel, administrative procedures to be followed, relevant acts of Congress or issuances from Bureau headquarters, and the appointment or relief of staff officers. In other States, the assistant commissioners may have issued these directives as general orders. Special orders were used to communicate information of less general interest such as duty assignments of individual field officers; however, in Arkansas, many pertained to the transfer of abandoned lands to their former owners.

There are name indexes in the volumes of letters and telegrams sent, endorsements, registers of letters and telegrams received, and issuances. The indexes provide references mainly to personal names but also include a few citations to places, groups, and titles of organizations. The names in the indexes for the volumes of letters and telegrams sent, registers of letters received, and special orders are followed by black and red numbers. The black numbers refer to letters and endorsements sent in which the names are addressees and to registers of letters received in which the names are correspondents. The red numbers refer to names contained in the body of the letter or endorsement. In order to make the distinction between the red and black numbers observable on microfilm, the National Archives and Records Service (NARS) has underlined the black numbers.

The volumes of letters and telegrams sent, registers of letters and telegrams received, and special orders for 1867 are divided into two parts. The letters, telegrams, and issuances were numbered consecutively for January through March 1867 and were entitled "General Ord's Series." Beginning in April 1867, they were numbered consecutively in a second series entitled "General Smith's Series." The volumes reproduced in this microfilm publication were originally arranged by type of record and thereunder in sequence by volume number. Originally, no numbers were assigned to series consisting of single volumes; later, all volumes were arbitrarily assigned numbers by the Adjutant General's Office of the War Department after the records passed into its custody. In this microfilm publication, the last set of numbers assigned are shown in parentheses and are used as an aid in identifying the volumes. Numbered blank pages have not been filmed.
Related Materials:
See also Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection
Provenance:
Acquired from FamilySearch International in 2015.
Restrictions:
Freedmen's Bureau Digital Collection, 1865–1872, is a product of and owned by the National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution. Copyright for digital images is retained by the donor, FamilySearch International; permission for commercial use of the digital images may be requested from FamilySearch International, Intellectual Property Office, at: cor-intellectualproperty@ldschurch.org.
Topic:
American South  Search this
Freedmen's Bureau  Search this
Reconstruction, U.S. history, 1865-1877  Search this
Slaves -- Emancipation  Search this
Citation:
Courtesy of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration, FamilySearch International, and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.FB.M979
See more items in:
Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Arkansas Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, 1865–1869
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-fb-m979

MS 3941 Materials assembled by Hewitt for preparation of articles in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30 and for replies to inquires from the public

