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Grayce Uyehara Papers

Topic:
Social Justice
Creator:
Uyehara, Grayce  Search this
Donor:
Uyehara, Paul M.  Search this
Uyehara, Paul M.  Search this
Names:
Japanese American Citizens' League  Search this
Extent:
18 Cubic feet (18 boxes)
Culture:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Articles
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence)
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports
Slides
Speeches
Videocassettes
Date:
1929-2008
Summary:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II.
Content Description:
The papers document the life and activism of Grayce Uyehara who was a pivotal figure within the Redress Movement and sought reparations for the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The collection materials span different social justice topics that Uyehara was involved with outside of Japanese American communities. Geographically, the materials are primarily from her time in Stockton, California; Rohwer, Arkansas; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Washington, D.C., as well as other places.

The papers include materials relating to Uyehara's own incarceration; her lobbying work with the Japanese American Citizens League; other activism and grass roots activities; speeches; campaign materials; articles; memos; financial reports; work journals; photographs of the Uyeharas; community newspapers; film slides of redress; personal letters; internal correspondence; leadership conference notes; educational materials; interviews; awards; student theses; pamphlets; booklets; oral histories; maps; meeting minutes; newsletters; directories; and congressional records.
Arrangement:
The collection is unarranged.
Biographical:
Grayce Uyehara was a social worker and pivotal Redress Movement activist who helped lead the reparations campaign for the wrongful incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. Uyehara was born Ritsuko Kaneda on July 4th, 1919, in Stockton, California. Her parents named her Ritsu, which roughly translates to notions of law and independence, informed by their understanding of the significance of Independence Day. Her father, Tsuyanoshi Kaneda, worked in agriculture and business and performed domestic tasks. Through this, he developed a reliable business working for lawyers, doctors, and school administrators. Her mother, Tome Kaneda, raised their children. Her mother was strict but also encouraged her children to excel at whatever they did. She enrolled them in Japanese and music classes and expected them to help out at church and in the community. Uyehara was the second of seven children, and as the eldest daughter was expected to be a role model for her younger siblings.

In high school, Uyehara belonged to a Japanese student club, excelled in her schoolwork, and was part of the marching band, playing the bassoon. She also played piano for Sunday school at church, which had both English and Japanese services. She became involved in the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), participating in its oratorical contests. Because of her community service, the elders and her peers in the Japanese American community respected Uyehara.

Uyehara majored in music at the University of the Pacific. She believed music would allow her to start a career as a local Japanese American piano teacher and church organist. She worked many jobs to pay for tuition while her parents helped cover her costs. While in college, she became involved in the Japanese American Young People's Christian Conference (YPCC) in Northern California. Uyehara continued to be recognized for her leadership and competence by becoming the chairperson of the Sacramento YPCC as a college senior.

In January 1942, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Uyehara was asked by the university president to become an instructor to teach Japanese to young men in military service at the local army base. Citing her patriotic duty, she accepted the position. She was able to finish school before being incarcerated, partly because her mother pushed her to do well and to stay in school. When the Uyehara family prepared to leave their home in April, one of her professors offered to hold their household belongings. Although she satisfied her graduation requirements, she received her degree in absentia. Two of her siblings were also in college when their academic careers were interrupted. She was very upset that her parents did not get to see her graduate because they had sacrificed so much.

The Kaneda family was forcibly relocated to the Stockton Temporary Detention Center in May 1942. At the Stockton Center, she put her service skills to work and assisted other Nisei inmates in organizing a makeshift school for Japanese American youth. Located on the site of the county fairgrounds, the school was forced to hold classes in the grandstands. Through one of her father's contacts, she was able to secure a donation of books, and she became the supervisor in charge of elementary education. Some of the young soldiers that she taught at the base also came to visit her. She spent four months there, and in September of 1942, her family was notified that they would be forcibly moved to Rohwer, Arkansas. While her family traveled ahead, she stayed behind to help close the Stockton Temporary Detention Center.

At Rohwer, Uyehara remained active and continued to hone her leadership and organizational skills. She helped create church services for young people, played the piano at various events, and taught music in junior high-level classes. During this time, she realized that her previous career path as a piano teacher was not realistic. She discovered that the Minnesota State Teachers College was offering scholarships to eligible camp inmates and decided to pursue the opportunity. She left the camp in January 1943 with three other young Nisei. She lived at a boarding house with another Nisei student from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. She had an active social life but found the classes to be unchallenging. During the summer in St. Paul, she stayed with a woman who was active with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, a liberal group who spoke out against war. Unsure of what to do next, she then returned to Rohwer where she worked at the camp hospital, continually checking for jobs. She found a job listing in Virginia where one of her younger sisters was attending school, and she left Rohwer for the last time. In Virginia, she worked as an editorial secretary. She was grateful that it was not a service job, which was the norm for young Japanese American women. Uyehara's brother, Ben, was attending Temple University in Philadelphia during this time. He assured her that the Quakers would help the Kaneda family with moving from the camp. Convinced, she packed up again and moved further north.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara found an apartment in the Fellowship House, an organization providing workshops on race relations in the city. She began working for Family Services, a social service agency in the Germantown area of Philadelphia as a receptionist and typist, but she also conducted intake interviews with the clients of the agency. She further continued her role as a community leader by becoming involved with the International Institute which assisted immigrants settling in Philadelphia, and became concerned with the needs of the Japanese American population moving in. Working closely with the Institute, she helped form the Philadelphia Nisei Council, which coordinated with the War Relocation Authority. She was the Nikkei representative of the Philadelphia Committee of Social Service Agencies whose role was to assist with relocation problems. Uyehara developed a handbook that detailed practical issues such as the cost of living in the city, how to rent an apartment, and where to find jobs. The Council began a newsletter, so the community could be aware of new people moving in to the area and of community events. She also started youth groups to provide activities and social interaction for high school and college-age youth coming out of the camp experience.

In Philadelphia, Uyehara became re-acquainted with Hiroshi Uyehara, whose mother knew Grayce's mother. They briefly met in Rohwer. He worked at a nearby Westinghouse factory as a draftsman. He had to receive an Army and Navy clearance, and during the wait went on strike. He became a volunteer at the International Institute where they reconnected. They married in 1946. Later, she and her husband were among those who formed the Philadelphia Chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) to influence more people on social issues affecting Japanese Americans in a national context. Afterwards, the director of the International Institute arranged for the board to pay her graduate school tuition at the University of Pennsylvania while she worked as a social worker for the agency. She graduated in 1947 with a Masters in Social Work. Within two years of working in the community, she was asked to serve on the Philadelphia Fellowship Commission. She used this opportunity to highlight the perspectives of Japanese Americans.

