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[Lincoln Drake letter,]

Author:
Drake, Lincoln  Search this
Series Creator:
Warshaw, Isadore, 1900-1969  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Ink on paper., 7.5" x 10".)
Type:
Archival materials
Business letters
Business records
Correspondence
Date:
1861
June 22, 1861
Scope and Contents:
Holograph letter from Lincoln Drake to P. Whitin and Sons, June 22, 1861. Stationery contains color image of U.S. flag and a short patriotic poem. Drake is making machine parts for textile manufacturing machinery for two competing companies, and writes that he can produce only three castings per day. The content of the letter does not relate directly to the war.
Partial transcription: Lincoln Drake to P. Whiten and Sons / Your favor of the 20th instant has come to hand and contents [where] you say you have not [received] [last] 21 of the 36 [?] of the April order. I sent 31 on May 27th and 21 on June 6. I hardly know how to send the castings. J. L. Whiten wishes his immediately {] {] {] from them also. I make 3 [pieces] per day. Have not [] [] If I had another [] I could make 6 per day but three is as many as can be made from one pattern. I wish to accommodate both parties and will do my best to do it if you see how I am. / I made 3 pieces
Local Numbers:
AC0060-0001195a (AC Scan No.: front and back of folded letter)

AC0060-0001195b (AC Scan No.: inside pages of folded letter)
General:
In Civil War series, Box 1, Folder 14.
Civil War Selections from the Archives Center
Related Materials:
Civil War series, Warshaw Collection of Business Americana
Series Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Some items may be restricted due to fragile condition.
Series Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Castings  Search this
Textile fabrics  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Flags -- United States  Search this
Civil war  Search this
Patriotism  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business letters
Business records -- 1840-2000
Correspondence -- 1850-1900
Series Citation:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Civil War
Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Civil War / Government Records, Business Records, and Other / Civil War
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8d70bb221-4dbe-4ee0-aa61-4f7559318c39
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0060-s01-01-civilwar-ref571
Online Media:

United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records

Creator:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation  Search this
Names:
Emhart Corporation.  Search this
Extent:
145 Cubic feet (296 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Papers
Photographs
House organs
Catalogs
Scrapbooks
Commercial catalogs
Albums
Magazines (periodicals)
Advertisements
Clippings
Research
Legal records
Motion pictures (visual works)
16mm motion picture film
Business records
Place:
Massachusetts
Beverly (Mass.)
New England
Date:
1898 - 1987
Summary:
The collection documents the activities of the United Shoe Machinery Corporation of Beverly, Massachusetts, manufacturers of shoe machinery equipment. The collection consists of engineering records, legal records, research and development records, employee/personnel records, correspondence, company catalogs, product literature, advertising materials, photographs, and moving images.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is among the largest and most complete bodies of business records in the holdings of the Archives Center. The records document in considerable detail the firm's engineering department and research and development efforts in shoe making machinery and in related technical areas, especially during World War II and as it attempted to diversify its activities after the war. There is detailed information, much of it on microfilm, about the leasing of United Shoe Machinery (USM) machines. The records also provide insight into the USM's culture of corporate paternalism, including its athletic and relief associations and its industrial school. The collection is rich in visual materials depicting both the machines made by the firm and the employees and the facilities.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into seventeen series.

Series 1: Historical and Background Materials, 1901-1985

Series 2: Executive Records, 1927-1987

Subseries 2.1: United Shoe Machinery, 1927-1975

Subseries 2.2: Emhart Corporation, 1976-1987

Series 3: Correspondence, 1890, 1901-1915

Series 4: Wilson Palmer Files, 1925-1952

Series 5: Research and Development Department Records, 1914-1980

Subseries 5.1: Background, 1947-1974

Subseries 5.2: Financial Information, 1947-1975

Subseries 5.3: Reports, 1962-1973

Subseries 5.4: Facilities, 1947-1975

Subseries 5.5: Personnel, 1942-1979

Subseries 5.6: Labor, 1961-1970

Subseries 5.7: Subject Files, 1943-1977

Subseries 5.8: Project Files, 1914-1968

Subseries 5.9: New Development (ND) Project Files, 1924-1970

Subseries 5.10: Experimental (EX) Project Files, 1931-1938

Subseries 5.11: Automatic Controls Project, 1939-1979

Subseries 5.12: Baseball Stitching Machine Projects, 1949-1973

Subseries 5.13: Component Inserting Projects, 1954-1960

Subseries 5.14: Automatic Control Research Notebooks, 1939-1976

Subseries 5.15: Baseball Stitching Machine Research Notebooks, 1942-1956

Subseries 5.16: Component Inserting Research Notebooks, 1956-1965

Subseries 5.17, General Research Notebooks, 1939-1968

Series 6: Legal Records, 1900-1968

Subseries 6.1: Court Exhibits for Machine History, 1910-1951 (bulk 1948-1950)

