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Oral history interview with William C. Palmer, 1965 June 12

Interviewee:
Palmer, William C. (William Charles), 1906-1987  Search this
Interviewer:
Trovato, Joseph S., 1912-1983  Search this
Subject:
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
New Deal and the Arts Oral History Project  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Federal aid to the arts  Search this
Muralists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13194
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213733
AAA_collcode_palmer65
Theme:
New Deal
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_213733

Midtown Galleries records, 1904-1997

Creator:
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Sepeshy, Zoltan L. (Zoltan Leslie)  Search this
Parsons, Betty  Search this
Thon, William  Search this
Saarinen, Lilian Swann  Search this
Kingman, Dong  Search this
Palmer, William C. (William Charles)  Search this
Coiner, Charles T.  Search this
Wingate, Arline  Search this
Schoener, Jason  Search this
Reinhardt, Siegfried Gerhard  Search this
Peirce, Waldo  Search this
Guston, Philip  Search this
Soyer, Isaac  Search this
Nagler, Edith Kroger  Search this
Magafan, Ethel  Search this
Martin, Fletcher  Search this
Betts, Edward H.  Search this
Simkhovitch, Simka  Search this
Bishop, Isabel  Search this
Hale, Nathan Cabot  Search this
Fiene, Ernest  Search this
Gruskin, Mary J.  Search this
Vickrey, Robert  Search this
Gruskin, A.D.  Search this
Taubes, Frederic  Search this
Davis, Gladys Rockmore  Search this
Rosenthal, Doris Patty  Search this
Lahm, Renée D.  Search this
Cadmus, Paul  Search this
Etnier, Stephen  Search this
Nagler, Fred  Search this
Maldarelli, Oronzio  Search this
Healey, Francis C.  Search this
Mangravite, Peppino Gino  Search this
Shulkin, Anatol  Search this
Moller, Hans  Search this
Etting, Emlen  Search this
Varga, Margit V.  Search this
Meyer, Fred  Search this
Sokole, Miron  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Topic:
Art, Modern  Search this
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)7098
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)209231
AAA_collcode_midtgall
Theme:
The Art Market
Art Gallery Records
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_209231
Online Media:

Lilian Swann Saarinen papers, circa 1909-1977

Creator:
Saarinen, Lilian Swann, 1912-1995  Search this
Subject:
Armitage, Merle  Search this
Saarinen, Loja  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, László  Search this
Eames, Ray Kaiser  Search this
Saarinen, Eliel  Search this
Crosby, Caresse  Search this
Milles, Carl  Search this
Kreis, Henry  Search this
Venturi, Robert  Search this
Saarinen, Eero  Search this
Koch, Carl  Search this
Weese, Harry  Search this
Eames, Charles  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Cranbrook Academy of Art  Search this
G Place Gallery (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Knoll Associates, inc  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology  Search this
Reynal & Hitchcock  Search this
Otava Publishing Company  Search this
Cambridge Art Center  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Art commissions  Search this
Sculpture, Modern  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Illustrated books, Children's  Search this
Art, Municipal  Search this
Gateway Arch (Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9049
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211240
AAA_collcode_saarlili
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Women
Craft
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211240
Online Media:

Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers, 1837-1984, bulk 1935-1979

Creator:
Fleischman, Lawrence Arthur, 1925-1997  Search this
Fleischman, Barbara G.  Search this
Subject:
Baskin, Leonard  Search this
Bailey, Grace  Search this
Arms, John Taylor  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Allston, Washington  Search this
Sellers, Charles Coleman  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Culver, Charles B.  Search this
Eakins, Thomas  Search this
Bailey, Truman E.  Search this
Krentzin, Earl  Search this
Fleischman, Lawrence Arthur  Search this
Marin, John  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault  Search this
Rattner, Esther Gentle  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim  Search this
Evergood, Philip Howard  Search this
Richardson, Constance Coleman  Search this
Richardson, Edgar Preston  Search this
Pollock, Peter  Search this
Ryder, Albert Pinkham  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
Archives of American Art  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
University of Michigan. Museum of Art  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Milwaukee Art Center  Search this
Kennedy Galleries  Search this
Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum  Search this
United States Information Agency  Search this
Topic:
Art  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Artists' studios  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10245
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)213339
AAA_collcode_fleilawr
Theme:
The Art Market
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_213339
Online Media:

Oral history interview with Mary J. Gruskin, 1992 October 27

Interviewee:
Gruskin, Mary J.  Search this
Interviewer:
Stavitsky, Gail, 1954-  Search this
Subject:
Gruskin, A.D.  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art dealers  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12081
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214902
AAA_collcode_gruski92
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_214902

Reginald Gammon papers, 1927-2007, bulk 1960-2005

Creator:
Gammon, Reginald A. (Reginald Adolphus), 1921-2005  Search this
Subject:
Lee-Smith, Hughie  Search this
Greenberg, Joseph J.  Search this
Bearden, Romare  Search this
Andrews, Benny  Search this
Overton, Harry  Search this
King, Patrick  Search this
Wynberg, Jonathan  Search this
Browne, Vivian E.  Search this
Fray, Thomas  Search this
Thiel, Philip  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National African American Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library  Search this
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Western Michigan University  Search this
Spiral (Group of artists)  Search this
Harwood Art Center (Albuquerque, N.M.)  Search this
New Mexicon African American Artists' Guild  Search this
Type:
Drawings
Sound recordings
Interviews
Video recordings
Topic:
Artists' studios  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)13635
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)272096
AAA_collcode_gammreg
Theme:
African American
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_272096
Online Media:

Lilian Swann Saarinen papers

Creator:
Saarinen, Lilian Swann, 1912-1995  Search this
Names:
Cambridge Art Center  Search this
Cranbrook Academy of Art -- Faculty  Search this
G Place Gallery (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Knoll Associates, inc.  Search this
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -- Faculty  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Otava Publishing Company  Search this
Reynal & Hitchcock  Search this
Armitage, Merle, 1893-1975  Search this
Crosby, Caresse, 1892-  Search this
Eames, Charles  Search this
Eames, Ray  Search this
Koch, Carl  Search this
Kreis, Henry, 1899-1963  Search this
Milles, Carl, 1875-1955  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, László, 1895-1946  Search this
Moholy-Nagy, Sibyl, 1905-  Search this
Saarinen, Eero, 1910-1961  Search this
Saarinen, Eliel, 1873-1950  Search this
Saarinen, Loja  Search this
Venturi, Robert  Search this
Weese, Harry, 1915-1998  Search this
Extent:
9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Blueprints
Diaries
Illustrations
Sketches
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Date:
circa 1909-1977
Summary:
The papers of Cambridge sculptor and illustrator, Lilian Swann Saarinen, measure nine linear feet and date from circa 1909 to 1977. The collection documents Saarinen's career through correspondence with artists, architects, publishers, and gallery owners; writings and notes, including manuscripts and illustrations for children's books and publications; project and teaching files; financial records; artwork, including numerous project sketches; and photos of Saarinen and her artwork. Saarinen's personal life is also documented through diaries and correspondence with friends and family members, including Eero Saarinen, to whom she was married from 1939-1953.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of Cambridge sculptor and illustrator, Lilian Swann Saarinen, measure nine linear feet and date from circa 1909 to 1977. The collection documents Saarinen's career through correspondence with artists, architects, publishers, and gallery owners; writings and notes, including manuscripts and illustrations for children's books and publications; project and teaching files; financial records; artwork, including numerous project sketches; and photos of Saarinen and her artwork. Saarinen's personal life is also documented through diaries and correspondence with friends and family members, including Eero Saarinen, to whom she was married from 1939-1953.

Biographical material consists of resumes and biographical sketches, as well as a 1951 blueprint for the Eero Saarinen and Associates Office Building in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Correspondence documents Saarinen's personal and professional life through letters to and from Eero Saarinen and other family members, including six letters from Loja Saarinen; correspondence with artists and architects, including Merle Armitage, Charles and Ray Eames, Carl Koch, Henry Kreis, Carl Milles, Laszlo and Sibyl Moholy-Nagy, Robert Venturi, and Harry Weese; and friends and colleagues at the Cranbrook Academy of Art and Knoll Associates. Also documented is Saarinen's business relationship with Midtown Galleries and Caresse Crosby, and publishers and publications including Child Life, Interiors, Otava Publishing Company, and Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc.