The Uyehara's first son, Chris, was born in May of 1948. In 1950, they had a second child, Lisa. The International Institute asked her to return as a volunteer, and she started a program to help American servicemen and Japanese brides returning from Japan to adjust to a new life. She worked directly with Japanese women in teaching American customs, including etiquette and cooking lessons. She also provided individual counseling. She was very active with the local Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and became president, creating parent education programs and raising funds for the local school library. Uyehara was also very active in the National Association of Social Workers, the Cub Scouts, the local Presbyterian church, the West Chester Human Relationships Council, and the League of Women Voters. Later, she had two more children, Larry, in 1952, and Paul, in 1955. During this time, she was asked to help in establishing the first day care center for working mothers in West Chester. Despite the low pay, she was instrumental in establishing the center. In addition, she got involved in civil rights issues for African Americans, especially for school desegregation and upgrading placement rates for African American students.

In 1972, Uyehara served as the governor for the Eastern District Council of the JACL. She was on the National Board, and was the vice-president for General Operations, Chapter President, the National Civil Rights Committee, and the National Scholarship Committee. In 1974, Uyehara was the first woman to hold a JACL elected office. From 1973 to 1974, she was on the National Education Committee. She used her organizational skills to rearrange some existing educational programs so that the history of Japanese Americans could become more well known throughout the country. She also prioritized projects within the committee to make the programs more attractive to potential funders. Her ability to effectively organize with the JACL was influenced by the lessons learned in reading Years of Infamy by Michi Weglyn, and in the organizing lessons within African American communities after Brown v. Board of Education was passed.

In 1978, Uyehara was present at the 1978 Salt Lake City Convention when JACL decided to pursue redress, and was asked to be on the National Committee for Redress. Using her experience in improving school districts for African Americans, she worked hard to generate educational materials, bombard congressional offices and speak at various events and community organizations. She was also effective in gaining support from the Presbyterian Church and Jewish organizations. By 1985 she devised a plan to reach people on the East Coast, since there weren't many JACL chapters in major cities there. She retired from her job as a school social worker in order to help the JACL achieve redress. In the spring, she transferred to the Legislative Education Committee (LEC). Her philosophy was "If you're going to do it, you do it right. You just don't talk about it".

Uyehara did a lot of traveling between Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. Her husband was very supportive during this time. The leadership in Washington consisted of JACL officials and four Nikkei congressmen, who recognized Uyehara's work in coalition building and developing political relationships. Whenever a new member of Congress signed on to the Civil Liberties Act, she would send out a press statement, and any significant chapter events would be announced through her "Action Alerts." She also led congressional meetings with people like Senator Inouye, Ralph Neas, and Mike Masaoka because she was very familiar with the legislative process.

Uyehara sent information "vernaculars" to newspapers and newsletter organizations in New York and Los Angeles as well as the Pacific Citizen, so that people could see progress taking place within the redress effort. She urged people to initiate contacts in states like Florida and North Carolina to ensure votes were not lost. If an area had lower numbers of Japanese American constituents, she would ask different contacts to support the redress effort and lobby congress to vote for it. She also used her existing relationships with the American Friends Service Committee, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Jewish war veterans, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'irth and the American Jewish Committee. Greatly aided by her efforts, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 was passed. It issued a formal apology from the government and $20,000 to each surviving incarceree. This act also required monuments, museums, and classrooms to teach the history of Japanese American incarceration so similar discrimination would never happen again to others.

After redress was passed, Uyehara was still actively involved in community organizing. She chaired the JACL Legacy Fund campaign, which raised over $5 million to support other JACL programs. She engaged with the Japanese House and Garden in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, speaking at educational engagements about redress and organizing efforts for residents in her retirement community through the Diversity Committee and the Mental Health Committee. She also helped coordinate the Philadelphia area fundraising effort for the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation. In addition, she enjoyed spending more time with family, gardening, and playing the piano.

In 2014, Uyehara was honored by Asian Americans United with its Standing Up for Justice Award. Uyehara passed away on June 22, 2014, at Virtual Memorial Hospital in Mount Holly, New Jersey. Japanese Americans remember Uyehara for her effectiveness and dedication as an activist, community leader, and the mother of Redress. Her experiences of being discriminated against and having to work to support the family at a young age sensitized her to the plight of working women and the economically disadvantaged. This greatly informed her service not only for Japanese Americans, but for all communities in America.

Sources

Susan Nakaoka. "Nisei Political Activists: The Stories of Five Japanese American Women Master of Arts., (University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 1999) found in Grayce Uyehara Papers, Box 1, Folder N, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.

Gammage, Jeff. "Grayce Uyehara, fought for interned Japanese-Americans." The Philadelphia Inquirer, https://www.inquirer.com/philly/obituaries/20140624_Grayce_Uyehara fought_for_interned_Japanese-Americans.html June 23, 2014. Last Accessed March 18, 2019.
Provenance:
Collection donated to the Archives Center in 2019 by Paul M. Uyehara.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research use.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Civil rights movements  Search this
Concentration camps -- United States  Search this
Newspapers -- 20th century  Search this
Reparations for historical injustices  Search this
Genre/Form:
Articles -- 20th century
Audio cassettes
Awards
Compact discs
Letters (correspondence) -- 20th century.
Memoranda
Minutes
Newsclippings
Newsletters
Oral history
Pamphlets
Photographs
Reports -- 20th century
Slides
Speeches -- 20th century
Videocassettes
Citation:
Grayce Uyehara Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1480
See more items in:
Grayce Uyehara Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1480
Online Media:

Floyd Shimomura Papers

Creator:
Shimomura, Floyd  Search this
Names:
Japanese Americans Citizens League  Search this
Extent:
2 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Articles
Writings
Speeches
Minutes
Financial records
Clippings
Business records
Reports
Newsletters
Place:
California
Date:
1978-2004
bulk 1981-1984
Scope and Contents:
The collection documents Shimomura's work with the Japanese American Citizens' League in its efforts to seek redress for the internment of citizens of Japanese descent during World War II. The collection contains correspondence, especially with various chapters of JACL; reports; meeting minutes; business and financial records; convention materials; writings, notes, speeches and testimony; newsletters; campaign materials; clippings and articles; and travel papers for a JACL delegation to Japan.
Arrangement:
Collection is unarranged.
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1948, Shimomura graduated from the University of California, Davis, law school in 1973. He has worked for the State of California for most of his legal career. From 1982 to 1984 he was President of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL). During his presidency he worked to seek redress for citizens of Japanese descent who were interned during World War II.
Related Materials:
William Marutani Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Floyd Shimomura in 2016.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Concentration camps -- 1942-1945 -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1980-1990
Articles -- 1980-1990
Writings -- 1980-1990
Speeches -- 1980-1990
Minutes -- 1980-1990
Financial records -- 1980-1990
Clippings -- 1980-1990
Business records -- 1980-1990
Reports -- 1980-1990
Newsletters -- 1980-1990
Citation:
Floyd Shimomura Papers, 1978-2004 (bulk 1981-1984), Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.1376
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-1376