Subseries 6.2: Leases, Cancellation Letters, Shipments, and Transfers (Microfilm), 1900-1958

Subseries 6.3: Patent Search, 1949

Series 7: Engineering Records, 1904-1979

Series 8: Employee/Personnel Materials, 1908-1981

Series 9: Mutual Relief Association Incorporated, 1902-1951

Series 10: Athletic Association, 1929-1962

Series 11: Industrial School Records, 1909-1938

Subseries 11.1: English for American Citizenship (Industrial Series), 1912, 1919-1921

Subseries 11.2: English for American Citizenship (Intermediate Series), 1921

Subseries 11.3: Text Books, 1909-1938

Series 12: Northwestern University Students' Cooperative Work, 1951-1960

Series 13: Aberthaw Construction Company Records, 1918-1920

Subseries 13.1: Correspondence, 1918-1919

Subseries 13.2: Reports, 1919-1921

Subseries 13.3: Purchase Orders, 1919-1920

Subseries 13.4: Receiving Records, 1919-1920

Series 14: Publications, 1898-1987

Subseries 14.1: United Shoe Machinery Corporation Catalogs, circa 1899-1961

Subseries 14.2: Beverly Today, 1979-1985

Subseries 14.3: Machinery Division Newsletter,1969-1970

Subseries 14.4: The Three Partners,1914-1920

Subseries 14.5: USM Today,1968-1976

Subseries 14.6: Quarter Century Club News, 1977-1987

Subseries 14.7: H.E. Smith & Company Catalogs, 1898-1930

Series 15: Product Literature, 1952-1979

Series 16: Advertising and Marketing Materials, 1902-1981

Series 17: Photographs, 1907-1960s

Subseries 17.1: Employees, 1907-1981

Subseries 17.2: Equipment/Products, 1961-1972

Subseries 17.3: Factories/Buildings, 1920s-1960s

Subseries 17.4: Trade Shows, 1954, 1968-1973

Subseries 17.5: Miscellaneous, undated

Subseries 17.6: Postcards, 1906-1938

Subseries 17.7: Prints from Glass Plate Negatives, undated

Subseries 17.8: Albums, 1915-1950s

Subseries 17.9: Film Negatives, 1956-1958

Subseries 17.10: Glass Plate Negatives, 1915-1923

Series 18: Audio-Visual Materials, 1934-1972
Biographical / Historical:
The United Shoe Machinery Company was formed in 1899 by the consolidation of the most important shoe machinery firms in the industry: Goodyear Shoe Machinery Company; Consolidated McKay Lasting Machine Company; and McKay Shoe Machinery Company. By this merger, conflicting patents were eliminated and patents supplementing each other were brought under United control to permit their prompt combination in a single machine or process. To ensure efficiency, the new company also continued the practice previously followed by its constituent firms of renting machinery that it manufactured instead of selling it. The authorized capital of the new company was twenty five million dollars. After the 1899 merger, United grew quite rapidly. In 1903, it began construction of a new factory in Beverly, Massachusetts about thirty-five miles from Boston. At its peak, this company employed 9,000 workers and produced eighty-five percent of all shoemaking machines in the United States. By 1910, it had an eighty percent share of the shoe machinery market with assets reaching forty million dollars, and it had acquired control of branch companies in foreign countries.

In 1911, the first of three civil anti-trust suits was brought against United by the United States government. It charged that the 1899 merger had restrained trade and violated the Sherman Act. The Massachusetts District Court ruled that the 1899 merger was not an attempt to restrain trade, only an attempt to promote efficiency. The court also said that the five companies that were merged to form United were not competitive with each other. The government appealed to the Supreme Court, which only affirmed the District Court's verdict.

In 1917, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation, incorporated in 1905, absorbed the United Shoe Machinery Company. The United Shoe Machinery Corporation had its headquarters in Boston and its main manufacturing plant in Beverly, Massachusetts.

