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James A. Jensen photographs of Vladimir Kozak art and artifacts and Chief Joseph lithograph

Creator:
Jensen, James A., 1918- (collector and photographer)  Search this
Names:
Joseph, (Nez Percé Chief), 1840-1904  Search this
Artist:
Kozák, Vladimir, 1897-1979  Search this
Extent:
1 Lithograph
1 Watercolor
95 Color slides
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Yawalapiti  Search this
Wauja (Waurá)  Search this
Suya Indians  Search this
Mehináku (Mehinacu)  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Xavánte (Shavante)  Search this
Timbira Indians  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Mebêngôkre (Kayapó/Cayapo)  Search this
Kuikúro (Kuikuro)  Search this
Apalakiri (Apalakire)  Search this
Kamayurá (Camayura)  Search this
Ka'apor  Search this
Héta Indians  Search this
Borôro (Bororo)  Search this
Karajá (Caraja)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lithographs
Watercolor
Color slides
Watercolors
Photographs
Date:
circa 1965-1974
Scope and Contents note:
The bulk of the collection is comprised of images of paintings by Vladimir Kozak and his artifacts relating to Brazilian tribes, photographed by James A. Jensen at Kozak's home in Curitaba, Brazil, in September 1965. It also includes a watercolor image of body decoration at a ceremony held by the upper Xingu River tibes of Central Brazil. Additionally, there is one lithograph poster of a J. A. Jensen painting of Chief Joseph, dated 1974.
Biographical/Historical note:
James A. Jensen (1918-1998) was a paleontologist and Director of the Earth Sciences Museum at Brigham Young University (BYU). While at BYU, he conducted fieldwork in both North and South America, at which point he may have met Vladimir Kozak. He created pastel and acrylic artwork, particularly of flowers, landscapes, and Native Americans.

Artist Vladimir Kozak was trained in Czechoslovakia in mechanical engineering, sculpture, and painting. In 1923, he immigrated to Brazil. As Kozak's interest in the Indigenous tribes of Brazil grew, he increasingly focused on painting and sculpting, particularly during the 1940s and 1950s. He also became a still photographer, film maker, and collector of Indigenous artifacts.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 79-1
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Body painting  Search this
Genre/Form:
Lithographs
Watercolors
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 79-1, James A. Jensen photographs of Vladimir Kozak art and artifacts and Chief Joseph lithograph, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.79-1
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-79-1

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers

Creator:
Meggers, Betty Jane  Search this
Evans, Clifford, 1920-1981  Search this
Extent:
129 Linear feet
Culture:
American Indian -- South America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Field notes
Place:
Venezuela -- archeology
Peru -- Archeology
Date:
1893-2012
Summary:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. Their work at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and their frequent collaboration with other researchers and professional organizations is also represented. In addition, this collection contains detailed records on South American research conducted by the Smithsonian Institution from the 1950s through the 2010s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Scope and Contents:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers document their research and professional activities from 1946-2012 and primarily deal with their archaeological and anthropological research in South America. There is also significant material detailing research conducted in South America by the National Museum of Natural History (particularly the Department of Anthropology). Material documenting their publication and collaboration efforts with researchers and other colleagues is represented as well. There is also limited material related to Meggers and Evans time in graduate school at Columbia University and their brief careers before starting at the Smithsonian Institution in the early 1950s. The collection consists of research and project files, raw data and analysis, graphs and illustrations, photographs, correspondence, maps and charts, and administrative files.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 12 series: Series 1. Personal, 1893-2012, undated; Series 2. Writings, 1944-2011, undated; Series 3. Research, 1930-2011, undated; Series 4. Correspondence, 1922-2012; Series 5. Conferences and Seminars, 1949-2010, undated; Series 6. Museum and Institute Subject Files, 1973-2011, undated; Series 7. Smithsonian Institution Amazon Ecosystem Program, 1962-2008, undated. Series 8. National Program of Archeological Research in Brazil, 1961-1989, undated; Series 9. Paleoindian Research: Paleoclimatology and Paleofauna Programs, 1960-1992, undated; Series 10. Latin American Archaeology Fund, 1971-1991, undated; Series 11. Photographs, 1937-2008, undated; Series 12. Maps and Charts, 1957- circa 2009, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Clifford Evans Chronology

1920 -- Born in Dallas, Texas.

1941 -- Bachelors degree in anthropology from the University of Southern California.