Kamikawa and Omata Family Papers

Creator:
Omata, Hiroko  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Genealogical tables
Genealogies
Date:
ca. 1900-2006.
Summary:
The collection documents family history in Japan and in America and consists of photographs, documents and genealogical charts. There are also original audio recordings of Japanese poetry recitations and a transcript of an oral history interview relating to the internment of Japanese Americans.
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consists of genealogical and historical information about the Kamikawa, Omata, and Matsumoto families and their descendants compiled by Hiroko Kamikawa Omata. The materials include ancestry charts, copies of photographs, letters, interviews, and copies of official documents such as diplomas, naturalization papers, as well as announcements regarding the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. The collection was arranged by the donor, and the Archives Center has maintained this arrangement. All dates in this collection refer to the original creation date of the collected materials. The family papers were originally amassed in 2004 and were edited in 2006.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Kamikawa, Omata and Matsumoto Families Papers, 1850-2006, undated

Series 2: Oral History Interview, 2004
Biographical/Historical note:
: Four Kamikawa brothers, Riichi, Mitsuiji, Masuichi and Koichi, emigrated from Japan to Fresno, California, just before the turn of the twentieth century. They married and started a merchant business, Kamikawa Brothers, which operated in Fresno, Selma, San Francisco and Del Rey, California, and in Japan. The brothers expanded the business to include banking, a hotel, grocery, restaurant, public bath, vineyard and other enterprises. During World War II, family members were interned at a camp in Arkansas. After the war many settled in New Jersey and Maryland.

Members of the Omata family -- a brother, George, and two sisters, also immigrated to California in the 1890s, though the sisters eventually returned to Japan. George established grocery and dry good stores in Hanford, California, and was successful in securing day laborers for community businesses. George's son, Robert, married Hiroko, the daughter of Masuichi Kamikawa, in 1948. Some members of the Omata family also were interned, and they too eventually settled on the East Coast.

The Matsumoto family was a well-to-do family in Japan. They were involved in the production of fertilizer and steel. Katsu (Kazu) Masimoto was the wife of Masuichi Kamikawa, and mother of Hiroko Kamikawa Omata.
Related Materials:
Materials in the Archives Center

Bishop Mitsumyo Tottori Memorial Notebooks (NMAH.AC.0926)

Japanese American Documentary Collection (NMAH.AC.0305)

Gerald Lamboley Collection of Japanese-American Letters (NMAH.AC.0450)

Catherine Hann Papers (NMAH.AC.0921)

Juanita Tamayo Lott Filipino American Photographs and Papers (NMAH.AC.0925)
Provenance:
Collection donated by Hiroko Omata, 2006.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research and access on site by appointment. Unprotected photographs must be handled with gloves.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Merchants -- 20th century  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Japanese American families -- Photographs  Search this
Japanese American families  Search this
Immigrants  Search this
Genre/Form:
Genealogical tables
Genealogies
Citation:
Kamikawa and Omata Family Papers, ca. 1900-2006, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0924
See more items in:
Kamikawa and Omata Family Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0924

William M. Marutani Papers

Donor:
Marutani, Victoria  Search this
Marutani, Victoria  Search this
Creator:
Marutani, William M.  Search this
Names:
Japanese Americans Citizens League  Search this
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians  Search this
Extent:
1 Cubic foot (4 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Photographs
Awards
Legal documents
Date:
1940-2003
Summary:
These materials are arranged chronologically and include information about Marutani's life and professional activities. The series includes information about his time in the Army, his association with Tule Lake, his work on the Loving v. Virginia case, photographs, a plaque from the Tule Lake Reunion Committee, and lecture research and notes.
Scope and Contents:
Papers mostly relating to Marutani's activism on behalf of former inmates of Japanese American internment camps during World War II, including: papers relating to Marutani's service with the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, notes, facts and copies of historic documents he gathered; correspondence with former internees; photographs of camps and internees; legislative and litigative materials; and papers relating to Marutani's own wartime and post-war experiences.

This collection documents Marutani's activism on behalf of former Japanese American internment camp residents. Included are papers relating to Marutani's involvement with the CWRIC, notes, research, and photocopies of historic documents; correspondence; photographs of camps and internees; and legislative and litigation materials. Also, there are papers relating to Marutani's own wartime and post-war experiences.

Series 1: Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC), 1940-1990 These materials relate to the investigation by the Commission and the response to the results. Series one is divided into two subseries: Correspondence, 1980-1984 and Reference Materials, 1942-1990. The correspondence is in the original order that Marutani created and relates to research, communications between Commission members, and reactions to the Commission's findings. The reference materials also include research done in affiliation with the Commission.

Series Two: William M. Marutani Papers, 1942-2003
Arrangement:
Collection arranged into one series.
Biographical / Historical:
William M. Marutani, a second generation Japanese American, was born in Kent, Washington. In the fall of 1941, he enrolled in courses at the University of Washington, but was forced to leave because of Executive Order 9066, which initiated the wartime incarceration of Japanese Americans. Marutani was taken to Fresno Assembly Center in the spring of 1942, and three months later was transferred to Tule Lake concentration camp, where he spent an additional three months. At the age of 20, he volunteered for the armed forces but was denied because of his Japanese ancestry. However, in 1944, he was inducted into a military intelligence school and later sent to Japan where he served in the Counter Intelligence Corps. In 1953, Marutani graduated from the University of Chicago Law School and joined the firm of MacCoy, Evans, and Lewis. He provided legal counsel for the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) and presented arguments in Loving v. Virginia, the ruling that struck down anti-miscegenation laws. In 1981, President Jimmy Carter appointed Marutani to the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC). This commission was created to investigate the incarceration of Japanese Americans and reparations for that action. Marutani was the only Japanese American to serve on the Commission. Based on his recommendations, Congress issued a payment with an apology to those affected. Marutani accepted the apology from President George Bush but refused the payment. Marutani passed away on November 15, 2004, at the age of 81.
Provenance:
Donated to the Archives Center by Marutani's widow, Victoria Marutani, in 2005.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Concentration camps -- 1942-1945 -- United States  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1950-2000
Photographs -- 20th century
Awards
Legal documents -- 1940-2000
Citation:
William M. Marutani Papers, 1942-2002, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0890
See more items in:
William M. Marutani Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0890
Online Media:

Gerald Lamboley Collection of Japanese-American Letters

Creator:
Sato, Sanji (student)  Search this
Satow, R. (student)  Search this
Satow, Susama Paul (student)  Search this
Lamboley, E. Gerald  Search this
Sato, Kiyo (student)  Search this
Komata, Tomi (student)  Search this
Names:
Edward Kelley School (Sacramento (Cal.))  Search this
Pinedale Assembly Camp.  Search this
Poston Relocation Camp  Search this
War Relocation Authority  Search this
Cox, Mary Aline, 1890-1972 (teacher)  Search this
Extent:
0.12 Cubic feet (1 folder, 6 letters)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Biographies
Typescripts
Transcripts
Place:
Sacramento (Calif.) -- Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Poston (Ariz.) -- Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Pinedale (Calif.) -- Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Date:
1942-1943
Summary:
Letters from students of Japanese-American ancestry to Miss Cox, their former teacher at the Edward Kelley School in Sacramento, California. This teacher has been identified as Mary Aline Cox by Ms. Colleen Zoller, January 13, 2009.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains six letters dated 1942 1943 from former students of Japanese American ancestry to Miss Cox, a teacher at the Edward Kelley School in Sacramento, California. Three letters were written from inside a camp, while the others were written from outside of camp. The letters are arranged chronologically. Sanji Sato, a young male not yet out of high school, penned both Letters 1 and 3. The first dated June 12, 1942 was written from Pinedale "A.C." [Assembly Center]. This letter contains a brief description of the center, one of many used to keep internees until the ten more permanent camps were prepared to receive them, and its physical surroundings, as well a mention of the medical examination and vaccinations the evacuees underwent.

Letter 3, more lengthy in nature, covers the dates January 1, 1943, to March 6, 1943. Sent from Poston, Arizona (location of the largest relocation camp), Sato indicated the block and barrack numbers of his lodgings. The camp is defined by the arid surroundings, temperature, flora and fauna, and natural landmarks; its

inhabitants are defined by their New Year's Exhibition and Boy Scout Troops. Pertinent to the historian are Sato's opinion of the "loyalty" forms, why Japanese Americans should fight in World War II, and the behavior of other Poston residents. Also of interest are his personal discussions of his former life on the farm, his passion for the American flag, and remembrance of his dog.

Letter 2 was written by a student identified as "Kiyo" on December 26, 1942, in Garrett, Indiana while on vacation from college (later identified as Ms. Kiyo Sato). A former internee at Poston Relocation Center, she wrote of her reaction to school and dorm life, as well as her reaction, as a person of Japanese ancestry, to a Midwestern town. She expressed hope of ending any misconceptions and of the evacuees returning home "in one piece." Letter 4 is signed "R. Satow and family" and dated April 19, 1943. A year after leaving the relocation center, the writer, having reached Keenesburg, Colorado, thanks Miss Cox for her assistance. The writer's surroundings are reported in addition to updates on other former internees' activities.

The Poston Relocation Center was also the home of Susuma Paul Satow, writer of Letter 5. Satow diplayed the belief that his volunteering in the army benefited the government and reflected well on Japanese Americans. Another topic discussed the regret that some "No No Boys" experienced and Satow's personal lack of empathy for them. The writer voiced concern about anti Japanese American discrimination in Sacramento, and, thus, his hesitancy to return.

Letter 6, from Tomi Komata, was undated and meant to inform Miss Cox of his life in college (possibly Downer College). "Released and happy," Komata announced the lack of expected discrimination and the racial tension that did exist, as well as his scorn of those in camp who listened to rumors of prejudice. Mentions of the WRA and how internees should be more willing to embrace its programs are included.
Arrangement:
1 series. Not arranged.
Biographical / Historical:
On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 to bar "any and all persons" from certain sections of the United States for purposes of national defense. A reaction to the "yellow peril" "demonstrated" by the attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, the Executive Order would mean that all Japanese immigrants and Americans of Japanese ancestry would be required to "evacuate" the West Coast of the United States. By the end of this policy in 1946, over 120,000 men, women, and children had been forcefully relocated to various types of internment camps.

Not only had the possessions and lives of these people been disrupted, their privacy and Constitutional rights were ignored as the government thoroughly investigated their lives, looking for any signs of disloyalty to America. Early in 1943, tests were made of their "loyalty" as they were asked to forswear allegiance to the emperor of Japan, swear allegiance to the United States, and volunteer for military service.

Through programs established by the War Relocation Authority (WRA), internees were permitted to leave the camps permanently, provided they had a job or attended a college or university and passed additional government investigations. By 1943, 17,000 people had left the camps in this manner. Others left by joining the military. By 1946, the last permanent camp was dismantled.
Materials in Other Organizations:
War Relocation Authority, Record Group 210, or those of the United States Commands, 1947 , Record Group 338, National Archives and records Administration

National Headquarters of the Japanese American Citizens League in San Francisco, California

Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, California
Materials in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History:
Japanese American Documentary Collection, 1905-1945 (AC0305)
Provenance:
Collection donated by E. Gerald Lamboley, June 2, 1992.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Usage or copyright restrictions. Contact repository for further information.
Topic:
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Internees -- Japanese Americans -- 1940-1950  Search this
Concentration camps -- United States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japanese Americans  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Evacuation of civilians  Search this
Teachers -- 1940-1950  Search this
Students -- 1940-1950  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1940-1950
Biographies
Typescripts -- 1940-1950
Transcripts
Citation:
Gerald Lamboley Collection of Japanese-American Letters, 1942-1943, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0450
See more items in:
Gerald Lamboley Collection of Japanese-American Letters
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0450
Online Media:

Children of Manzanar / edited by Heather C. Lindquist ; foreword by Mary Daniel ; epilogue by Alisa Lynch

Editor:
Lindquist, Heather C. http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2011078792 http://viaf.org/viaf/210983581  Search this
Subject:
Manzanar War Relocation Center History  Search this
Manzanar War Relocation Center History  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 146, [2] pages : illustrations, portraits ; 21 cm
Type:
Interviews
Pictorial works
Illustrated works
History
Place:
California
Manzanar
Date:
2012
20th century
20th Century
Topic:
Japanese American children--History  Search this
Children--History  Search this
Japanese Americans  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1103916

The unquiet Nisei : an oral history of the life of Sue Kunitomi Embrey Diana Meyers Bahr

Author:
Bahr, Diana Meyers 1930- http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n93027849 http://viaf.org/viaf/12586922/  Search this
Author:
ProQuest (Firm) http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n2007068018 http://viaf.org/viaf/125993931/  Search this
Subject:
Embrey, Sue Kunitomi http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n85347318 http://viaf.org/viaf/238272593/  Search this
Embrey, Sue Kunitomi http://id.worldcat.org/fast/fst01476301 http://viaf.org/viaf/238272593/  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource (xii, 192 pages) illustrations, map
Type:
Personal narratives, American
Biography
Asian American
Place:
United States of America, USA
Date:
2007
20th century, c 1900 to c 1999
Topic:
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
World War, 1939-1945--Japanese Americans  Search this
Japanese Americans  Search this
Oral history  Search this
BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY--Historical  Search this
HISTORY--Military--World War II  Search this
Gender studies: women  Search this
History of the Americas  Search this
Gender studies: women & girls  Search this
Biography: general  Search this
Society  Search this
Call number:
D769.8.A6 B28 2007 (Internet)
Restrictions & Rights:
1-user
Use copy Restrictions unspecified
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1144992

Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall collection of Miné Okubo papers

Creator:
Okubo, Miné, 1912-2001  Search this
Names:
Central Utah Relocation Center  Search this
Hall, Gaylord  Search this
Hamilton, Howard  Search this
Leeper, Roy  Search this
Tono, Doris  Search this
Tono, Harry  Search this
Extent:
1.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Drawings
Sketches
Illustrated letters
Date:
circa 1940-2001
Summary:
The Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall collection of Miné Okubo papers measure 1.4 linear feet and date from circa 1940 to 2001. Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall were long-time friends with and patrons of Okubo from the late 1950s until her death. The collection contains letters, writings, and sketches by Okubo. Among the printed materials is a copy of the 1944 special edition of Fortune magazine which was sympathetic to Japanese Americans interned during World War II and for which Okubo was hired to illustrate. Also found are scattered documents relating to Hall and Leeper.
Scope and Contents:
The Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall collection of Miné Okubo papers measure 1.4 linear feet and date from circa 1940 to 2001. Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall were long-time friends with and patrons of Okubo from the late 1950s until her death. The collection contains letters, writings, and sketches by Okubo. Among the printed materials is a copy of the 1944 special edition of Fortune magazine which was sympathetic to Japanese Americans interned during World War II and for which Okubo was hired to illustrate. Also found are scattered documents relating to Hall and Leeper.

Biographical materials consist of Roy Leeper's medical licenses. The bulk of the collection is comprised of Miné Okubo's letters, many of which are illustrated, to Hall and Leeper discussing her health, career, their purchase of her artwork, and mutual friends. Other correspondents include Howard Hamilton and Doris and Harry Tono. Writings and notes by Okubo inlcude a statement about the pricing of her artwork and a list of artwork. Leeper and Hall's personal business records concern the purchase and loan of Okubo's artwork for exhibitions.

Printed materials include a 1944 edition of Fortune magazine devoted to the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. The issue includes reproductions of Okubo's illustrations of life in the World War II internment camp in Topaz, Utah. Photographs include snapshots of Okubo at an exhibition with her art and of works of art. Sketches and drawings depict mostly cats and flowers.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 7 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1942-1994 (1 folder; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1957-2001 (0.8 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1940-circa 1970 (3 folders; Box 1)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1957-1998 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 5: Printed Material, 1944-2000 (0.3 linear feet; Boxes 1-3)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1940-circa 1990s (3 folders; Box 1)

Series 7: Artwork, 1960s-1997 (0.1 linear feet; Boxes 1-2)
Biographical / Historical:
Miné Okubo (1912-2001) was a Japanese-American painter, illustrator, and author. She is known for her book Citizen 13600in which she described her experience at the Topaz War Relocation Camp in Utah through prose and drawings.

Born in Riverside, California in 1912, Okubo began her arts education at Riverside Junior College and transferred to the University of California, Berkeley where she completed her BA and MA in Fine Arts (where she first met Roy Leeper). In 1938, she received an award to travel and study under Fernand Léger in Paris. When World War II began in Europe, she moved back to California and worked under the Federal Arts Project. She produced some solo murals and also assisted Diego Rivera on his Treasure Island mural Pan American Unity, (1940).

In April of 1942, Miné Okubo and one of her brothers were sent to the Tanforan Assembly Center under Executive Order 9066, which forcibly interned over 100,000 Japanese and Japanese-American citizens living on the West Coast of the United States. Six months later, they were sent to the Topaz War Relocation Camp in Topaz, Utah. There, Okubo taught art in the camp's school and often sketched camp life. She was art editor for the camp newsletter Trek, a supplement to the Topaz Times.

In 1944, Fortune magazine published a sympathetic special edition on the Japanese and Japanese American internment during World War II. The magazine hired Okubo to illustrate two of the articles. She was permitted to leave the camp and move to New York City, where she remained for the rest of her life, working as a painter and illustrator. She wrote and illustrated a book about her experiences in the Topaz confinement camp, Citizen 13600, which won the American Book Award in 1984. Miné Okubo died in 2001. Medical doctor Roy Leeper befriended Miné Okubo while they were both students at the University of California. Later, he and his partner dentist Gaylord Hall were reintroduced to Okubo and her artwork by a mutual friend. They began a life-long relationship with Okuba, both as friends and collectors.
Related Materials:
Riverside City College in Riverside, California also holds the Miné Okubo papers.
Provenance:
Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall donated the collection of Miné Okubo papers in 2001.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Miné Okubo papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women artists  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Art patronage  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Illustrators -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Authors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Drawings
Sketches
Illustrated letters
Citation:
Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall collection of Miné Okubo papers, circa 1940-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.okubmine
See more items in:
Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall collection of Miné Okubo papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-okubmine

Bob Stocksdale and Kay Sekimachi papers

Source:
Stocksdale, Kay Sekimachi  Search this
Creator:
Stocksdale, Bob  Search this
Names:
Central Utah Relocation Center  Search this
Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America  Search this
Tanforan Assembly Center (San Bruno, Calif.)  Search this
War Relocation Authority  Search this
Anderson, Norman  Search this
Collingwood, Peter, 1922-2008  Search this
Larsen, Jack Lenor  Search this
Maloof, Alfreda Ward  Search this
Maloof, Sam  Search this
Merrill, Forrest L.  Search this
Okubo, Miné, 1912-2001  Search this
Shawcroft, Barbara  Search this
Stocksdale, Bob  Search this
Stocksdale, Kay Sekimachi  Search this
Turner, Tran  Search this
Uchida, Yoshiko  Search this
Former owner:
Stocksdale, Kay Sekimachi  Search this
Extent:
19.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Watercolors
Photographs
Date:
circa 1900-2015
Summary:
The papers of woodturner Bob Stocksdale and fiber artist Kay Sekimachi measure 19.5 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 2015. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, writings, professional files, exhibition files, project files, personal business records, printed material, scrapbooks, photographic material, and artwork. Of note are records from Sekimachi's forced internment during World War II at Tanforan Assembly Center and Topaz War Relocation Center from 1942 to 1944.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of woodturner Bob Stocksdale and fiber artist Kay Sekimachi measure 19.5 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to 2015. Found are biographical materials, correspondence, writings, professional files, exhibition files, project files, personal business records, printed material, scrapbooks, photographic material, and artwork. Of note are records from Sekimachi's forced internment during World War II at Tanforan Assembly Center and Topaz War Relocation Center from 1942 to 1944.

