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U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
Based on research in the rich and dynamic living culture of the border, the Borderlands Festival program of 1993 was designed to provide a glimpse of the border - its histories, its diverse communities, local and regional identities, and its music, arts, crafts, healing practices, foodways, and narrative. The program was about community-based culture. It presented cultural practices found on the border and cultural expressions about the border, and it explored cultural patterns that were created by the border. It also addressed the cultural heritage, adaptability, and creativity of Native Americans and of the Mexican, Hispanic American, Anglo, and other immigrant communities that have played a part in creating the life that surrounds the Mexico-U.S. border - those who maintain it, those who cross it, those who are left behind, and those who dwell in the border region. The program explored the processes through which such groups create, adapt, and preserve culture to meet the challenges of life on the border. It sought to present and understand community codes of behavior that evolved on the border including confrontation, evasion, violence, and romance, especially as these have been transformed into narrative and other forms of artistic expression.

Music performances at the Festival included emergent forms such as the conjunto, which grew out of the interaction between different cultural communities; older forms, such as the corrido, which has been used to preserve a historical vision in the defense of disputed territory; and adapted forms such as the string band music now incorporated into the traditional repertoire of the Tohono O'odham Native American communities. Also featured in the program were five muralists, whose work reflects the traditions of Mexican cholo and United States Chicano muralism. Murals continue to be touchstones of common historical experiences, archaeologies of sociocultural movements, and powerful statements of identity, ethical principles, and community aspirations. The unique fusion of border aesthetics and handcrafted technology was embodied for Festival visitors in lowriders - distinctively customized automobiles. These lowslung, hopping cars complemented the iconography of murals as statements of cultural identity.

Vaqueros of south Texas demonstrated their skills, crafts, and foodways associated with their cowboy tradition, which dates back to the Spanish colonial era. A fisherman from the port of Brownsville demonstrated shrimping techniques. A Laredo blacksmith forged stirrups, belt buckles, and other implements of vaquero life, along with a number of traditional and contemporary decorative objects. A ropemaker demonstrated the use of the local fiber called lechuguilla (a fibrous plant of the agave family). While fine craft traditions like guitar- and furniture-making are not specific to the border, craftspeople have incorporated motifs and instruments native to the region, like the bajo sexto guitar. Other occupational groups characteristic of the border environment included federal Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) agents who regulate movement across the border; coyotes and polleros, who help migrants evade immigration regulations; and workers in maquiladora assembly line industried. Narrative sessions focused on the culture of craft and occupation in the context of the border.

Artisans also demonstrated crafts used in the home and for special celebrations, including quilt-making, flower- and piñata-making, candlemaking, and reverse-painted glass. Participants prepared regional specialties, traditional foods served for fiestas, and offered a sampling of typical vaquero outdoor cooking. Finally, the Festival presented members of the Mixteco Indian community in Tijuana, a recent migrant group, which preserves its cultural identity and contributes to the economy at the border by maintaining ties with other Mixteco communities in Oaxaca and California.

The United States-Mexico border has had a profound effect on the lives of millions of people. The then-pending NAFTA free trade agreement was only the latest in a long line of international socioeconomic arrangements with wide ranging local impacts. Critical attention in Mexico and the U.S. had increasingly focused on the historical consciousness created in this borderland and on its expression in traditional and other forms of art. Recognition of the vitality and value of borderland culture was growing in 1993 at the margins, among borderland populations, as well as in the centers of power and opinion in both countries. Scholars and political leaders increasingly realized that the cultural encounters, syntheses, and resistances characteristic of border life signaled similar cultural developments in the larger societies. This intensifying concern and scrutiny centered on the margin, but could it reduce the marginality in human rights, social dignity, and economic opportunity at the border? Festival organizers hoped that listening to community voices of the border from the Mexican and United States sides could better inform our thinking and decision-making.

Olivia Cadaval served as Program Curator, with Peter Seitel as Research Advisor; Héctor Antonío Corporán was Program Coordinator and Betty Belanus was Presentation Coordinator.

Collaborating institutions included Centro de Información de Historia Regional, Universid Autónoma de Nuevo León; Consejo Nacional para las Culturas y las Artes – El Programa Cultural de las Fronteras; El Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF); El Paso-Hispanic Chamber of Commerce; Embajada de México en Washington, D.C.; John E. Conner Museum, Texas A & I University; Institute of Texan Cultures; Instituto Cultural de México; Instituto de Bellaas Artes del Estado de Baja California; Instituto Nacional Indigenista; Instituto Mexicano de Cultura, San Antonio; Laredo State University; Mexican Cultural Institute; Museo Regional de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California en Mexicali; National Museum of the American Indian; New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico; Pimería Alta Historical Society, Arizona; Texas A & I University; Texas Folklife Resources; Tumacácori National Historical Park, Arizona; University of Arizona Library's Southwest Folklore Center; University of Arizona – Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; University of Texas – Brownsville; University of Texas, Center for Mexican-American Studies; University of Texas – Pan American; and U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service.

United States-Mexico Borderlands was made possible with the support and collaboration of the Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes - El Programa Cultural de las Fronteras, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Texas Commission on the Arts, Cerveza Tecate - Imported Beer, Texas Folklife Resources, University of Arizona Library's Western Folklore Center, Tumacácori National Historical Park, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Léon - Centro de Información de Historia Regional, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Gubierno de Nuevo Léon, Mexican Cultural Institute, and the recording industries Music Performance Trust Funds.
Fieldworkers:
María Eugenia de la O, Enrique Madrid, Angel Norzagaray Norzagaray, Manuel Peña, Kathy Raglan, Michael James Ritchie, Suzie Reyes, Irene Vásquez Valle, Kathy Vargas, Felipe de Jesús Valenzuela
Presenters and fieldworkers:
Enrique Avilés, Norma Cantú, Jessica Chapin, Andrew Connors, Maricela González Felix, Mary Lou Gortárez, Everardo Garduño, James S. Griffith, Celso Garza Guajardo, Ian F. Hancock, Pat Jasper, Enrique Lamadrid, Laura Larco, Francisco Javier Moreno, Daniel Sheehy, Emily Socolov, Michael C. Stone; José Manuel Valenzuela Arce, Meynardo Vásquez, Laura Velasco Ortíz, Thomas Vennum, Jr., Cynthia Vidaurri
Participants:
Tijuana, Baja California

Olga Lidia Cortés, Mixteca, hat and basket maker, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Guadalupe Isabel Flores de Estrada, 1939-, Mixteca, altar maker, cook, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Juvencio Extrada Maceda, 1936-, Mixteco, storyteller, oral historian, candlemaker, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Gloria López López, Mixteca, vendor, altar maker, cook, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Elia Ilda Maceda Flores, 1971-, Mixteca, altar maker, cook, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Ofelia Santos López, Mixteca, vendor, oral historian, hat and basket maker, altar maker, cook, weaver, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Francisco Paulino Sierra Cruz, 1955-, Mixteca, schoolteacher, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

Cathedral City, California

Carmen Moreno, guitarist, singer, Cathedral City, California

Santa Catarina, Baja California

Benito Peralta González, Paipai, storyteller, oral historian, Santa Catarina, Baja California, Mexico

Tecate, Baja California

José Luis Lee Sandoval, furniture maker, Tecate, Baja California, Mexico

Mexicali, Baja California

Taller Universitario de Teatro -- Taller Universitario de TeatroAngel Norzagaray Norzagaray, 1961-, Mexicali, Baja California, MexicoHeriberto B. Norzagaray Norzagaray, 1959-, Mexicali, Baja California, MexicoLoreto Ramón Tamayo Rosas, Mexicali, Baja California, MexicoAlejandra Rioseco de la Pena, Mexicali, Baja California, MexicoAndrés García Moreno, Mexicali, Baja California, MexicoPedro Gabriel González Castro, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

San Simon Village, Arizona

Tohono O'odham String Band -- Tohono O'odham String BandBlaine W. Juan, 1936-, violin, dancer, San Simon Village, ArizonaJoseph Alonzo García, 1924-, violin, dancer, San Simon Village, ArizonaFrank N. Pedro, 1928-, guitar, San Simon Village, ArizonaVictor Augustine García, 1922-, violin, San Simon Village, ArizonaNacho J. Feleys, 1909-1994, snare drum, San Simon Village, ArizonaMike L. Francisco, 1926-, bass drum, dancer, San Simon Village, Arizona

Lupe Lopez, 1927-, Tohono O'odham basket maker, San Simon Village, Arizona

Marie Leon, 1930-, Tohono O'odham basket maker, San Simon Village, Arizona

Nogales, Sonora

Maria Gloria Moroyoqui de Roques, 1930-, Yaqui cook, piñata and flower maker, herbalist, Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

Imuris, Sonora

Anastasio Léon, birdcage and frame maker, Imuris, Sonora, Mexico

Francisco Silva, birdcage and frame maker, Imuris, Sonora, Mexico

Magdalena, Sonora

Felipe de Jesús Valenzuela, regional historian, Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico

Tumacácori, Arizona

María Rodríguez, 1912-2001, tortilla maker, flower maker, cook, Tumacácori, Arizona

Tucson, Arizona

Reynaldo B. Hernandez, INS border patrol, storyteller, Tucson, Arizona

Arturo Carrillo Strong, 1930-, author, oral historian, Tucson, Arizona

Los Hermanos Cuatro, Yaqui Norteño Band -- Los Hermanos Cuatro, Yaqui Norteño BandJesús Juan Yucupicio, 1965-, electric bass, Tucson, ArizonaAlbert M. Yucupicio, 1954-, accordion, Tucson, ArizonaAngel M. Yucupicio, 1966-, drums, Tucson, ArizonaPeter S. Yucupicio, 1957-, bajo sexto, Tucson, Arizona

Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua

Brigada por La Paz -- Brigada por La PazAlonso Encina Herrera, 1968-, muralist, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, MexicoJesús Alberto "Pee Wee" Rodriguez Medina, muralist, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, MexicoGustavo "Sleepy" Grado Tiscareño, 1973-, muralist, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, MexicoMiguel Angel "El Tandy" Sandoval Lira, 1971-, muralist, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico

Oscar Ramírez, 1944-, guitar maker, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico

Los Alegres del Norte, norteño band -- Los Alegres del Norte, norteño bandJosé Flores Cordova, accordion, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, MexicoDiego Hidalgo Alvarez, 1944-, bajo sexto, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, MexicoEmilio Chaírez Muñoz, tololoche, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico

El Paso, Texas

Agustín Castillo, 1950-, woodcarver, furniture maker, El Paso, Texas

Carlos Callejo, Chicano muralist, El Paso, Texas

Romulo Frías, lowrider, El Paso, Texas

El Divisidero, Chihuahua

Guadalupe Carrasco Leyva, 1923-, quilter, cook, El Divisidero, Chihuahua, Mexico

Paso de Lajitas, Chihuahua

Baltazar Rodríguez Puentes, 1942-, ranching crafts, Paso de Lajitas, Chihuahua, Mexico