The second government suit was brought against United Shoe in 1915. The government claimed that United Shoe's leasing system restricted the shoe manufacturer to exclusive use of United Shoe's products and that it was a violation of the newly enacted Clayton Act. The Massachusetts District Court ruled in favor of the government. The Supreme Court, hearing United Shoe's appeal case, only affirmed the District Court's ruling. In 1923, United modified its leasing policy.

The last government suit against United was filed in 1947 and charged United with monopolizing the trade, manufacture, and distribution of shoe machinery from 1923 to 1947. During this period, United had bought all shares, assets, and patents of twenty one companies that dealt in the shoe machinery manufacture. The court ruled that United had clearly violated the Sherman Act, and United was forced to modify its leasing policies and restrict its purchases of other shoe machinery businesses and its acquisition of patents. In 1968, the United Shoe Machinery Corporation changed its name to USM Corporation. In 1976, United Shoe Machinery Company merged with Emhart Industries and produced the modern-day Emhart Corporation.

In 1989, in order to resist a two billion dollar takeover attempt by a New York investment group (which included oil heir Gordon P. Getty), Emhart merged with Black & Decker Corporation. The merged company operates from Black & Decker's headquarters in Towson, Maryland. The company headquarters in Farmington, Connecticut, were closed in June 1989.
Related Materials:
Materials at Other Organizations

Lynn Historical Society & Museum, Lynn, Massachusetts

Lynn, Massachusetts businesses collection, 1888-1991

Small volumes and pamphlets of shoe and shoe-related industry businesses in Lynn, Massachusetts, including miscellaneous articles and histories on the shoe industry in Lynn, manuals, catalogs, broadsides, patents, handbooks, patterns, price lists, brochures, and legal materials. Businesses represented include Beaudry Machine Company, Beckman Machine Company, Bresnahan Shoe Machinery Company, George W. Emerson & Company, Hamel Shoe Machinery Company, Gregory & Read Co., David Knox & Sons Machinery Company, Krippendorf Kalculator Company (manufacturers of a mechanical device to compute pattern values), Peerless Machinery Company, Quarmby & Hilliker, Machine Builders, Swain, Fuller Manufacturing Company, W.J. Young Machinery Company, and George J. Kelly, Inc. (maker of shoe polish).

United Shoe Machinery Company Records, 1915-1974

Materials assembled by Edward F. McCarthy, director of USM research, including notebooks, diagrams, manuals, brochures, catalogs, code sheets, flow charts, price lists, handbooks, lectures, directories, lexicons, catalogs of other firms, personal notebooks on shoe construction (1927-1931), factory visits to other shoe companies, and production of leading manufacturers (1939-1960), and floor directory of the plant; ledgers listing machines shipped and returned from the Lynn and Puerto Rico plants (nine volumes, 1935-1974); and machine development materials, including patents, chiefly those of Edward Quinn.

Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) Salem, Massachusetts

An accession in 1987 of institutional archives, includes publications, photographs, advertisements, lectures, scrapbook of shoes made for United Shoe Machinery Corporation of Beverly, Massachusetts, shoes from which are in the collection of the Peabody Essex Museum (87020).

Beverly Historical Society, Beverly, Massachusetts

The United Shoe and Machinery Company Collection contains a large quantity of the company's patents, most of which pertain to the production and manufacture of shoes. Additionally there are patents for golf balls, nail guns, and magnetic closures. The majority of the remaining materials are Quarter Century Club documents ranging from financial and membership records, to pictures and other ephemera. The remainder of the collection consists of miscellaneous objects including sample knives and knife parts from the Booth Brothers Company.

University of Connecticut, Dodd Center

Emhart Corporation Records, undated, 1883-1989

Emhart Corporation was a multinational company located in Farmington, Connecticut. Prior to its 1989 merger with Black & Decker, Emhart operated in over one hundred countries with a worldwide work force of 30,000 employees. Emhart's products included machines for the manufacture of glass bottles and shoes; filling, sealing and packaging machinery; security systems; electronics; chemical products; metal fasteners; rubber processing equipment; and consumer and do-it-yourself products. Brand name products included True TemperĀ® hardware and sporting goods, and Price PfisterĀ® plumbing fixtures. Emhart's domestic roots went back to the American Hardware Company, founded in New Britain, Connecticut, in 1902.

