Skip to main content Smithsonian Institution

Search Results

Collections Search Center
22 documents - page 1 of 2

Duke Ellington Collection

Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Washingtonians, The.  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Collector:
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Extent:
400 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Music
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Place:
New York (N.Y.) -- 20th century
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) -- 20th century
Washington (D.C.) -- 20th century
Date:
1903 - 1989
Summary:
The collection documents Duke Ellington's career primarily through orchestrations (scores and parts), music manuscripts, lead sheets, transcriptions, and sheet music. It also includes concert posters, concert programs, television, radio, motion picture and musical theater scripts, business records, correspondence, awards, as well as audiotapes, audiodiscs, photographs, tour itineraries, newspaper clippings, magazines, caricatures, paintings, and scrapbooks.
Scope and Contents:
Dating approximately from the time Duke Ellington permanently moved to New York City in 1923 to the time the material was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1988, the bulk of the material in the Duke Ellington Collection is dated from 1934-1974 and comprises sound recordings, original music manuscripts and published sheet music, hand-written notes, correspondence, business records, photographs, scrapbooks, news clippings, concert programs, posters, pamphlets, books and other ephemera. These materials document Ellington's contributions as composer, musician, orchestra leader, and an ambassador of American music and culture abroad. In addition, the materials paint a picture of the life of a big band maintained for fifty years and open a unique window through which to view an evolving American society.

The approximate four hundred cubic feet of archival materials have been processed and organized into sixteen series arranged by type of material. Several of the series have been divided into subseries allowing additional organization to describe the content of the material. For example, Series 6, Sound Recordings, is divided into four subseries: Radio and Television Interviews, Concert Performances, Studio Dates and Non-Ellington Recordings. Each series has its own scope and content note describing the material and arrangement (for example; Series 10, Magazines and Newspaper Articles, is organized into two groups, foreign and domestic, and arranged chronologically within each group). A container list provides folder titles and box numbers.

The bulk of the material is located in Series 1, Music Manuscripts, and consists of compositions and arrangements by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and other composers. Series 6, Sound Recordings also provides a record of the performance of many of these compositions. The materials in Series 2, Performances and Programs, Series 3, Business Records, Series 8, Scrapbooks, Series 9, Newspaper Clippings, Series 11, Publicity and Series 12, Posters provide documentation of specific performances by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Ellington was a spontaneous and prolific composer as evidenced by music, lyrical thoughts, and themes for extended works and plays captured on letterhead stationery in Series 3, Business Records, in the margin notes of individual books and pamphlets in Series 14, Religious Materials and Series 15, Books, and in the hand-written notes in Series 5, Personal Correspondence and Notes.

During its fifty-year lifespan, Duke Ellington and His Orchestra were billed under various names including The Washingtonians, The Harlem Footwarmers and The Jungle Band. The soloists were informally called "the band", and Series 3 includes salary statements, IOU's, receipts and ephemera relating to individual band members. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains the soloists' parts and includes "band books" of several soloists (for example; Harry Carney and Johnny Hodges) and numerous music manuscripts of Billy Strayhorn. The changing role of Strayhorn from arranger hired in 1938 to Ellington's main collaborator and composer of many well-known titles for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra including "Take The A' Train" and "Satin Doll" can be traced in these music manuscripts. Series 7, Photographs and Series 2, Performances and Programs contain many images of the band members and Strayhorn. This Collection also documents the business history of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 3, Business Records contains correspondence on letterhead stationery and Series 11, Publicity contains promotional material from the various booking agencies, professional companies, and public relations firms that managed the Orchestra.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection provide insight into public and institutional attitudes towards African Americans in mid-twentieth-century America. The business records in Series 3 beginning in 1938 and published sheet music in Series 1 depict Duke Ellington's progression from an African-American musician who needed "legitimization" by a white publisher, Irving Mills, to a businessmen who established his own companies including Tempo Music and Duke Ellington, Incorporated to control his copyright and financial affairs. Programs from the segregated Cotton Club in Series 2, Performances And Programs and contracts with no-segregation clauses in Series 3: Business Records further illustrate racial policies and practices in this time period. The public shift in perception of Duke Ellington from a leader of an exotic "Jungle Band" in the 1930s to a recipient of the Congressional Medal Of Freedom in 1970 is evidenced in Series 2, Performances And Programs, Series 12, Posters, Series 7, Photographs and Series 13, Awards. Reviews and articles reflecting Ellington's evolving status are also documented in Series 8, Newspaper Clippings, Series 9, Scrapbooks, Series 10, Newspaper and Magazine Articles.

The materials in the Duke Ellington Collection reflect rapid technological changes in American society from 1923-1982. Sound recordings in Series 6 range from 78 phonograph records of three minutes duration manufactured for play on Victrolas in monaural sound to long-playing (LP) phonograph records produced for stereo record players. Television scripts in Series 4, programs in Series 2 and music manuscripts (for example, Drum Is A Woman) in Series 1 demonstrate how the development of television as a means of mass communication spread the Orchestra's sound to a wider audience. The availability of commercial air travel enabled the Ellington Orchestra to extend their international performances from Europe to other continents including tours to Asia, Africa, South America and Australia and archival material from these tours is included in every series.

Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts and Series 6, Audio Recordings contain scripts and radio performances promoting the sale of United States War bonds during World War II, and Series 7, Photographs includes many images of Duke Ellington and His Orchestra's performances for military personnel revealing the impact of historic events on Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Series 2: Programs and Performances, Series 9, Newspaper clippings and Series 8, Scrapbooks document the 1963 Far East tour aborted as a result of President John F. Kennedy's assassination.

The Duke Ellington Collection contains works by numerous twentieth-century music, literature, and art luminaries. Series 1, Music Manuscripts contains original music manuscripts of William Grant Still, Eubie Blake, Mary Lou Williams, and others. Series 4, Scripts and Transcripts contains a play by Langston Hughes, and Series 12, Posters contains many original artworks.
Arrangement:
Series 1: Music Manuscripts, circa 1930-1981, undated

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1933-1973, undated

Series 3: Business Records, 1938-1988

Series 4: Scripts and Transcripts, 1937-1970

Series 5: Personal Correspondence and Notes, 1941-1974, undated

Series 6: Sound Recordings, 1927-1974

Series 7: Photographs, 1924-1972, undated

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1931-1973

Series 9: Newspaper Clippings, 1939-1973, undated

Series 10: Magazine Articles and Newspaper Clippings, 1940-1974

Series 11: Publicity, 1935-1988

Series 12: Posters and Oversize Graphics, 1933-1989, undated

Series 13: Awards, 1939-1982

Series 14: Religious Material, 1928-1974

Series 15: Books, 1903-1980

Series 16: Miscellaneous, 1940-1974
Biographical / Historical:
A native of Washington, DC, Edward Kennedy Ellington was born on April 29, 1899. Edward was raised in a middle-class home in the Northwest section of Washington described by his sister Ruth--younger by sixteen years--as a "house full of love." Ellington himself wrote that his father J.E. (James Edward) raised his family "as though he were a millionaire" but Edward was especially devoted to his mother, Daisy Kennedy Ellington. In 1969, thirty-four years after his mother's death, Ellington accepted the Presidential Medal of Freedom with these words, "There is nowhere else I would rather be tonight but in my mother's arms." Both his parents played the piano and Ellington began piano lessons at the age of seven, but like many boys he was easily distracted by baseball.

In his early teens, Ellington sneaked into Washington clubs and performance halls where he was exposed to ragtime musicians, including James P. Johnson, and where he met people from all walks of life. He returned in earnest to his piano studies, and at age fourteen wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" also known as "Poodle Dog Rag." Ellington was earning income from playing music at seventeen years of age, and around this time he earned the sobriquet "Duke" for his sartorial splendor and regal air. On July 2, 1918, he married a high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson; their only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, was born on March 11, 1919. Duke Ellington spent the first twenty-four years of his life in Washington's culturally thriving Negro community. In this vibrant atmosphere he was inspired to be a composer and learned to take pride in his African-American heritage.

Ellington moved to New York City in 1923 to join and eventually lead a small group of transplanted Washington musicians called "The Washingtonians," which included future Ellington band members, Sonny Greer, Otto Hardwicke and "Bubber" Miley. Between 1923 and 1927, the group played at the Club Kentucky on Broadway and the ensemble increased from a quintet to a ten-piece orchestra. With stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith as his unofficial guide, Ellington soon became part of New York's music scene; Smith proved to be a long-lasting influence on Duke's composing and arranging direction. At the Club Kentucky, Ellington came under the tutelage of another legendary stride pianist, "Fats" Waller. Waller, a protege of Johnson and Smith, played solos during the band's breaks and also tutored Ellington who began to show progress in his compositions. In November 1924, Duke made his publishing and recording debut with "Choo Choo (I Got To Hurry Home)" released on the Blu-Disc label. In 1925, he contributed two songs to Chocolate Kiddies, an all-black revue which introduced European audiences to black American styles and performers. By this time Ellington's family, Edna and Mercer, had joined him in New York City. The couple separated in the late 1920's, but they never divorced or reconciled.

Ellington's achievements as a composer and bandleader began to attract national attention while he worked at the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, from 1927 to 1932. The orchestra developed a distinctive sound that displayed the non-traditional voicings of Ellington's arrangements and featured the unique talents of the individual soloists. Ellington integrated his soloists' exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, their high-squealed trumpets, their sultry saxophone blues licks and Harlem's street rhythms into his arrangements. In the promotional material of the Cotton Club, the band was often billed as "Duke Ellington and His Jungle Band." With the success of compositions like "Mood Indigo," and an increasing number of recordings and national radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, the band's reputation soared.

The ten years from 1932 to 1942 are considered by some major critics to represent the "golden age" for the Ellington Orchestra, but it represents just one of their creative peaks. These years did bring an influx of extraordinary new talent to the band including Jimmy Blanton on double bass, Ben Webster on tenor saxophone, and Ray Nance on trumpet, violin and vocals. During this ten year span Ellington composed several of his best known short works, including "Concerto For Cootie," "Ko-Ko," "Cotton Tail," "In A Sentimental Mood," and Jump For Joy, his first full-length musical stage revue.