Collector:
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Correspondent:
Bogaskie, F.  Search this
Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925  Search this
Creator:
MacKinley, W. E. W., Captain  Search this
Names:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology -- Bulletin 30  Search this
Society of American Indians  Search this
Brant, Joseph, 1742-1807  Search this
Old Smoke  Search this
Sayenqueraghta  Search this
Scott, Hugh Lenox, 1853-1934  Search this
Williams, Eleazer  Search this
Culture:
Adirondack  Search this
Blackfoot -- Blood  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Black Mincqua  Search this
Leni Lenape  Search this
Pekwanoket  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Huron  Search this
Iroquois -- Mohawk  Search this
Maya  Search this
Algonquian Indians  Search this
Potawatomi Indians  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Delaware Indians  Search this
Sauk Indians  Search this
Iroquois -- Onondaga  Search this
Iroquois -- Tuscarora  Search this
Erie Indians  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Susquehanna Indians  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Wyandot Indians  Search this
Onondaga Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Kainah Indians  Search this
Tuscarora Indians  Search this
Sihasapa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Mohawk Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Calendars
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Contents: Adirondack tribe (St Lawrence River) Old Manuscript Number 3553. Adoption Old Manuscript Number 4007. Refers to Algonquian method of counting -only; see Haas note 2/18/72; Old Manuscript Number 3864. "Alligewi"; Animism Old Manuscript Number 3867 and 2842-c, box 6. Blood Indians, origin of name; Brant, Joseph Old Manuscript Number 3874. Chippewa, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3646. Chiefs, function and significance of Old Manuscript Number 2842-c, box 6. Delaware tribe, New Jersey area claimed by Old Manuscript Number 3866. Detroit River, tribes near; Ekaentoton Island-- see Ste. Marie Island Environment (Bulletin 30 draft by O. T. Mason) Old Manuscript Number 4007. Erie, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3646. Erie and Black Mincqua tribes Old Manuscript Number 3586. [Eskimo] Arctic tribes, leaving elderly and sick people to die Old Manuscript Number 3668. Family, Bulletin 30 draft and notes Old Manuscript Number 4011 and 2842-c, box 6. Grand River (Tinaatoua), name of; Hebrew calendar; Hewitt, list of Bulletin 30 articles by Old Manuscript Number 4066. Hoboken, origin of name; Iroquois, "On the Northern and Eastern Territorial Limits of the Iroquoian people, in the 16th Century," and Algonquian tribes, at Chaleur Bay. Iroquois at Gulf of St Lawrence and Bay of Gaspe Old Manuscript Number 3625.
Iroquois, location of Six Nations tribes reservations Old Manuscript Number 3763. Iroquois false face; Iroquois preparation of corn ("as food") Old Manuscript Number 4009. Iroquoian early dress Old Manuscript Number 3660. Iroquoian "Gachoi" tribe, identity of (Correspondence with F. Bogaskie.) Old Manuscript Number 3816. Iroquoian moon names and concept of time; Iroquoian social organization, and place name-name origins; "Man," Iroquoian term for Old Manuscript Number 3781. Iroquoian towns Old Manuscript Number 4006. Kentucky, meaning of the word; Kentucky, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3840. Lenni Lenape, meaning of the word; Logstown-- see Shenango Old Manuscript Number 3773. Lost Ten Tribes as American Indians Old Manuscript Number 3670. Mayan linguistic family and other Mayan linguistic notes including Quiche and Tepehuanan notes Old Manuscript Number 3473. Mexico: idols, sacrifices, etc. Old Manuscript Number 3807. Mexico: Indian languages. Letter from Captain W.E.W. MacKinley Old Manuscript Number 3778. Missouri, Indian village, location of Old Manuscript Number 3944. Mohawk land near Lake Champlain; Mohawk grammar; Montour family, notes for Bulletin 30 Old Manuscript Number 3812. Muskhogean social organization. Letter from J. J. Harrison. Old Manuscript Number 3891. New England tribes Old Manuscript Number 3513.
Niagara, origin of name; "Old Smoke"-- see Sayenqueraghta Old Manuscript Number 3949. Onondaga tribe, text of memorial inscription to, and correspondence Old Manuscript 4391 and 4271- box 1 (part.) Ontwaganha or Toaganha, origin and meaning of name Old Manuscript Number 3864. Owego, meaning of town's name; Pekwanoket tribe (Cape Cod); Pemaquid, Abnaki word and its origin Old Manuscript Number 89. Piasa bird- pictograph formerly near present Alton, Illinois. Article is similar to that by Cyrus Thomas, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30. Old Manuscript Number 3981. Potawatomi, notes on the name Old Manuscript Number 4034. Potawatomi Green Corn Dance; Roanoke, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3998. Sacagawea, spelling of; St Ignace, 3 settlements (Michigan); St Marie Island or Ekaentoton Island; Sauk, Bulletin 30 article and galley proof, notes Old Manuscript Number 3764. Sayenqueraghta or "Old Smoke" (correspondence with Alanson Skinner) Old Manuscript Number 3949. Scalping Old Manuscript Number 4025. Shenango and Logstown Old Manuscript Number 3773. Sioux, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3624. Society of American Indians, resolutions by thanking General Hugh L. Scott, Fr. Anselm Webber and others Old Manuscript Number 3868. Susquehanna, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3707. Tacoma, origin of name Old Manuscript Number 3470.
Thunderbird, notes on Old Manuscript Number 3552. Tinaatoa-- see Grand River; Toronto, origin of name; Tuscarora villages Old Manuscript Number 3998. Wampum Old Manuscript Number 3998. War club with inscription; West Virginia panhandle tribes Old Manuscript Number 3945. Williams, Eleazer Old Manuscript Number 3998. Women, status of Old Manuscript Number 3566. Wyandots (Huron) List of tribes of which Wyandots of today are constituted. Old Manuscript Number 3774.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 3941
Topic:
American Indian  Search this
Inheritance -- Adoption  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Religion -- animism  Search this
Names, tribal -- Blood  Search this
Names, tribal -- Chippewa  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Government and politics -- chiefs  Search this
Land tenure and claims -- Delaware  Search this
Names, tribal -- Erie  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Death and mortuary customs -- abandoning elderly and sick  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Marriage and family  Search this
Names, place -- Grand River  Search this
Jews  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Land tenure and claims  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Masks -- False Face  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Clothing and dress  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Food preparation -- Corn  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Time -- concepts  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Social structure  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Names, place  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Towns, villages and other settlements  Search this
Names, place -- Kentucky  Search this
Names, tribal -- Leni Lenape  Search this
Muskogean Indians  Search this
Social structure  Search this
Names, place -- Niagara  Search this
Names, place -- Owego  Search this
Abenaki Indians  Search this
Names, tribal -- Pemaquid  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Pictographs -- Piasa bird  Search this
Potawatomi Indians  Search this
Dance -- Green Corn  Search this
Names, tribal -- Potawatomi  Search this
Names, place -- Roanoke  Search this
Towns, villages and other settlements -- St Ignace  Search this
Religion -- Mexico  Search this
Sacrifices -- Mexico  Search this
American Indian  Search this
War -- Scalping  Search this
Indian interest groups -- Society of American Indians  Search this
Names, tribal -- Susquehanna  Search this
Names, tribal -- Tacoma  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Folklore -- Thunderbird  Search this
Names, place -- Toronto  Search this
Tuscarora Indians  Search this
Towns, villages and other settlements  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Trade, gifts and other exchanges -- Wampum  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Weapons -- war club  Search this
American Indian  Search this
Marriage and family -- women, status of  Search this
Names, place -- Hoboken  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Algonquin  Search this
Honniasant  Search this
Lenape  Search this
Sauk & Fox  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Creek (Muskogee)  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Susquehannock  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Sauk & Fox  Search this
Mexico  Search this
Genre/Form:
Calendars
Citation:
Manuscript 3941, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS3941
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms3941