Lajitas, Texas

Adolfo O. Rodríguez, 1971-, ranching crafts, Lajitas, Texas

Presidio, Texas

Richard Mark Bernholz, 1954-, INS border patrol, storyteller, Presidio, Texas

Nacimiento, Chihuahua

Gertrude Factor Vásquez, 1921-, oral historian, cook, herbalist, Nacimiento, Chihuahua, Mexico

Alice Fay Lozano, 1916-, oral historian, cook, herbalist, Nacimiento, Chihuahua, Mexico

Del Rio, Texas

Ethel I. Warrior, 1919-, oral historian, cook, Del Rio, Texas

William F. Warrior, 1927-, oral historian, storyteller, Del Rio, Texas

Laredo, Texas

Armando Flores, 1953-, blacksmith, Laredo, Texas

María Paredes de Solís, 1923-, quilter, Laredo, Texas

Monterrey, Mexico

El Palomo y el Gorrión, Norteño Band -- El Palomo y el Gorrión, Norteño BandMiguel "El Gorrión" Luna Franco, 1948-, drums, composer, vocals, Monterrey, MexicoMoisés García, guitar, Monterrey, Mexico

Hebbronville, Texas

Omar Galván, 1920-1999, vaquero, rope maker, cook, storyteller, Hebbronville, Texas

Kingsville, Texas

Joe O. Mendietta, 1961-, vaquero, horsehair braider, Kingsville, Texas

San Diego, Texas

Canuto Soliz, 1924-2006, vaquero, leatherworker, storyteller, guitarist, San Diego, Texas

Elsa, Texas

Los Hermanos Layton, Conjunto Band -- Los Hermanos Layton, Conjunto BandAntonio V. Layton, 1946-, guitar, vocals, Elsa, TexasRené Layton, drums, Elsa, TexasNorfilia Layton González, vocals, Elsa, TexasGilbert González, bass guitar, Elsa, TexasBenigno Layton, 1950-, accordion, vocals, Elsa, Texas

Brownsville, Texas

Julius Collins, 1928-, shrimper, net maker, cook, Brownsville, Texas
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Series 5
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk53366ad74-9495-4412-9336-ea97e6c0f67a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref41

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Border Stories: Mural Art & Community: Border Imagery in Arts & Crafts

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Strong, Arturo Carrillo, 1930-  Search this
López, Ofelia Santos  Search this
Bernholz, Richard M., 1954-  Search this
Herrera, Alonso Encina  Search this
Frías, Romulo  Search this
Castillo, Agustin, 1950-  Search this
Callejo, Carlos, 1951-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Americans  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Mixtec Indians  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Texas
Arizona
Mexico
Tucson (Ariz.)
Presidio (Tex.)
Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico
Durango
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
El Paso (Tex.)
Date:
1993 July 1
1993
Track Information:
101 Border Stories / Arturo Carrillo Strong, Ofelia Santos López, Richard M. Bernholz.

102 Mural Art and Community / Alonso Encina Herrera, Romulo Frías.

103 Border Imagery in Arts and Crafts / Agustin Castillo, Carlos Callejo.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0083
Publication, Distribution, Etc. (Imprint):
United States 1993
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 1, 1993.
General:
This audio recording has been transcribed. View transcription and play recording here. Download a PDF of the transcription here.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Border patrols  Search this
Law enforcement  Search this
Smuggling  Search this
Borderlands  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Lowriders  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0083
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5d526cb5f-8ee7-4145-a075-107fe178f527
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref705
2 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Border Stories: Mural Art & Community: Border Imagery in Arts & Crafts digital asset number 1
  • View Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Border Stories: Mural Art & Community: Border Imagery in Arts & Crafts digital asset number 2

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Border Theater: Murals & Neighborhoods

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Norzagaray Norzagaray, Heriberto B. , 1959-  Search this
Rosas, L. Ramon Tomaya  Search this
Castro, Pedro Gabriel González  Search this
Herrera, Alonso Encina  Search this
Lira, Miguel Angel Sandova  Search this
Frías, Romulo  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Mexico
Mexicali (Mexico)
Durango
Texas
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
El Paso (Tex.)
Date:
1993 July 3
Track Information:
101 Border Theater / Heriberto B. Norzagaray Norzagaray, L. Ramon Tomaya Rosas, Pedro Gabriel González Castro.

102 Murals and Neighborhoods / Alonso Encina Herrera, Miguel Angel Sandova Lira, Romulo Frías.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0090
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 3, 1993.
General:
This audio recording has been transcribed. View transcription and play recording here. Download a PDF of the transcription here.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Theater  Search this
Oral history  Search this
Lowriders  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0090
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5ddae4f5c-23a1-4cbe-9f22-c5c2390da0f5
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref712
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Border Theater: Murals & Neighborhoods digital asset number 1

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Ranching Crafts: Murals & Lowriders: Border Stories

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Rodríguez, Adolfo O., 1971-  Search this
Rodriguez Puentes, Baltasar, 1942-  Search this
Mendietta, Joe O., 1961-  Search this
Herrera, Alonso Encina  Search this
Callejo, Carlos, 1951-  Search this
Frías, Romulo  Search this
Strong, Arturo Carrillo, 1930-  Search this
Rogues, Maria G. Moroyoqui'd de  Search this
Hernandez, Reynaldo B.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Texas
Mexico
Kingsville (Tex.)
Lajitas (Mexico)
Durango
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
El Paso (Tex.)
Arizona
Nogales (Nogales, Mexico)
Tucson (Ariz.)
Date:
1993 July 4
Track Information:
101 Ranching Crafts / Adolfo O. Rodríguez, Baltasar Rodriguez Puentes, Joe O. Mendietta.

102 Murals and Lowriders / Alonso Encina Herrera, Carlos Callejo, Romulo Frías.

103 Border Stories / Arturo Carrillo Strong, Maria G. Moroyoqui'd de Rogues, Reynaldo B. Hernandez.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0092
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 4, 1993.
General:
This audio recording has been transcribed. View transcription and play recording here. Download a PDF of the transcription here.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Ranching  Search this
Horsehair braiding  Search this
Saddlery  Search this
Rope  Search this
Cowboys  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Lowriders  Search this
Border patrols  Search this
Ecology  Search this
Smuggling  Search this
Drugs  Search this
Border  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0092
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5192f9b4f-f46a-4390-bec7-c4c3e790353e
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref714
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Ranching Crafts: Murals & Lowriders: Border Stories digital asset number 1

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Paper crafts Workshop: Border Imagery & Crafts: Murals & Low Riders

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Rogues, Maria G. Moroyoqui'd de  Search this
León, Anastasio  Search this
Grado Tiscare-o, Gustavo, 1973-  Search this
Herrera, Alonso Encina  Search this
Callejo, Carlos, 1951-  Search this
Frías, Romulo  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Mexico
Nogales (Nogales, Mexico)
Durango
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
Imuris (Sonora, Mexico).
Texas
El Paso (Tex.)
Date:
1993 July 5
Track Information:
101 Paper Crafts Workshop / Maria G. Moroyoqui'd de Rogues.

102 Border Imagery and Crafts / Anastasio León, Gustavo Grado Tiscare-o.

102 Murals and Lowriders / Alonso Encina Herrera, Carlos Callejo, Romulo Frías.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0095
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1993.
General:
This audio recording has been transcribed. View transcription and play recording here. Download a PDF of the transcription here.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Paper art  Search this
Paper flowers  Search this
Frames  Search this
Graffiti  Search this
Glass etching  Search this
Birdcages  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Lowriders  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0095
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk540eca49d-9c60-47c0-908d-410cfe3b618f
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref717
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Paper crafts Workshop: Border Imagery & Crafts: Murals & Low Riders digital asset number 1

Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Murals & Low Riders: Border History; Chinese Presence in Baja, California

Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Festival of American Folklife. Borderlands Program 1993 Washington, D.C.  Search this
Performer:
Herrera, Alonso Encina  Search this
Callejo, Carlos, 1951-  Search this
Frías, Romulo  Search this
Sandoval, José Luis Lee  Search this
Felix, Marciella  Search this
Warrior, William, 1927-  Search this
Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Extent:
compact audio cassette
1 Sound cassette (analog.)
Culture:
Mexicans  Search this
Americans  Search this
Hispanic Americans  Search this
Maroons  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Sound cassettes
Place:
United States
Washington (D.C.)
Durango
Mexico
Texas
Ciudad Juar̀ez (Durango, Mexico)
El Paso (Tex.)
China
Tecate (Mexico)
Del Rio (Tex.)
Date:
1993 July 5
Track Information:
101 Murals and Low Riders / Alonso Encina Herrera, Carlos Callejo, Romulo Frías.

102 Border History: Chinese Presence in Baja California / José Luis Lee Sandoval, Marciella Felix, William Warrior.
Local Numbers:
FP-1993-CT-0096
Date/Time and Place of an Event Note:
Recorded in: Washington (D.C.), United States, July 5, 1993.
General:
This audio recording has been transcribed. View transcription and play recording here. Download a PDF of the transcription here.
Restrictions:
Restrictions on access. Some duplication is allowed. Use of materials needs permission of the Smithsonian Institution.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Topic:
Oral history  Search this
Lowriders  Search this
Automobiles  Search this
Mural painting and decoration  Search this
Emigration & immigration  Search this
Wood-carving  Search this
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1993, Item FP-1993-CT-0096
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1993 Festival of American Folklife / Series 5: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands / 5.3: Audio
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk5c48cf350-a1b5-4c9b-8c39-5ffb9aaeb102
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1993-ref718
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  • View Festival Recordings: El Bordo Stage: Murals & Low Riders: Border History; Chinese Presence in Baja, California digital asset number 1

The Mississippi Delta

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
The Mississippi Delta is the area formed by the alluvial flood plain of the lower Mississippi River and incorporating parts of four states, a region distinguished by both geographic and cultural characteristics. From the flat, rich land of west Tennessee through parts of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana, the entire region owes many of its cultural traditions to the Mississippi River and the many smaller rivers that permeate the area, some with names reflective of the Native Americans who first settled there or other groups who came later. Entire communities, operating with varying codes and customs based on indigenous traditions, have evolved around the region's rivers and bayous: from the commercial fisherfolk, trappers, and towboat workers, whose houses often cluster near major rivers, landings, and levees; to African American ministers and their congregations, who wade into the waters to baptize believers "the old way"; to the privileged planters' sons, whose membership in the exclusive hunting clubs along the river is bestowed by the accident of birth. The rivers are imbued with personal, local, and regional symbolism and significance.