1946 -- Married Betty Meggers.

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Betty Meggers.

1950 -- Ph.D., Columbia University.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, University of Virginia.

1951-1962 -- Associate Curator, Smithsonian Department of Anthropology.

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Betty Meggers.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Betty Meggers.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Betty Meggers and Emilio Estrada.

1962-1964 -- Curator of the Division of Archaeology.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Betty Meggers.

1964-1970, 1975-1981 -- Supervising Curator of the Department of Anthropological Research.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1970-1975 -- Chairman of the Department of Anthropology.

1971 -- Creates the Latin American Archaeology Fund with Betty Meggers.

1972 -- Creates the Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program.

1974 -- Creates the Amazon Ecosystems Research Program.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Betty Meggers of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Betty Meggers and Dennis Stanford.

1981 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty Meggers Chronology

1921 -- Born December 5 in Washington, D.C.

1943 -- A.B. in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

1944 -- M.A., University of Michigan

1948-1949 -- Field research: Lower Amazon archaelogical expedition to Marajo, Mexiana, Caviana, and Territory of Ampa, Brazil. With Clifford Evans.

1950-1951 -- Instructor, Anthropology, American University

1952 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1952-1953 -- Field research: Archaelogical and ethnographic investigations in British Guiana. With Clifford Evans.

1954 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1954-2012 -- Research Associate, Department of Anthropology, national Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

1956 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations along the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador. With Clifford Evans.

1957 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1958 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1961 -- Field research: Archaelogical survey and excavations on coastal Ecuador. With Clifford Evans and Emilio Estrada.

1963 -- Field research: Archeological investigations of megalithic structures on Nan Madol, Ponape, Caroline Islands. With Clifford Evans.

1965-1970 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPA.

1966 -- Field research: Archeological survey on Dominica. With Clifford Evans.

1968-1975 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of the Proyecto Andino de Estudios Arqueologicos.

1975-1980 -- Co-principal investigator with Clifford Evans of PRONAPABA.

1976 -- Field research: Paleoindian and Archaic sites and museum collections in Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. With Clifford Evans and Dennis Stanford.

1976-1996 -- Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society

1982-1985 -- Consultant, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Brazil

2012 -- Dies in Washington, D.C.

Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans were anthropologists specializing in the archeology of lowland South America. Their combined careers at the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology totaled over 100 years. Evans was born in 1920 in Texas. He received his bachelor's degree in anthropology and archaeology from the University of Southern California in 1941. Following his service as a bombardier during World War II, he enrolled in the anthropology doctoral program at Columbia University where he met Meggers, a fellow student in the department. Meggers was born in 1921 in Washington, D.C., and was the daughter of well-known archaeologist William Frederick Meggers. She graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a bachelors degree in anthropology in 1943 and from the University of Michigan with a masters in anthropology in 1944 before being admitted to Columbia.

Meggers and Evans did their dissertation research together in South America— Meggers worked on the island of Marajo at the mouth of the Amazon River while Evans did archaeological research in the Amapa territory of Brazil. The two were married on September 13, 1946.

After Evans received his Ph.D. in 1950, he was hired by the Smithsonian Institution as an associate curator in the Department of Anthropology in 1951. After graduating in 1952, Meggers worked as an anthropology instructor at American University for one year before being hired as a research associate in the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology in 1954.

Evans was named Curator of the Division of Archaeology in 1962, and Supervising Curator of the newly created Office of Anthropological Research in 1964. Under his leadership, standardized operating procedures were created that centralized accessioning, cataloging, storing, and lending of objects. This freed curators from many complicated and routine activities. In 1970, Evans was appointed the Chairman of Anthropology for a five year term, where he initiated many large-scale research programs with Meggers that continued to operate many years after his chairmanship ended.

The first program that Evans and Meggers created was the "Paleo-Indian, Paleoecology, and Paleoenvironmental Research Program" in 1972, which was designed to study prehistoric peoples in the Western Hemisphere. The second program, implemented in 1974 was the "Amazon Ecosystems Research Program," which organized Brazilian scientists and Smithsonian staff members interested in environmental studies of the Amazon region.

Meggers and Evans conducted much of their field work together, which resulted in hundreds of articles, essays, presentations, and books. The majority of their work was done in the Amazon and Andean regions of South America, particularly Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Aside from these publications, they were also able to collect many archaeological specimens that are still part of the Smithsonian's holdings.