The bulk of biographical materials are from Kay Sekimachi with some originating from her time spent in forced internment at Topaz and Tanforan camps. These records include identification cards, War Relocation Authority printed materials, and school records. Also found are awards, resumes, and blank stationery. Some materials are from Stocksdale's 85th birthday and memorial service.

Letters and extensive greeting cards are from friends, family, and professional acquaintances. Correspondents include Norman Anderson, Peter Collingwood, Jack Lenor Larsen, Sam and Alfreda Maloof, Forrest L. Merrill, Miné Okubo, Barbara Shawcroft, and others.

Writings and notes are scattered and include two interviews with Kay Sekimachi, hanging instructions, and notes. Writings by others are by Jack Lenor Larsen, Tran Turner, and Yoshiko Uchida.

Sekimachi's and Stocksdale's professional activities are documented through files relating to their participation at conferences, awards ceremonies, and lectures. Also found are fiber samples, order forms for materials and equipment, and notes on techniques and design by Kay Sekimachi. Exhibition records include extensive documentation on Marriage in Form, In the Realm of Nature, and Loom and Lathe as well as files for various solo and group exhibitions for both Sekimachi and Stocksdale. Gallery and institution files include material on multiple or unnamed exhibitions. Exhibiton documentation may include correspondence, writings, proposals, printed material, financial and loan records, condition reports, and photographs. Project files contain material for proposed book projects, a retrospective, and portfolio, by and about Sekimachi and Stocksdale. Also found are three commissions files for works by Sekimachi. A proposed retrospective on the work of Bob Stocksdale by Kay Sekimachi includes a digital sound recording of recollections.

Personal business records include sales books, purchase records for works of art by others, appraisals, contracts, consignment receipts, and insurance records.

Published books, clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, magazines, and newsletters are found within printed materials. Of note is a publication by the San Francisco Chronicle entitled "This World" which features illustrations by Miné Okubo.

Four scrapbooks compiled by Kay Sekimachi date from 1937 to 1944. Most of the scrapbooks contain printed material from magazines and other sources with images such as children, valentines, food, birds, clothing, and may include scattered sketches and notes by Sekimachi. One scrapbook dates from the end of Sekimachi's internment at Topaz and relocation to Cincinnati, Ohio. This scrapbook includes sketches and printed materials concerning local and global events. Loose material found in this series was likely meant to be pasted into a new or the forth scrapbook. These materials include relocation information, Japanese-American publications, maps, clippings, sketches, and printed programs.

The bulk of photographic materials consist of slides of various vacation locations and homes and date from the 1960s to the 1980s. Also found are scattered portraits of Kay Sekimachi and Bob Stocksdale, as well as a photo of Miné Okubo with Roy Leeper and Cecil Thompson. Artworks are largely by Kay Sekimachi and include watercolor and pencil sketches as well as designs for fabrics and a weaving portfolio. Watercolor and pencil sketches are of Tanforan Assembly Center and date from circa 1942.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1920-2003 (1.5 linear feet; Box 1-2)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1943-2014 (7.6 linear feet; Box 2-10)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1960s-2008 (0.2 linear feet; Box 10)

Series 4: Professional Files, 1950s-2011 (1.1 linear feet; Box 10-11, 22)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1951-2015 (2.9 linear feet; Box 11-14)

Series 6: Project Files, circa 1900-2004 (0.3 linear feet; Box 14)

Series 7: Personal Business Records, 1970s-2010 (0.7 linear feet; Box 14-15)

Series 8: Printed Material, 1943-2011 (2.3 linear feet; Box 15-17, 22)

Series 9: Scrapbooks, 1937-1946 (0.9 linear feet; Box 17, 21)

Series 10: Photographic Material, circa 1950-2001 (0.9 linear feet; Box 18)

Series 11: Artwork, 1942-circa 1970 (1.1 linear feet; Box 18-20, 22-23)
Biographical / Historical:
Bob Stocksdale (1913-2003) was a woodturner active in California. He was known for bowls he formed from rare types of wood. Kay Sekimachi (1926- ) is a Japanese-American fiber artist and educator also active in California. She began her career in weaving on and off the loom and was part of the New Basketry movement.

Born in Indiana, Bob Stocksdale began his interest in carving by whittling with a pocket knife. Later, he created his own lathe with a washing machine motor and turned items such as baseball bats. During World War II, he was a conscientious objector and worked at various camps performing forestry work. It was in one of the camps that he turned his first bowl on a lathe.

After the war, Stocksdale settled in the Bay Area of California where he established his own woodturning shop in his basement. He concentrated on making bowls out of rare woods. His work has been recognized throughout the world and in 1998, he received the American Association of Woodturners Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2003, he received the James Renwick Alliance Masters of the Medium Award.

Kay Sekimachi was born in San Francisco, California in 1926. As a high school student, she was forcibly interned through Executive Order 9066 issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt which incarcerated approximately 120,000 Japanese and Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Along with her mother and siblings, Kay lived at Tanforan Assembly Center and later moved to Topaz War Relocation Center in Utah. She continued her schooling at Topaz and after 1944, was resettled in Cincinnati, Ohio.

After graduating from high school, Kay Sekimachi enrolled at the California College of Arts and Crafts and the Haystack Mountain School of Crafts where she learned the craft of weaving under Trude Guermonprez and Jack Lenor Larsen. Her early works were tapestries and garments. She later used her weaving techniques as part of the New Basketry movement to create baskets and boxes out of fibers. Also an educator, Kay taught weaving at San Francisco Community College. She received the American Craft Council Gold Medal for Consummate Craftsmanship in 2002.

After the dissolution of his first marriage through which he had two children, son Kim and daughter Joy Stocksdale, Bob married Kay Sekimachi in 1972. The two had been acquainted for many years as they were both craft artists living in the Bay Area. Although they married later in life, Kay and Bob travelled the world and exhibited their art together in many exhibitions including Marriage in Form and Loom and Lathe.