Most notably, 1938 marked the arrival of Billy Strayhorn. While a teenager in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Strayhorn had already written "Lush Life," "Something To Live For" and a musical, Fantastic Rhythm. Ellington was initially impressed with Strayhorn's lyrics but realized long before Billy's composition "Take the A' Train" became the band's theme song in 1942 that Strayhorn's talents were not limited to penning clever lyrics. By 1942, "Swee' Pea" had become arranger, composer, second pianist, collaborator, and as Duke described him, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine." Many Ellington/Strayhorn songs have entered the jazz canon, and their extended works are still being discovered and studied today. Strayhorn remained with the Ellington Organization until his death on May 30, 1967.

Ellington had often hinted of a work in progress depicting the struggle of blacks in America. The original script, Boola, debuted in Carnegie Hall in November of 1943, retitled Black, Brown and Beige. The performance met with mixed reviews, and although Ellington often returned to Carnegie Hall the piece was never recorded in a studio, and after 1944 was never performed in entirety again by the Ellington Orchestra. Nonetheless, it is now considered a milestone in jazz composition.

After World War II the mood and musical tastes of the country shifted and hard times befell big bands, but Ellington kept his band together. The band was not always financially self-sufficient and during the lean times Ellington used his songwriting royalties to meet the soloists' salaries. One could assign to Ellington the altruistic motive of loyalty to his sidemen, but another motivation may have been his compositional style which was rooted in hearing his music in the formative stage come alive in rehearsal. "The band was his instrument," Billy Strayhorn said, and no Ellington composition was complete until he heard the orchestra play it. Then he could fine tune his compositions, omit and augment passages, or weave a soloist's contribution into the structure of the tune.

In 1956, the American public rediscovered Duke and the band at the Newport Jazz Festival in Rhode Island. The searing performances of tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves on "Diminuendo and Crescendo In Blue," his premiere soloist, alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges on "Jeep's Blues", and the crowd's ecstatic reaction have become jazz legend. Later that year Duke landed on the cover of Time magazine. Although Ellington had previously written music for film and television (including the short film, Black and Tan Fantasy in 1929) it wasn't until 1959 that Otto Preminger asked him to score music for his mainstream film, Anatomy of a Murder, starring Jimmy Stewart. Paris Blues in 1961, featuring box-office stars Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier in roles as American jazz musicians in Paris, followed.

Ellington's first performance overseas was in England in 1933, but the 1960s brought extensive overseas tours including diplomatic tours sponsored by the State Department. Ellington and Strayhorn composed exquisite extended works reflecting the sights and sounds of their travels, including the Far East Suite, 1966. They wrote homages to their classical influences; in 1963, they adapted Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and celebrated Shakespeare's works with the suite Such Sweet Thunder in 1957. With Ella Fitzgerald, they continued the Norman Granz Songbook Series. Ellington also began to flex his considerable pianist skills and recorded albums with John Coltrane (1963), Coleman Hawkins (1963), Frank Sinatra, and Money Jungle (1963) with Charles Mingus and Max Roach. The First Sacred Concert debuted in San Francisco's Grace Cathedral in 1965. In his final years, Ellington's thoughts turned to spiritual themes and he added a Second (1968) and Third (1973) Concert of Sacred Music to his compositions.

In his lifetime, Duke received numerous awards and honors including the highest honor bestowed on an American civilian, the Congressional Medal Of Freedom. In 1965, Ellington was recommended for a Pulitzer Prize to honor his forty years of contribution to music but the recommendation was rejected by the board. Most likely he was disappointed, but his response at the age of sixty-six was, "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."

Ellington never rested on his laurels or stopped composing. Whenever he was asked to name his favorite compositions his characteristic reply was "the next five coming up," but to please his loyal fans Ellington always featured some of his standards in every performance. Even on his deathbed, he was composing the opera buffo called Queenie Pie.

Duke Ellington died on May 24, 1974 at seventy-five years of age. His funeral was held in New York's Cathedral of St. John The Divine; he was buried in Woodlawn Cemetery. His long-time companion Beatrice "Evie" Ellis was buried beside him after her death in 1976. He was survived by his only child, Mercer Kennedy Ellington, who not only took up the baton to lead the Duke Ellington Orchestra but assumed the task of caring for his father's papers and his legacy to the nation. Mercer Ellington died in Copenhagan, Denmark on February 8, 1996, at the age of seventy-six. Ruth Ellington Boatwright died in New York on March 6, 2004, at the age of eighty-eight. Both Mercer and Ruth were responsible for shepherding the documents and artifacts that celebrate Duke Ellington's genius and creative life to their current home in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

William H. Quealy Collection of Duke Ellington Recordings (AC0296)

Rutgers University Collection of Radio Interviews about Duke Ellington (AC0328)

Duke Ellington Oral History Project (AC0368)

Duke Ellington Collection of Ephemera and realated Audiovisual Materials (AC0386)

Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group Proceedings (AC0385)

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0388)

Frank Driggs Collection of Duke Ellington Photographic Prints (AC0389)

New York Chapter of the Duke Ellington Society Collection (AC390)

Earl Okin Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0391)

William Russo Transcription and Arrangement of Duke Ellington's First Concert of Sacred Music (AC0406)

Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0415)

Music manuscripts in the Ruth Ellington Collection complement the music manuscripts found in the Duke Ellington Collection.

Carter Harman Collection of Interviews with Duke Ellington (AC0422)

Betty McGettigan Collection of Duke Ellington Memorabilia (AC0494)

Dr. Theodore Shell Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera (AC0502)

Edward and Gaye Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0704)

Andrew Homzy Collection of Duke Ellington Stock Music Arrangements (AC0740)

John Gensel Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC0763)

Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials (AC1240)

Materials at Other Organizations

Institute of Jazz Studies
Separated Materials:
Artifacts related to this collection are in the Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) and include trophies, plaques, and medals. See accessions: 1989.0369; 1991.0808; 1993.0032; and 1999.0148.

"
Provenance:
The collection was purchased through an appropriation of Congress in 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original and master audiovisual materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Occupation:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Big bands  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Bandsmen -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- Performance  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Phonograph records
Papers
Photographic prints
Posters
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Clippings
Awards
Audiotapes
Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep850a376a1-6b6d-48bc-9076-cffef76fea2c
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0301
Online Media:

Music Manuscripts

Composer:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Still, William Grant, 1895-1978  Search this
Blake, Eubie (James Herbert), 1883-1983  Search this
Hamilton, Jimmy  Search this
Lacy, Steve  Search this
Williams, Mary Lou, 1910-  Search this
Collector:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Robison, Willard (orchestra conductor)  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Musical History  Search this
Creator:
Whaley, Thomas L. (copyist)  Search this
Robison, Willard  Search this
Carney, Harry  Search this
Redman, Don  Search this
Names:
Duke Ellington Orchestra  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
212 Cubic feet (Approx.; 530+ boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Music
Sheet music
Scores
Lead sheet
Notebooks
Parts (musical)
Piano vocal scores
Date:
circa 1930-1981, undated
Scope and Contents:
Includes original manuscripts (parts and scores), copy scores, lead, lyric and copyright sheets, published music and arrangements of compositions by Duke Ellington and his main collaborator, Billy Strayhorn. This series also contains arrangements by Ellington, Strayhorn, Tom Whaley and others for songs encompassing African-American spirituals and traditional songs from the nineteenth century, pre-World War II standards, Broadway tunes, film themes and pop songs from the 1950s to 1970s. Original manuscripts of compositions and arrangements created for Duke Ellington and His Orchestra by Mary Lou Williams and Don Redman among others can be found in this series. Of particular interest are original manuscripts of twentieth-century notable composers including Eubie Blake and William Grant Still that were not created for or used by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Scattered throughout the Collection are early works by contemporary jazz artists including Quincy Jones and Steve Lacy. Scores and parts for a 1982 posthumous Broadway musical tribute, Sophisticated Ladies, based on Ellington/Strayhorn compositions, is also included in this series.

The music manuscripts were the ephemera of Ellington and the band's life on the road and reflect their peripatetic existence. Frequently there are phone numbers, personal notes, and shopping lists jotted on the original manuscripts. The music manuscripts were not deliberately collected for posterity but maintained by band members or assembled by a "band boy" for distribution to band members for performances. Individual arrangements are not necessarily complete. Each title has been separated by arrangement and key when possible, but for most titles additional research is necessary to complete the arrangement or to document a specific performance or recording.

The manuscripts provide documentation that Ellington wrote his arrangements for his individual band members. Directions on the scores and most of the parts indicate the soloist's name or nickname rather than the instrument he played (for example; Johnny Hodges's parts are usually indicated by "Johnny" or "Rab" for his nickname "Rabbit" instead of Alto Saxophone).

The bulk of the scores and parts are hand-written by Ellington, Strayhorn or Tom Whaley (Ellington's chief copyist, circa 1942-1969); in many instances identifications are attached to the music or listed on the folder. A reference notebook available to researchers identifies the handwriting of composers, arrangers, and copyists found in the Collection.

The titles range from short songs to large-scale, multi-movement works and are arranged alphabetically. The title list is not a definitive research document. However, alternate titles provided by reference publications and research by Ellington scholars or Archives Center staff suggest a relationship between certain titles. Titles in italics indicate that there is additional music, in a separate location, which might be of interest to the researcher.

There are four reference abbreviations used in the title list: see, sa (see also), aka (also known as), and verso. Title fragments, abbreviations, working titles, or nicknames which are written on the music are cross-referenced to the proper title. They are distinguished by the use of "see" followed by the proper title to indicate the location of the music (for example; Mon-Sat see Never On A Sunday). Some songs are known by more than one title and the different titles denote a change significant enough to warrant its listing under two separate titles (for example; "Concerto For Cootie" was an instrumental arrangement which became Do Nothing Til You Hear From Me when words were added). In this and similar cases, the music is located under both titles and the reference "sa" with the alternate title in italics designates an alternate location (for example; "Do Nothing Til You Hear From Me" sa "Concerto For Cootie"). Some identical songs were recorded and performed under two different titles. In this instance, the music will be found under one title with reference to the alternate title (for example; Altitude see "Main Stem", "Main Stem" aka "Altitude"). Some titles have akas (also known as) and in this document "aka" is used to indicate that there is no music under the other known title (for example; "Merry-Go-Round" aka "Ace Of Spades"). Some music is located on the reverse side of a score or part with a different title. In this instance "verso" indicates that there is additional music with this title located elsewhere (for example; "Eggo" verso "Kick").