Today's Delta is still largely rural and agricultural, its economy very closely tied to the land. In spite of a century of clearing, cultivating, draining, and land leveling, the region retains its primitive swamps, bayous, and cypress brakes. It was the environmental wonder and agricultural richness of the region that led a diversity of cultural groups to settle there - or to be brought there, against their will, to cultivate its fields. For instance, in the 1890s several Mississippi plantation owners fretted over the declining work force and looked to Italy for a solution in the form of sharecroppers. Arkansas planters similarly brought Chinese to the Delta.

Though the largest percentages of residents today are black African Americans and white Anglo-Saxons, the region also has substantial populations of people of Jewish, Chinese, Lebanese, Syrian, Italian, Greek, and Mexican ancestry. One can observe small Chinese groceries in many Delta towns, the large presence of Italian families and traditions throughout Mississippi and Arkansas, and the wonderful assimilation of ethnic foodways such as Delta tamales, probably brought to the Delta by Mexican farm workers who came to earn a living in the cotton fields.

The Mississippi Delta program at the 1997 Festival cast its spotlight not only on the diverse musical traditions that evolved or were invented in the Delta, but also at the occupations associated with the land and water, the crafts and foodways that utilized the region's natural resources, the amusements that provided diversion to Delta residents, and the worshipping practices that gave them solace and strength.

The program was curated by a team that included Deborah Boykin, Joyce Jackson, Worth Long, Michael Luster, Maida Owens, Diana Parker, Tom Rankin, Arlene Reiniger, and Susan Roach. Arlene Reiniger also served as Program Coordinator.

Support for the program came from the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, the Mississippi Arts Commission, the Rhythm & Blues Foundation, and the Recording Industries Music Performance Trust Funds.
Presenters:
Deborah Boykin, John T. Edge, Joyce Jackson, Worth Long, Michael Luster, Francesca McLean, Maida Owens, Wiley Prewitt, Tom Rankin, Susan Roach
Participants:
HOME AREA

Gene Chinn, Chinese traditions, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Noah Chinn, Chinese traditions, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Bradley Chow, Chinese traditions, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Gilroy Chow, Chinese traditions, Clarksdale, Mississippi.

Lisa Chow, Chinese traditions, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Sally Chow, Chinese traditions, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Dinni Clark, Southern cook, Columbus, Mississippi

Lawrence M. Craig, barbecue cook, DeValls Bluff, Arkansas

Lucinda Cusic, Southern cook, Leland, Mississippi

Georgie Fisher, gardener, flower arranger, Greenville, Mississippi

Albert Kelly, barbecue pit maker, Monroe, Louisiana

Jewel McCain, tamale maker, Vicksburg, Mississippi

Irma Rodriguez, tamale maker, Natchitoches, Louisiana

Martha Skelton, quilter, Vicksburg, Mississippi

Henrietta Taylor, quilter, Greenville, Mississippi

Alice Virden, gardener, flower arranger, Greenville, Mississippi

Edna White, tatter, Jackson, Mississippi

Tampa Wilson, basket maker, Bentonia, Mississippi

PLAY AREA

Delta Dance Hall

Eddie Cusic, blues guitar, Leland, Mississippi

THE TIM LAUGHLIN'S NEW ORLEANS DIXIELAND JAZZ BAND, Dixieland Jazz -- THE TIM LAUGHLIN'S NEW ORLEANS DIXIELAND JAZZ BAND, Dixieland JazzEd Dowling, trumpet, New Orleans, LouisianaDavid Hansen, drums, New Orleans, LouisianaTim Laughlin, clarinet, New Orleans, LouisianaTom Roberts, piano, Annapolis, MarylandDavid Sager, trombone, Washington, D.C.

BIG LUCKY & HIS MIGHTY MEN OF SOUND, Traditional Blues, Memphis, Tennessee -- BIG LUCKY & HIS MIGHTY MEN OF SOUND, Traditional Blues, Memphis, TennesseeShirley Bobo, vocalsLevester "Big Lucky" Carter, guitar, vocalsWillie "Boogieman" Hubbard, keyboardsMelvin Lee, bassDavid Valentine, drums, vocals

KENNY BILL STINSON & THE ARK-Louisiana-MYSTICS, Rockabilly -- KENNY BILL STINSON & THE ARK-Louisiana-MYSTICS, RockabillyKevin Gordon, electric guitar, Nashville, TennesseePaul Griffith, drums, Nashville, TennesseeLorne Rail, bass guitar, Nashville, TennesseeKenny Bill Stinson, piano, guitar, W. Monroe, Louisiana

SWEET MISS COFFY & THE MISSISSIPPI BURN'IN BLUES BAND, Soul Blues -- SWEET MISS COFFY & THE MISSISSIPPI BURN'IN BLUES BAND, Soul BluesDennis Bonds, guitar, Jackson, MississippiGregory Dishmon, drums, Pearl, MississippiVeeta Hatten, keyboards, vocals, Jackson, MississippiWillie James Hatten, bass guitar, Jackson, MississippiGeorge Myrick, guitar, Jackson, MississippiClaude C. Wells, keyboards, Jackson, Mississippi

THE RUFUS THOMAS GROUP, Rhythm & Blues, Memphis, Tennessee -- THE RUFUS THOMAS GROUP, Rhythm & Blues, Memphis, TennesseeJimmy Kinnard, bassCharles Pitts, guitarJames Robertson, drumsJim Spake, tenor saxMarvell Thomas, keyboardsRufus Thomas, vocalsScott Thompson, trumpet

Camp Site

Bob Neill, camp activities, Leland, Mississippi

Butch Richenbach, duck caller, Stuttgart, Arkansas

Ann Sides, camp activities, Rosedale, Mississippi

George Sides, camp caretaker, Rosedale, Mississippi

WORK AREA

Mabry Anderson, crop duster, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Harry Williams Branton, catfish farmer, Leland, Mississippi

Collins Brent, boat works, Greenville, Mississippi

Grady "Bubba" Brown, crop duster, Lake Providence, Louisiana

Wayne "Tookie" Collom, cotton work, harmonica, Rayville, Louisiana

Henry Dorsey, cotton work, guitar, Rayville, Louisiana

Robroy Fisher, cotton farmer, Greenville, Mississippi

Penny Morris, net maker, Yazoo City, Mississippi

Tom Morris, net maker, Yazoo City, Mississippi

Billy Pearson, cotton farmer, Sumner, Mississippi

Phil Robertson, hunting & fishing skills, W. Monroe, Louisiana

Oren Russell, towboat captain, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Hugh Warren, catfish farmer, Indianola, Mississippi

WORSHIP AREA

Worship Crafts

Rabbi David Skopp, Jewish crafts, Memphis, Tennessee

Annie Staten, baptismal robe maker, Monroe, Louisiana

Gayle Steen, altar cloth maker, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Martha Weissinger, christening gown maker, Greenville, Mississippi

Worship Stage

Penola Caesar, lined-out hymns, Monroe, Louisiana

THE GERALD LEWIS SINGERS, Gospel -- THE GERALD LEWIS SINGERS, GospelBilly Bays, electric guitar, bass guitar, Crossett, ArkansasRenee Calongne, vocals, W. Monroe, LouisianaKelvin Clark, electric guitar, W. Monroe, LouisianaFreedona Dobbins, vocals, W. Monroe, LouisianaAllan Eppinette, electric guitar, bass guitar, Monroe, LouisianaNick Ezell, steel guitar, Bastrop, LouisianaChuck Harris, drums, Bastrop, LouisianaGerald Lewis, piano, Monroe, Louisiana

MARVIN MYLES FAMILY, Gospel -- MARVIN MYLES FAMILY, GospelKeith Myles, vocals, Washington, D.C.LaShondra Myles, vocals, Lyon, MississippiRev. Marvin Myles, vocals, Lyon, MississippiMarvin Myles, II, vocals, Lyon, MississippiMelvin Myles, vocals, Lyon, MississippiOlivia Myles, coordinator, Lyon, MississippiSamantha Myles, vocals, Lyon, MississippiMichael Thomas, keyboards, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Reverend Willie Morganfield, oratory skills, Clarksdale, Mississippi

Brother Phillip Payne, oratory skills, Lake Village, Arkansas

REVELATORS, Gospel -- REVELATORS, GospelGene Coghlan, vocals, Drew, MississippiJim Ellis, vocals, guitar, Drew, MississippiCarl Massengail, guitar, banjo, vocals, Jayess, MississippiHerbie Swain, vocals, guitar, Cleveland, Mississippi

WINNSBORO EASTER ROCK ENSEMBLE, Winnsboro, Louisiana -- WINNSBORO EASTER ROCK ENSEMBLE, Winnsboro, LouisianaHattie M. AddisonLaketa AddisonBooker T. BurkhalterSheila JacksonJimmy JonesTammie LynchShirley SpearsRev. Lionell Wilson
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.1997, Series 3
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 1997 Festival of American Folklife
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk545f41015-59a1-46cd-8c69-0edcef86ffaa
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-1997-ref26

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
Charles Rangel, American, born 1930  Search this
The Links, Incorporated, American, founded 1946  Search this
Avon, founded 1886  Search this
Vice President Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, American, 1908 - 1979  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
National Association of Black Social Workers, American, founded 1968  Search this
Interracial Council for Business Opportunity, American, founded 1963  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
National Association of Negro Musicians, Inc., founded 1919  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Chi Delta Mu Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1913  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Sovereign Military Order of Malta, founded 1099  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Universal Network Television, American, founded 1950  Search this
Freedom National Bank, American, 1964 - 1990  Search this
Jarobin Gilbert Jr., American, born 1946  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
National Dental Association, American, founded 1913  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Daughters of Isis, American, founded 1910  Search this
Roscoe C. Brown, American, 1922 - 2016  Search this
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), International, founded 1844  Search this
New York Yankees, American, founded 1901  Search this
Reggie Jackson, American, born 1946  Search this
The Doll League, Inc., American, founded 1958  Search this
National Urban League Guild, American, founded 1946  Search this
Morehouse Alumni Association, American, founded 1900  Search this
Congressional Black Caucus, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Business League, American, founded 1900  Search this
National Bankers Association, American, founded 1927  Search this
Alliance for Women in Media, American, founded 1951  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry  Search this
The Salvation Army, American, founded 1865  Search this
Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, American, founded 1914  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of the Elks of the World, American, founded 1898  Search this
Written by:
Anti-Bakke Decision Coalition, American, founded 1977  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 7/16 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.1 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Sag Harbor, Southampton, Suffolk County, New York, United States, North and Central America
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1979
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Radio  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Television  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.13
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5cc6b172d-2d13-4670-95ea-2e52493801a5
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.13
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1