Bob Stocksdale died in Oakland, California in 2003. Kay Sekimachi continues to exhibit her work and lives in Berkeley, California.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview of Bob Stocksdale conducted February 16-March 21, 2001, by Signe Mayfield and an oral history interview of Kay Sekimachi [Stocksdale] conducted July 26-August 6, 2001, by Suzanne Baizerman. Both interviews were conducted in Berkeley, California, during the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America.
Provenance:
The Bob Stocksdale and Kay Sekimachi papers were donated in 2003, 2004, and 2015 by Kay Sekimachi Stocksdale as part of the Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of original audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Bob Stocksdale and Kay Sekimachi papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Woodworkers -- California  Search this
Topic:
Fiber artists -- California  Search this
Concentration camps -- United States  Search this
Textile design  Search this
Decorative arts  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Fiberwork -- Technique  Search this
Japanese American artists  Search this
Woodwork -- Study and teaching  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Textile crafts -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Sound recordings
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Watercolors
Photographs
Citation:
Bob Stocksdale and Kay Sekimachi papers, circa 1900-2015. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.stockbob
See more items in:
Bob Stocksdale and Kay Sekimachi papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stockbob

Kamekichi Tokita Papers

Creator:
Tokita, Kamekichi  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Seattle  Search this
Henry Art Gallery  Search this
Hotel Cadillac (Seattle, Wash.)  Search this
Minidoka Relocation Center  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
Seattle Art Museum  Search this
Baker, Burt Brown  Search this
Boynton, Roy  Search this
Callahan, Kenneth, 1905-1986  Search this
Tokita, Elsie  Search this
Tokita, Shokichi  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Date:
circa 1900-circa 2010
bulk 1900-1948
Summary:
The scattered personal papers of Seattle area painter Kamekichi Tokita (1897-1948) measure 1.5 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to circa 2010 with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1910 to 1948. The papers include biographical materials, including documents about the closing of the War Relocation Authority's Minidoka Camp in Idaho; correspondence; three diaries written in Japanese documenting Tokita's war time experiences and relocation to Minidoka, two earlier notebooks, also written in Japanese, and scattered notes; a few personal business records; printed materials; one scrapbook; sketches; and one family photograph album.
Scope and Contents:
The scattered personal papers of Seattle area painter Kamekichi Tokita (1897-1948) measure 1.5 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to circa 2010 with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1910 to 1948. The papers include biographical materials, including documents about the closing of the War Relocation Authority's Minidoka Camp in Idaho; correspondence; three diaries written in Japanese documenting Tokita's war time experiences and relocation to Minidoka, two earlier notebooks, also written in Japanese, and scattered notes; a few personal business records; printed materials; one scrapbook; sketches; and one family photograph album.

Biographical materials include a file on the Public Works of Art Project, a file on the War Relocation Authority and the closing of the Minidoka internment camp, an immigration document, and an essay on Tokita written by Shokichi and Elsie Tokita.

Correspondence is primarily professional in nature and concerns exhibitions at the Seattle Museum of Art (previously the Art Institute of Seattle) and other topics. Correspondents include Burt Brown Baker, Roy Boynton, Kenneth Callahan, Henry Gallery, the Seattle Art Museum, and others.

Tokita's writings consist of three diaries, two notebooks, and scattered general writings, most of which are in Japanese. The diaries were kept during World War II and document the family's confinement at the Minidoka Relocation Camp in Idaho. Included is a transcript of the diaries which were translated from prewar to modern Japanese by Haruo Takasugi and from modern Japanese to English by Naomi Kusunoki-Martin.

Scattered business records include a patent application, records from the Cadillac Hotel, and a claim filed through the Department of Justice. A few published books in English and Japanese are about art and religion. Also found are exhibition catalogs for shows in which Tokita participated and clippings. There is one mixed media scrapbook about Tokita's exhibitions.

Artwork consists of unsigned pencil and watercolor sketches by Tokita. There is also a family photo album containing snapshots and portraits of the Tokita family and friends.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1934-1985 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1920-1944 (Box 1; 6 folders)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1923-circa 1950 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1928-1950 (Box 1; 3 folders)

Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1910-1940 (Box 1-3; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbook, 1929-1933 (Box 2-3; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1910-1940s (Box 2-3; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 8: Photograph Album, circa 1900-1930 (Box 2; 0.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Kamekichi Tokita (1897-1948) was a painter and businessman who emigrated from Japan in 1919 and settled in Seattle, Washington. Tokita was a member of the Seattle area progressive artists' collective known as the "Group of Twelve" and widely exhibited his artwork throughout the Pacific Northwest.

Kamekichi Tokita was born in Shizouka City, Japan and immigrated to the United States at the age of twenty-two. He settled in the Japantown neighborhood of Seattle, Washington where he opened the Noto Sign Company with business partner Kenjiro Nomura. Nomura was also an artist and encouraged Tokita's interest in oil painting. They both used the sign shop as their studio after-hours. In 1936, the Noto Sign Company closed and Tokita took over management of the Cadillac Hotel, although he continued to paint commercial signs. Tokita married Haruko Suzuki in 1932 and together they had eight children.

As a child in Japan, Tokita studied calligraphy in China. Although he attended a few art school classes in in the U.S. and went on weekend painting trips with Nomura and other Seattle artists, Tokita is considered to be a largely self-trained artist. Support and recognition came from Dorothy V. Morrison of the Henry Gallery at the University of Washington who wrote to Tokita to inquire whether a "group of Japanese artists in the city" would be interested in exhibiting their work. Although the exhibition of Japanese artists did not happen, Tokita later loaned paintings to the gallery for inclusion in an exhibition sponsored by the American Federation of Arts. Throughout the late 1920s and 1930s Tokita exhibited widely in the Seattle area. In 1935, the Seattle Daily Times touted the work of Tokita and other painters in the "Group of Twelve" that also included Morris Graves, Kenneth Callahan, Walter F. Isaacs, and Ambrose and Viola Patterson, among others. In 1942, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Kamekichi Tokita and his family (five children at the time), along with the 110,000 – 120,000 Japanese and Japanese-American citizens living on the West Coast, were ordered under President Franklin Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066 to relocate to one of several confinement camps. For the first six months of their confinement, the family lived at a temporary Civilian Assembly Center in Puyallup, Washington. They were transferred to the Minidoka Relocation Camp in Hunt, Idaho where they remained until their release in 1945. The confinement camps were organized much like communes and independent cities (fenced and guarded) where the residents were self-reliant for most of their basic necessities, including schooling. While interned in Minidoka, Tokita worked as a sign painter and continued to privately paint, using whatever materials he could find, including beaver board. His work was featured in art shows at the camp. Many of his camp scenes are now lost or were given away.

At the end of World War II, Tokita and his family (now seven children) moved back to the Seattle-area. Unable to find housing, the Tokitas lived at a Japanese language school until Tokita was able to re-establish his business. During this period he painted very little. In 1946 Tokita and his wife purchased the New Lucky Hotel in the Chinatown area of Seattle. Shortly thereafter, Tokita fell ill and died in 1948. Many of his works are believed to have been destroyed or lost. Some of his work remains, however, and is among the permanent collections of the Seattle Art Museum, the Tacoma Art Museum, the Portland Art Museum.