Sixty-seven extended works by Ellington and other collaborators, composers, arrangers, and lyricists---most notably Billy Strayhorn---have been identified and filed alphabetically. The extended works are distinguished in the finding aid by capital letters and bold text (for example; FAR EAST SUITE). The individual titles which are elements of an extended work have been relocated to their respective suites (for example: Agra see FAR EAST SUITE). Series 1 also contains ten non-Ellington extended works. These are distinguished by lower-case bold lettering (for example: Mikado Swing).

One box of songbooks containing published sheet music of Ellington and Strayhorn compositions is physically located at the end of Subseries 1.1: Oversize scores are physically located at the end of this series but are listed alphabetically and indicated in the title list by the abbreviation OS (for example; I Fell And Broke My Heart sa OS).

The music manuscripts in Series 1 have been organized into eight subseries. Each subseries has its own container list, but titles in Subseries 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 are referenced in the Subseries 1.1 title list (for example: Caravan see also 1.2).

The bulk of the material is located in Subseries 1.1, Music Manuscripts, consisting of scores and parts composed and arranged by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn and others for performance by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Scattered throughout this series are arrangements by Tom Whaley for bands that performed during his tenure as musical director of various Harlem Theatres including the Apollo Theatre, circa 1930-1942. Eubie Blake manuscripts of his original compositions contained in this series also were not created for performance by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra. Contained within this series are complete unpublished and unrecorded scores and parts by composers, most notably Mary Lou Williams, submitted to Ellington for possible performance or recording. Subseries 1.2, Manuscript Sketchbooks consists of three cubic feet of bound manuscript notebooks including ones by Ellington, Strayhorn, Jimmy Hamilton and Tom Whaley. These "sketchbooks" are particularly valuable and fragile and may not be photocopied. The notebooks are available to researchers with special instructions for handling. Subseries 1.3, Sidemen's Books consists of ten cubic feet of parts for individual soloists, including Lawrence Brown and Harry Carney, or for a specific instrument.

Subseries 1.4, Unidentified Music consists of five cubic feet of untitled and unidentified parts and scores including original Ellington and Strayhorn manuscripts.

Subseries 1.5, Willard Robison Arrangements consists of nine cubic feet of scores and parts that were arranged for Robison's Deep River Orchestra and in particular for the Deep River Hour, a weekly radio show broadcast from New York City that aired from 1929 to 1932. Most of these arrangements are original manuscripts of William Grant Still (1895-1978) who is considered one of the most significant African-American classical composers of the twentieth century.

Subseries 1.6, Published Sheet Music consists of nine cubic feet of published sheet music unrelated to the titles in Subseries 1.1 including one-half cubic feet of published songs in Spanish and Portuguese that were most likely presented to Ellington during his 1967 Latin American tour.

The bulk of the material in Subseries 1.2, Music Manuscript Sketchbooks consists of spiral-bound notebooks or "sketchbooks" containing original scores, incomplete scores, sketches and lyrics by Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Tom Whaley and Ellington band members Jimmy Hamilton and John Sanders. There is one notebook created by Ann Michlau. The material is very fragile and valuable.

Titles or title fragments are listed in the order they appear. In some notebooks, researchers' notes identifying the material are included, and special care is necessary to maintain this order. Each folder contains one notebook or loose pages grouped for creation or copyright. The creator of each notebook is identified by name and underlined at the beginning of the folder; change of creator within each folder is also designated. Most of the folders contain untitled works.

Subseries 1.3, Sidemen's Books consists of parts for Ellington Orchestra soloists including Johnny Hodges, Barney Bigard, Harry Carney and Lawrence Brown. In the early years, Duke Ellington's band members maintained their own "books" for performances; later the "books" were distributed by a band manager. A new band member inherited the "book" of the sideman he replaced, therefore each "book" frequently contains parts originally written for a former band member (for example, Barney Bigard clarinet parts can be found in Jimmy Hamilton's "book"). The material is in fair to poor condition.

The folders are arranged alphabetically by band members' last name, followed by folders with parts for specific instruments. The titles in each folder are filed alphabetically. To reduce handling of the material a title guide directs the researcher to a specific soloist. The title guide identifies the set number and copyist - when known-for researchers to determine if the material in this subseries corresponds with their search in Subseries 1.1, The container list marks the location of the material.

Subseries 1.4, Untitled Scores and Parts consists of untitled complete and incomplete scores and parts. The material is arranged by type of material (for example Duke Ellington scores, alto sax parts). There is no container list available for this subseries.

Subseries 1.5, Scores and Parts for Willard Robison's Deep River Orchestra, circa 1929-1931 consists of scores and parts arranged for Willard Robison's Deep River Orchestra. The bulk of these scores were created for Robison's radio show Deep River Hour. Many of the scores are the seminal arrangements of William Grant Still who was later crowned the "Dean Of Afro-American Classical Composers". The material is arranged alphabetically. Oversize scores are interfiled alphabetically but are physically located in Subseries 1.1 oversize boxes.

Subseries 1.6, Arrangements for Della Reese consists of music parts arranged by instrument.

Subseries 1.7, Non-Ellington Published Music consists of published sheet music never performed by Duke Ellington and his Orchestra. The individual titles are arranged alphabetically, followed by published songbooks. This subseries contains foreign language material; of particular interest is the material in Spanish which was most likely presented to Duke Ellington on his 1967 Latin American tour.

Subseries 1.8, Ephemera contains Duke Ellington's discography, Mercer Ellington's discography, and assorted lyrics and set lists.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the original and master audiovisual materials are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Copyright restrictions. Consult the Archives Center at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.

Paul Ellington, executor, is represented by:

Richard J.J. Scarola, Scarola Ellis LLP, 888 Seventh Avenue, 45th Floor, New York, New York 10106. Telephone (212) 757-0007 x 235; Fax (212) 757-0469; email: rjjs@selaw.com; www.selaw.com; www.ourlawfirm.com.
Occupation:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Big bands  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African Americans -- History  Search this
Piano music (Jazz)  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Music -- Manuscripts
Sheet music
Scores
Lead sheet
Notebooks
Parts (musical)
Piano vocal scores
Collection Citation:
Duke Ellington Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0301, Series 1
See more items in:
Duke Ellington Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep81a936710-59f5-4842-9999-658241c31892
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0301-ref36665

Benny Carter Collection

Creator:
Carter, Benny, 1907-2003  Search this
Extent:
67.5 Cubic feet (182 boxes, 3 oversize folders)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Awards
Clippings
Scrapbooks
Scores
Posters
Photographs
Music
Manuscripts
Date:
1928-2000
Scope and Contents:
The majority of the material in the Benny Carter Collection is dated from the late 1920s through the later half of the 1990s. Donated to the Smithsonian Institution in December, 2000, the bulk of the collection is comprised of original music manuscripts (full scores and parts), band books, and published sheet music from Benny Carter's prolific career as a jazz composer and musician. The collection also contains newspaper clippings, correspondence, photographs, scrapbooks, awards, posters, commercial sound recordings, a few jazz related journals and some personal ephemera documenting Benny Carter's personal life and career as a composer, arranger, bandleader, trumpeter and alto saxophonist.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into six series

Series 1: Music Manuscripts, 1928-1990s

Series 2: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Clippings, 1928-2000

Series 3: Photographs, 1928-1998

Series 4: Awards and Proclamations, 1961-1999

Series 5: Sound Recordings, 1958-1989

Series 6: Ephemera, 1952-2000

Series 7: 2004 Photographs Addenda

Series 8: 2004 Ephemera Addenda

Series 9: 2004 Magazine and Newsclippings Addenda

Series 10: 2004 Awards and Proclamations Addenda
Biography:
Bennett Lester Carter, better known as "Benny," was born on August 8, 1907 in New York City. The Carter's were quite a musical family - - Benny's father played guitar, his mother played piano, and a cousin, Theodore ("Cuban") Bennett, played the trumpet professionally - - so it was no surprise that Benny also became a musician, beginning his musical training at the age of ten. He first played the trumpet and then C-melody saxophone before changing to alto saxophone, which became his chief instrument.

Benny Carter began his professional career around the young age of seventeen, when he joined a local group as an alto saxophonist. He subsequently played with various other groups, including Billy Paige and Louis Deppe, until attending Wilberforce College in Ohio to study seminary in 1925. Finding music more enticing than theology, Carter left college and instead toured with Horace Henderson's Wilberforce Collegians intermittently between 1925 and 1928.

Carter's musical talents began attracting widespread attention in 1930 during a year-long stint with Fletcher Henderson's orchestra, to which he contributed many important arrangements. As word of his talent continued to spread, Carter played with such notables as William "Chick" Webb (1931) and served as musical director of William McKinney's Cotton Pickers (1931-1932) in Detroit. Upon returning to New York in 1932, Carter formed his own highly-respected orchestra. In its two years of existence, the Benny Carter Orchestra included several major pioneers in early swing style, such as Bill Coleman, Dicky Wells, Ben Webster, Chu Berry, Teddy Wilson, and Sid Catlett. Months after playing the inaugural show in New York City at Harlem's Apollo Theater in 1934, Carter disbanded the orchestra and, one year later, sailed to Europe to spread jazz across the globe.

After arriving in Europe, Carter first performed with Willie Lewis in Paris, France, and then, during 1936 -1938, served as staff arranger for the BBC Dance Orchestra in London, England. As he continued to tour throughout his stay in Europe (even leading his own interracial band in the Netherlands in 1937), he met with even greater success than in the United States. By this point, Carter was well-known for his arrangements and for his alto saxophone and clarinet playing. He was also recognized for his talented singing and tenor saxophone, trumpet, and piano playing.