Delegate

Published by:
MelPat Associates, American, 1965 - 1986  Search this
Created by:
C. Melvin Patrick, American, died 1985  Search this
Subject of:
United Negro College Fund, American, founded 1944  Search this
Billy Dee Williams, American, born 1937  Search this
National Association for Equal Opportunity in Higher Education, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Urban Affairs Council, American, founded 1971  Search this
National Association of Market Developers, American, founded 1953  Search this
Prince Hall Freemasonry, founded 1784  Search this
Opportunities Industrialization Center of America, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
Harold Washington, American, 1922 - 1987  Search this
National Newspaper Publishers Association, American, founded 1827  Search this
Top Ladies of Distinction, Inc., American, founded 1964  Search this
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, American, founded 1909  Search this
Lambda Kappa Mu Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1937  Search this
Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1929  Search this
Chi Eta Phi Sorority, Inc., American, founded 1932  Search this
National Medical Association, American, founded 1895  Search this
National United Church Ushers Association of America, Inc., American, founded 1919  Search this
Morehouse College, American, founded 1867  Search this
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1906  Search this
Carats, Inc., American, founded 1959  Search this
National Bar Association, American, founded 1925  Search this
National Urban League, American, founded 1910  Search this
African Methodist Episcopal Church, American, founded 1816  Search this
National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., American, founded 1935  Search this
Shriners International, American, founded 1870  Search this
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, American, founded 1913  Search this
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., American, founded 1911  Search this
National Pharmaceutical Association, American, founded 1947  Search this
National Sorority of Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., American, founded 1923  Search this
One Hundred Black Men, Inc., American, founded 1963  Search this
Arthur Ashe Jr., American, 1943 - 1993  Search this
Association for the Study of African American Life and History, American, founded 1915  Search this
People United to Save Humanity, American, founded 1971  Search this
369th Veterans Association, American  Search this
Eubie Blake, American, 1887 - 1983  Search this
Dance Theatre of Harlem, American, founded 1969  Search this
National Coalition of 100 Black Women, American, founded 1981  Search this
Medium:
ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 10 13/16 × 8 7/16 × 1/2 in. (27.5 × 21.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
magazines (periodicals)
Place made:
Harlem, New York City, New York, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Martha's Vineyard, Oak Bluffs, Dukes County, Massachusetts, United States, North and Central America
Bahamas, Caribbean, North and Central America
Houston, Harris County, Texas, United States, North and Central America
Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1983
Topic:
African American  Search this
Advertising  Search this
Associations and institutions  Search this
Business  Search this
Communities  Search this
Fraternal organizations  Search this
Fraternities  Search this
Government  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Labor  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Men  Search this
Political organizations  Search this
Politics  Search this
Professional organizations  Search this
Religious groups  Search this
Social life and customs  Search this
Sororities  Search this
Travel  Search this
U.S. History, 1969-2001  Search this
Urban life  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Anne B. Patrick and the family of Hilda E. Stokely
Object number:
2012.167.17
Restrictions & Rights:
Public domain
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Documents and Published Materials-Published Works
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd516419a20-d7d3-4570-a5c9-78bd4c89cfee
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.167.17
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  • View <I>Delegate</I> digital asset number 1
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The Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery

Creator:
Barnett-Aden Gallery  Search this
Names:
Anacostia Community Museum  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Howard University  Search this
Howard University. Gallery of Art  Search this
Aden, Alonzo J., 1906-1963  Search this
Asher, Lila Oliver  Search this
Driskell, David C.  Search this
Ealey, Adolphus  Search this
Greene, Carroll  Search this
Herring, James V. (James Vernon)  Search this
Johnson, Robert L., 1946 April 8-  Search this
Lazzari, Pietro, 1898-1979  Search this
Long, Richard, 1945-  Search this
Porter, James A. (James Amos), 1905-1970  Search this
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 1884-1962  Search this
Spellman, Gladys Noon  Search this
Thomas, Alma  Search this
Wells, James Lesesne, 1902-1993  Search this
Extent:
0.5 Cubic feet
Culture:
African American artists  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Ephemera
Catalogues
Business records
Place:
Washington (D.C.)
South Carolina
Date:
1954-1989
bulk 1961-1977
Summary:
The Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery showcases one of the first galleries owned and operated by African Americans. The work of the Gallery was invaluable as they opened the exhibition space to established and unknown artists regardless of race or gender.
Scope and Contents:
The Historical Records of Barnett-Aden Gallery collection includes historical background materials on the gallery, its founders James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden as well as Adolphus Ealey, its steward after its closure in 1969. The materials include correspondence, business records, photographs, exhibition catalogues, and clippings.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into four series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Historical Sketch:
The Barnett-Aden Gallery, suggested to be the first African American privately-owned gallery in the U.S, open its doors on October 16, 1943. The gallery was founded by artist and scholar James V. Herring alongside his protegee, curator Alonzo Aden. The gallery was housed in a private home that they shared, located on 127 Randolph Street NW in Washington, DC. These men aimed to create an art gallery that provided a venue for underrepresented artists of all races and genres. It was this partnership that laid the foundation for the shift in African American representation in modern art. Aden stated that the gallery's aims were to help foster new talent while also bringing "art of superior quality" to the community. Throughout its history, the gallery held almost 200 exhibitions and showcased the work of over 400 artists.

James Vernon Herring was born on January 7, 1887 in Clio, South Carolina to an African American mother, Alice Herring (1860-1942), and white father, William Culbreth. As a young man, he moved to Washington, DC for better educational opportunities. Herring was educated at the Howard Academy, a preparatory high school located at nearby Howard University campus. Herring received his undergraduate degree from Syracuse University and completed graduate studies at Columbia and Harvard Universities. Trained in art and classical studies with a focus on French impressionism, Herring was initially brought on Howard University's faculty as architecture instructor in 1920. This experience inspired Herring to create the Department of Art at the university where he convinced former home economics student and future prominent visual artist, Alma Thomas to be the art school's first graduate in 1924. Herring continued to mentor and discover young artists as was the case with Alonzo Aden.

Alonzo Aden was born on May 6, 1906 in Spartanburg, South Carolina to Naomi Barnett (1883-1956) and Ephraim Aden (1859-1917). His working-class parents wanting more for their eldest son, decided to send him to live with relatives in Washington, DC for greater educational opportunities. Aden did well academically and completed some studies at Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) before finally entering Howard University in 1927. The following year, Herring opened the Howard University Gallery of Art and installed Aden as its first curator. Aden initially pursued a career as an educator but became more interested in art history and after his graduation from Howard in 1933, he pursued studies in museum and curatorial work.

Recent scholarship has suggested that Herring and Aden were in a romantic as well as working relationship. Working together in the Howard Gallery of Art, they sought to provide a space for art students, local artists and other relatively unknown artists from around the world. Living together since 1929, Herring supported Aden's post-graduate pursuits including his studies of African arts and crafts in galleries across Europe as well as his curatorial work at the American Negro Exposition in Chicago in 1940. Aden returned to Washington to great acclaim and continued his work with Herring at the Howard Gallery of Art.

The Gallery was housed in a Victorian townhouse located in the then middle-class African American neighborhoods of LeDroit Park and Logan Circle (present-day Bloomingdale). Research notes that the house was purchased during the late 1920s by Herring with some assistance of artist Alma Thomas (or vice versa). Both were listed as owners of the property until 1933 when Aden was listed as the co-owner. In 1943, Aden resigned as head of the Howard Gallery for unknown reasons which led Herring and Aden to open a gallery in their home. The gallery was named after Aden's mother Naomi, who also served as an early benefactor of the gallery giving $1,000 in support. It was the support of various benefactors alongside Herring's salary as a Howard professor and Aden's several "government jobs" that kept the gallery afloat during its time in the home. The first floor of the gallery consisted entirely of exhibition space with the second-floor space interchanged between exhibition, study, and living spaces over the years. Herring's library, also located on the upper floors, was used for research by students and local scholars. Herring and Aden never saw the gallery as a truly profitable venture but instead wanted to offer avenues for the artists to showcase their work. As policy, each artist retained all money earned from sales but were required to donate at least one work of art to the Barnett-Aden collection.

The gallery, the first of its kind in Washington at the time, exhibited works of artists regardless of race; African American artists displayed alongside their more notable white peers. Notable artists featured in the gallery include Henri Matisse, Paul Cezanne, Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, and M.C. Escher were exhibited alongside notable African American artists Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, Elizabeth Catlett, Charles White, Selma Burke as well as many others. Several Howard professors who went on to have notable art careers also exhibited their work at the gallery including James Porter, Lois Mailou Jones, and James Lesesne Wells. Many of the artists featured in the gallery were also greatly involved in the operations. Alma Thomas served gallery's vice president before she began exhibiting her work there in 1950s. Artist and scholar, David Driskell served as the associate director of the gallery after Aden's death.

The gallery held five to eight exhibitions every year including a special annual anniversary exhibition. In 1944, the gallery opened a show featuring Brazilian modern artist, Candido Portinari, who had previously completed a mural at the Library of Congress, that sparked great interest at the gallery. The exhibition opening brought in visitors from all over Washington including members of the president's cabinet, foreign ambassadors and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. This renewed interest created a somewhat hectic pace in keeping up with the work of the gallery. This pace coupled with the full-time jobs and other ventures including a gift shop enabled the gallery to act as a luminary of the African American and local arts community in Washington.

In 1961, while preparing for the annual anniversary exhibition, Alonzo Aden died suddenly. Herring with aid of his friends and students took on the management of the gallery after his partner's death but was unable to keep the pace of Aden's work and the attendance declined. In 1969, Herring died in the home leaving behind a formidable legacy. The home and its contents including the gallery's art collection was sold in order to settle the debts of Herring's estate. The collection was divided amongst three individuals. Artist and former Herring student, Adolphus Ealey inherited the bulk of the collection that featured 250 significant works. Herring's books, graphic drawings, and prints were given to Herring associate and friend, Dr. Felton J. Earls, while the sculptures went to art collectors and friends Dr. and Mrs. Cecil Marquez.

The portion of the collection owned by Ealey was described as the preeminent selection from the gallery's collection. The size and ongoing upkeep of the collection was significant which caused the collection to be moved several times over the years. The collection which out of necessity was originally stored in Ealey's Southwest Washington apartment then moved a to a house in LeDroit Park and then to another space in the Washington neighborhood of Fort Lincoln. Ealey collaborated with colleagues and institutions to have it exhibited in various locations but also bid to find the collection a permanent home. During the 1970s, the collection was featured at the Museum of Afro-American Culture and History in Philadelphia, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum (now the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum) and the Corcoran Gallery of Art.