William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians

Creator:
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Photographer:
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
J. Gurney & Son  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Easterly, Thomas M. (Thomas Martin), 1809-1882  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
M'Clees, Jas. E. (James E.)  Search this
Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899  Search this
Ulke, Henry, 1821-1910  Search this
Vannerson, Julian, 1827-  Search this
Westmann, Orloff R.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Names:
Hayden Survey  Search this
Powell-Thompson Survey  Search this
Extent:
9 Albums (circa 4000 prints, albumen (some copies))
Culture:
White Mountain Apache Indians  Search this
Warm Spring Apache Indians  Search this
Wahpeton Indians  Search this
Waco Indians  Search this
Yampa Indians  Search this
Wyandot Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Tewa Indians  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Stockbridge Indians  Search this
Sisseton Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Uinta Indians  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Pima Indians  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Yankton Indians  Search this
Yanktonai Indians  Search this
Montauk Indians  Search this
Bannock Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Brotherton Indians  Search this
Modoc Indians  Search this
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Mohave Indians  Search this
Arikara Indians  Search this
Miniconjou Indians  Search this
Missouri Indians  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Mandan Indians  Search this
Chiricahua Indians  Search this
Miami Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Keeche Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Chickasaw Indians  Search this
Ottawa Indians  Search this
Jicarilla Indians  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Cherokee Indians  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Nez Percé Indians  Search this
Brulé Indians  Search this
Oglala Indians  Search this
Caddo Indians  Search this
Hunkpapa Indians  Search this
Iowa Indians  Search this
Sauk Indians  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Santee Indians  Search this
Shawnee Indians  Search this
Potawatomi Indians  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Sihasapa Indians  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Cochiti Indians  Search this
Comanche Indians  Search this
Creek Indians  Search this
Crow Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Delaware Indians  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Seneca Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Albums
Photographs
Date:
circa 1877
Scope and Contents note:
Albums probably assembled by William Henry Jackson, mostly containing portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. and photographs made on US Geological Surveys (including the Hayden and Powell surveys). Photographs from the field include John K. Hillers' photographs of the Southwest, photographs of Fort Laramie (possibly by Alexander Gardner), Orloff R. Westmann's photographs of Taos Pueblo, and Jackson's photographs of Crow, Shoshoni, Pawnee, and Nez Perce Indians and related sites. Most of the photographs were made circa 1860s-1870s.