In 1938, Carter sailed back to the United States and formed a new orchestra which regularly played at Harlem's Savoy Theater until 1940. He toured the United States during the next few years, both with small groups and with his big band, finally settling in Los Angeles in 1945. There he continued to lead his band (band members included modern jazz greats such as Miles Davis and J. J. Johnson), but turned increasingly to writing and arranging music for films and television productions. His film scores include Stormy Weather (1943), A Man Called Adam (1966), Red Sky at Morning(1970), and Buck and the Preacher (1972). "Ironside," "Bob Hope Presents," and the Alfred Hitchcock show were among the television programs for which he wrote music.

Carter had stopped performing with a regular orchestra by 1946, but he remained active up through the 1960s both by playing at Norman Granz's Jazz at the Philharmonic shows and with Duke Ellington, among others. He also continued to arrange music for various singers, including Sarah Vaughan, Ella Fitzgerald, Ray Charles, Peggy Lee, and Louis Armstrong. During the 1970s he began performing again, touring in Europe, Asia and Australia; in 1976 he toured the Middle East under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of State. Carter also became involved with academia, serving as visiting professor or workshop consultant at universities such as Yale, Cornell, Princeton, and Duke. He remained active in the music business well into the 1990s and still resides in California.

Benny Carter is regarded as "one of the most versatile musicians of his time." As a musician, he made major contributions to several areas of jazz and, as an arranger, he helped to construct the big-band swing style. He has received many awards throughout his career. The more prestigious honors included a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences and a 1994 Grammy Award for the album "Elegy in Blue."

Footnotes

[1 ] Biographical note derived from Benny Carter: A Life in American Music, by Monroe and Edward Berger, and James Patrick (New York: Scarecrow Press and the Institute of Jazz Studies, Rutgers University, 1982).

[2] J. Bradford Robinson, "John Kirby," The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, vol 1, 1986: 653-54.
Provenance:
The Benny Carter Collection was donated by Bennett Carter in December 2000.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright.
Topic:
African American musicians  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Awards
Clippings -- 20th century
Scrapbooks -- 20th century
Scores
Posters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Music -- Manuscripts
Manuscripts -- Music -- 20th century
Citation:
Benny Carter Collection, 1928-2000, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0757
See more items in:
Benny Carter Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep839f63d81-a542-41dc-8929-3f0c7f433f2f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0757
Online Media:

Milt Gabler Papers

Creator:
Armstrong, Lucille  Search this
Bechet, Sidney, 1897-1959  Search this
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Condon, Eddie, 1905-1973  Search this
Calloway, Cab, 1907-  Search this
Commodore Records.  Search this
Feather, Leonard, 1914-1994  Search this
Gabler, Milt  Search this
Davis, Sammy, 1925-  Search this
Decca (recording company).  Search this
Granz, Norman  Search this
Hawkins, Coleman  Search this
Kaempfert, Bert, 1923-1980  Search this
Ives, Burl, 1909-  Search this
Holiday, Billie, 1915-1959  Search this
Norvo, Red, 1908-1999  Search this
Mills Brothers.  Search this
Krupa, Gene, 1909-1973  Search this
Kelly, Peck, 1898-  Search this
Williams, Cootie, 1911-1985  Search this
United Hot Clubs of America.  Search this
Stewart, Rex (William), Jr., 1907-1967 (cornetist)  Search this
Jordan, Louis, 1908-1975  Search this
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Names:
Crosby, Bing, 1904-1977  Search this
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Extent:
25 Cubic feet (75 boxes )
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Legal records
Magazines (periodicals)
Catalogs
Correspondence
Financial records
Music
Bank statements
Autobiographies
Articles
Tax records
Business records
Newsletters
Photographs
Recordings
Sheet music
Date:
1895-2001
Summary:
The collection documents Gabler's involvement in the recording industry and the evolution of Commodore Records. The documentation begins with the Commodore Radio Shop through its evolution to Commodore Music Shop. The collection also includes the beginnings of the Commodore record label and information detailing Gabler's 30 years as staff producer and later Vice-President in Charge of Artists and Repertoire at Decca Records (1941-1974). There is a small collection of black and white photographs chronicling the early years at the Commodore Music Shop, as well as jam sessions, often held at Jimmy Ryan's on 52nd Street. The collection also includes a vast array of audio recordings (mainly audiodiscs).
Scope and Contents:
Papers documenting Gabler's life and career, including: correspondence with family members, friends and people in the music business such as Sammy Davis, Jr. and Lucille Armstrong (Louis' wife); Gabler's writings, including an autobiography and numerous articles; music manuscripts and sheet music, the lyrics for some of which were written by Gabler, and other compositions written by others, including Red Norvo, Eddie Condon and others; legal and financial records, including royalty statements, tax papers and banking records; business records for Commodore and Decca, including correspondence from persons such as Norman Granz, Burl Ives, and Leonard Feather; Commodore and Decca legal records including licensing and trademark documents; publicity materials; production records, such as production logs and liner notes; printed materials such as catalogs, newsletters, magazines, and periodicals; papers relating to Gabler's affiliation with Bert Kaempfert, including correspondence, sheet music and lyrics, and production records; photographs of Gabler and his family and of numerous others in the music industry, including Bing Crosby, Billie Holiday, Sammy Davis Jr., Bert Kaempfert, the Mills Brothers, Rex Stewart, Cootie Williams, Benny Goodman, Coleman Hawkins, Gene Krupa, Louis Jordan, Peck Kelly, Sidney Bechet, Cab Calloway, Louis Armstrong, and numerous others, many taken in the studio during recording sessions; and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into twenty-seven series.

Series 1: Personal Correspondence

Series 2: Writings by Milt Gabler

Series 3: Music Manuscripts and Sheet Music

Series 4: Personal Financial and Legal Records

Series 5: Commodore and Decca Correspondence and Gabler Rolodex

Series 6: Commodore and Decca Legal Records

Series 7: Commodore and Decca Financial

Series 8: Publicity

Series 9: Commodore and Decca Projects

Series 10: Production Records

Series 11: Commodore General Correspondence

Series 12: Commodore Financial Records

Series 13: Commodore Legal Records

Series 14: Commodore Production Records

Series 15: Commodore, Various Projects and Topical Files

Series 16: Commodore Publicity Records

Series 17: Business Cards

Series 18: Catalogs

Series 19: Newsletters

Series 20: Serials

Series 21: Monographs

Series 22: Newsclippings, Periodical Articles, and Advertisements

Series 23: Correspondence with Organizations

Series 24: Organization Membership cards

Series 25: Bert Kaempfert

Series 26: Photographs

Series 27: Audio Discs
Biographical / Historical:
Milt Gabler was born in Harlem, New York on May 20, 1911. He began managing his father's radio and small appliance store, the Commodore Radio Shop, while still a teen. Gabler convinced his father to expand the business and sell audio recordings. Soon Gabler pioneered the concept of marketing reissues by leasing discontinued masters from various record companies (mainly Victor, Columbia, Vocalion, and Brunswick). Eventually the Gablers changed the name of the family business to the Commodore Music Shop. By the early 1930's Gabler founded the first mail order record label, United Hot Clubs of America, to reach an even greater audience of jazz enthusiasts. In 1935 Gabler began publicizing the music shop by staging a series of Sunday afternoon jam sessions at several different recording studios along 52nd Street. Later the jam sessions moved to the nearby jazz club, Jimmy Ryan's.

In 1938 Gabler founded the Commodore music label. It was the first American recording label created exclusively for jazz music. A recording session for Eddie Condon's Windy City Seven at Brunswick Studios was the first original Commodore recording. In 1939 Gabler recorded Billie Holiday's controversial "Strange Fruit", which became Commodore's first major commercial success. Other notable Commodore artists include Sidney Bechet, Jonah Jones, Peck Kelley, Red Norvo, Ralph Sutton, and Teddy Wilson. Gabler began as a staff producer at Decca Records in 1941 and worked with artists from many different musical genres: Ella Fitzgerald, Bing Crosby, Judy Garland, Brenda Lee, the Weavers, and Louis Jordan, among others. Gabler also began writing lyrics in collaboration with Decca songwriters/composers. In 1954 Gabler produced the first recordings by Bill Haley and the Comets. In addition, Gabler continued to run the Commodore recording label until 1957. Gabler also managed the Commodore Music Shop until 1958, when he began working full-time at Decca as Vice-President in Charge of Artists and Repertoire. Throughout the 1960's Gabler served as lyricist in a number of collaborations with Bert Kaempfert and Herbert Rehbein. Gabler retained his influential position at Decca until 1974 when the corporation moved to the West Coast. Through the Decca years, Gabler had saved the Commodore masters and in 1974 began to reissue the recordings through Atlantic, Columbia Special Products, and finally United Hot Clubs of America. In 1987 Mosaic Records also began to reissue the entire catalog of Commodore recordings.

In the last decades of his life Gabler remained active in a number of professional organizations, most notably the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, which bestowed upon him a Grammy lifetime achievement award in 1991. Gabler died in New York on July 20, 2001.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Milt Gabler estate, through Lee Gabler.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use. Some materials restricted; but most are available for unrestricted research access on site by appointment.

Several items of personal correspondence contained private medical information about living individuals. The originals were removed and will remain sealed until 2030. Copies with the sensitive information redacted are available for research use in the collection.

Access to audio recordings for which no reference copy exists requires special arrangements with Archives Center staff. Please ask the reference archivist for additional information.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Music publishers  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Composition (Music)  Search this
Music trade  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Legal records
Magazines (periodicals) -- 20th century
Catalogs
Correspondence -- 20th century
Financial records
Music -- Manuscripts
Bank statements
Autobiographies
Articles
Tax records
Business records -- 20th century
Newsletters -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Recordings
Sheet music -- 20th century
Citation:
Milt Gabler Papers, 1927-2001, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0849
See more items in:
Milt Gabler Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep844dc4ee2-1f0b-43c1-9566-5dc6b5b62ee2
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0849
Online Media:

International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection

Creator:
Cron, Rosalind  Search this
International Sweethearts of Rhythm  Search this
Piney Woods School  Search this
Moon, Dixie Hardy  Search this
Hughes, Cathy  Search this
Names:
United Service Organizations (U.S.)  Search this
Woods, Helen Jones, 1923-2020  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Books
Newspaper clippings
Photographs
Publicity photographs
Date:
1933-2010
bulk 1939-1946
Summary:
The International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection focuses on the all-female, racially and ethnically diverse big band group that started in 1937 and disbanded in 1949. The collection contains news clippings, photographs, correspondence, ephemera from USO travels, and newsletters. Also included are books related to the group, as well as a tribute CD and a 33 rpm vinyl sound recording.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists mostly of photographs and news clippings documenting the International Sweethearts Band of Rhythm's performances, rehearsals, and travels. It also includes tribute materials to the band, including books and audio CDs.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into three series.