Unable to find an institutional home for the collection, Ealey was forced to sell the collection in 1989 to the Florida Endowment Fund for Higher Education. Ealey stipulated that collection must remain intact but also that the new owners had to develop educational and outreach programs focused on African Americans in the arts. Failing to find consistent opportunities to exhibit the collection, the owners were forced to sell the collection. In 1998, Robert L. Johnson, then chairman and founder of the television channel, Black Entertainment Television (BET), purchased the collection. The collection went on a national tour then was displayed for some time at the BET headquarters in Washington. In 2015, Johnson donated selections from the gallery collection to the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture in an effort to preserve the legacy of the Barnett-Aden Gallery and the tireless work of James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden for generations to come.

Historical Timeline

1897 -- James Vernon Herring was born January 7 in Clio, South Carolina.

1906 -- Alonzo James Aden was born May 6 in Spartanburg, South Carolina.

1914-1916 -- While attending Syracuse University, Herring taught summer classes at Wilberforce University in Ohio for two summers.

1917 -- Herring graduated from Syracuse University with a Bachelors of Pedagogy in Art degree.

1917-1920 -- Herring served as YMCA secretary for the YMCA in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, and then Camp Lee, Virginia. Herring also held teaching positions at Straight College in New Orleans and Bennett College in North Carolina

1920 -- Alonzo was sent to Washington, D.C. to live with his uncle, James Aden, and his wife Laura.

1921 -- Herring was initially hired as architectural drawing instructor at Howard University and after negotiations established Department of Art later that same year.

1927 -- Herring organized an exhibition of Howard U. students' artwork that toured the Deep South U.S. Aden enrolled in Howard University in pursuit of an education degree.

1930 -- The Howard University Gallery of Art formally opened on April 7. Aden was hired as gallery assistant.

1933 -- Aden received his Bachelor of Arts in Education; Herring added Aden's name as co-owner of the 127 Randolph Place home.

1934-1939 -- Aden engaged in post-graduate study and museum curatorial work around the U.S. and Europe.

1940 -- Aden served as art curator for the American Negro Exposition (the "Negro's World Fair") in Chicago

1943 -- Aden resigned his position at the Howard University Gallery of Art for undisclosed reasons. The Barnett-Aden Gallery was founded by James V. Herring and Alonzo Aden. The first exhibition, "American Paintings for the Home" featured Elizabeth Catlett, Lois Mailou Jones, Malvin Gray Johnson, James Lesesne Wells, Jacob Lawrence, and many others.

1944 -- First anniversary exhibition featuring artist Candido Portinari, Brazilian artist who was already known in Washington from his mural for the Library of Congress. It was attended by the First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt. Exhibition, "The Negro in Art" and "American Paintings for the Home" featuring Catlett, James A. Porter, Wells, Jones, Richmond Barthé, Hale Woodruff, Betsy Graves Reyneau and others.

1946 -- Exhibition, "Paintings by Lois Mailou Jones" and featured paintings of Jacob Lawrence for Third Anniversary exhibition.

1947 -- Fourth Anniversary Exhibition, "Recent Paintings by Charles White". Exhibition of Elizabeth Catlett, "Paintings, Sculpture, and Prints of The Negro Woman".

1948 -- Exhibition, "Paintings and Drawings by James A. Porter".

1949 -- Exhibition, "Sylvia Carewe".

1950 -- "Exhibition of Six Washington Artists" featuring Romare Bearden, Samuel Bookatz, Bernice Cross, Robert Gates, Norma Mazo, and James A. Porter. "Exhibition "Paintings and Prints by James Lesesne Wells."

1951 -- Exhibition, "Three Washington Artists" featuring Richard Dempsey, Sam Herman, and Jack Perlmutter Exhibition, "Herman Maril: Paintings in Retrospect, 1931-1951"

1953 -- Tenth Anniversary Exhibition, "Eighteen Washington Artists" featuring Sarah Baker, Samuel Bookatz, William Calfee, Bernice Cross, Robert Franklin Gates, Jacob Kainen, Marjorie Phillips, James Porter, and James Lesesne Wells.

1954 -- Exhibition "Six Washington Painters" featuring Theresa Abbott, Gabriel Cherin, Gloria Besser Green, Alma W. Thomas, and Anita Wertheim.

1955 -- Twelfth anniversary exhibition focused on "Jack Perlmutter".

1957 -- Exhibition, "David C. Driskell: Exhibition of Paintings"

1958 -- Exhibition "Norman Lewis: Paintings"

1959 -- Sixteenth Anniversary Exhibition of "Paintings by Pietro Lazzari, Helen Rennie, Alma Thomas, Andrea De Zerega". Exhibition of "Religious Paintings and Prints by James L. Wells and Sculpture by Selma Burke"

1962 -- Alonzo Aden died suddenly at the age of 56 on October 13 in Washington D.C. Herring solely inherits the Gallery collection.

1969 -- Herring dies at age 84 in Washington, DC. on May 29. Artist Adolphus Ealey inherits the bulk of the gallery collection along with Dr. Felton J. Earls and Dr. and Mrs. Cecil Marquez.

1974 -- Two exhibitions of the collection at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum and the Corcoran Gallery of Art.

1989 -- Collection sold to Florida Endowment Fund for Higher Education.

1998 -- Robert Johnson, founder and former CEO of Black Entertainment Television (BET) purchased the entire collection and serves as administrators over the collection.
Provenance:
Acquired through a purchase by the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Art  Search this
Business  Search this
LGBTQ+  Search this
Museums  Search this
Painting, American  Search this
Galleries  Search this
Education  Search this
finance  Search this
Local and Regional  Search this
HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Ephemera
Catalogues
Business records
Citation:
Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery, Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.63.32
See more items in:
The Historical Records of the Barnett-Aden Gallery
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/io3ab33c70c-0c97-4ae6-b532-0055f1a78617
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2014-63-32

Document, Statement of John E. Gallagher at Hearing of Board of Estimate of the City of New York regarding approval for operation of heliport on top of the Pan Am Building

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 5, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
December 11, 1964
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 2: 1973 Acquisition / Documents, Miscellaneous (4)
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2bde9d998-3b6c-4fcb-b8b1-fabafb641137
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref728
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Document, Statement of John E. Gallagher at Hearing of Board of Estimate of the City of New York regarding approval for operation of heliport on top of the Pan Am Building digital asset number 1

Program [and papers planned to be presented], Conference on Airports for the Future, At the Institution of Civil Engineers, London [UK]

Collection Creator:
Wheatland, Richard, II, 1923-2009  Search this
Container:
Box 6, Folder 66
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1967
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
New York Airways Collection, Acc. NASM.1992.0052, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
New York Airways Collection
New York Airways Collection / Series 2: 1973 Acquisition / Conference, Airports for the Future, London (UK), April 11-12, 1967
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/pg2a713d1ab-6bc9-45de-bc3d-fa4bd2101843
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-1992-0052-ref841
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Program [and papers planned to be presented], Conference on Airports for the Future, At the Institution of Civil Engineers, London [UK] digital asset number 1

Festival at 50

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Description:
The festival this year will mark the 50-year anniversary of the Smithsonian Folklife Festival, an international exposition of living culture staged on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Through music, dance, food, crafts, and stories, we learn about other cultures, about each other, about our intriguing differences and surprising similarities. This annual festival event is produced by the Smithsonian Institution's Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. Like other Smithsonian museums, the Festival includes exhibition-quality signs, photo-text panels, a program book/catalog, learning centers, a marketplace, and food concessions.

Tens of thousands of cultural exemplars have benefited from demonstrating their traditions at the Folklife Festival. The participants have returned home uplifted by the applause and appreciation they received. Most have been fortified in their determination to pass on their skill and artistry, their knowledge and wisdom to the next generation; many have been inspired to extend their cultural traditions for wider social, economic, and educational benefit.

The festival has become a national and international model of a research-based presentation of contemporary living cultural traditions. Over the past half century, it has brought more than twenty-three thousand musicians, artists, performers, craftspeople, workers, cooks, storytellers, and others to the National Mall to demonstrate the skills, knowledge, and aesthetics that embody the creative vitality of community-based traditions.

The Festival is a complex production, over the years drawing on the research and presentational skills of more than a thousand folklorists, cultural anthropologists, ethnomusicologists, and numerous other academic and lay scholars. Its production involves the expertise of hundreds of technical staff, the efforts of volunteers, and the backing of sponsors and supporters. At the same time, it is an exercise in cultural democracy, in which cultural practitioners speak for themselves, with each other, and to the public.

The Festival has strong impacts on policies, scholarship, and folks "back home." Many states and several nations have remounted Festival programs locally and used them to generate laws, institutions, educational programs, books, documentary films, recordings, and museum and traveling exhibitions. In many cases, the Festival has energized local and regional tradition bearers and their communities and, thus, helped to conserve and create cultural resources. Festival practice served as both the backdrop and inspiration for the consideration and ultimately the development of UNESCO's 2003 International Convention on the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.
Production, Artists &Ensembles:
PRODUCTION

Reunion Curator:Betty Belanus

Reunion Coordinator: Kim Stryker

Program Interns: Sophie Auffret, Dannah King, Hannah Peterson, Sarah Wilbert

Rinzler Concert Coordinators: Marjorie Hunt, Arlene Reiniger

Dance Parties Lead Volunteer: Malissa Wilkins

ARTISTS & ENSEMBLES

• BeauSoleil Quartet avec Michael Doucet, Cajun Music

• Los Texmaniacs, Texas Mexican conjunto (tribute to Flaco Jiménez)

• Daniel Sheehy, Folklorist & ethnomusicologist

• The Chuck Brown Band, D.C., Go-go music (tribute to Chuck Brown). This dance party was co-presented with the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum in celebration of its fiftieth anniversary.

• Juan Gutiérrez with Los Pleneros de la 21, Puerto Rican bomba and plena. This concert and dance party was presented by the Smithsonian Latino Center in celebration of its twentieth anniversary.

• Mick Moloney and Billy McComiskey, Irish music and dance from the Mid-Atlantic region

• Artemio Posadas, Huastecan son

• Verónica Castillo, Mexican American ceramicist

• Norma Cantú, Mexican American folklorist & writer

• Alfonsina Salas, Hispanic Musician

• Irvin Trujillo, Lisa Trujillo, Hispanic weavers

• Yary Livan Cambodian ceramicist

• Roland Freeman, Photographer, documentarian

• Norman Kennedy, Scottish weaver, singer, storyteller
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2017 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2017, Series 3
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2017 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk54efbc3b1-8d41-455d-a70d-f9e4159ef843
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2017-ref22

Carriers of Culture: Living Native Basket Traditions

Collection Creator:
Smithsonian Institution. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Introduction:
Across North America and throughout the Hawaiian Islands, Native people are engaged in artistic activities deeply rooted in the everyday and ceremonial traditions of their communities. In the face of dwindling or inaccessible natural resources, loss of elders and their specialized knowledge, the profusion of cheap mass-produced goods, and the use-it-and-throw-away attitude of so many, Native artists are nevertheless gathering natural materials and weaving them into objects of beauty and profound meaning. The 2006 Festival program examined the contemporary state of Native weaving in the United States and the ways in which Native baskets - and their makers - are "carriers of culture."