The conclusions that Meggers and Evans drew from their research and field work, while ground-breaking, were often controversial. In the early 1960s local businessman and amateur archaeologist Emilio Estrada excavated pottery from the Valdivia area in Ecuador and shared his results with Meggers and Evans. After finding significant similarities between Valdivian artifacts and those from Japan's ancient Jomon culture, they theorized that there was transpacific contact between Japan and South America around the beginning of the third millennium B.C. Their theory remains controversial.

Meggers and Evans also argued that despite the rich forests of the Amazon region, the river basin's thin, poor soil could not hold enough nutrients to sustain intensive agriculture. As a result, they argued, large and complex societies could not have existed in the Amazon River basin as other archaeologists and anthropologists have suggested.

After finishing his tenure as chairman of the Department of Anthropology, Clifford Evans died in 1981 of a heart attack at the age of 60. Following his death, Meggers continued in her position as research associate in the Department of Anthropology for another 30 years. Though she did not conduct additional fieldwork after her husband's death, Meggers wrote prolifically and was heavily involved in analyzing field work data and collaborating with colleagues working throughout South America. She made it possible for many researchers to study and conduct research at the National Museum of Natural History, and presented in many conferences and seminars locally and internationally. In addition, Meggers advocated on the behalf of colleagues to the National Geographic Society and other organizations to procure funding for archaeological and anthropological expeditions all over the world. Betty Meggers died in 2012 at the age of 90.
Related Materials:
There are about 25 slide cases, each containing about 200 to 300 kodachrome slides, that are currently stored at the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. These were created in the late 1940s and early 1950s and contain images of field work and other trips to South American locations such as Peru, British Guiana, the Peru Highlands, Ecuador, Brazil, Chile, Hondouras, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Mexico. Contact repository for more information.
Separated Materials:
2 rolls of 16mm film, 22 audio cassettes, and 1 VHS of South and Central American research were transferred to the Human Studies Film Archives in 2015.
Provenance:
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by the estate of Betty J. Meggers in 2013.
Restrictions:
The Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans papers are open for research. Personal correspondence, however, is RESTRICTED until 2026.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Paleoindian  Search this
Archaeology  Search this
Archeology -- Meso-America  Search this
Archaeology -- Ponape, Nan Matol  Search this
Archeology -- British Guiana  Search this
Archaeology -- Ecuador  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Paleo-Indians -- North America  Search this
Names, place -- geographic -- South America  Search this
Genre/Form:
Field notes
Citation:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.2013-01
See more items in:
Betty J. Meggers and Clifford Evans Papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-2013-01

Francis Gow-Smith photographs from Mato Grosso, Brazil

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Photographer:
Gow-Smith, Francis  Search this
Extent:
41 Negatives (photographic)
17 Copy negatives
Culture:
Borôro (Bororo)  Search this
Parecís (Paressi)  Search this
Nambikuára (Nambicuara)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Copy negatives
Place:
Mato Grosso (Brazil : State)
Date:
1926
Summary:
Negatives shot by Francis Gow-Smith over the course of eight months of fieldwork in the Mato Grosso state of Brazil in 1926. Gow-Smith was collecting ethnographic material on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Indigenous communities photographed include the Parecís (Paressi), Nambikuára (Nambicuara) and Borôro (Bororo) peoples.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 41 negatives and 17 copy negatives made by Francis Gow-Smith over the course of eight months of fieldwork in the Mato Grosso state of Brazil in 1926. Indigenous communities photographed during this course of this work include the Parecís (Paressi), Nambikuára (Nambicuara) and Borôro (Bororo) peoples in such places as the Juruena Municipality, Tapirapann, São João (Sao Juan), and the Campo Grande Microgegion. The majority of the photographs are outdoor portraits of community members going about their daily lives though some are posed in groups. Man of these activities revolve around the river such as fishing and bathing. There are also a smaller amount of landscape views which showcase local plants such as the rubber tree and cow tree.
N12650-N12651, N12683, N12717, N12719, N12798, N12821, N12835, N12851, N12852, N12881, N12892-N12894, N12900, N12905, N12948, N12964-N12966, N12976, N12988, N12990, N13010, N13018, N13025, N13026, N13032-N13034, N13037, N13041, N13058-N13061, N13063-N13065, N13068, N13069, N13182-N13201.
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Francis William Gow-Smith (1894-1939) was an explorer and ethnologist who briefly worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Born in Coldwater, Michigan, Gow-Smith studied at Purdue University and self-financed his first expedition to Brazil in 1922-1923. He returned to Brazil exploring the Karaja and Kayapo territories in 1924, selling many of the items collected from this trip to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI). The MAI offered to fund Gow-Smith's next collecting trip to Brazil in 1926. Gow Smith spent those eight months in the Xingu river region and the Mato Grosso province of Brazil making ethnological collections on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Gow-Smith collected among the Parecís (Paressi), Nambikuára (Nambicuara) and Borôro (Bororo) peoples. Gow-Smith wrote numerous newspaper articles about his travels and was also a member of the Explorers Club. He died in 1939 after several years of poor health. For reports on his 1926 work in Brazil see Indian Notes, Volume 4, no. 2 pp 163-166 and Indian Notes, Volume 4, no. 3, pp 305-308.
Related Materials:
Ethnographic material collected by Francis Gow-Smith can be found in NMAI's ethnographic collections with catalog numbers 15/3657 - 15/3754.
Provenance:
Field collection for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation from Francis-Gow Smith in 1926.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Ethnology -- Brazil  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Francis Gow-Smith photographs from Matto Grosso, Brazil, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.045
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-045