Series 1: Piney Woods School, 1937-1944

Series 2: Rosalind Cron Materials, 1933-2005

Series 3: Dixie Hardy Moon Materials, 1935-1951
Biographical / Historical:
The International Sweethearts of Rhythm were a racially and ethnically mixed swing band, all of whose members were women. They were organized in 1937 by Laurence Clifton Jones, who started the Piney Woods School near Jackson, Mississippi. He formed the band from students at Piney Woods and the band toured to raise money for the school, performing at fairs, dance halls, churches, and theaters. In 1939, the band began to tour outside of Mississippi and traveled across the American South and Midwest. In 1941 they separated from Piney Woods, started out on their own as professional musicians and relocated to Arlington, Virginia. While in Arlington, the band recruited professional musicians to replace the underage students who stayed in school. The band's venues included the Apollo Theatre and Savoy Ballroom in New York and the Howard Theatre in Washington DC They performed frequently at military bases and were quite popular during World War II. In response to requests from GIs serving overseas, the Sweethearts undertook a six month tour of Europe starting in July 1945. The tour was supported by the United Service Organization (USO) Camp Shows. The band played in Paris, France and throughout Germany, including the cities of Heidelberg, Stuttgart, Munich, and Mannheim. The group disbanded in 1949, but reunited for a reunion in 1980 at the Third Annual Women's Jazz Festival in Kansas City.

Rosalin Cron was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1925 and began playing music at nine years old. She joined the band in 1943 and primarly played the alto saxophone, but was also trained to play the clarinet and flute. Cron was a part of the overseas tour. She was with the band until 1946. Dixie Hardy Moon is the niece of founder Laurence Clifton Jones. Catherine (Cathy) Hughes, was born in 1947 in Omaha, Nebraska. She is the granddaughter of founder Laurence Clifton Jones and her mother, Helen Jones Woods (1923-2020), played the trombone with the Sweethearts. Hughes is considered a media pioneer and founder of Radio One/TV One.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center in 2011 by Rosalind Cron.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Bands (Music) -- 1940-1950  Search this
Big band music  Search this
Female (Musical group)  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Women musicians -- 1930-1950  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Genre/Form:
Books -- 20th century
Newspaper clippings
Photographs -- 20th century
Publicity photographs
Citation:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1218
See more items in:
International Sweethearts of Rhythm Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85c88d041-4d07-4b7f-9c60-c4253dfad1a6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1218
Online Media:

Claude Williams Papers

Creator:
Williams, Claude, 1908-2004  Search this
Fouse-Williams, Blanche Y.  Search this
Extent:
1 Electronic discs (CD)
13 Cassette tapes
4.66 Cubic feet (14 boxes, 3 map- folders)
Container:
Map-folder 1
Map-folder 3
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Electronic discs (cd)
Cassette tapes
Letters (correspondence)
Photographs
Programs
Posters
Scrapbooks
Financial records
Awards
Business records
Audiotapes
Articles
Manuscripts
Date:
1920-2005
Summary:
Business and personal papers, photographs, and audio recordings of Claude "Fiddler" Williams, an award-winning jazz fiddler. Although Williams played music for almost a century the materials in this collection date largely from 1970 to 2005.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the later life and career of jazz violinist Claude "Fiddler" Williams. Materials include correspondence, photographs, unpublished writings, awards, business records, financial records, programs and a few music manuscripts. There is one scrapbook and several audio recordings. There are also an autographed poster from 1997 honoring five inductees to the Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, including Claude Williams, Merle Haggard, Patti Page, Woody Guthrie and Eddie Burris. While there are some materials from Williams's youth, the vast majority of the collection dates from 1970. Williams's second wife, Blanche Y. Fouse-Williams, was vigilant about saving his papers. She also managed his career for the last few years of his life. This accounts for the increased volume of materials documenting his later years. Materials generally are arranged in chronological order within series and subseries.

Series 1, Business Records, 1973-2005, undated, is divided into seven subseries and includes business records, information relating to tours and performances, awards and certificates, business and personal correspondence, financial papers, articles and newspaper clippings, and biographical information.

Subseries 1, Events, 1977-2004, undated, includes contracts, copies of newspaper clippings, performance programs, brochures, ticket stubs, travel itineraries, travel receipts, correspondence, materials regarding his work as a fiddle teacher, advertisements for performances, a certificate of recognition, and napkins saved from a Washington Education Television Association (WETA) performance at the White House in 1998. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 2, Itineraries, 1990-2001, includes lists and correspondence detailing locations, musicians, travel and lodging plans, and financial compensation for William's performances. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 3, Awards and Certificates, 1978-2002, contains awards and certificates of appreciation from the Steamboat Delta Queen, Annual Black Musicians Conference, Kansas City Chapter of the International Association of Jazz Record Collectors, and the Manhattan School of Music, as well as an invitation to a reception honoring Kansas City Jazz musicians from the Consul General of Japan. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 4, Correspondence, 1975-2004, consists of information relating to travel arrangements, tours, remuneration, music recordings, press kits, contracts, public television performances, involvement with the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities, as well as Williams's Smithsonian Folkways recording. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 5, Financial Papers, 1990-2005, includes information about travel and payment, hotel bills and receipts, invoices for performances, music recordings sales, royalty statements and copies of checks. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Subseries 6, Press, 1973--005, undated, includes magazines, newspaper clippings and articles, about Williams's performances and music, appearances and jazz festivals, as well as the Kansas City Jazz scene. Magazine titles include Kansas City Magazine , Missouri Alumnus , The Masters Traditional Arts Apprenticeship Program , Jazz Ambassador Magazine , Kansas City Ambassador to Jazz , The Mississippi Rag , Fiddler Magazine , Jazz News , Jazz Times , Living Blues , Blues Access , and Kansas City . Materials are arranged by type and then in chronological order.

Subseries 7, Music, 1989-1995, undated, contains thirteen audio tape recordings, one CD, sheet music and set lists of music performed by Williams. There is an audio recording of Black and Blue: A Musical Revue , a Folk Master performance at Carnegie Hall. Williams's work with James Chirillo, an appearance on Birdflight , as well as recordings of live and studio performances are also included among these materials. There is a copy of Williams's CD Swingtime in New York and an interview from1992. Materials are arranged in chronological order.

Series 2, Personal Papers, 1978--005, undated, is divided into two subseries and contains letters, cards, postcards, invitations, copies of email, and requests for information and interviews. Most of the correspondence was addressed to Williams but there are materials that were sent to Blanche Williams. The correspondence is generally from fans, friends and family.

Subseries 1, Correspondence, 1978-2005, undated, consists of birthday cards from school age children, postcards, copies of newspaper clippings, White House and other government correspondence, congratulations or birthday wishes, as well as personal correspondence from friends inquiring about Williams's health and well-being. Also included is a draft for a chapter in a book on Claude Williams's contributions to jazz. Requests relating to research about Williams are also included. Materials are arranged in chronological order. Materials are arranged first by type followed by general correspondence in chronological order.

Subseries 2, Miscellaneous, undated, contains ephemera, autographs, affiliates list, well-wishes to Blanche Williams, a funeral program, mailing lists, lists of affiliated organizations, and a Count Bassie autograph.

Series 3, Photographs, 1977-2004, undated, includes personal and professional photographic prints and negatives of Williams. Subjects include performances and festivals, headshots and publicity, images of other musicians, family, friends, and posters with photographs created for his funeral. The majority of these photographs are of performances. Materials are arranged by subject.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into three series.

Series 1, Business Records, 1973-2005, undated

Subseries 1.1, Events, 1977-2004, undated

Subseries 1.2, Itineraries, 1990-2001

Subseries 1.3, Awards and Certificates, 1978-2002

Subseries 1.4, Correspondence, 1975-2004

Subseries 1.5, Financial Papers, 1990-2005

Subseries 1.6, Press, 1973-2005, undated

Subseries 1.7, Music; 1989-1995, undated

Series 2, Personal Papers, 1978-2005, undated

Subseries 2.1, Correspondence, 1978-2005, undated

Subseries 2.2, Miscellaneous, undated

Series 3, Photographs, 1977-2004, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Claude "Fiddler" Williams, 1908-2004, was born in Muskogee, Oklahoma, the son of a blacksmith. His musical gifts developed at a very early age, and he quickly became adept at the guitar, banjo, mandolin and cello, learning mostly by ear, without formal training. After hearing the jazz violinist Joe Venuti, the violin became his instrument of choice, and it remained so for the rest of his life. He migrated to Kansas City in 1927 and toured with several territory bands. Additionally Williams toured with the Twelve Clouds of Joy and the Cole Brothers, and in 1936, joined Count Basie's band as the first guitarist. After he was fired from Count Basie's band because John Hammond thought Williams's guitar solos were taking too much attention away from Basie, he went back to the violin (or "fiddle" as he preferred to call it) and focused exclusively on it for the rest of his life. Later he started his own band and toured with several jazz groups working for a short time with the Works Progress Administration (WPA). His band appeared at the Monterey Jazz Festival, the Nice Jazz Festival, and the Smithsonian Institution's Festival of American Folk Life. Williams received numerous honors and awards, including induction into the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame, a proclamation from the city of Kansas City, and a 1998 National Heritage Fellowship which included a $10,000 award. President Bill Clinton invited him to perform at one of the parties celebrating his first inauguration. Williams continued to tour and perform until well into his nineties. He also gave instruction at Mark O'Connor's annual fiddle camp to young violinists. Mr. Williams died in April 2004.
Separated Materials:
Artifacts donated to the Museum's Division of Culture and the Arts (now Division of Cultural and Community Life) include a suit and violin. See accession numbers: 2005.3105 and 2007.3020.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Claude Williams's widow, Blanche Y. Fouse-Williams, in 2005.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Researchers must use reference copies of audio-visual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an "as needed" basis, as resources allow.