Beverly Public Schools (Beverly, Massachusetts)

Beverly Public Schools/Beverly trade school records, 1909-1995

Materials relating to the establishment and operation of the Beverly trade schools, including trustee minutes, annual reports, curriculum journals, correspondence, photographs, programs and ephemera, and calendars.

Cornell University, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections

[United Shoe Machinery Corporation publications], 1911-1913

Harvard University, Baker Library

[United Shoe Machinery Company, of New Jersey, et al. court proceedings], 1911-1917

United Shoe buildings and properties

The Cummings Properties now owns and leases "the Shoe."
Separated Materials:
Materials at National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts related to the United Shoe Machinery Corporation. Some artifacts include a drafting table (1989.0259.349), tool chest (1989.0259.348), and molds for shoes, shoe heels, shoe welts, threads, needles, awls, and show wax.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by United Shoe Machinery Corporation, through Kevin Cochrane on November 20, 1987.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage and audio visual materials. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period, reference copies do not exist for audio visual materials. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center staff two weeks prior to a scheduled research visit. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Industrial workers  Search this
Photography, Industrial  Search this
Tanners  Search this
Shoe machinery industry  Search this
Industrial history  Search this
Baseball  Search this
Genre/Form:
Papers
Photographs -- 20th century
House organs
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass -- 1900-1950
Catalogs
Scrapbooks
Photographs -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin -- 19th-20th century
Commercial catalogs
Albums
Photographs -- Black-and-white negatives -- Acetate film -- 1900-1950
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Advertisements -- 20th century
Clippings -- 20th century
Research -- 20th century
Legal records
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
16mm motion picture film
Business records -- 20th century
Citation:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0277
See more items in:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83f85a875-2e03-4934-b565-4ea239c46d53
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0277
Online Media:

Research and Development Department Records

Collection Creator:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1914 - 1980
Scope and Contents:
This series is divided into seventeen subseries and documents the research and development aspects of United Shoe Machinery. One of the largest series, it spans from 1913 to 1980 and includes progress reports on various projects, correspondence, photographs, and research notebooks. There is also information on personnel, training, and the shoe machinery industry.
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view materials in cold storage and audio visual materials. Using cold room materials requires a three hour waiting period, reference copies do not exist for audio visual materials. Arrangements must be made with the Archives Center staff two weeks prior to a scheduled research visit. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0277, Series 5
See more items in:
United Shoe Machinery Corporation Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85018ea8d-6ce9-4187-bd83-b99d9ddf1f93
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0277-ref30

Avram and Company machinery, industrial engineers

Collection Creator:
Ayer (N W) Incorporated.  Search this
Container:
Box 48 (Series 2), Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must use microfilm copy. Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Publication and production quality duplication is restricted due to complex copyright, publicity rights, and right to privacy issues. Potential users must receive written permission from appropriate rights holders prior to obtaining high quality copies. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
NW Ayer & Sons, incorporated Advertising Agency Records, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records
N W Ayer Advertising Agency Records / Series 2: Proof Sheets
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep83d89f82e-8de7-4249-8814-93bc3f764383
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0059-ref5612

