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Game wheel and stick

Culture/People:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Possible collector:
George H. Bingenheimer, Non-Indian, 1861-1920  Search this
Previous owner:
George H. Bingenheimer, Non-Indian, 1861-1920  Search this
Margaret Bingenheimer (Margaret G. Bowers/Mrs. George H. Bingenheimer), Non-Indian, 1865-1965  Search this
Seller:
Margaret Bingenheimer (Margaret G. Bowers/Mrs. George H. Bingenheimer), Non-Indian, 1865-1965  Search this
Object Name:
Game wheel and stick
Media/Materials:
Wood, hide thong/babiche, porcupine quills, dye/dyes, feather/feathers, horsehair, silk ribbon, pigment/pigments, fur, sinew
Techniques:
Bent, tied, laced, carved, quill-wrapped (braided), quill-wrapped (flat), painted
Dimensions:
119 x 21 x 4 cm
Object Type:
Games, Toys, Gambling
Place:
Standing Rock Reservation; Sioux County, Corson County; North Dakota, South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
12/2214
Barcode:
122214.000
See related items:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)
Games, Toys, Gambling
On View:
NMAI, Washington DC: Our Universes, Lakota
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6523d2fbb-79f3-4e6b-9603-1bf141aca8f7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_131529
Online Media:

Pipe bowl

Culture/People:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Previous owner:
David Sands Titus, III (D. S. Titus), Non-Indian, 1881-1949  Search this
Lillian Titus Allen (Lillian Olds Titus/Mrs. F. G. Allen), Non-Indian, 1884-1986  Search this
Seller:
Lillian Titus Allen (Lillian Olds Titus/Mrs. F. G. Allen), Non-Indian, 1884-1986  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl
Media/Materials:
Catlinite/pipestone
Techniques:
Carved
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
Pine Ridge, Pine Ridge Reservation; Oglala Lakota County; South Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
21/4399
Barcode:
214399.000
See related items:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws636e9280c-eb3e-4cc4-bb73-4d85813418e7
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_228835
Online Media:

Saddle blanket

Culture/People:
probably Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) (attributed)  Search this
Previous seller:
Hyde Exploring Expedition (Trading Company), 1899-1903  Search this
Seller:
Lewis Hotchkiss Brittin (Louis H. Brittin/L.H. Brittin), Non-Indian, 1877-1952  Search this
Previous owner:
Lewis Hotchkiss Brittin (Louis H. Brittin/L.H. Brittin), Non-Indian, 1877-1952  Search this
Object Name:
Saddle blanket
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, brass bell/bells, wool twill tape, sinew, cotton thread
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, fringed
Dimensions:
184.00 x 64.00 cm
Object Type:
Animal Tack and Animal Husbandry
Place:
South Dakota; USA
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
8530
Barcode:
008530.000
See related items:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)
Animal Tack and Animal Husbandry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws64e4e792d-5625-422d-a506-f1ccc6965396
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_9170

Pipe bowl

Culture/People:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Previous owner:
Crazy Horse (Tashunca-uitco/Ta-Sunko-Witko), Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux), 1849-1877  Search this
Dr. Edgar Burke, Non-Indian, 1889-1950  Search this
Donor:
Alicita B. Lee (Mrs. Frederick S. Lee/Mrs. F. S. Lee), Non-Indian, 1903-1992  Search this
Minnie M. Schwab (Mathilde "Tilita" Burke Bradbury Schwab/Mrs. Robert H. Schwab), Non-Indian, 1891-1970  Search this
Object Name:
Pipe bowl
Media/Materials:
Steatite/soapstone
Techniques:
Carved
Dimensions:
10 x 5.5 x 5.5 cm
Object Type:
Pipes and Smoking
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
22/495
Barcode:
220495.000
See related items:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)
Pipes and Smoking
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws601632223-ce18-4f2e-abff-ec80f628f0a1
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_235358
Online Media:

Doll with cradle/cradleboard

Culture/People:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Previous owner:
Mary B. Riggs (Mary Buell/Mrs. Alfred L. Riggs), Non-Indian, 1839-1927  Search this
Seller:
Mary B. Riggs (Mary Buell/Mrs. Alfred L. Riggs), Non-Indian, 1839-1927  Search this
Object Name:
Doll with cradle/cradleboard
Media/Materials:
Muslin, hide, glass bead/beads, porcupine quills, wool yarn, metal cones, sinew, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, strung
Dimensions:
27.3 x 17.7 cm
Object Type:
Games, Toys, Gambling: Dolls
Place:
South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
13/7839
Barcode:
137839.000
See related items:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)
Games, Toys, Gambling: Dolls
On View:
NMAI, Washington DC: Our Universes, Lakota
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6d4e98ac1-15c9-4985-ad51-abb01a07d4c6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_148264
Online Media:

Siouan

Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
La Flesche, Francis, d. 1932  Search this
Deloria, Ella C.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Harrington, John Peabody, 1884-1961  Search this
Extent:
2 Boxes
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Field notes
Manuscripts
Date:
1919-circa 1945
bulk 1937-1939
Scope and Contents:
This subseries of the Plains series consists primarily of Harrington's research on Dakota and Lakota languages. The Dakota notes are based mainly on the dictionaries of Stephen R. Riggs and John P. Williamson, with some original linguistic and ethnographic information inserted. The bulk of Lakota material centers around a proposed primer written in collaboration with John Bad Heart Bull, a Siouan artist who worked with Harrington at Fort Wingate in July 1939. Harrington's fervor for primers traces as far back as 1923. It continued sporadically until about 1936 and escalated from then until July 1939, when, at the direction of the Bureau of American Ethnology, he went to Fort Wingate to assist in the Office of Indian Affairs primer program. That same year he also consulted with the Federal Works Projects Administration on the translation of Sioux legends. Correspondence with Ella Deloria and extracts from her "Dakota Grammar," written in collaboration with Franz Boas, form part of this section. Small amounts of additional Siouan data include Oto and Dhegiha linguistic notes, and miscellaneous notes on the Dakota, Chiwere, Omaha/Ponca, Osage/Kansa, Kiowa, and Kansas/Kaw languages. Information regarding Omaha and Osage came from Francis LaFlesche. Also among the Siouan files are a brief Tutelo vocabulary and eight Saponi placenames extracted from various secondary sources.
Local Numbers:
Accession #1976-95
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Siouan languages  Search this
Dakota language  Search this
Lakota dialect  Search this
Oto language  Search this
Dhegiha language  Search this
Omaha language  Search this
Osage language  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Linguistics  Search this
Otoe  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Manuscripts
Collection Citation:
Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
The preferred citation for the Harrington Papers will reference the actual location within the collection, i.e. Box 172, Alaska/Northwest Coast, Papers of John Peabody Harrington, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.

However, as the NAA understands the need to cite phrases or vocabulary on specific pages, a citation referencing the microfilmed papers is acceptable. Please note that the page numbering of the PDF version of the Harrington microfilm does not directly correlate to the analog microfilm frame numbers. If it is necessary to cite the microfilmed papers, please refer to the specific page number of the PDF version, as in: Papers of John Peabody Harrington, Microfilm: MF 7, R34 page 42.
Identifier:
NAA.1976-95, Subseries 5.4
See more items in:
John P. Harrington Papers
John P. Harrington Papers / Series 5: Papers relating to the Native American History, Language and Culture of the Plains
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1976-95-ref14765

Face covering/Face mask, hat, and earrings

Culture/People:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Artist/Maker:
William "Quill Bill" Mendoza, Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)/Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Seller:
William "Quill Bill" Mendoza, Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)/Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Object Name:
Face covering/Face mask, hat, and earrings
Media/Materials:
Felt, hide, porcupine quills, dentalium shell/shells, metal bead/beads, glass bead/beads, sequins, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, quill-wrapped (flat), quill embroidered, overlay beadwork, edge beaded, stitched
Dimensions:
10.5 x 37.5 cm (mask)
Object Type:
Personal items
Place:
Bozeman; Gallatin County; Montana; USA
Date created:
2020
Catalog Number:
27/568
Barcode:
270568.000
See related items:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)
Personal items
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws690ef91fa-454e-47fc-b60e-3271b625bb1f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_416413
Online Media:

Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs

Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
Extent:
56 Photographic prints
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Chiricahua Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ute  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Wichita  Search this
San Carlos Apache  Search this
Jicarilla Apache  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photograph albums
Photographs
Date:
1898-1901
Summary:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs were shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898 and the Greater America Exposition, 1899, both held in Omaha, Nebraska.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 44 photographs in a photo album and 12 loose prints that depict American Indian leaders circa 1898 to 1901. The bulk of the photographs depict photographic portraits and scenes of sham battles shot at the Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska, from June 1 to October 31, 1898. Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) and his assistant Adolph F. Muhr were the official photographers. During the Indian Congress they photographed more than 500 individuals and groups representing the estimated thirty-six tribes represented at the Exposition. Rinehart shot the majority of the outdoor battles, dance scenes, and events, while Muhr photographed the majority of the delegate portraits. Rinehart copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899 and 1900.

Other photographs in this collection are photographic portraits of American Indian leaders that were photographed by Herman Heyn and James Matzen at the Greater America Exposition in Omaha in 1899. Heyn copyrighted the photographs under his own name in 1899.

Finally, the collection also contains 7 loose photomechanical prints depicting portraits by photographer William Henry Jackson. These prints were colorized and published under Jackson's company the Detroit Photographic Co. Other loose color photomechanical prints include portraits shot by photographer William H. Rau (1855-1920) for the Chicago Inter-Ocean Newspaper in 1901.

The photograph titles were assigned by the photographers.
Arrangement:
The photographs in the album are in original order. The loose prints are organized into 3 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
Byron Harvey, III (1932-2005) was an anthropologist and collector specializing in southwestern American Indian tribes. He was the great-grandson of Frederick Harvey, best known as the founder of the Fred Harvey Company that ran a successful chain of gift shops, restaurants, and hotels known as Harvey Houses. The Company also amassed a collection of American Indian art and sold many collections to museums including the Museum of the American Indian (NMAI's predecessor museum).

The Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition World's Fair was held in Omaha, Nebraska from June 1 to October 1898. Over 500 Indian delegates from over thirty-five different tribes were present at the Fair. James Mooney (Bureau of Ethnology) and Captain William A. Mercer organized and managed the Indian Congress in conjunction with the Exposition. It included "living exhibitions," with mock Indian villages and demonstrations of dances, daily activities, and sham battles.

The official photographer of the U.S. Indian Congress was Frank A. Rinehart (ca. 1862-1928) with his assistant Adolph F. Muhr (ca. 1858-1913). The Rinehart and Muhr photographs are considered one of the most comprehensive photo documentations of American Indian leaders at the turn of the century.

After the Trans-Mississippi Exposition ended, the Greater America Exposition opened on the same fair grounds from July 1, 1899 to October 31, 1899. Herman Heyn and James Matzen won the contract to be the official photographer of the new Exposition. This Exposition featured many of the same buildings and set up as the Trans-Mississippi Exposition of the previous year.
Related Materials:
The Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, Kansas has a large collection of Frank Rinehart photographs from U.S. Indian Congress of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including the original glass plate negatives.

The National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center also holds other photographs shot by Rinehart and Muhr at Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, including collection NMAI.AC.118.
Provenance:
Donated by Byron Harvey, III in 1966.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition (1898 : Omaha, Neb.) -- Photographs  Search this
Greater America Exposition (1899 : Omaha, Neb.)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.119
See more items in:
Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-119
Online Media:

Lone Elk (Herak Isula)

Collection Creator:
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Muhr, Adolph F., -1913  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Heyn & Matzen  Search this
Extent:
1 Photomechanical print
Container:
Photo-folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photomechanical prints
Date:
circa 1901
Scope and Contents:
Photomechanical color print depicting Lone Elk [Herak Isula; Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)] in traditional clothing. Photograph by William Rau circa 1901.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.119, Item P27534
See more items in:
Byron Harvey, III Collection of Exposition and Portrait photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-119-ref56

Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection

Creator:
Evelyn, Douglas E.  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
42 Printed pages
30 Postcards
25 Photographic prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Printed pages
Postcards
Photographic prints
Date:
1880-1960
Summary:
This collection consists of 42 NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, 30 postcards, and 25 stereographs depicting indigenous peoples of North and Central America, with dates ranging 1880 – 1960. The bulk of the collection consists of images of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, and landscape views.
Scope and Contents:
The Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection consists of 42 NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, 30 postcards, and 25 stereographs, with dates ranging 1880 – 1960. The images depict indigenous peoples of the Americas, and spans a large geographical breadth extending from the Arctic in the north to El Salvador in Central America in the south. The bulk of the collection consists of images of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, and landscape views. Of particular note are the NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, marketed towards children from 1949 to 1952, which depict outdoor activities as romanticized constructions about American Indian identity and life.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 9 series, organized thematically and then regionally by location or culture group. Series 1: NABISCO Straight Arrow cards, Series 2: Arctic/Subarctic, Series 3: Northwest Coast, Series 4: California, Series 5: Southwest, Series 6: Plains, Series 7: Northeast/Great Lakes, Series 8: Southeast, Series 9: Central America
Biographical / Historical:
Douglas E. Evelyn worked for several decades in senior-level management positions with the Smithsonian Institution, including the National Portrait Gallery, the National Museum of American History, and the National Museum of the American Indian. Evelyn is also the author of a number of scholarly articles and books, among them On This Spot: Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C., co-authored with Paul Dickson.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Douglas E. Evelyn in 2006.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
The following images are restricted due to cultural sensitivity: 226_pht_010_003; 226_pht_010_004; 226_pht_012_002; P33114; P33116; P33120.
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of Central America -- El Salvador  Search this
Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians. Minnesota  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.226
See more items in:
Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-226
Online Media:

Plains

Collection Creator:
Evelyn, Douglas E.  Search this
Extent:
9 Postcards
7 Stereographs
Container:
Photo-folder 9
Photo-folder 10
Photo-folder 14
Photo-folder 15
Photo-folder 16
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Niuam (Comanche)  Search this
Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
White Mountain Apache  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Postcards
Photographs
Postcards
Stereographs
Date:
1900-1937
Scope and Contents:
Postcards: 226_pht_009_001; 226_pht_009_002; 226_pht_009_003; 226_pht_009_004; 226_pht_009_005; 226_pht_010_001; 226_pht_010_002; 226_pht_010_003 (Restricted); 226_pht_010_004 (Restricted); Stereographs: P33121; P33126; P33127; P33128; P33132; P33133; P33134

This series contains 9 postcards and 7 stereographs. The images include depictions of Kiowa, Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Niuam (Comanche), Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne), and White Mountain Apache communities. Individuals specifically identified are Bald Eagle (Sioux), Ho-Wear [Niuam (Comanche)], Horseback [Niuam (Comanche)], and Min-nin-ne-wah or Whirlwind [Southern Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)]. Also represented in this series are a landscape image of the Garden of the Gods in Colorado Springs, as well as an exterior view of the buildings at the Kickapoo Mission in Horton, Kansas.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
The following images in this series are restricted due to cultural sensitivity: 226_pht_010_003; 226_pht_010_004.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.226, Series 6
See more items in:
Douglas E. Evelyn photograph and ephemera collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-226-ref6

William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs

Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Names:
Sherman, William T. (William Tecumseh), 1820-1891  Search this
Extent:
61 Photographic prints
Culture:
Dakota (Eastern Sioux)  Search this
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Kaw (Kansa)  Search this
Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Photographs
Place:
Fort Laramie (Wyo.)
Kansas
Washington (D.C.)
Date:
1866-1868
Summary:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations. This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Photographs depict American Indian tribes and Peace Commissioners involved in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty; photographs shot along the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division in 1867; and photographs of American Indian delegations visiting Washington, D. C. from 1866-1868.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 61 albumen prints that were shot by photographer Alexander Gardner circa 1866-1868 and held in General William T. Sherman's personal collection. Among the photographs are depictions that were shot in and around Fort Laramie, Wyoming during the 1868 peace treaty negotiations between the U.S. Government and tribal leaders from several American Indian Northern Plains tribes including Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho); survey photographs shot in Kansas in 1867 for the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division (later renamed the Kansas Pacific Railway); and portraits of American Indian delegates in Washington, D.C. including Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes, 1866-1868. Some of the photographs in this collection, particularly those in Series 2, may have been shot by photographers working with Gardner such as Dr. William A. Bell (1841-1921), William Redish Pywell, and Lawrence Gardner (Alexander Gardner's son).
Arrangement:
This collection is intellectually arranged in three series. Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Series 2: Kansas Pacific Railroad, Series 3: Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

The photographs are physically arranged in eight boxes according to the following: size, conservation work, and series. Within each box they are arranged by photo number. The photographs in boxes 1-4 had conservation work performed by a photo conservator in 2014.
Biographical / Historical:
Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) was a photographer best known for his portraits of President Abraham Lincoln, his American Civil War photographs, and his photographs of American Indian delegations.