Writings and Notes document Saarinen's work on several children's publications, including Picture Book Zoo (1935) and Who Am I? (1946), through correspondence, notes, manuscript drafts, and extensive sketches. This series also includes Saarinen's ideas for other publications and incorporates some early writings and notes, as well as typescripts of her reminiscences about Eliel Saarinen, the Saarinen family, and the Cranbrook Academy of Art.

Diaries consist of bound diary volumes, loose-leaf journal entries, and heavily annotated engagement calendars, documenting Saarinen's personal life, artistic aspirations, and career development from the 1930s-1970s. This material provides a deeply personal view of the emotional landscape of Saarinen's life, her struggles to balance her identity as a working artist with the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker, and the complex, and often competing, relationships within the renowned architectural family into which she married.

Project files document Saarinen's work on book cover designs, federal and post office commissions in Bloomfield, Indiana, Carlisle, Kentucky, and Evanston, Illinois, reliefs for the Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois, and other important commissions including the Harbor National Bank Clock in Boston, Massachusetts, the KLM Airlines installation at JFK Airport, the Fountain of Noah sculpture at the Northland Center in Detroit, Michigan, and the interior of Toffenetti's restaurant in Chicago, Illinois. Also documented is her role in designs for the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, with Eero Saarinen.

Teaching files document Saarinen's "Language of Clay Course" which she taught at Cambridge Art Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Financial records document exhibition and sales expenses for two exhibitions, including her show at G Place Gallery in 1944.

Printed material consists of clippings about Saarinen and her family, exhibition announcements and catalogs for herself and others, and reference files from the 1930s-1940s, primarily comprising clippings of animals.

Additional printed material documenting Saarinen's career can be found in one of two scrapbooks found in the collection. An additional scrapbook consists of clippings relating primarily to Saarinen's parents.

Artwork comprises extensive sketches, particularly animal and figure sketches, in graphite, crayon, ink, pastel, and watercolor. The sketches demonstrate in particular Saarinen's developing interest in and skill with animal portraiture from her childhood to the 1960s.

Photographs are primarily of artwork and Saarinen's 1944 exhibition at G Place Gallery. Also found are one negative of Saarinen, probably with Eero Saarinen, and a group photo including Lilian, Eero, and Eliel Saarinen with the model for the Detroit Civic Center, circa 1940s.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1930s-1960s (3 folders; Box 1, OV 12)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1920-1974 (1.9 linear feet; Boxes 1-2, 8, OV 12)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1920s-1973 (1.3 linear feet, Boxes 2-3, 8, OVs 13-16)

Series 4: Diaries, 1930-1973 (1.4 linear feet, Boxes 3-5, 8)

Series 5: Project Files, 1931-1966 (1.7 linear feet, Boxes 5-6, 8, OVs 17-19)

Series 6: Teaching Files, 1966-1970 (3 folders, Box 6)

Series 7: Financial Records, 1940s-1970s (2 folders, Box 6)

Series 8: Printed Material, circa 1930s-1970s (0.2 linear feet, Box 6)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, circa 1909-1974 (2 folders; Boxes 6, 9)

Series 10: Artwork, circa 1920s-circa 1960s (1.7 linear feet, Boxes 6-7, 9-10, OVs 20-27)

Series 11: Photographs, circa 1940s, 1977 (0.5 linear feet, Boxes 7, 11, OV 27)
Biographical / Historical:
Cambridge artist and sculptor, Lilian Swann Saarinen (1912-1995), studied at the Art Students League with Alexander Archipenko in 1928, and later with Albert Stewart and Heninz Warneke from 1934-1936, before moving to Michigan where she studied with Carl Milles at the Cranbrook Academy of Art from 1936-1940. Saarinen was an accomplished skier and a member of the 1936 US Olympic ski team.

At Cranbrook, Swann met architect Eero Saarinen, whom she married in 1939. She subsequently worked with Saarinen's design group on a variety of projects, including the Westward Expansion Memorial, which later became known as the "Gateway Arch" in St. Louis. Lilian and Eero had a son, Eric, and a daughter, Susie, before divorcing in 1953.