The Real McCoy: Lewis Temple, Jan E. Matzeliger, and Norbert Rillieux

Creator:
Anacostia Museum  Search this
James, Portia P.  Search this
Reinckens, Sharon A.  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum  Search this
Matzeliger, Jan Ernst, 1852-1889  Search this
Rillieux, Norbert, 1806-1894  Search this
Temple, Lewis  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Extent:
3 Video recordings (open reel, 1 inch)
3 Video recordings (VHS)
1 Sound recording (open reel, 1/4 inch)
Culture:
African American  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Documentary films
Narration
Place:
Anacostia (Washington, D.C.)
Washington (D.C.)
United States
Date:
circa 1990
Scope and Contents:
The exhibition, The Real McCoy: African-American Invention and Innovation, included three short documentary films: Lewis Temple and Hunting the Whale, Jan E. Matzeliger, and Norbert Rillieux. Lewis Temple and Hunting the Whale provides an overview of early 19th century whaling industry and tools, including the toggle head harpoon invented by blacksmith Lewis Temple. The short documentary about Jan Matzeliger provides an overview of the shoe industry and shoe making, including the refining of Matzeliger's idea and success of his shoe-lasting machine. The short documentary about Norbert Rillieux covers the history of sugar production and manufacturing from early sugar processing through the development of Rillieux's sugar refining process and the installation of Rillieux's device at Theodore Packwood's Myrtle Grove Plantation. All three documentaries provide historical background of three inventors' families and life, respectively.
Short documentary films. Part of The Real McCoy: Afro-American Invention and Innovation 1619-1930 Audiovisual Materials. AV000926 includes all three short films, dated 19910606. AV003326 includes Norbert Rillieux only (film image direction is sideways), dated 19890505. AV003324: Jan E. Matzeliger, undated. AV003433: outtakes, edited voiceover narration by Portia James for Lewis Temple and Hunting the Whale, dated 19890517. AV000226: loop tape of Norbert Rillieux with captions, undated. AV000227: loop tape of Lewis Temple and Hunting the Whale with captions, dated 19920526. AV000228: loop tape of Lewis Temple and Hunting the Whale with captions, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
The exhibition - The Real McCoy: African-American Invention and Innovation, 1619-1930 - focused on outstanding black inventors, as well as anonymous innovators, who, as slaves, craftsmen and workers, made important contributions to the United States. Included are actual inventions, such an Jan Matzelieger's "shoe-lasting" machine, which revolutionized shoe production, and Garrett Morgan's safety hood and automatic traffic signal, forerunners of the modern gas mask and traffic stop light. The exhibition examines such topics as African influences on Colonial technology and how the slave system stymied technological innovation. Individual inventors such as Lewis Temple, Elijah McCoy, James Forten, and Norbert Rillieux are profiled. Also featured are artifacts from some of the expositions of the late 19th-century, which celebrated this new surge of black inventiveness. The exhibition was curated by Portia James and organized by the Anacostia Museum. It was held at the museum from May 1989 - May 1990.
Local Numbers:
ACMA AV003326

ACMA AV003324

ACMA AV003433

ACMA AV000226

ACMA AV000227

ACMA AV000228
Series Restrictions:
Use of the materials requires an appointment. Some items are not accessible due to obsolete format and playback machinery restrictions. Please contact the archivist at acmarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
African American inventors  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Technology  Search this
Technological innovations  Search this
Whaling  Search this
Shoe industry  Search this
Shoe machinery industry  Search this
Shoemaking  Search this
Sugar  Search this
Sugar -- Manufacture and refining  Search this
Sugar machinery  Search this
Patents  Search this
Slavery  Search this
Slaves  Search this
Museum exhibits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Documentary films
Narration
Citation:
The Real McCoy: Lewis Temple, Jan E. Matzeliger, and Norbert Rillieux, Exhibition Records AV03-026, Anacostia Community Museum Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
ACMA.03-026, Item ACMA AV000926
See more items in:
The Real McCoy: Afro-American invention and innovation, 1619-1930 exhibition records
The Real McCoy: Afro-American invention and innovation, 1619-1930 exhibition records / Series ACMA AV03-026: The Real McCoy: Afro-American Invention and Innovation, 1619-1930 audiovisual records
Archival Repository:
Anacostia Community Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/qa791d31b9c-dd46-436e-8b85-301dcd6ab575
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-acma-03-026-ref506

Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements

Topic:
Kodak (Brand name)
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Advertisements
Date:
1890-1979
Summary:
The collection consists of photographs and advertisements related to women working in industry dating from 1890 to 1948.
Scope and Contents:
Series 1 consists of photographs that include images of women in industry along with associated documents. Materials are arranged alphabetically by subject. The photographs date from 1890 to 1981, yet the bulk of the materials are from 1930 to 1948. A portion of the materials are undated. There is a notable shortage of material related to women of color. The photographs depict women working in engineering jobs, operating heavy machinery, working with textiles, and handling different types of technology. There are several types of machines and products featured in the collection including pneumatic drills, gas irons, typewriters, rivet guns, compressed air machines, an arbor press, bending roll machines, and light bulbs. Documents that correspond to the photographs discuss an increase in women taking men's jobs in the 1940s while the men were at war. Consequently, photographs from the 1940s in this collection represent the transition of making machinery more applicable to women and enabling them to do "man-sized" jobs. Many of the 1940's photographs depict women enrolling in engineering training programs and physically working with heavy machinery.