One of the most important developments in indigenous basket weaving was the formation of Native weaving organizations over the previous fifteen years, bringing together weavers from diverse places to identify and examine problems, build a sense of shared experiences, foster communication and networking, share knowledge and skills, and begin to develop strategies to address some of the most critical issues they face. At local and regional gatherings held by these organizations and at workshops or symposia hosted by other supportive agencies, basket weavers began to find common voice as they articulated their concerns and experiences. At the Festival, visitors could listen to those voices while admiring the work of skilled eyes and hands.

The 2006 Festival program reflected the long-term involvement of numerous Native people and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine contemporary issues across tribal and geographical lines. It also presented a timely opportunity to reflect on recent efforts by Native basket weavers and others to address these issues; the ways in which weaving traditions continue to be passed on; and the meaning weaving has for artists as people and as members of distinct tribal or Native communities. Most importantly, through demonstrations and discussions at the Festival and in the artists' own words, weavers themselves shared these perspectives first hand with Festival visitors.

For Native baskets to continue to be "carriers of culture" for Native traditions, there are still many challenges to overcome - challenges that were identified and discussed by the weavers themselves. The ever-changing natural and built landscape in the United States is leading to loss of plants essential to weaving. As more land moves into private ownership, weavers encounter increasingly limited access to traditional gathering sites. Non-native land management practices continue to affect the health of plant materials and of weavers themselves. Undoubtedly, other challenges to the continuity of the traditions of living Native basketry in the United States will also emerge. While much progress is being made to revitalize the basket traditions in many Native communities, there are other Native communities where basketry is in rapid decline. This means not just fewer baskets, but the irreplaceable loss of an array of indigenous knowledge linked to the art and a diminution of the diversity and richness of our American experience.

As Festival visitors learned, Native baskets were not antiquated containers or artifacts of a past life; they are very much a part of contemporary Native life and identity. Native baskets truly are "carriers of culture": they embody the knowledge of those who have gone before, those who have respect and reverence for the natural world and the plants that form their baskets, and those who have shared their knowledge with others to keep the chain of indigenous knowledge unbroken.

C. Kurt Dewhurst, Marjorie Hunt, and Marsha MacDowell were Curators, with Arlene Reiniger as Program Coordinator, Betty Belanus as Family Activities Area Coordinator, and Mary Monseur as Marketplace Native Basketry Consultant. Curatorial Advisors were: Jennifer Bates, Salli Benedict, Sally Black, Sheree Bonaparte, Peggy Sanders Brennan, Sue Coleman, Sue Ellen Herne, Sara Greensfelder, Elaine Grinnell, Terrol Dew Johnson, Sabra Kauka, Gloria Lomehaftewa, Fred Nahwooksy, Jennifer Neptune, Theresa Parker, Bernadine Phillips, Teri Rofkar, Robin McBride Scott, Theresa Secord, Tatiana Lomehaftewa Slock, and Laura Wong-Whitebear.

The program was produced in collaboration with the National Museum of the American Indian and Michigan State University Museum. Major support came from the National Museum of the American Indian, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Institute of Museum and Library Services, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the Smithsonian Women's Committee on the occasion of its 40th anniversary. Additional Funding came from Alaska State Council on the Arts, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Michigan State University All-University Research Initiation Grant, Michigan Council for the Arts and Cultural Affairs, Onaway Trust, Hawai'i State Foundation on Culture and the Arts, Fund for Folk Culture, Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund, and the Cherokee Nation.
Researchers:
Researchers and consultants

Brian Bibby, Dawn Biddison, Deborah Boykin, Peggy Sanders Brennan, Tina Bucavalas, Vernon Chimegalrea, Sue Coleman, Marit Dewhurst, Betty DuPree, Carol Edison, Lynn Martin Graton, Sara Greensfelder, Theresa Harlan, Suzi Jones, Amy Kitchener, Jim Leary, Dayna Bowker Lee, Elizabeth Lee, Molly Lee, Richard March, Kathleen Mundell, Jennifer Neptune, Laura Quackenbush, Karen Reed, Teri Rofkar, Elaine Thatcher, Theresa Secord, Malia Villegas, Lois Whitney, Robin K. Wright

Research Assistants

Beth Donaldson, Marie Gile, Je'Keia Murphy
Presenters:
Howard Bass, Betty Belanus, Salli Benedict, Barry Bergey, Peggy Brennan, Schroeder Cherry, C. Kurt Dewhurst, Amy Echo-Hawk, Carol Edison, Rayna Green, Elaine Grinnell, Emil Her Many Horses, Marjorie Hunt, Sabra Kauka, Jared King, Keevin Lewis, Marsha MacDowell, Diana N'Diaye, Helen Maynor Scheirbeck, Pamela Woodis, Laura Wong-Whitebear
Participants:
Native Hawaiian

Gladys Grace, 1919-, Native Hawaiian, Honolulu, Hawai'i

Edwin T. Kaneko, 1930-, Japanese and Native Hawaiian descent, Holualoa, Kona, Hawai'i

Gwendolyn Kamisugi, 1944-, Native Hawaiian, Wahiawa, Oahu, Hawai'i

Sabra Kauka, Native Hawaiian, Lihu'e, Kauai, Hawai'i

Marques Hanalei Marzan, 1979-, Native Hawaiian, Kane'ohe, Hawai'i

Harriet Soong, 1927-, Native Hawaiian, Kailua Kona, Big Island, Hawai'i

Alaska Native

Sheldon Bogenrife, Iñupiaq, Anchorage, Alaska

Delores Churchill, Haida, Ketchikan, Alaska

Holly Joy Churchill, 1955-, Haida, Ketchikan, Alaska

Daisy Demientieff, 1935-, Athabascan, Anchorage, Alaska

Evelyn Douglas, 1947-, Yup'ik, Anchorage, Alaska

June Simeonoff Pardue, 1951-, Alutiiq and Suqpiaq, Wasilla, Alaska

Teri Rojkar, 1956-, Tlingit, Sitka, Alaska

Lisa Telford, 1957-, Haida, Everett, Washington

Northwest

Elaine Timentwa Emerson, 1941-, Colville, Omak, Washington

Pat Courtney Gold, Wasco and Tlingit, Scappoose, Oregon

Elaine Grinnell, 1936-, Jamestown S'Klallam and Lummi, Sequim, Washington

Khia Grinnell, 1985-, Jamestown S'Klallam and Lummi, Sequim, Washington

Nettie Kuneki Jackson, 1942-, Klickitat, White Swan, Washington

Robert Kentta, Siletz, Siletz, Oregon

Bud Lane, 1957-, Siletz, Siletz, Oregon

Theresa Mendoza, 1985-, Makah and Lummi, Neah Bay, Washington

June Parker, 1950-, Makah and Lummi, Neah Bay, Washington

Theresa Parker, 1956-, Makah and Lummi, Neah Bay, Washington

Bernadine Phillips, Colville, Omak, Washington

Craig Phillips, 1989-, Colville, Omak, Washington

Harold "Jimmi" Plaster, 1988-, Lummi, Bellingham, Washington

Lisa Plaster, 1972-, Lummi, Bellingham, Washington

Karen Reed, 1949-, Chinook and Puyallup, Puyallup, Washington

Lynda Squally, 1981-, Chinook and Puyallup, Milton, Washington

Laura Wong-Whitebear, Colville, Seattle, Washington

Great Basin

Elizabeth Brady, 1923-, Western Shoshone, Elko, Nevada

Leah Brady, 1955-, Western Shoshone, Elko, Nevada

Sue Coleman, 1950-, Washo, Carson City, Nevada

Rebecca Eagle, 1964-, Pyramid Lake Paiute, Wadsworth, Nevada

Sandra Eagle, 1961-, Pyramid Lake Paiute, Sutcliff Nevada

California

Jennifer D. Bates, 1951-, Northern Mewuk, Tuolumne, California

Leona Chepo, 1931-, Western Mono, North Fork, California

Lois Jean Conner, 1951-, Chuckchansi, Southern Miwok, and Western Mono, O'Neals, California

Ursula Jones, 1972-, Yosemite Miwok, Mono Lake Paiute, Kashaya Pomo, and Coast Miwok, Mammoth Lakes, California

Julia Parker, 1929-, Kashaya Pomo and Coast Miwok, Mariposa, California

Ruby Pomona, 1925-, Western Mono, North Fork, California

Wilverna Reece, 1946-, Karuk, Happy Camp, California

Eva Salazar, San Diego Kumeyaay, Alpine, California

Linda G. Yamane, 1949-, Ohlone, Seaside, California

Southwest - Navajo

Kayla Black, 1992-, Navajo, Mexican Hat, Utah

Lorraine Black, 1970-, Navajo, Mexican Hat, Utah

Mary Holiday Black, 1934-, Navajo, Mexican Hat, Utah

Sally Black, 1959-, Navajo, Mexican Hat, Utah

Southwest - Apache, Hopi, and Tohono O'odham

Evalena Henry, 1939-, San Carlos Apache, Peridot, Arizona

Esther Jaimes, 1947-, Tohono O'odham, Tucson, Arizona

Dorleen Gashweseoma Lalo, 1965-, Hopi, Hotevilla, Arizona

Joseph Lopez, 1978-, Tohono O'odham, Tucson, Arizona

Wa:k Tab Basket Dancers -- Wa:k Tab Basket DancersCecelia Encinas, 1988-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaKarlette Miguel, 1990-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaVerna E. Miguel, 1947-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaAngelique M. Moreno, 1996-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaCelestine Pablo, 1958-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaLien Pablo, 1991-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaVictoria M. Pablo, 1975-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaWynona Peters, 1989-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaCarolyn M. Reyes, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, ArizonaRhonalee Stone, 1995-, Tohono O'odham, San Xavier District, Arizona

Southeast - Choctaw and Chitimacha

Eleanor Ferris Chickaway, 1958-, Conehatta Choctaw, Conehatta, Mississippi

John Darden, 1960-, Chitimacha, Charenton, Louisiana

Scarlette Darden, 1963-, Chitimacha, Clarenton, Louisiana

Louise Wallace, 1949-, Choctaw, Bogue Homa, Mississippi

Southeast - Cherokee

Peggy Sanders Brennan, 1946-, Cherokee, Edmond, Oklahoma

Louise Goings, 1947-, Eastern Band of Cherokee, Cherokee, North Carolina

Lucille Lossiah, 1957-, Eastern Band of Cherokee, Cherokee, North Carolina

Robin McBride Scott, 1966-, Cherokee, New Castle, Indiana

Kathy VanBuskirk, 1961-, Cherokee, Tahlequah, Oklahoma

Perry VanBuskirk, Cherokee, Tahlequah, Oklahoma

Northeast - Maine

Ganessa Bryant, 1982-, Penobscot, Princeton, Maine

Jeremy Frey, 1978-, Passamaquoddy, Princeton, Maine

George Neptune, 1988-, Passamaquoddy, Princeton, Maine

Molly Neptune Parker, 1939-, Passamaquoddy, Indian Township, Maine

Northeast - Mohawk

Linda Cecilia Jackson, 1954-, St. Regis Mohawk, Akwesasne, New York

Sheila Ransom, 1954-, St. Regis Mohawk, Akwesasne, New York

Great Lakes

Kelly Church, 1967-, Grand Traverse Band of Chippewa and Ottawa, Hopkins, Michigan

Jacob Keshick, 1987-, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa, Pellston, Michigan

Yvonne Walker Keshick, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa, Pellston, Michigan

Cherish Nebeshanze Parrish, 1989-, Gun Lake Band of Potawatomi, Hopkins, Michigan

John Pigeon, 1957-, Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Dorr, Michigan

Johnny Pigeon, Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Dorr, Michigan

Kellogg Cultural Heritage Fellows

Kellogg Cultural Heritage Fellows are young Native people participating "behind-the-scenes" at the 2006 Smithsonian Folklife Festival and at the National Museum of the American Indian, made possible by a generous grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to the Michigan State University Museum.