Saarinen, who had developed an affinity for drawing animals in childhood, specialized in animal portraits in a variety of sculptural media. In 1939, she exhibited her sculpture Night, which depicted Bagheera the panther from Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book, at the World's Fair. The sculpture was placed in the Boston Public Garden in 1986. In the 1930s and 1940s Saarinen was commissioned to work on a variety of architectural projects, including reliefs for post offices in Bloomfield, Indiana, Carlisle, Kentucky, and Evanston, Illinois, and the Crow Island School in Winnetka, Illinois. She also executed commissions for the Harbor National Bank in Boston, KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) at JFK Airport, the Northland shopping Center in Detroit Michigan, and Toffenetti's Restaurant in Chicago.

Saarinen was a contributing author and illustrator for a variety of publications, including Child Life, Interiors and Portfolio: An Intercontinental Quarterly. In 1935 she illustrated Picture Book Zoo for the Bronx Zoo and in 1946 Reynal & Hitchcock, Inc. published Who Am I?, a children's book which Saarinen wrote and illustrated.

Saarinen taught ceramic sculpture to soldiers for the Red Cross Arts and Skills Unit rehabilitation program in 1945, served on the Visiting Committee to the Museum School at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, from 1959-1964, where she taught ceramics, and later taught a course entitled "The Language of Clay" at the Cambridge Art Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One of Saarinen's private students at Cambridge was her cousin, Edie Sedgwick.

Saarinen died in Cohasset, Massachusetts, in 1995 at the age of 83.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reels 1152 and 1192) including a scrapbook containing clippings, copies of letters and telegrams received, and reproductions of Saarinen's work. There is a copy of Saarinen's book, "Who Am I?", and three albums containing photographs of Saarinen, photographs and reproductions of her work, a list of exhibitions, quotes about her, and writings by her about sculpture. Lent material was returned to the lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
Lilian Swann Saarinen donated the collection in 1975. She lent additional materials for microfilming in 1976.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Lilian Swann Saarinen papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws
Occupation:
Sculptors -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge  Search this
Topic:
Women artists -- Massachusetts  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Illustrated books, Children's  Search this
Gateway Arch (Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Sculpture, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Illustrators -- Massachusetts  Search this
Art commissions  Search this
Art, Municipal  Search this
Genre/Form:
Blueprints
Diaries
Illustrations
Sketches
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Lilian Swann Saarinen papers, circa 1909-1977. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.saarlili
See more items in:
Lilian Swann Saarinen papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-saarlili
Online Media:

Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers

Creator:
Fleischman, Lawrence A. (Lawrence Arthur), 1925-1997  Search this
Names:
American Federation of Arts  Search this
Archives of American Art  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Detroit Institute of Arts  Search this
Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum  Search this
Kennedy Galleries  Search this
Kraushaar Galleries  Search this
M. Knoedler & Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Milwaukee Art Center  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Gallery of Art (U.S.)  Search this
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts  Search this
Philadelphia Museum of Art  Search this
United States Information Agency  Search this
University of Michigan. Museum of Art  Search this
Whitney Museum of American Art  Search this
Allston, Washington, 1779-1843  Search this
Arms, John Taylor, 1887-1953  Search this
Bailey, Grace  Search this
Bailey, Truman E., 1902?-1959  Search this
Bohrod, Aaron  Search this
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim, 1893-1967  Search this
Culver, Charles B. (Charles Beach), 1908-1967  Search this
Eakins, Thomas, 1844-1916  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Fleischman, Barbara  Search this
Gentle, Esther, 1900-  Search this
Krentzin, Earl, 1929-  Search this
Marin, John, 1870-1953  Search this
Pollack, Peter, 1909-1978  Search this
Rattner, Abraham  Search this
Richardson, Constance, 1905-  Search this
Richardson, Edgar Preston, 1902-1985  Search this
Ryder, Albert Pinkham, 1847-1917  Search this
Sellers, Charles Coleman, 1903-  Search this
Watkins, Franklin Chenault, 1894-1972  Search this
Extent:
4.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Typescripts
Photographs
Date:
1837-1984
bulk 1935-1979
Summary:
The papers of art collectors, art patrons, and philanthropists Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman measure 4.9 linear feet and date from 1837 to 1984, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1935-1979. The papers are comprised mostly of correspondence with artists, museums, and arts organizations. Also found are scattered biographical materials, artists' autograph letters purchased by the Fleischmans, exhibition files, notes and writings, printed material, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of art collectors, art patrons, and philanthropists Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman measure 4.9 linear feet and date from 1837 to 1984, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1935-1979. The papers are comprised mostly of correspondence with artists, museums, and arts organizations. Also found are scattered biographical materials, artists' autograph letters purchased by the Fleischmans, exhibition files, notes and writings, printed material, and photographs.