Earlier materials from the early 1900s show women sitting in factories next to lighter equipment such as sewing machines and typewriters. There are a variety of companies displayed in the photographs including B. F. Spinney Co., Computing-Bureau Freight Accounts, Curtis Publishing Company, Curtis-Wright Corporation, Deane Works, Draper Corporation, General Electric Co., Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp., Osborn Manufacturing Company, and Timken Roller Bearing Co. A portion of the commercial photographs were taken by companies including Commercial Photo Co., Eastman Kodak Company, Mercury MFG. Co., Novelty Photo Co., Science Service, and Underwood and Underwood.

Series 2 contains advertisements related to women in industry. These advertisements date from 1927 to 1946. The materials in this series promote products and jobs targeting women operating machinery such as safety bars, grinding tools, bending roles, gauges, double-seaming machines, and portable package staplers. There are a variety of companies featured in this series including Acme Staple Co., Ashcroft Gauge Division, Buffalo Forge Company, E.W. Bliss Co., The Sheffield Corporation, and Willson Safety Products.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Photographs, 1890-1948

Series 2: Advertisements, 1927-1946
Historical:
This artificially created collection traces the transition of women's work in industry during the twentieth century. Most of the collection materials have a different provenance, but thirty-two photographs were assembled by Helena E. Wright during her years working as a curator in the Division of Culture and the Arts at the National Museum of American History. Other photographs showing women in industrial sites were added to the collection by the curator Peter Liebhold in the Division of Work and Industry. The photographs and advertisements in the complete collection were arranged to exhibit the evolution of women in the workforce. Women's occupations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries included work in the clothing industry (i.e. Draper Corporation, B. F. Spinney Co.), factories, and production lines. Despite the low pay, laborious and unsafe working conditions that came with working in these industries, most women felt a sense of empowerment being employed outside the home. Many women welcomed the opportunity to provide an income for their families yet worked long hours in inadequate and dismal settings. During World War I and World War II, men left their industry jobs to serve in the war. In order to serve the war effort, women found more employment opportunities in several types of industries. These included electric companies (i.e. General Electric Co.), aircraft and aerospace engineering businesses (i.e. Glenn L. Martin Co., Goodyear Aircraft Corp.), foundry work (i.e. Osborn Manufacturing Company), steel making (i.e. Timken Roller Bearing Co.), as well as enrollment in engineering training programs (i.e. Curtis-Wright Corporation). These industries provided women with a broader range of employment opportunities, skills, and experiences. Consequently, other companies began creating and marketing products to help improve the lives of women in the workforce. Inventions such as the Willson Saf-t-Bra advertised comfort and protection to women working in various industry occupations.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana Subject Categories: Women (AC0060)

Rosie the Riveter Health and Safety Records (AC0621)

Jantzen Knitting Mills Collection (AC0233)
Provenance:
Found in collections and assembled by curatorial staff.
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Science Service  Search this
Women iron and steel workers  Search this
Women laborers  Search this
Factories -- 20th century  Search this
Textile industry  Search this
Machinery industry  Search this
Electric engineering -- 20th century  Search this
Industrial engineering  Search this
Manufacturing -- 1920-1930  Search this
Commercial photography  Search this
Women employees  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Industry -- U.S.  Search this
Women -- Employment  Search this
Women in technology  Search this
Women in advertising  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Advertisements -- 20th century
Citation:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements, 1890-1948, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1446
See more items in:
Women in Industry Photographs and Advertisements
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep875322312-8f6c-4ebd-953a-39fca61ad338
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1446
Online Media:

[Trade catalogs from Watts Regulator Co.]

Variant company name:
1874  Search this
Company Name:
Watts Regulator Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Pressure regulators, boiler water-feeders, temperature and pressure relief valves, hot water house heating unit, low water cut-offs, pump starters, float-switch assembly, and vacuum breakers ; "100 years of leadership 1874-1974" catalog ; filtration ; lubrication ; pneumatic products ; filters ; regulators ; lubricators ; combination units ; relief valves ; strainers ; regulators ...this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
10 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Lawrence, Massachusetts, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Furnaces and boilers  Search this
Heating; ventilation and air conditioning  Search this
Pumping machinery and air compressors  Search this
Topic:
Air conditioning  Search this
Air-compressors  Search this
Boilers  Search this
Furnaces  Search this
Heating  Search this
Heating and ventilation industry  Search this
Pumping machinery industry  Search this
Ventilation  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_27606
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_27606

[Trade catalogs from American Cast Iron Pipe Co.]