Technical Access: Do not use original materials when available on reference audio tapes.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Violinists  Search this
Musicians -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Programs
Posters -- 1950-2000
Scrapbooks
Financial records
Awards
Business records -- 20th century
Audiotapes
Articles
Photographs -- 20th century
Manuscripts -- Music -- 20th century
Citation:
Claude Williams Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0909
See more items in:
Claude Williams Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82736f8a2-824b-43e6-96c8-6449a163c087
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0909
Online Media:

Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials

Creator:
Celley, Al  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
2.5 Cubic feet (7 boxes, 1 oversize folder, 2 films)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contracts
Business records
Correspondence
Financial records
Handbills
Notes
Orchestrations
Passports
Photographs
78 rpm records
Signatures (names)
16mm motion picture film
Tickets
Writings
Date:
1943-1989
Summary:
A diverse collection of papers assembled by Duke Ellington's road manager, Al Celley. The collection includes correspondence, photographs of Ellington and his orchestra at various times and locations; concert ephemera; handwritten notes; business and financial documents, primarily receipts; and travel ephemera.
Scope and Contents:
The collection was assembled by Duke Ellington's road manager, Al Celley and includes correspondence, photographs of Ellington and his orchestra at various times and locations; concert ephemera; handwritten notes; business and financial documents, primarily receipts; and travel ephemera.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series.

Series 1: Personal Materials, 1943-1962

Subseries 1.1: Al Celley, 1943-1962

Subseries 1.2: Duke Ellington, 1948

Series 2: Correspondence, 1945-1963

Subseries 2.1: Chronological, 1945-1963

Subseries 2.2: Alphabetical, 1949-1961

Series 3: Subject Files, 1948-1963

Series 4: Financial Materials, 1944-1964

Subseries 4.1: Payroll/Salary Ledgers, 1944-1962

Subseries 4.2: Expense Notebooks, 1946, 1959

Subseries 4.3: Receipts and Bills, 1945-1964

Series 5: Photographs, 1947-1967

Series 6: Audio Visual Materials, 1945-1957

Subseries 6.1: Moving Image, 1957

Subseries 6.2: Audio Discs, 1945-1946
Biographical / Historical:
Albert "Al" Joseph Celley (1909-1994) was Duke Ellington's road manager from 1944 to 1964. Celley handled the band's business affairs, such as concert bookings, logistics, staging shows, and organizing tours. Celley also handled the weekly payroll, contracts, collecting money from promoters, paying road expenses, and sending weekly reports to Bill Mittler, an accountant.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Duke Ellington Collection (AC0301)

Duke Ellington Oral History Project (AC0368)

This project includes an interview with Al Celley, July 12, 1989.
Provenance:
Purchased at auction by the Archives Center, National Museum of American History, May 2011.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.

Reference copies for audio discs and moving image do not exist. Use of these materials requires special arrangement with the Archives Center staff. Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
African Americans  Search this
Big bands  Search this
Music  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians  Search this
Music trade  Search this
Musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Contracts
Business records
Correspondence
Financial records
Handbills
Notes
Orchestrations
Passports
Photographs
78 rpm records
Signatures (names)
16mm motion picture film
Tickets
Writings
Citation:
Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1240
See more items in:
Al Celley Collection of Duke Ellington Materials
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8227b0efa-2c3a-4607-a95d-539a6675e9fe
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1240

Ken Rattenbury Collection

Composer:
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Collector:
Rattenbury, Ken, 1920-  Search this
Interviewee:
Anderson, William "Cat", 1916-1981 (musician)  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
0.16 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Transcriptions
Audiotapes
Theses
Date:
1967-1991
Summary:
Materials collected and created by Ken Rattenbury, professional musician and author.
Scope and Contents:
Five cassette audiotapes, master's degree thesis, and Billy Strayhorn music transcription to Duke Ellington's "Lotus Blossom.",Material documents the career and compositional techniques of Duke Ellington, and interviews with Duke Ellington and Cat Anderson.
Arrangement:
1 series. Unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Professional musician, author of "Duke Ellington Jazz Composer", editor of "Crescendo International", and member/organizer of the music group "Jazz Five."
Provenance:
Collection donated by Ken Rattenbury, June 15, 1991.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Transcriptions
Audiotapes
Theses
Citation:
Ken Rattenbury Collection, 1967-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0432
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep84cbcf899-d837-40af-ae29-5c11de1ca8c9
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0432

Jazz Oral History Collection about Duke ellington

Interviewer:
Hasse, John Edward, 1948-  Search this
Willard, Patricia  Search this
Names:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Strayhorn, Billy (William Thomas), 1915-1967  Search this
Interviewee:
Feather, Leonard, 1914-1994  Search this
Woodyard, Sam, 1925-1988  Search this
Extent:
0.4 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Date:
1988-1990
Summary:
Collection consists of original cassettes, open-reel master, and reference cassette audiotapes of two oral history interviews about the life and career of Duke Ellington. Leonard Feather's oral history interview has a transcript.

In separate interviews jazz critic Leonard Feather and Sam Woodyard discuss their relationships with and knowledge of Ellington and his music.
Scope and Contents:
Audiotape interviews with jazz critic Leonard Feather and drummer Sam Woodyard about their relationships with Duke Ellington and the Ellington Orchestra. John Hasse interviewed Leonard Feather on June 10, 1990. Patricia Willard interviewed Sam Woodyeard on May 30, 1998 and May 31, 1988. The interviews were recorded on audio cassette.
Arrangement:
Collection organized into one series.

Series 1, Jazz Oral History Collection, 1988-1990

Subseries 1.1: Leonard Feather

Subseries 1.2: Sam Woodyard
Biographical / Historical:
The Jazz Oral History Collection comprises two oral history interviews about Duke Ellington and his Orchestra.

One interview is with Leonard Feather (1914-1994), noted jazz critic, record producer, and composer. Born in England, Feather became an ardent fan of jazz by listening to recordings. The first time he saw Ellington perform live was in 1933 at the Palladium in London. Feather made his first trip to the United States in 1935 and through music critic and record producer John Hammond he met many of the leading musicians, producers, and concert promoters active in the American jazz scene. Feather was hired by Ellington in 1942 to do publicity and became part of what Feather referred to as "the Ellington family." Feather worked with Mercer Ellington as well and throughout the years he maintained an active involvement and friendship with Ellington.

A shorter interview with drummer Sam Woodyard (1925-1988) is poorly recorded and consequently it is difficult to hear and understand Woodyard's responses to the questions. Sam Woodyard was a drummer with the Ellington Orchestra from 1955 through 1966.
Provenance:
Made for the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.
Rights:
No release forms exist. Collection items are available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply.
Topic:
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Citation:
Jazz Oral History Collection about Duke Ellington, 1988-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0431
See more items in:
Jazz Oral History Collection about Duke ellington
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep835c90d35-ef9e-416a-87fe-562818062629
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0431

Ramsey Lewis Collection

Creator:
Lewis, Ramsey  Search this
Ramsey Lewis Trio  Search this
Names:
Bennett, Tony, 1926-  Search this
Cole, Nat King, 1917-1965  Search this
Lewis, Jerry, 1926-  Search this
Poitier, Sidney  Search this
Robinson, Jackie  Search this
Taylor, Billy  Search this
Wilson, Nancy, 1937-  Search this
Wonder, Stevie  Search this
Extent:
3.45 Cubic feet (9 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Menus
Programs
Clippings
Correspondence
Compact discs
Diplomas
Awards
Medals
Date:
1945-2009, undated
Summary:
Collection includes press clippings, awards, honorary degrees, and photographs of Ramsey Lewis Jr., renowned jazz pianist. The majority of the collection is press clippings relating to Lewis's social appearances, performances, and CD releases from the early 1990s-2007.
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents the life and career of Ramsey Lewis Jr., famous jazz pianist, and later, host of a popular syndicated radio talk show and television program. Though the majority of the collection consists of press clippings relating to Lewis's social appearances, performances, and CD releases from the early 1990s to the present, it also includes photographs from his early life and career, as well as selected correspondence tied heavily to events mentioned in the press clippings and a very small amount of personal materials. The collection contains programs and menus from social and fundraising galas, newspaper clippings, magazine articles, photographs, slides, awards, honorary degrees and diplomas, and a medal. Those interested in Ramsey Lewis, as well as the social scene of Chicago in the 1990s, will find this collection useful.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into five series.