One folder of biographical material includes a biographical account and a certificate of appreciation from the Common Council for the City of Detroit.

The bulk of the collection is comprised of correspondence documenting the Fleischman's art related activities and interests primarily during the 1950s and 1960s. Individual correspondents include Aaron Bohrod, Charles E. Burchfield, Charles B. Culver, Philip Evergood, Earl Krentzin, John Marin, Jr., Abraham Rattner and Esther Gentle, Peter Pollack, Edgar P. and Constance Richardson, Charles Coleman Sellers, and Franklin Watkins. One letter from Charles E. Burchfield includes four etching plates used to create the color print of Hot September Wind.

Arts organizations and galleries represented in the correspondence include the American Federation of Arts, the Archives of American Art, the Arts Commission of the City of Detroit, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Detroit Institute of Art, Kennedy Galleries, M. Knoedler and Co., Inc., Kraushaar Galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Midtown Galleries, the Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery of Art, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the School of the Society of Arts and Crafts, the United States Information Agency, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Winterthur Museum.

Autograph letters purchased by the Fleischmans include letters written by artists Washington Allston (addressed to Thomas Sully), Albert Pinkham Ryder, and John Taylor Arms.

Exhibition files document the various exhibitions of art work from the Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman Collection at the University of Michigan Museum of Art; the Detroit Institute of Art; in Central and South America; in Greece, Israel and Russia; and at the Milwaukee Art Center. The files contain letters, notes, printed material, and photographs.

Three folders of notes and writings include "Introduction to Earl Krentzin Catalog" by Lawrence Fleischman and "Selection of Excerpts from the Soviet Press and Radio Attacking U. S. Culture" by unidentified authors.

Scattered printed material includes miscellaneous clippings and catalogs not connected with the Exhibition Files series. There is also a book John Marin: The Man and his Work by E. M. Benson that was autographed by Marin to the Fleischmans in 1953.

Photographs include portrait photographs of Lawrence Fleischman, photographs of Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman with colleagues, of art work from the Fleischman Collection, of Truman and Grace Bailey in their studio, and a copy photograph of Thomas Eakins as a boy.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1958 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1949-1984 (Boxes 1-4, 7; 3.8 linear feet)

Series 3: Autograph Letters, 1837-1942 (Box 4; 4 folders)

Series 4: Exhibition Files, 1953-1960 (Boxes 4-5, 7; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 5: Notes and Writings, 1957-1962 (Box 5; 3 folders)

Series 6: Printed Material, 1935-1969 (Box 5-6; 6 folders)

Series 7: Photographs, 1953-1965 (Box 6; 13 folders)
Biographical / Historical:
Lawrence Fleischman (1925-1997) of New York City was an American art collector, patron, philanthropist, and benefactor. He and his wife, Barbara Greenberg Fleischman, assembled an impressive collection of art and artifacts that they shared with the public as part of their philanthropic activities aimed at fostering a wider appreciation of the arts around the world.

Lawrence Fleischman was born on February 14, 1925 in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Stella and Arthur Fleischman, the owner of a large carpet business. He attended the Western Military Academy in Alton, Illinois, and studied engineering at Purdue University. In 1942, he interrupted his studies to volunteer for service in the U.S. Army during World War II. While serving in France, he met a doctor who further fostered Fleischman's ever growing interest in American art. Following the war, he graduated with a degree in physics from the University of Detroit. Fleischman met Barbara Greenberg in Detroit and they were married in 1948.

Beginning in the late 1940s, Fleischman established a fledgling television station, developed holdings in real estate, and began purchasing art work. Initially the Fleischmans collected undervalued 20th century American art and were friends with several artists, including John Marin, Charles Burchfield, Stuart Davis, and Ben Shahn. They also expanded the scope of their collection to include 19th century American works.