Company Name:
American Cast Iron Pipe Co.  Search this
Related companies:
ACIPCO ; American ; American Ductile Iron Pipe Div. ; American-Darling Valve Div. ; American-Darling Valves & Hydrants-Beaumont Plant (Beaumont, TX) ; ACIPCO Steel Products Div. ; American Steel Pipe Div. ; Specification Rubber Products, Inc. (Alabaster, AL)  Search this
Notes content:
Cast-iron pipes : mono-cast pipes, doublex simplex pipes, flanged pipes, electric cast-iron pipes, reducers, bends, tees and crosses, fittings, oil pipes, bolts, joints, river crossing joints, centering wedges, line drops, nipples, wyes, sleeves, spigots, curves, short length pipes. "American-Darling" valves and hydrants ; steel pipes ; iron pipes for water and sewer ; valve castings ... this comprises the uncataloged portion.
Includes:
Trade catalog and histories
Color images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Birmingham, Alabama, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Iron and steel products (castings; sheet steel; steel wire; wire rope; pig iron and structural steel products )  Search this
Plumbing supplies and fixtures  Search this
Pumping machinery and air compressors  Search this
Topic:
Air-compressors  Search this
Iron industry and trade  Search this
Plumbing equipment industry  Search this
Plumbing fixtures  Search this
Pumping machinery industry  Search this
Steel industry and trade  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_44951
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_44951

[Trade catalogs from Farnsworth & Middlekauff Inc.]

Company Name:
Farnsworth & Middlekauff Inc.  Search this
Related companies:
Willys Motors, Inc.  Search this
Notes content:
Schramm air compressor installations for Willys Universal "Jeep"
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Toledo, Ohio, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Automobiles and automotive equipment (including trucks and buses)  Search this
Pumping machinery and air compressors  Search this
Topic:
Air-compressors  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Motor vehicles  Search this
Pumping machinery industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_44967
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_44967

[Trade catalogs from B & V]

Company Name:
B & V  Search this
Notes content:
collet chucks
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Color images
Physical description:
1 piece
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Machine tools and metalworking equipment  Search this
Industrial equipment or mechanical machinery (including supplies and components)  Search this
Topic:
Industrial equipment  Search this
Machine-tools  Search this
Machinery  Search this
Metal-working machinery  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_67
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_67

[Trade catalogs from Beckett & Anderson]

Company Name:
Beckett & Anderson  Search this
Notes content:
mining equipment: haulage gears ; switchgears ; rotary drills ; gate end panels ; Becander (brand name)
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
6 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Glasgow, United Kingdom
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Agricultural tools and machinery  Search this
Electrical apparatus and equipment  Search this
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Agricultural implements  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Mining machinery industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6894
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6894

[Trade catalogs from Beckett Foundry and Machine Co.]

Company Name:
Beckett Foundry and Machine Co.  Search this
Related companies:
Beckett & McDowell Mfg. Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Steam engines; hoisting and pumping machinery; mining and milling machinery; iron castings.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Arlington, New Jersey, United States
Date:
1800s
Topic (Romaine term):
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Engines and motors: steam; oil; gas; etc.  Search this
Agricultural tools and machinery  Search this
Topic:
Agricultural implements  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Engines  Search this
Mining machinery industry  Search this
Motors  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6896
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6896

[Trade catalogs from Beckley Machine & Electric Co.]

Company Name:
Beckley Machine & Electric Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Mining machines and locomotives: replacement parts and supplies for Jeffrey mining machines and locomotives ; repair parts for General Electric and Westinghouse locomotives ; repair parts for Goodman mining machines and locomotives ;
Includes:
Color images
Physical description:
4 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Beckley, West Virginia, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Railroad; streetcar; subway and tramway equipment and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Mining machinery industry  Search this
Railroad equipment industry  Search this
Street-railroads  Search this
Subways  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6908
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6908

[Trade catalogs from Badger Meter Mfg. Co.]