Gardner was born in Paisley, Scotland on October 17, 1821 to James Gardner and Jean Glenn. He worked in a number of positions including as a jeweler, journalist, and editor before entering the field of photography circa 1855.

In 1856, Gardner immigrated to the United States with his wife Margaret Sinclair Gardner, his son Lawrence Gardner, and his daughter Eliza Gardner and later that year he began working as a photographer in Mathew Brady's gallery in New York. While working for Brady, it is thought that Gardner invented the "imperial print," a large photograph printed on approximately 21 x 17 inch paper that was often enhanced with hand-coloring and ink. Wealthy politicians and businessmen were among the clients who sat for their photographic portraits in the Brady studio and paid as much as $50- $500 per imperial print (today the equivalent of about $1,000 to 10,000).

By 1858, Gardner was managing Brady's gallery at 352 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, Gardner was part of Brady's photography team that documented battle aftermaths and military campsites for the Union. Gardner left the Brady studio circa late 1862 and established his own studio in Washington, D.C. where he continued photographing the war along with his brother James Gardner, and other former Brady photographers including Timothy O'Sullivan.

During the war he documented the remnants of important battle scenes including the Battle of Antietam (1862) and the Battle of Gettysburg (1863). Gardner published 100 of his Civil War images in the publication Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War. The two volume work included photographs shot by additional photographers including O'Sullivan and John Reekie.

In addition to war photography, Gardner was also a portrait photographer and photographed many civilians, soldiers, and politicians in Washington, D.C. Between the years 1861-1865, Gardner photographed President Abraham Lincoln on seven different occasions, including both inaugurations, as well as studio portrait sittings. On July 7, 1865, Gardner was the only photographer allowed to photograph the execution of four conspirators in the President Lincoln assassination.

In 1866, Gardner along with Antonio Zeno Shindler and Julian Vannerson were contracted to photograph portraits of American Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Between the years 1866 to 1868, Gardner photographed many tribes in his studio including Iowa, Sac and Fox, Kaw (Kansa), Dakota, and Lakota. In 1868, Gardner was hired by the U.S. Government to serve as photographer for the peace talks that took place in Fort Laramie, Wyoming. During this trip, Gardner photographed the Lakota (Sioux), Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke), Northern Tsitsistas (Northern Cheyenne), and Northern Inunaina (Northern Arapaho) tribes. Among the government officials at Fort Laramie that Gardner photographed was General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891). Sherman served as a General for the Union Army during the Civil War and later in 1869 became the Commanding General of the U.S. Army under President Ulysses Grant's administration. A member of the Peace Commission established in 1867, Sherman traveled to negotiate treaties with American Indian Plains tribes. Upon returning to Washington, D.C., Gardner published a set of his Fort Laramie photographs in the publication, Scenes in Indian Country. Members of the Peace Commission were given photo portfolios and it is believed that the photos in this collection may have been from General Sherman's personal set. Gardner went on to become the official photographer for the Office of Indian Affairs in 1872.

In his later years, Gardner also was involved in philanthropic causes, such as helping to establish the Masonic Mutual Relief Association which aided widows and orphans of Master Masons. He also founded the Saint John's Mite Association which provided aid to the poor in Washington, D.C. Alexander Gardner died in Washington, D.C. in 1882.
Related Materials:
Alexander Gardner photographs are housed in many archival and museum repositories. Photographs from the Scenes in Indian Country series are also held in the Newberry Library in Chicago, the Missouri Historical Society, the Minnesota Historical Society, and the St. Louis Mercantile Library in Missouri.
Provenance:
The photographs in this collection were originally owned by General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) and may have been part of a portfolio of photographs that Alexander Gardner gifted to Sherman and other Fort Laramie Treaty peace commissioners. Photographs were then donated to the Museum of the American Indian (MAI) by Sherman's son P(hilemon) Tecumseh Sherman (1867-1941) in May 1932 and by Sherman's granddaughter Eleanor Sherman Fitch (1876-1959) in March 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Railroads -- Construction  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-077
Online Media:

Sophie Mosseau and six Indian Peace Commissioners

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Sophie Mosseau (standing in middle) and six Indian Peace Commissioners at Fort Laramie for the 1868 treaty signing. The Commissioners are from left to right General Alfred Howe Terry, General William S. Harney, General William Tecumseh Sherman, John B. Sanborn, Colonel Samuel F. Tappan, and General Christopher C. Auger. According to a photograph in the Autry Museum of the American West, Sophie Mosseau was the daughter of a Lakota mother and French-Canadian trapper. However, in other museum records, there are other conflicting identifications.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15389
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.2: Lakota
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref101

Portraits of American Indian delegates, Washington, D.C.

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Extent:
20 Photographic prints
Type:
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Date:
1866-1868
bulk 1867-1867
Scope and Contents:
This series contains 20 albumen prints shot by Alexander Gardner that depict studio portraits of American Indian delegates, interpreters, agents, and commissioners in Washington, D.C. from 1866-1868. The images include delegates from the Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Kaw (Kansa), Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux), and Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox) tribes. Most American Indians are dressed in traditional clothing, however some are dressed in non-traditional outfits. One photograph of note is image P10142, which was shot by Gardner on February 23, 1867 and depicts American Indian delegates posing outside the White House in Washington, D.C. with President Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), Commissioner Lewis Bogy (1813-1877), and Secretary of the Interior Orville H. Browning (1806-1881). Delegates in this photo include individuals from the Ihanktonwan Nakota (Yankton Sioux), Dakota (Eastern Sioux), Santee, Upper Missouri Sioux, Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox), Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa), Ottawa, Kickapoo, and Miami tribes.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, Series 3
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref11

Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) man

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) man wearing a Confederate coat, likely issued during the Fort Laramie Treaty signing. It is decorated with silver medallions.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15381
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.2: Lakota
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref91

Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) men, women, and children at Fort Laramie for the 1868 treaty signing

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 6
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) men, women, and children at Fort Laramie for the 1868 treaty signing. From left to right: Grey Eyes, Running Water, two unidentified woman, Young Elk, and five unidentified children.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15382
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.2: Lakota
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref92

Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) and Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) women, children and a man at the Indian agent's quarters at Fort Laramie

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) and Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) women, children, and a man, possibly High Wolf (Oglala), at the Indian agent's quarters at Fort Laramie.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15383
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.2: Lakota
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref93

Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) men and non-Indians at Fort Laramie for the 1868 treaty signing

Collection Creator:
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Container:
Oversize Box 1
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1868
Scope and Contents:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux) men and non-Indians gathered at Fort Laramie for the 1868 treaty signing. From left to right they are: unidentified non-Indian man, Leon Pallardy (interperter), unidentified Native woman, Running Water (Lakota), two unidentified non-Indian men, John D. Howland, (seated) Ashton S. H. White, and unidentified non-Indian man.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs, P#####; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.077, File P15386
See more items in:
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs
William T. Sherman collection of Alexander Gardner photographs / Series 1: Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3: American Indians at Fort Laramie, Wyoming / 1.3.2: Lakota
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-077-ref98

Chief Spotted Elk

Collection Photographer:
Miller, Fred E., 1868-1936  Search this
Extent:
1 Glass plate negative
Container:
Box 247 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1898-1912
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor portrait of Spotted Elk [Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)], wearing a peace medal. Photograph possibly shot by Fred E. Miller circa 1898-1910 on the Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke) Reservation in Montana.
Collection Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some photographs in this collection are RESTRICTED due to Cultural Sensitivity.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Fred E. Miller photograph collection, NMAI.AC.108, Catalog #. National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.108, Item N13714
See more items in:
Fred E. Miller photograph collection
Fred E. Miller photograph collection / Series 1: Portraits and daily life
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-108-ref568

MS 945 The Stone Boy and the Spider

Creator:
Allison, Edwin Henry, 1847-1919  Search this
Extent:
28 Pages
Culture:
Lakota (Teton/Western Sioux)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pages
Date:
June 1, 1899
Scope and Contents:
A myth, in Lakota, with interlinear and free English translations.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 945
Local Note:
Autograph document signed
Topic:
Folklore -- Dakota  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 945, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS945
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms945

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