During the 1950s, Lawrence Fleischman realized how there were few American art historians and college departments, as well as a lack of primary source material. Fleischman worked with Edgar P. Richardson, then director of the Detroit Institute of Art, to raise funds and they founded the Archives of American Art at the Detroit Institute of Art in 1954. The Archives of American Art was, and still is, dedicated to the collection, preservation, and study of primary source records that document the history of the visual arts in the United States. Lawrence A. Fleischman is a founding Trustee of the AAA and served as the Chairman of the Board from 1958 to 1966. His wife, Barbara joined the Board of Trustees in 1997 and served as Chair from 2003 to 2007. She is a Trustee Emerita.

Lawrence Fleischman's business and philanthropic interests included the Arthur Fleischman Carpet Company, the Lee Plaza Hotel-Motel in Detroit, Art Adventurers, the Art School of the Society of Arts and Crafts in Detroit, the Friends of the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, the Cultural Committee of the United States Information Agency, and the Art Commission of Detroit, which governed the Detroit Institute of Art. He also served as an officer of the Board for many of the arts-related organizations.

In 1996, the Fleischmans moved their family from Detroit to New York City, where Lawrence Fleischman became a partner in the Kennedy Galleries.

The Fleischmans philanthropic activities include generous support of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Detroit Institute of Art, the Cleveland Museum, the British Museum, the Vatican Museum, and lifelong support of the Archives of American Art.

Lawrence Fleischman died on January 31, 1997 in London, England. Barbara Fleischman lives in New York City and continues to be an active supporter of the visual arts.
Related Materials:
Among the Archives holdings are two oral history interviews with Lawrence A. Fleischman. The first was conducted by Paul Cummings in 1970 and the second conducted by Gail Stavitsky in 1994 . Both interviews have transcripts available.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of Art also holds microfilm of material lent for microfilming, the majority of which was later donated, except for five letters on reel D197. These include one postcard from Constance Richardson, 1956; one letter from Constance Richardson, 1957; one letter from Franklin Watkins, 1955; one letter from Lawrence Fleischman to Wilbur H. Hunter, 1960; and one letter from Richard D. Tucker, 1960. This material remains with lender and is not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
The Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers were donated in several accretions by Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman from 1954 to 2007. Letters were also loaned for microfilming in 1965, but nearly all of them were subsequently donated.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painting, American  Search this
Art patrons Michigan Detroit  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Philanthropists  Search this
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- United States  Search this
Painters -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Typescripts
Photographs
Citation:
Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman Papers, 1837-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.fleilawr
See more items in:
Lawrence and Barbara Fleischman papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-fleilawr
Online Media:

Reginald Gammon papers

Creator:
Gammon, Reginald, 1921-2005  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Harwood Art Center (Albuquerque, N.M.)  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center (U.S.)  Search this
New Mexico African American Artists' Guild  Search this
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library  Search this
Spiral (Group of artists)  Search this
Western Michigan University -- Faculty  Search this
Andrews, Benny, 1930-2006  Search this
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Browne, Vivian E., 1929-1993  Search this
Fray, Thomas  Search this
Greenberg, Joseph J., 1915-1991  Search this
King, Patrick  Search this
Lee-Smith, Hughie  Search this
Overton, Harry  Search this
Wynberg, Jonathan  Search this
Extent:
2.4 Linear feet
5.3 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Interviews
Paintings
Sketches
Drawings
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Date:
1927-2007
bulk 1960-2005
Summary:
The papers of African American painter, printmaker, and educator Reginald Gammon measure 2.4 linear feet and 5.30 GB and date from 1927 to 2007, with bulk of the materials dating from 1960-2005. The collection consists of scattered biographical materials, including video and sound recordings of interviews; correspondence with artists, galleries, organizations, and museums; writings and notebooks; teaching files; printed materials; photographic material; and artwork in the form of sketches, drawings, and paint sketches.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of African American painter, printmaker, and educator Reginald Gammon measure 2.4 linear feet and 5.30 GB and date from 1927 to 2007, with bulk of the materials dating from 1960-2005. The collection consists of scattered biographical materials, including video and sound recordings of interviews; correspondence with artists, galleries, organizations, and museums; writings and notebooks; teaching files; printed materials; photographic material; and artwork in the form of sketches, drawings, and paint sketches.

Biographical materials include Gammon's academic records and diplomas, certificates, military records, an address book, and information about his memorial service. There is a folder on The Spiral Group which includes an exhibition catalog and photographs. There are video interviews, a conversation video, and two TV advertisements, all digital; one analog and one digital audio interview.