Samantha Jacobs, 1983-, Seneca Nation of Indians, Collins, New York

Crystal Marie Keta Mann, 1987-, Tsimshian and Tlingit, Ketchikan, Alaska

Vanessa Manuel, 1985-, Onk Akimel O'odham, Scottsdale, Arizona

Mary Mokihana Martin, 1985-, Native Hawaiian, Honolulu, Hawai'i

Elizabeth Ann Parker, 1988-, Makah, Neah Bay, Washington

Gabe Paul, 1985-, Penobscot, Indian Island, Maine

Laura Sanders, 1980-, Karuk and Yurok, Orleans, California

Ahtkwiroton Skidders, 1982-, Mohawk, Rooseveltown, New York

Lynda Squally, 1981-, Chinook and Puyallup, Milton, Washington

Tony Stevens, 1985-, Wasco, Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, Warm Springs, Oregon

Carly Tex, 1984-, Western Mono, Rohnert Park, California

Kellogg Next Generation Weavers

Kellogg Next Generation Weavers are young Native people who have demonstrated a strong interest in basketry and will be weaving at the 2006 Smithsonian Folklife Festival alongside older mentor culture-bearers. Their participation in the Festival is made possible by a generous grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to the Michigan State University Museum.

Kayla Black, 1992-, Navajo, Mexican Hat, New Mexico

Ganessa Bryant, 1982-, Penobscot, Princeton, Maine

Jeremy Frey, 1982-, Passamaquoddy, Princeton, Maine

Khia Grinnell, 1985-, Jamestown S'Klallam and Lummi, Sequim, Washington

Ursula Jones, 1972-, Yosemite Miwok, Mono Lake Paiute, Kashaya Pomo, and Coast Miwok, Mammoth Lakes, California

Jacob Keshick, 1987-, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa, Pellston, Michigan

Joseph Lopez, 1978-, Tohono O'odham, Tucson, Arizona

Marques Hanalei Marzan, 1979-, Native Hawaiian, Kane'ohe, Hawai'i

Theresa Mendoza, 1985-, Makah, Neah Bay, Washington

George Neptune, 1988-, Passamaquoddy, Princeton, Maine

Cherish Nebeshanze Parrish, 1989-, Gun Lake Band of Potawatomi, Hopkins, Michigan

Craig Phillips, 1989-, Colville, Omak, Washington

Johnny Pigeon, Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Dorr, Michigan

Harold "Jimmi" Plaster, 1988-, Lummi, Bellingham, Washington

Lynda Squally, 1981-, Chinook and Puyallup, Milton, Washington
Collection Restrictions:
Access by appointment only. Where a listening copy or viewing copy has been created, this is indicated in the respective inventory; additional materials may be accessible with sufficient advance notice and, in some cases, payment of a processing fee. Older papers are housed at a remote location and may require a minimum of three weeks' advance notice and payment of a retrieval fee. Certain formats such as multi-track audio recordings and EIAJ-1 videoreels (1/2 inch) may not be accessible. Contact the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections at 202-633-7322 or rinzlerarchives@si.edu for additional information.
Collection Rights:
Copyright and other restrictions may apply. Generally, materials created during a Festival are covered by a release signed by each participant permitting their use for personal and educational purposes; materials created as part of the fieldwork leading to a Festival may be more restricted. We permit and encourage such personal and educational use of those materials provided digitally here, without special permissions. Use of any materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires a license from the Archives. Licensing fees may apply in addition to any processing fees.
Collection Citation:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2006 Smithsonian Folklife Festival, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
CFCH.SFF.2006, Series 3
See more items in:
Smithsonian Folklife Festival records: 2006 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Archival Repository:
Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/bk53a0cdcf5-b4fd-4226-b3a8-44ddfc050e4b
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-cfch-sff-2006-ref26

Resurrection City: Untitled

Photograph by:
Jill Freedman, American, born 1939  Search this
Subject of:
Poor People's Campaign, American, 1967 - 1968  Search this
Unidentified Man or Men  Search this
Senator Robert F. Kennedy, American, 1925 - 1968  Search this
Medium:
silver and photographic gelatin and photographic paper
Dimensions:
H x W (Image): 12 15/16 × 9 in. (32.8 × 22.9 cm)
H x W (Sheet): 14 × 10 7/8 in. (35.5 × 27.7 cm)
Type:
gelatin silver prints
portraits
Place captured:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Place depicted:
Puerto Rico, United States, Caribbean, Latin America, North and Central America
Date:
1968; printed September 2017
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Politics  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Race relations  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture
Object number:
2017.81.6
Restrictions & Rights:
© Jill Freedman
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Portfolio/Series:
Resurrection City
Classification:
Media Arts-Photography
Movement:
African American - Latinx Solidarity
Poor People's Campaign
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd59d5b8038-3200-4dad-a3ad-7dd694ec505f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2017.81.6
Online Media:

Plywood panel mural from Resurrection City

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, American, founded 1957  Search this
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
Coretta Scott King, American, 1927 - 2006  Search this
Rev. Ralph David Abernathy, American, 1926 - 1990  Search this
Che Guevara, Argentine, 1928 - 1967  Search this
Emiliano Zapata, Mexican, 1879 - 1919  Search this
Pancho Villa, Mexican, 1878 - 1923  Search this
Joaquin Murrieta, Mexican, c. 1829 - c. 1853  Search this
National Liberation Front, active 1954 - 1976  Search this
Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, Chinese, 1893 - 1976  Search this
President John F. Kennedy, American, 1917 - 1963  Search this
Senator Robert F. Kennedy, American, 1925 - 1968  Search this
Malcolm X, American, 1925 - 1965  Search this
Poor People's Campaign, American, 1967 - 1968  Search this
Medium:
oil paint and ink on plywood
Dimensions:
H x W x D (overall): 123 × 384 × 1/2 in. (312.4 × 975.4 × 1.3 cm)
Type:
mural paintings
Place used:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1968
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Art  Search this
Black power  Search this
Freedom  Search this
Justice  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Men  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Resistance  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Vincent DeForest
Object number:
2012.110
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Visual Arts
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd58de91c0c-87e3-4a48-9e24-56c8c94d2fb6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.110
Online Media:

Plywood panel from a mural at Resurrection City

Created by:
Unidentified  Search this
Subject of:
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., American, 1929 - 1968  Search this
President John F. Kennedy, American, 1917 - 1963  Search this
Senator Robert F. Kennedy, American, 1925 - 1968  Search this
Poor People's Campaign, American, 1967 - 1968  Search this
Medium:
oil paint and ink on plywood
Dimensions:
H x W x D: 75 x 48 x 1/2 in. (190.5 x 121.9 x 1.3 cm)
Type:
mural paintings
Place used:
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, North and Central America
Date:
1968
Topic:
African American  Search this
Activism  Search this
Art  Search this
Black power  Search this
Freedom  Search this
Justice  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Men  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Race relations  Search this
Resistance  Search this
U.S. History, 1961-1969  Search this
Women  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Vincent DeForest
Object number:
2012.110.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Visual Arts
Movement:
Civil Rights Movement
African American - Latinx Solidarity
Poor People's Campaign
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5a6215c01-6a24-4a28-a5f3-881215c13b44
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2012.110.10
Online Media:

Frick Company Records

Creator:
Frick Company, George (Waynesboro, Pa.)  Search this
Former owner:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Engineering and Industry  Search this
Names:
Frick, George, 1826-1892  Search this
Extent:
26 Cubic feet (49 boxes, 4 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Payrolls
Photographs
Purchasing records
Scrapbooks
Commercial correspondence
Clippings
Account books
Date:
1852-1961
bulk 1860-1920
Summary:
This collection documents, in correspondence, publications, forms, paperwork, drawings, newspaper clippings, diplomas and photographs, the operations and products of the Frick Company of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of steam-powered engines (portable, stationary, and traction), sawmills, threshing machines, grain separators and other mechanized agricultural harvesting implements, refrigeration, mechanical cooling systems, and ice making plants, from its founding in 1852 through 1961.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the founding and business operations of the Frick Company* of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, manufacturers of portable, stationary, and traction engines, threshing machines, sawmills, and refrigeration and ice making machinery. The collection covers the period from 1852 to 1961, with the bulk of the material dating from 1860-1873 and from 1880 through the 1920s and illuminates the evolution of mechanized agriculture and refrigeration technology from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.

The largest portion of the collection contains photographs of Frick engines and refrigeration machinery, taken both in the foundry and in various installations worldwide, as well as original drawings of Frick machines, parts, and components used to illustrate catalogs and trade publications. Another large portion of the collection is correspondence, containing communication from clients ordering Frick products for their farms or businesses, as well as receipts and correspondence from local and regional suppliers of raw materials and components for the construction of Frick products.

The collection also contains numerous examples of operational paperwork from the 1880s-1890s, such as letterheads, order forms, contracts, test logs, and timesheets, as well as a significant amount of trade literature largely from 1880-1920, such as price lists, catalogs, product pamphlets, and advertising material.

There are several published company histories, technical drawings/blueprints of Frick products, diplomas awarded to Frick machinery presented at expositions and fairs (including the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893), full-color posters advertising Frick & Co., agent supplies (including telegraph cipher code books), accounting paperwork, payroll records, communications with shareholders, and significant documentation of the highly publicized labor dispute/strike at Frick in 1946.

This collection would be of interest to researchers in the areas of: agricultural machination and invention in the nineteeth century, steam and horse-powered engines, the development of refrigerating and ice making equipment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, business operations and financial transactions in the nineteenth century, Pennsylvania history and companies, industrial photography, and nineteenth and twentieth centuries industrial trade literature.