Company Name:
Badger Meter Mfg. Co.  Search this
Notes content:
Water meters ; electric alarm register ; flow meters ; oil gear train ; volume and pressure recorder ; yokes ; strainers ; rotary type multi-jet ; coupling yokes ; embossed cover ; open gear train ; heavy duty disc type ; interchangeable gear train ; turbine meter ; heavy duty gear train disc ; oil gear train turbine ; compound meter ; disc meters accuracy chart ; one piece entitled: "All out for war, All set for peace" (1945)
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
39 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Pumping machinery and air compressors  Search this
Scientific and optical instruments  Search this
Waste Management (including water treatment; recycling; refuse collection; industrial waste; etc.)  Search this
Water wheels; water motors and waterpower equipment  Search this
Topic:
"Recycling (Waste, etc.)"  Search this
Air-compressors  Search this
Hydraulic engineering  Search this
Hydraulic machinery  Search this
Optical instruments  Search this
Pumping machinery industry  Search this
Refuse and refuse disposal  Search this
Refuse disposal industry  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Water -- Purification  Search this
Water-power  Search this
Water-wheels  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6927
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6927

[Trade catalogs from John Bedford & Sons, Ltd.]

Company Name:
John Bedford & Sons, Ltd.  Search this
Notes content:
Hollow mining steel; hollow drill steel.
Includes:
Trade catalog and manual
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
6 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Sheffield, United Kingdom
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Mining machinery industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6930
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6930

[Trade catalogs from Bahnson Humidifier Company]

Company Name:
Bahnson Humidifier Company  Search this
Notes content:
Humidifiers for bakeries, tobacco processing, shoe factories, cotton mills, silk mills, yarn conditioning, printing and lithography ;
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Color images
Physical description:
18 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Winston Salem, North Carolina, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Textiles and textile machinery  Search this
Heating; ventilation and air conditioning  Search this
Topic:
Air conditioning  Search this
Heating  Search this
Heating and ventilation industry  Search this
Textile fabrics  Search this
Textile machinery industry  Search this
Ventilation  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6945
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6945

[Trade catalogs from John T. Bailey & Co.]

Variant company name:
Founded 1857  Search this
Company Name:
John T. Bailey & Co.  Search this
Notes content:
mfrs. of bags, rope, and twine; importers of burlaps and bagging; Burlap covered booklet giving company overview with interesting photographs of factory work environment including many pictures of women at work, circa 1900, lists awards received and exhibitions attended ; Exhibitors at the National Export Exposition, Philadelphia, in 1899 ;
Includes:
Trade catalog, samples, photographs and histories
Types of samples:
burlap
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Textiles and textile machinery  Search this
Topic:
Textile fabrics  Search this
Textile machinery industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6958
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6958

[Trade catalogs from Sir W. H. Bailey & Co. Ltd.]

Variant company name:
Albion Works  Search this
Company Name:
Sir W. H. Bailey & Co. Ltd.  Search this
Notes content:
Air compressors ; vacuum pumps ;
Includes:
Trade catalog and price lists
Black and white images
Physical description:
2 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Salford, United Kingdom
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Pumping machinery and air compressors  Search this
Topic:
Air-compressors  Search this
Pumping machinery industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6962
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6962

[Trade catalogs from Baldwinsville Centrifugal Pump Works]

Company Name:
Baldwinsville Centrifugal Pump Works  Search this
Notes content:
Pumps ; engines ; boilers ; fittings.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Black and white images
Physical description:
3 pieces; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Syracuse, New York, United States
Date:
1800s
Topic (Romaine term):
Engines and motors: steam; oil; gas; etc.  Search this
Business services (advertising; marketing; organizational management; etc.)  Search this
Furnaces and boilers  Search this
Pumping machinery and air compressors  Search this
Topic:
Air-compressors  Search this
Boilers  Search this
Engines  Search this
Furnaces  Search this
Motors  Search this
Pumping machinery industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6975
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6975

[Trade catalogs from D. J. Belcher & Assocs., Inc.]

Company Name:
D. J. Belcher & Assocs., Inc.  Search this
Notes content:
Aerial photography analysis for engineering, agriculture, geology. Soil mapping, land classification, land management, agricultural engineering, natural resources, forestry.
Includes:
Trade catalog
Color images
Physical description:
1 piece; 1 box
Language:
English
Type of material:
Trade catalogs
Trade literature
Place:
Ithaca, New York, United States
Date:
1900s
Topic (Romaine term):
Agricultural tools and machinery  Search this
Surveying supplies  Search this
Mining machinery; equipment and supplies  Search this
Topic:
Agricultural implements  Search this
Agricultural machinery  Search this
Mining machinery industry  Search this
Surveying -- Instruments  Search this
Surveying instrument industry  Search this
Record ID:
SILNMAHTL_6985
Location:
Trade Literature at the American History Museum Library
Collection:
Smithsonian Libraries Trade Literature Collections
Data source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:SILNMAHTL_6985

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