Note: Much of this biographical note was taken from "A Biographical Resume" written by Shokichi and Elsie Y. Tokita.
Separated Materials:
A watercolor painting on paper by Kamekichi Tokita, Untitled (Still Life), 9 x 12 in. was transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum in 2012.
Provenance:
The Kamekichi Tokita papers were donated by his son, Shokichi Tokita in 1990. He donated a third and final diary in 2017. They were collected as part of the Archives of American Art Northwest Asian American project in Seattle, Washington.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Kamekichi Tokita papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Topic:
Art, American -- Northwestern States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japanese Americans  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945 -- Diaries  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Northwestern States  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Japanese American art  Search this
Japanese Americans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Citation:
Kamekichi Tokita papers, circa 1900-circa 2010, bulk circa 1910-1948. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tokikame
See more items in:
Kamekichi Tokita Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tokikame

Roger Shimomura papers

Creator:
Shimomura, Roger, 1939-  Search this
Names:
Chin, Frank, 1940-  Search this
Day, Akiko  Search this
Hughes, Jonathan R. T.  Search this
Miller, Wayne  Search this
Extent:
2.6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Scripts (documents)
Date:
1965-1990
Summary:
The papers of painter, printmaker, performance artist, and teacher Roger Shimomura measure 2.6 linear feet and date from 1965 to 1990. Found within the papers are biographical materials, correspondence, writings, notes, printed material, one scrapbook, and photographs.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter, printmaker, performance artist, and teacher Roger Shimomura measure 2.6 linear feet and date from 1965 to 1990. Found within the papers are biographical materials, correspondence, writings, notes, printed material, one scrapbook, and photographs.

Biographical materials include a photograph of Shimomura and a resume. The bulk of the papers consist of correspondence files about exhibitions, grants, performances, lectures, and the Japanese-American redress movement. Correspondence is with friends, colleagues, galleries, and with universities and colleges. Correspondents include Frank Chin, Akiko Day, Jonathan R. T. Hughes, and Wayne Miller. Writings and notes include Shimomura's artist's statement, scripts to four plays, and one folder of miscellaneous notes. The papers also include clippings, exhibition announcements, catalogs and miscellaneous printed material. A scrapbook contains clippings of articles that document Shimomura's career. Photographs are of artwork by other artists.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 6 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1989-1990 (Box 1; 1 folder)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1969-1990 (Boxes 1-3; 2.3 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1984, 1987-1989 (Box 3; 5 folders)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1975-1990 (Box 4; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Scrapbook, 1975-1989 (Box 4; 1 folder)

Series 6: Photographs, circa 1970s (Box 4; 1 folder)
Biographical Note:
Roger Shimomura (b. 1939) is a Japanese-American painter, printmaker, performance artist, and teacher who has worked primarily in Kansas since 1969.

Roger Shimomura was born in 1939 in Seattle, Washington. He was a third generation Japanese-American and received his B.A. in Graphic Design from the University of Washington in 1961, and a M.F.A. in Painting from Syracuse University in 1969. Shimomura spent two childhood years in one of 10 concentration camps for Japanese-Americans during WWII, and later served as an officer in the United States Army from 1962 to 1965. He was active in the Japanese-American redress movement in the 1970s. Since the 1970s, Shimomura's work has combined American popular imagery with the Japanese ukiyo-e tradition.

He has had over 125 solo exhibitions of paintings and prints, as well as presented his experimental theater pieces at such venues as the Franklin Furnace, New York City, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, and The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Shimomura has been a visiting artist and lectured on his work at more than 200 universities, art schools, and museums across the country. Shimomura began teaching at the University of Kansas' Department of Art in 1969 and worked there until his retirement in 2004. At that time he started the Shimomura Faculty Research Support Fund, an endowment to foster faculty research in the Department of Art. Throughout his career, Shimomura has had numerous exhibitions and experimental theater pieces on a national level. In 1999, the Seattle Urban League designated a scholarship in his name that has been awarded annually to a Seattle resident pursuing a career in art. In 2002, the College Art Association presented him with the "Artist Award for Most Distinguished Body of Work," for his 4 year, 12-museum national tour of the painting exhibition, "An American Diary." Shimomura continues to live and work in Kansas.
Provenance:
Roger Shimomura donated his papers in 1990, as part of the Archives of American Art's Northwest Asian-American project in Seattle.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Robert Shimomura papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Performance artists -- Kansas -- Lawrence  Search this
Performance art -- United States  Search this
Printmakers -- Kansas -- Lawrence  Search this
Painters -- Kansas -- Lawrence  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
Japanese American painting  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Japanese Americans  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching -- Kansas -- Lawrence  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Scripts (documents)
Citation:
Roger Shimomura papers, 1965-1990. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.shimroge
See more items in:
Roger Shimomura papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-shimroge

Photograph of Chiura Obata teaching a children's art class at Tanforan Art School

Subject:
Obata, Chiura  Search this
Tanforan Assembly Center (San Bruno, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1942
Topic:
Art teachers  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)21259
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_21259
Online Media:

Sketch from Topaz, California

Creator:
Obata, Chiura, 1885-1975  Search this
Subject:
Central Utah Relocation Center  Search this
Type:
Artworks
Place:
Topaz, Utah
Date:
1942 December
Topic:
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)21261
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_21261

Artist's statement

Creator:
Obata, Chiura, 1885-1975  Search this
Subject:
Central Utah Relocation Center  Search this
Tanforan Assembly Center (San Bruno, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
194-?
Topic:
Art schools  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)21292
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_21292

Tanforan Art School record book

Creator:
Obata, Chiura, 1885-1975  Search this
Subject:
Obata, Chiura  Search this
Tanforan Assembly Center (San Bruno, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
1942
Topic:
Art schools  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)22009
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_22009

Trek volume 1, number 3

Creator:
Central Utah Relocation Center  Search this
Type:
Printed Materials
Date:
1943 June
Topic:
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)22010
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_22010

Still life class

Photographer:
Lange, Dorothea, 1895-1965  Search this
Subject:
Obata, Chiura  Search this
Tanforan Assembly Center (San Bruno, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1942 June 16
Topic:
Art schools  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)22030
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_22030
Online Media:

Morning class learning free hand brush strokes

Photographer:
Lange, Dorothea, 1895-1965  Search this
Subject:
Obata, Chiura  Search this
Tanforan Assembly Center (San Bruno, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Date:
1942 June 16
Topic:
Art schools  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)22031
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_22031
Online Media:

Survey of Obata art project

Creator:
Obata, Chiura, 1885-1975  Search this
Subject:
Tanforan Assembly Center (San Bruno, Calif.)  Search this
Type:
Writings
Date:
Not before 1942
Topic:
Art schools  Search this
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)22057
See more items in:
Chiura Obata papers, circa 1891-2000, 1942-1945
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_22057

Exhibition pamphlet for the exhibit Executive order 9066

Subject:
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Type:
Printed Materials
Date:
1975
Topic:
Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA)17490
See more items in:
Roy Leeper and Gaylord Hall collection of Miné Okubo papers, circa 1940-2001
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_item_17490
Online Media:

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