Approximately one-half of the collection consists of correspondence with other artists, museums, galleries and arts organizations. Correspondents include Benny Andrews, Romare Bearden, Vivian Browne, Thomas Frey, Joseph Greenberg, Harwood Art Center, Patrick King, Hughie Lee-Smith, Midtown Galleries, National Afro-American Museum & Cultural Center, New Mexico African American Artists Guild, Harvey Overton, Schomberg Center, Smithsonian Institution's Anacostia Museum, Western Michigan University, and Jonathan Wynberg, among many others.

Writings by Gammon consists of essays, a research proposal, notes, grant applications, and notebooks wherein Gammon jotted down thoughts and drafted letters.

Teaching files are related to Reginald Gammon's tenure at Western Michigan University. There are teaching certifications, lecture notes, one sound recording (sound cassette) of a lecture, student recommendations, and grade books, among other items.

Printed materials primarily consist of exhibition catalogs and announcements, including the catalog Ida Y Vuelta on Gammon's 1998 exhibition in Rodez, France. Other materials found in this series are clippings that feature Gammon and his work, periodicals, posters designed by Gammon, and source materials related to jazz. and limited subject files.

Photographic materials include prints, slides, digital photographs, and negatives depicting Reginald Gammon and his artwork, friends and family, and various studios and events.

Artwork includes pencil and ink sketches, drawings, and paint sketches. The series also contains storyboards for children's books as well as mockups for advertisements.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1936-2006 (0.2 linear feet; Box 1, 3, 5.29 GB; ER01-ER03)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1964-2005 (0.8 linear feet; Box 1-3)

Series 3: Writings and Notebooks, 1948-circa 2000 (0.1 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 4: Teaching Files, 1969-1991 (0.1 linear feet; Box 2)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1955-2005 (0.4 linear feet; Box 2, OV 4)

Series 6: Photographic Material, 1927-2007 (0.2 linear feet; Box 2-3, 0.010 GB; ER04)

Series 7: Artwork, 1937-circa 1999 (0.5 linear feet; Box 2-3)
Biographical / Historical:
Reginald A. Gammon (1921-2005) was a painter and art educator who worked in New York City, Michigan, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. He was a member of Spiral, an African American artist's collective based in New York City, as well as a member of the New Mexico Afro-American Artist Guild. He taught in the New York public schools and at Western Michigan University.

Gammon was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1941, he received a scholarship to study art at the Philadelphia Museum College of Arts (then the Philadelphia Museum School of Industrial Arts) and the following summer worked in the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard refurbishing battleships for the war effort. While working, he also attended school at night. He was drafted and served in the Navy from 1944-1946 with an African-American unit stationed in Guam. He lived in Philadelphia briefly after the war and moved to New York City in 1948. During his early years in New York City, Gammon worked at various jobs such as sorting mail for the post office and designing advertising copy. Around this time, he first met his future wife Janice Goldberger whom he married in 1972.

In 1963, Gammon was invited to join Spiral, a group of African American artists which included Charles Alston, Romare Bearden, Alvin Hollingsworth, Norman Lewis, Richard Mayhew, and Hale Woodruff. As a member of this group, Gammon participated in the 1965 exhibition First Group Showing: Works in Black and White. Spiral disbanded later that same year. In 1969, Gammon and Benny Andrews formed the Black Emergency Cultural Coalition. This politically active group of artists picketed the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Whitney Museum of Modern Art to protest the exclusion of black artists and curators.

Gammon also taught at the Saturday Academy Program for New York public schools. He set up an informal studio so that children from Harlem could work with resident artists. This position and a recommendation from Hughie Lee-Smith led to an offer from Western Michigan University for a visiting lectureship that turned into a full-time teaching position in which Gammon served until 1991, when he retired as Full Professor Emeritus of Fine Arts and Humanities.

After his retirement from Western Michigan University, Gammon and his wife moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico and he became involved in the New Mexico Afro-American Artist Guild and the Albuquerque United Artists, among other civic organizations. He regularly participated in exhibitions and art fairs sponsored by the Guild and served as their treasurer from 1999 until his death. He was artist-in-residence from 1992-2005 at the Harwood Art Center where he also maintained a studio.