*The name of the company was modified several times over the history of its operation, variations including George Frick, Frick & Bowman, Frick & Co., and Frick Company, depending on the time period in question. Efforts have been made to align the description of the materials throughout the collection with the correct company name at the time of their creation.
Arrangement:
This collection is divided into six series:

Series 1: Publications, 1852, 1874-1875; 1880-1932; 1942-1943; 1953; 1961

Subseries 1.1 Company History, 1928; 1953

Suseries 1.2 Trade Literature, 1874-1875; 1880-1926; 1930; 1932; 1943; 1952-1953; 1960-1961

Subseries 1.3 Advertising Material, 1852; 1880-1899; 1905; 1909-1929; 1942

Series 2: Correspondence, Receipts, and Ledger Books, 1852-1873; 1890-1902; 1914; 1924-1925

Subseries 2.1 Receipts and Business Correspondence: by company, 1855-1873

Subseries 2.2 Receipts and Business Correspondence: miscellaneous, 1852-1873; 1890; 1895

Subseries 2.3 Ledger Books, 1872; 1896-1898; 1892-1894; 1900-1902

Subseries 2.4 Other Correspondence, 1861-1873; 1898-1901; 1914; 1917; 1924-1925

Series 3: Company Management, 1856-1873; circa 1880s-1890s; 1917; 1927-1929; 1945-1946

Subseries 3.1 Accounting, 1856-1897

Subseries 3.2 Sales, circa 1880s; 1917; 1927

Subseries 3.3 Communications, 1860-1917

Subseries 3.4 Public Relations, 1928-1929; 1945-1946

Series 4: Foundry Operations, 1859-1872; 1877-1879; circa 1880s-1890s; 1900-1903; 1911; 1921; 1929

Subseries 4.1 Orders, 1859-1872; circa 1880s-1890s;1900-1902

Subseries 4.2 Drawings/Blueprints, 1871-1911; 1921; 1929

Subseries 4.3 Shipping and Receiving, 1860-1873; circa 1880s-1890s

Subseries 4.4 Timesheets and Testing, 1860; 1868; 1877-1879; circa 1880s-1890s; 1903

Series 5: Photographs and Artistic Renderings, circa 1880-1950

Subseries 5.1 Frick Buildings, Offices, and Operations, circa 1880-1910

Subseries 5.2 Portable, Stationary, and Traction Engines, 1889; 1893-1896; 1906-1908; 1912-1915; 1925

Subseries 5.3 Other Machinery, circa 1890s

Subseries 5.4 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Vertical Compressors, 1883-1906; circa 1920s

Subseries 5.5 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Horizontal Compressors, circa 1910-1920

Subseries 5.6 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: CO2 Compressors and Later Models, circa 1920-1950; 1940-1941

Subseries 5.7 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Ice Plants, 1889; 1904; 1920-1927

Subseries 5.8 Ice Making and Refrigeration Machinery: Cold Storage Units, 1889; 1925; 1933; undated

Subseries 5.9 Installations: Ice Plants, 1892-1896; 1900-1933; 1945

Subseries 5.10 Installations: Refrigeration and Cold Storage Units, circa 1890-1905; circa 1915-1920

Series 6: Trade Shows and Exhibitions, 1877-1885; 1893; 1895; 1904; 1926

Subseries 6.1 Awards, Certificates, and Diplomas, 1877-1884; 1893; 1895; 1904

Subseries 6.2 Promotional Material, 1884-1885; 1926
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in 1852 by engineer and inventor George Frick (1826-1892), Frick Company has been an innovative machinery design leader in many areas of the agricultural and refrigeration industries over the last 160 years. Frick began building steam engines and threshing machines in a small shop in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

Frick quickly gained a reputation for quality in the growing field of mechanized agriculture. His designs for early portable engines--transported and driven by horsepower--soon evolved into self-propelling, steam-powered vehicles that could be driven into the fields and then used to run the grain separating, cleaning and bagging machines that were revolutionizing the farming industry, increasing production at exponential rates.

In addition, Frick's stationary engines were put to use in mills of all kinds (grist, flour, paper, and woolen) to augment or replace their dependence on unreliable natural water power, including sawmills, of which Frick was soon building a line of portable, steam-driven versions. Between the mid-1850s and the early 1870s, the company continued to expand, outgrowing three different shops before building the final location of the works in Waynesboro. George Frick himself was continuously active in the company through the end of the nineteenth century as a mechanical engineer and product designer, as well as a frequent consultant, traveling to confer with clients on specifications for their orders.

Beginning in 1872, George Frick's business and personal life took a downturn with the deaths in quick succession of both his oldest son Frank and his new business partner C.F. Bowman, as a result of a typhoid fever epidemic that swept through the area. Additionally, the financial Panic of 1873 nearly closed Frick's company along with thousands of other American businesses that year, but thirteen local businessmen formed a partnership, putting forth the necessary capital to keep the manufacturing plant afloat. George Frick sold his controlling interest to the partnership, but remained as general manager of the company.

After this brief period of struggle, Frick and Company began again to expand its product line as well as its reputation. The new works in Waynesboro were modern and efficient, enough to warrant a feature article in Scientific American in 1881. The following year, the company built its first refrigeration machine, and a whole new direction of production opened up. Automatic and traction engines were still in demand, being constantly improved and updated, but refrigeration was the new frontier. Frick rose to become one of the leaders in development of high quality, durable, and functional refrigeration machinery. George's son A.O. Frick, now an engineer with the company, partnered with Edgar Penney, another design engineer, to develop the Corliss engine line, which would run the large ammonia compressors, creating what was called a refrigeration machine. They were intially used to power ice plants, which were being built all over the world after the mild winter of 1890 tipped the natural ice industry into decline. They also used cold storage/mechanical cooling units, of which breweries and meat packing plants were the earliest adopters, followed by cold food stores, florist shops, and fur storage, as well as the dairy and shipping industries. The Armour Packing Plant in Kansas City, Missouri was the proud owner of "The Largest Ice Machine in the World," built by Frick and shipped by train via specially-reinforced rails in 1896. At the turn of the twentieth century, hotels, restaurants, hospitals and industrial plants soon began to rely on refrigeration units for daily operations, and Frick's business was booming.

As gas-powered engine technology began taking over in the first decades of the twentieth century, Frick moved away from steam engines and focused on more specialized farm equipment such as dehydrators, peanut pickers, combines, balers and silo fillers. Their line of sawmills was also still in high demand. But increasingly, Frick was focused on steadily refining and improving its refrigeration equipment. Ammonia, while highly efficient as a coolant, had its dangerous downsides: it could be fatal if leaked, and could contaminate plant ice easily. Although many of Frick's ammonia compression refrigeration machines were still in use forty or more years after installation and were still preferred for industrial use, the technology needed to improve in order to be viable for the general public. Several publicized accidents led eventually to the preferred use of chloroflorocarbons as a coolant, and Frick developed enclosed-type CO2 compressors and eventually freon units. Other Frick refrigeration products included machinery for making dry ice, air conditioning units, and temperature controls for test plants, as well as marine refrigeration (developed during the First World War) for shipping food between continents. Frick did contract work for the US military during and following World War II, and was a major company involved in the development of quick-freezing systems to support the growing frozen food industry starting in the late 1940s.

Frick Company positioned itself as a permanent leader in the food production and distribution industry by the 1950s. The company is still in operation today, though it has been purchased several times, most recently by Johnson Controls, which maintains a product line bearing the name Frick.
Related Materials:
The Archives Center holds several collections that may be of interest to researchers in relation to the Frick Company Collection.

For related material on Corliss engines, see the following collections:

Chuse Engine and Manufacturing Company Records (AC 1088)

Corliss Steam Engine Album (AC 1016)

Corliss Steam Engine Reference Collection (AC 1329)

Nagle Engine and Boiler Works Records (AC 1083)

Providence Engineering Works Records (AC 1076)

Skinner Engine Company Records (AC 1087)

Robert Weatherill Company Records (AC 0992)

For related material on threshing machines and agricultural machinery, see the following collections:

John K. Parlett Collection (AC 3066)

Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (AC 0060)

For related material on refrigeration machinery, see the following collections:

Madison Cooper Papers (AC 1105)

Nickerson and Collins Photography (AC 1044)

Southwork Foundry and Machine Company Records (AC 1107)
Separated Materials:
The Division of Work and Industry holds artifacts related to this collection. See acquisition numbers AG79A09.1, MC 319243.12 and .13, and 58A9.
Provenance:
Collection donated by the Frick Company, through Terry Mitchell in 1961.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Harvesting machinery  Search this
Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery -- 1860-1960  Search this
Steam-engines  Search this
Engineers  Search this
Genre/Form:
Payrolls
Photographs -- 20th century
Purchasing records
Scrapbooks -- 1840-1990
Commercial correspondence
Clippings
Account books
Citation:
Frick Company Collection, 1852-1961, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0293
See more items in:
Frick Company Records
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep89574cae5-edf0-454b-b164-68c3d17d454d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0293
Online Media:

Permanent Public Areas Advisory Committee, Justice Center, Local and Regional Competitions

Collection Creator:
Lee, Sherman E.  Search this
Container:
Box 9, Folder 11-12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1976-1977
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Conract Reference Services for more information.
Collection Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Collection Citation:
Sherman E. Lee papers, 1947-1997. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Sherman E. Lee papers
Sherman E. Lee papers / Series 7: Consulting Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/mw921ba94e4-e05a-46f9-924c-ec4312ed151a
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-leeshere-ref373

GO Ju Ju Go

Recorded by:
Experience Unlimited, American  Search this
Published by:
E. Unlimited Records, American  Search this
Distributed by:
Big City Records, American, active 1980s - 1990s  Search this
Produced by:
William "Ju Ju" House, American  Search this
Medium:
vinyl, ink on paper
Dimensions:
H x W x D (2013.106.6a): 12 × 12 × 1/8 in. (30.5 × 30.5 × 0.3 cm)
H x W x D (2013.106.6b): 12 3/8 × 12 3/8 × 1/8 in. (31.4 × 31.4 × 0.3 cm)
Type:
record covers
long-playing records
Date:
1987
Topic:
African American  Search this
Funk (Music)  Search this
Go-Go (Music)  Search this
Instrumentalists (Musicians)  Search this
Local and regional  Search this
Credit Line:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of William "Ju Ju" House
Object number:
2013.106.6.1ab
Restrictions & Rights:
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
See more items in:
National Museum of African American History and Culture Collection
Classification:
Media Arts-Audio Recordings
Data Source:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/fd5d3a8547d-80ef-44ea-8419-0c2ea6ea4d92
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmaahc_2013.106.6.1ab
Online Media:

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