The albums were likely made by Jackson while working under Ferdinand V. Hayden for the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. The reason for their creation is uncertain, though it may have been a project set up by Hayden or a continuation of William Henry Blackmore's tradition of publishing albums. Some of the albums include captions pasted from Jackson's Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians (1877) while others have handwritten captions.
Biographical/Historical note:
William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) was an American painter, photographer and explorer. Born in New York, he sold drawings and retouched photographs from an early age. After serving in the Civil War, he opened a photography studio in Omaha, Nebraska, with his brother Edward. As photographer for the US Geological and Geographical Surveys (1870-1878), he documented the American west and published the first photographs of Yellowstone. When the surveys lost funding in 1879, Jackson opened a studio in Denver, Colorado, and also worked for various railroad companies. Many of Jackson's photographs were displayed at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893), for which he was the official photographer.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 4420
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Original negatives for many of the photographs in this collection can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in the BAE historical negatives.
The National Museum of the American Indian Archives holds William Henry Jackson photographs and negatives.
Additional Jackson photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 4605, MS 4801, Photo Lot 14, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 29, Photo Lot 37, Photo Lot 40, Photo Lot 60, Photo Lot 93, Photo lot 143, Photo Lot 87-2P, Photo Lot 87-20, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Correspondence from Jackson held in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 4517, MS 4881, MS 4821, and collections of personal papers.
Contained in:
Numbered manuscripts 1850s-1980s (some earlier)
See others in:
William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, circa 1877
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pueblos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 4420, William Henry Jackson photograph albums based on his Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of North American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.4420
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-4420

Pipe bowl and pipestem (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Collector:
Chief William M. Skye (Bill Skye), Peoria, 1868-1923  Search this
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Previous owner:
John Pettit, Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl and pipestem (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Stone, wood
Techniques:
Carved
Dimensions:
10 x 4 x 7 cm
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Native Term:
da nu we
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
3/2695
Barcode:
032695.000
See related items:
Missouria (Missouri)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_35028
Online Media:

Tattoo bundle (Image withheld)

Culture/People:
Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Previous owner:
John Pettit, Missouria (Missouri)  Search this
Collector:
Chief William M. Skye (Bill Skye), Peoria, 1868-1923  Search this
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Tattoo bundle (Image withheld)
Media/Materials:
Wool yarn
Techniques:
Twined
Object Type:
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Native Term:
i grex hu yu
Place:
Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
3/2755
Barcode:
032755.000
See related items:
Missouria (Missouri)
Ceremonial/Ritual items: Bundles
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_35093

Flint Skinning Knife

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Knife
Place:
Oto Agency, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22413-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e96d26e8-aa9a-4d7f-a732-f267dab4b420
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365235
Online Media:

Stone Maul

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Hammer
Place:
Oto Agency, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22414-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3cfc76d8f-bceb-4468-9727-3abaa8ecaddc
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365236
Online Media:

Maul And Wedges

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Hammer
Place:
Oto Agency, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22415-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3fcf2b370-5291-4f56-9294-494c98a7d26d
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365237

Whetstone

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Whetstone
Place:
Oto Agency, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22416-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d575d8f7-bbec-4bc5-a719-966538cd3f2e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365240
Online Media:

Whip And War Club

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Whip
Place:
Oto Agency, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22418-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3ffc7da3d-ff15-4cf7-877e-e90daaff8c7a
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365242
Online Media:

War-Club

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Club
Place:
Not Given, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22419-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3c14cc210-e122-4715-b238-774672d90d5f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365243
Online Media:

Throwing-Sticks

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Throwing Stick
Place:
Not Given, Gage County (Nebraska) / Oto Reservation, Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22421-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e20ff28d-6146-46d1-92ab-f3a16e2a5f49
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365246
Online Media:

Wooden Spear

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Spear
Place:
Not Given, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22422-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a0b451e0-af4f-4948-8bc7-ad235c2af8aa
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365247
Online Media:

Bow, Quiver, Arrows

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Bow / Arrow / Quiver / Bow Case / Awl / Wrist Guard
Place:
Not Given, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22425-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/38ce621fe-6380-47d2-8c7e-3ef726567824
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365250

Bow (2)

Collector:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Donor Name:
Jesse W. Griest  Search this
Culture:
Otoe  Search this
Missouri  Search this
Object Type:
Bow
Place:
Not Given, Gage County (Nebraska), Nebraska / Kansas, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1876
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
005251
USNM Number:
E22426-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3074632e5-22f0-4066-b2f2-5ea705077bf2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8365259
Online Media:

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