Series 1, Professional Materials, 1993-2007, undated

Series 2, Personal Materials, 1950-1994, undated

Series 3, Awards, Honors, and Honorary Degrees, 1989-2009, undated

Series 4, Photographic Materials, 1945-2007, undated

Subseries 5, Scrapbooks, 1972-1982, undated
Biographical / Historical:
Ramsey Emmanuel Lewis Jr., an American jazz composer and pianist, was born in Chicago, Illinois to Ramsey Lewis Sr. and Pauline Lewis on May 27, 1935. His musical training began at the age of four with piano lessons. Lewis has achieved much success as a musician, as well as, a radio and television talk show host. In addition, he has organized and served for a number of educational programs in an effort to promote jazz. He has received recognition and numerous awards for his work.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

John and Devra Hall Levy Papers, (NMAH.AC.1221)

W. Royal Stokes Collection, of Music Publicity Photoprints, Interviews and Posters, (NMAH.AC.0766)

Smithsonian Jazz Oral History Program Collection, (NMAH.AC.0808)

Pat and Chuck Bress Jazz Portrait Photographs, (NMAH.AC.1219)
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Ramsey Lewis Jr. in March 2008.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American entertainers -- 20th century  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American musicians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 2000-2010
Menus
Programs
Photographs -- 1950-2000
Clippings -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Compact discs
Diplomas
Awards
Medals
Citation:
Ramsey Lewis Collection, 1945-2009, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1126
See more items in:
Ramsey Lewis Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep86f2210fb-08ad-47dc-a34b-7a0db876d368
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1126
Online Media:

Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection

Performer:
Basie, Count, 1904-  Search this
Webster, Ben  Search this
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Fitzgerald, Ella, 1917-1996  Search this
Goodman, Benny (Benjamin David), 1909-1986  Search this
Jamal, Ahmad, 1930-  Search this
Robinson, Bill, 1878-1949  Search this
Davis, Miles  Search this
Collector:
Smith, Ernie  Search this
Names:
Apollo Theatre (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Extent:
30 Cubic feet (352 film reels , 16 mm)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Place:
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) -- 20th century
Date:
1894-1979
Summary:
More than 300 reels of 16mm black and white and color film, silent and sound, fiction and documentary motion picture film documenting jazz and related musical performances, social and popular dance styles and performances, jazz musicians, performance locales, and documentation of African-American popular culture. A list of featured performers in the collection is shown below. The films are frequently compilations produced by Smith for lectures.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of 352 reels of 16mm motion picture film. Most of the film is 16mm black and white and sound (composite optical track print), although a few titles are silent or in color. The collection is comprised of compilation reels created by Ernie Smith to accompany his lectures, topical compilation reels created by Ernie Smith, compilation reels created by the Archives Center, and single title reels. The Archives Center produced master and reference video copies using a wet-gate telecine film-to-tape transfer system. Titles were often combined to allow for increased ease of handling, storage, and duplication.

The collection is strongest in the areas of jazz dance styles including Lindy Hop and tap, overviews of jazz musical performers and styles; specific jazz musicians and performers including Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Woody Herman, Artie Shaw, Bob Crosby, Lionel Hampton, Count Basie, Jack Teagarden as well as a wide range of female vocalists; and documentation of the New York jazz and club scene. The collection includes feature films and excerpts from feature films, Soundies and other film shorts, television kinescopes, and documentary films.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into one series and is not arranged in accordance with standard archival procedures. The breadth of the collection and the existence of so many multiple topic and/or performer compilation reels made it impossible to impose traditional archival series order. Therefore, each reel is described at the item level in the container list.
Biographical:
Ernest (Ernie) Smith began collecting jazz and jazz dance films during the mid-1950s. An Art Director for a New York advertising agency, Smith had a long-standing interest in jazz and jazz dance that began during his youth in Pittsburgh, Pa. Early on, Smith discovered that jazz music was best appreciated while dancing. He became an accomplished Lindy Hopper, frequenting both white and African American ballrooms.

His job at the advertising agency supported Smith's two passions - painting and jazz dance and music. Smith was also a film enthusiast so, in 1954, after taking a jazz class at the New School taught by Marshall Stearns, a leading jazz scholar, he began collecting examples of jazz and jazz dance on film. In the process of creating his film collection, Smith became one of the leading authorities on jazz and jazz dance films. He collaborated with Stearns on the 1964 book Jazz Dance, compiling the book's jazz dance film listing. He also wrote the extensive entry on jazz film for the 1988 edition of New Grove Dictionary of Jazz .

Smith built his film collection by identifying films of potential interest and acquiring them through trade and purchase. He created lecture reels on specific topics -- the history of jazz, social dance, tap dance, Duke Ellington, Lindy Hop -- and presented lecture/screenings nationally and internationally. He also provided footage for numerous documentaries and maintained active relationships with filmmakers, other film collectors, jazz scholars, the swing dance community, and musicians.

Ernie Smith donated his film collection to the Archives Center in 1993. He continues to lecture and participate in swing dance activities, but he devotes the majority of his time to painting and related artistic pursuits.
Provenance:
The Archives Center acquired the collection from Ernie Smith in 1993.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but the films are stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Tap dancing -- 1930-1970  Search this
Motion pictures and music -- 1930-1970  Search this
Dancing in motion pictures, television, etc. -- 1930-1970  Search this
Television and music -- 1930-1970  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- 1930-1970  Search this
Jazz dance -- 1930-1970  Search this
African Americans in the performing arts -- 1930-1970  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works) -- 20th century
Citation:
Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0491
See more items in:
Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep85baeb0e0-8e94-4ce0-8c80-7f25800ee24a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0491

Jack Siefert Woody Herman Collection

Performer:
Herman, Woody, 1913-1987  Search this
Collector:
Siefert, Jack William, 1918-  Search this
Extent:
16 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Posters
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
1913-1990
Scope and Contents:
Sound recordings, business records, photographs, correspondence, and concert posters documenting the career of Woodrow Charles "Woody" Herman.
The Jack Siefert/Woody Herman Collection includes manuscript materials, photographs, open-reel audio tapes, cassettes, CDs, audio discs and videos documenting the career of Woody Herman. The collection is organized into six series as follows:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1969-1988 Includes a few letters to Woody Herman, but the bulk of the correspondence is to or from Jack Siefert.

Series 2: Photographs, circa 1920 - 1987

The photographs are divided into 5 subseries (family, in performance, friends and colleagues, publicity, and miscellaneous) and arranged chronologically within each subseries. This series includes original and copy prints.

Series 3: Business Records, circa 1946 – 1990

Consists of 3 subseries (Misc. Business Papers, Publicity and Programs, and Itineraries) with the bulk of the materials documenting performance schedules and itineraries. The post-1987 materials include programs and announcements for tributes to Woody Herman.

Series 4: Clippings, 1945 – 1990s

Magazine and newspaper articles about Woody Herman and his various bands.

Series 5: Ephemera

Includes several cartoons and Herman's entry in 'Who's Who in America." Also Jack Siefert's log to the audio materials titled Musical History of Woody Herman.

Series 6: Audio-Visual Materials

Commercial audio disc recordings, reference recordings and transcription discs, ¼" open-reel audio tapes, audio cassettes, CDs and videos.
Arrangement:
Divided into 6 series. Chronologically arranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Woodrow Charles "Woody" Herman was born in Milwaukee Wisconsin on May 16, 1913. He became involved with music at an early age, working in vaudeville and becoming a professional saxophone player at 15.

He joined Isham Jones in 1934 and then when Jones' group disbanded in 1936, Herman used several former Jones musicians to form the core for Herman's first band, the Woody Herman Orchestra. This group was known for….

Renamed Woody Herman and his Herd in 1943, the group was heavily influenced by Duke Ellington. The first Herd's music was admired for its swinging arrangements. Herman disbanded this group in 1946 for family reasons, but reformed the band in 1947 as the Second Herd.

Although considered an excellent musician, Herman's talent as a organizer ensured his place in the history of American popular music. He had a rare ability to assemble musicians to create bands with distinctive and, ultimately, popular sounds.
Provenance:
Collection donated by J. William Siefert, August 13, 1998.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but a portion of the collection is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Rights:
Copyright restrictions. Contact staff for information.
Topic:
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Posters -- 20th century
Correspondence -- 20th century
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
Jack Siefert Woody Herman Collection, 1913-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0659
See more items in:
Jack Siefert Woody Herman Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep88911c80a-8d04-4d39-bd97-a65e55477a4e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0659
Online Media:

James Moody Papers

Creator:
Gillespie, Dizzy, 1917-1993  Search this
Moody, James, 1925-2010  Search this
Donor:
Moody, Linda  Search this
Extent:
14 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Contracts
Itineraries
Posters
Programs
Music
Correspondence
Articles
Business records
Personal papers
Awards
Photographs
Clippings
Date:
1989 - 2008
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents the life and career of musician James Moody, and includes: Moody's compositions and arrangements, including parts for various instruments; correspondence, some personal, some business; business records such as contracts, copyright and royalty statements, and tour itineraries; photographs, some personal, and some documenting Moody's musical activities, some featuring other musicians, especially Dizzy Gillespie; programs from jazz shows in which Moody participated; awards; and numerous articles and clippings.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
James Moody was born in Savannah, Georgia, and grew up in Reading, Pennsylvania and Newark, New Jersey, where he learned to play the saxophone. He added the flute later in life. He served in the Air Force during World War II, where he belonged to a military band, and during this time he met Dizzy Gillespie, who was giving a performance at his base. He joined Gillespie's band for a couple of years after getting out of the service in 1946, and the two developed a strong friendship and working collaboration that lasted until Gillespie died in 1993. In addition to his frequent recording and tours with Gillespie, Moody had a series of jazz acts with whom he recorded and toured; he performed as a back-up act in Las Vegas, and worked with many notables, including Dinah Washington, Benny Golson, Tito Puente and Quincy Jones. His credits include over fifty albums, such as the highly acclaimed Henry Mancini tribute album "Moody Plays Mancini," and a small role in the 1997 film, "Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil." His honors include Grammy nominations (1985 and 1990) and a posthumous Grammy award in 2010, induction into the International Jazz Hall of Fame, and his selection as a 1998 NEA Jazz Master.
Provenance:
Donated by Linda Moody, 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Reproduction restricted due to copyright or trademark. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
African American musicians  Search this
Flute players  Search this
Topic:
Saxophone  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Saxophonists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Contracts
Itineraries
Posters
Programs
Music -- Manuscripts
Correspondence
Articles
Business records
Personal papers -- 20th century
Personal papers -- 21st century
Awards
Photographs -- 1960-2000
Clippings
Citation:
James Moody Papers, ca. 1989-2008, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1405
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep839ce23e0-d165-4101-9555-6564098ada18
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1405

Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera

Collector:
Udkoff, Robert, 1918- (businessman)  Search this
Names:
Swedish Music Academy  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Ellington, Mercer Kennedy, 1919-1996 (musician)  Search this
Extent:
1.33 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Photographs
Clippings
Programs
Correspondence
Television scripts
Date:
1924-1990
Scope and Contents:
Photographs, event programs, periodicals, cassette audio tapes, correspondence, TV program scripts and pamphlets documenting Duke Ellington's career as a musician, 1924-1974, and his legacy after his death.
Arrangement:
Divided into five series.