Gammon was also one of the founding members of the New Grounds Print Workshop, where he completed his final collection of artworks - a collection of over 100 prints of historically significant gospel singers and jazz musicians. Gammon died on November 4, 2005.
Provenance:
The collection was donated in 2007 and 2008 by Reginald Gammon's widow Janice Gammon.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Use of archival audiovisual recordings and electronic records with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Reginald Gammon papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Printmakers -- New Mexico  Search this
Painters -- New Mexico -- Albuquerque  Search this
Educators -- New Mexico -- Albuquerque  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Educators -- Michigan  Search this
African American artists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Interviews
Paintings
Sketches
Drawings
Sound recordings
Video recordings
Citation:
Reginald Gammon papers, 1927-2007, bulk 1960-2005. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.gammreg
See more items in:
Reginald Gammon papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-gammreg
Online Media:

Oral history interview with William Thon, 1992 December 15-16

Interviewee:
Thon, William, 1906-2000  Search this
Interviewer:
Brown, Robert F.  Search this
Subject:
Gruskin, Mary J.  Search this
Gruskin, A.D.  Search this
American Academy in Rome  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sound recordings
Interviews
Topic:
Watercolorists  Search this
Painters  Search this
Watercolor painting, American  Search this
Painting, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)12542
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)215160
AAA_collcode_thon92
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_oh_215160
Online Media:

Simka Simkhovitch papers, 1931-1987

Creator:
Simkhovitch, Simka, 1893-1949  Search this
Subject:
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Topic:
Painting, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)10991
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)214863
AAA_collcode_simksimk
Theme:
American Art and Artists in a Global Context
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_214863

William Thon papers, 1925-2001

Creator:
Thon, William, 1906-2000  Search this
Subject:
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Type:
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Maine  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)6262
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)216601
AAA_collcode_thonwill
Theme:
Sketches & Sketchbooks
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_216601

Emlen Etting

Author:
Etting, Emlen 1905-  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Etting, Emlen 1905-  Search this
Physical description:
[4] p. : ill. (some col.)
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1975
1975]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_824875

Prestopino : an exhibition of work from private collections

Author:
Prestopino, Gregorio  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Sharon Arts Center  Search this
Subject:
Prestopino, Gregorio  Search this
Physical description:
1 v. (unpaged) : ill. ; 19 x 22 cm
Type:
Books
Exhibitions
Date:
1985
[1985]
Call number:
N6537.P685 A4 1985
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_722782

1932-1962 : 30th anniversary loan exhibition : loans from American museums and collectors : November 23rd through December 15th, 1962

Title:
30th anniversary loan exhibition
Thirtieth anniversary loan exhibition
Author:
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Midtown Galleries Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
1 folded sheet ; 19 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Place:
United States
Date:
1962
[1962]
20th century
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Art--Private collections  Search this
Call number:
N6512 .N57 1962
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_634598

Moller, recent paintings : Midtown Galleries : Jan. 4 to Jan. 28, 1967

Author:
Moller, Hans 1905-2000  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Moller, Hans 1905- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
1 folded sheet (6 sides) : ill. ; 16 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1967
[1967]
Call number:
ND237.M623 A4 1967
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_634998

Hans Moller, recent paintings : March 6-March 31, 1973 : Midtown Galleries

Title:
Moller
Author:
Moller, Hans 1905-2000  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Moller, Hans 1905- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
[4] p. : ill. ; 20 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1973
[1973]
Call number:
ND237.M623 A4 1973
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_634999

Hans Moller : recent paintings : February 17-March 13, 1976

Author:
Moller, Hans 1905-2000  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Moller, Hans 1905- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
[4] p. : ill. ; 14 x 20 cm.
Type:
Books
Date:
1976
Call number:
ND237.M623 A4 1976
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_635000

Puccinelli

Author:
Puccinelli, Raimondo 1904-  Search this
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Subject:
Puccinelli, Raimondo 1904- Exhibitions  Search this
Physical description:
1 folded sheet (6 sides) : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1959
[1959]
Call number:
NB623.P8 A4 1959
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_635073

Fortieth anniversary, 1932-1972

Author:
Midtown Galleries (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Physical description:
[28] p. : chiefly ill. ; 14 x 19 cm
Type:
Exhibitions
Date:
1972
[1972]
20th century
Topic:
Art, American  Search this
Call number:
N6512 .F663 1972
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_648679

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