Series 1; Photographs, 1964-1968

Series 2: Publications, 1944-1990

Series 3: Memorabilia, 1965-1981

Series 4: Correspondence and sketches, 1958-1990

Series 5; Cassette audio tapes, 1924-1933
Biographical / Historical:
Businessman and Ellington enthusiast, Robert Udkoff was born in Chicago and first heard Duke Ellington perform at Chicago's Oriental Theater in 1928. In 1932 he established a cordial relationship with Ellington that lasted until Ellington's death in 1974.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Robert Udkoff, 1991, January 29.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz musicians -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes -- 1920-1940
Photographs -- 1960-1970
Clippings
Programs
Correspondence -- 1940-2000
Television scripts
Citation:
Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera, 1924-1990, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0388
See more items in:
Robert Udkoff Collection of Duke Ellington Ephemera
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c83c8357-852a-43a9-a68c-2f3669d5039e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0388
Online Media:

Miles Davis Music Manuscript

Creator:
Miles Davis Properties.  Search this
Davis, Miles  Search this
Evans, Gil, 1912-1988  Search this
Extent:
0.15 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
1959.
Scope and Contents note:
Manuscript for "Summertime", recorded by Davis and GIl Evans in 1959.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jazz trumpeter, 1926-1991.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Miles Davis Properties, through Vince Wilburn.
Restrictions:
Copy available for general research use. Access to original by special request.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts -- Music -- 20th century
Citation:
Miles Davis Music Manuscript, 1959, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0920
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8800c2aaa-5b71-4d85-a41b-4068cad17b3f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0920
Online Media:

Louis Armstrong Music Manuscripts

Creator:
Armstrong, Louis, 1901-1971  Search this
Extent:
0.3 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Manuscripts
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents note:
Conductor's scores for: "Didn't it Rain", "Shadrack", "This Train", "Sometimes", "Jonah", "Down by the Riverside", "Jonah and the Whale", "Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen". Condensed scores for: "Shadrack", "Go Down Moses", Ezekiel", "Motherless Child", "Rock My Soul".
Arrangement:
1 series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Jazz vocalist and trumpet player.
Provenance:
Collection purchased at Guernsey's Auction,108 East 73rd Street, New York, New York 10021.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Manuscripts -- Music -- 20th century
Citation:
Louis Armstrong Music Manuscripts, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0904
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8b9fc2ae8-1a58-4ff8-918c-a7dd6bbcc746
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0904
Online Media:

Ben and Ruth Liman Jazz Films Collection

Performer:
Carmichael, Hoagy  Search this
Arnaz, Desi, 1917-1986  Search this
Calloway, Cab, 1907-  Search this
Waller, Fats, 1904-1943  Search this
James, Harry  Search this
Horne, Lena  Search this
Clooney, Rosemary  Search this
Singer:
Mills Brothers.  Search this
Donor:
Liman, Ruth  Search this
Liman, Ben  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Motion pictures (visual works)
Date:
1930s-1940s.
Summary:
16mm motion picture films, produced in the 1930s and 1940s by various film production companies, documenting performances by jazz and popular music performers, including Cab Calloway, Fats Waller, Lena Horne, the Mills Brothers, and Rosemary Clooney, and others listed below.
Scope and Contents:
Five (5) reels of 16mm motion picture film created in the 1940s by various commercial film production companies, featuring performances by jazz and popular music performers. Individual titles have been assembled into compilation reels by the donor.
Arrangement:
1 series.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Ernie Smith Jazz Film Collection (NMAH.AC.0491)

Smithsonian Jazz Oral History Program Collection (NMAH.AC.0808)
Provenance:
The Ben and Ruth Liman Jazz Film Collection was donated to the Archives Center in 2001.
Restrictions:
No reference copies exist. If their condition allow the films may be viewed.
Rights:
Copyright and related intellectual property rights issues may restrict reproduction.
Topic:
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Motion pictures (visual works)
Citation:
Ben and Ruth Liman Jazz Film Collection, 1930s-1940s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0775
See more items in:
Ben and Ruth Liman Jazz Films Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep82a2ec460-b9f5-4028-865b-4349b10178e5
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0775

Henry S. Bukowski Big Band Collection, [primarily photoprints]

Creator:
Bukowski, Henry S., 1922-  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.). Division of Community Life  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (3 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
ca. 1930s-1940s
Summary:
Publicity photographs and postcards of entertainers, mostly jazz musicians and leaders of dance bands, etc., and related memorabilia.
Scope and Contents note:
The collection contains primarily publicity photographs: a mixture of prints from original negatives, prints from copy negatives, etc. Most are 8" x 10" or 5" x 7", some smaller, and some are postcard size or smaller (these include Areal photo@ postcards, i.e., original photographic images printed on special silver gelatin paper). A few photomechanical images are included, as well as a few letters from celebrities to Mr. Bukowski, 1938-1939. The earliest item noted in the collection is a 1933 Christmas card. Several examples of Gene Krupa=s novelty pin, consisting of crossed drumsticks and a miniature phonograph record, are included. The actual number of items in each folder is shown in the Container List; items are conventional silver gelatin photoprints unless otherwise identified. There is also a scrapbook containing news clippings, photographs, and other memorabilia, with a list, affixed to the back cover, of bands which Mr. Bukowski heard in person. Although some of the photographs bear autographs with generic, somewhat impersonal messages, many are addressed personally to the collector and are fine examples of the interaction between celebrity and fan. The notation Asigned@ in the Container List identifies items autographed by performers.

Most of the subjects are musicians and entertainers associated with big jazz and popular music bands of the period; however, most of the images are studio publicity portraits of individual bandleaders and stars, rather than pictures of entire bands. Photographers represented include Bruno of Hollywood and Maurice Seymour, although many others are not identified.

Publicity photographs often were not archivally processed, and many photoprints in the collection show evidence of fading and yellowing from inadequate fixation or washing. Prints which are in exceptionally good condition are noted in the Container List.

Mr. Bukowski formed this collection in the 1930s and 1940s, but he added a few related items in the 1980s and 1990s.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into one series.
Biographical/Historical note:
Henry S. Bukowski collected these pictures and other memorabilia during the 1930s and 1940s as a fan of big band music. He began his collection while in grammar school through library research, by locating bands active in New York City, then sending them penny postcards to request autographed publicity pictures. He also listened to late-night radio broadcasts and copied the addresses of bands based in other parts of the country. AOut went my penny postcards,@ he notes. After hearing trombonist Tommy Dorsey=s band at a local ballroom at age fourteen, he became interested in the instrument, and his older brothers Bernie and Ted bought him his first trombone from a pawnshop for ten dollars. When he was old enough, he frequented the New Haven Arena and the State Theatre in Hartford, Connecticut to hear bands in person. These bands and the admission prices he paid (25 to 99 cents) are listed in his scrapbook. Mr. Bukowski maintained an avid interest in popular Abig band@ jazz and swing music as both a fan and a player, and eventually served with a U.S. Army band for three and a half years after being drafted.

Mr. Bukowski was born on April 11, 1922 in Wallingford, Connecticut, the youngest of nine children. He was married to Mildred Moss for forty-eight years until her death October 15, 2000; they had no children. In a letter of September 1, 2001, he reported that he had one surviving sibling, a brother in Wallingford.

Source

Letter, 2 pp., in Archives Center collection control file. The Archives Center is grateful to Mr. Bukowski for his generous gift as well as his thoughtfulness in providing the above information.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Henry S. Bukowski, 1984.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Most of the photographs presumably are under copyright, but they were made and widely distributed for free publication.
Topic:
Publicity  Search this
Popular music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Portraits  Search this
Musicians -- 1900-1950  Search this
Big bands  Search this
Music -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Henry S. Bukowski Big Band Collection, ca. 1930s-1940s, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0678
See more items in:
Henry S. Bukowski Big Band Collection, [primarily photoprints]
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8e0434ff7-5393-4c17-b3eb-1b29fcc265d4
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0678
Online Media:

Tom Whaley Collection

Composer:
Whaley, Thomas L.  Search this
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Cubic feet (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Correspondence
Business records
Music
Photographs
Programs
Date:
1941-1979
Scope and Contents:
Papers documenting Whaley's association with Duke Ellington and his career as a copyist, pianist, composer and arranger. The collection includes letters, photographs, music manuscripts, business records, writings, and printed materials including magazine and newspapers articles, concert programs, and catalogs.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into eight series.

Series 1: Music Materials, 1942-1968

Series 2: Performances and Programs, 1948-1972

Series 3: Business records, 1951-1968

Series 4: Scripts, circa 1944-1970

Series 5: Correspondence, ca. 1956-1967

Series 6: Photographs, undated

Series 7: Publications, circa 1944-1972

Series 8: Miscellaneous Material, 1960-1969
Biographical / Historical:
Composer, pianist and arranger, best remembered as Duke Ellington's chief copyist from 1941-1971.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Mercer Ellington in 1988.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Occupation:
Composers -- 20th century  Search this
Topic:
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Musicians -- 20th century  Search this
Pianists  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 1940-1980
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Business records -- 1950-2000
Music -- Manuscripts
Photographs -- 20th century
Programs -- Concerts
Citation:
Tom Whaley Collection, ca. 1941-1979, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0652
See more items in:
Tom Whaley Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep8c9a895cb-29f9-4252-af80-b01243033071
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0652
Online Media:

Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group

Creator:
Hodora, Morris  Search this
Duke Ellington Society  Search this
TDES, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (7 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Programs
Date:
1981-1993
Scope and Contents:
Eight conference programs, seventeen videotapes, and eighty-six cassette audio tapes documenting the proceedings of the International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Collector, president and board member of the New York chapter of the Duke Ellington Society (TDES).
Provenance:
Collection donated by Morris Hodora, July 16, 1990.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Musicians -- United States  Search this
Music -- 20th century  Search this
Jazz -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes -- 1980-1990
Audiotapes -- 1990-2000
Videotapes
Programs -- 1980-2000
Citation:
Annual International Conference of the Duke Ellington Study Group Proceedings, 1981-1993, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0385
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ep839a2e9f7-495a-411b-8294-4cc22f71bed0
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0385

Modify Your Search







or


Narrow By
  • Archives Center, National Museum of American History