Rev. L.L. Legters prints and negatives

Creator:
Legters, L. L. (Leonard Livingston)  Search this
Extent:
87 Acetate negatives (black and white, 5 x 7 inches.)
244 Photographic prints (albumen, 3 x 5 inches.)
Culture:
Borôro (Bororo)  Search this
Nahukuá (Nahuqua)  Search this
Chiquitano (Chiquito)  Search this
Parecís (Paressi)  Search this
Nambikuára (Nambicuara)  Search this
Kabixí (Cabichí/Cabishi)  Search this
Terêna (Tereno)  Search this
Umutina (Barbados)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Acetate negatives
Photographic prints
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Date:
1925-1926
Summary:
This collection contains 244 albumen prints and 87 acetate negatives taken by Rev. L.L. Legters in 1925-1926. The images depict scenes of everyday life among various tribes in Brazil and Bolivia, including the Bororo, the Chiquito, the Nambicuara, the Terena and the Umotina.
Scope and Contents:
The collection consists of photographs and negatives made by Legters from 1925 to 1926 primarily in Brazil but also Bolivia. Legters made these materials while he was working as a missionary, and so he made the majority of the photographs of indigenous peoples while they were gathered at Legters's Brazil mission. The photographs document Nahukuá (Nahuqua), Borôro (Bororo), Nambikuára (Nambicuara), Umutina (Barbados), Terêna (Tereno), Kabixí (Cabichí/Cabishi), and Parecís (Paressi) men, women, and children of Brazil, and the Chiquitano (Chiquito) of Bolivia. These include informal, outdoor portraits of individuals and groups and representations of dwellings and people fishing, canoeing, trading, gathering water, carrying burden baskets, using bows and arrows, etc. Some of the negatives may be later copy negatives.
Arrangement note:
Prints Arranged by print number (P13758-P14001)

Negatives Arranged by negative number (N36892-N36924, N36945-N36955, N36967-N36999, N37077-N37086)
Biographical/Historical note:
Best known for performing the funeral rites of Geronimo in 1909, Reverend Leonard Livingston Legters (1873-1940) was a missionary. In 1925, he conducted missionary work in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. He later served as secretary of the Pioneer Mission Agency.
Provenance:
Historically, the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation managed all photographic materials separately. This collection description represents current management practices of organizing and contextualizing related archival materials.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadcast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Missions -- Brazil -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of South America -- Bolivia -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil -- Photographs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Photographs
Citation:
Rev. L.L. Legters prints and negatives, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.049
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-049

Elizabeth K. Steen photographs from Brazil

Photographer:
Steen, Elizabeth K.  Search this
Extent:
0.02 Linear feet
15 Photographs
Culture:
Karajá (Caraja)  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Brazil
Date:
circa 1930-1931
Summary:
This collection contains 15 photographs depicting Karajá (Caraja) peoples of Tocantins State in Brazil, circa 1930-1931.
Scope and Contents:
N36713-N36718,N41496, P11935-P11942

This collection contains 15 photographs (including 7 copy negatives) that were shot by anthropologist Elizabeth K. Steen circa 1930-1931. The photographs depict the Karajá (Caraja) peoples of Tocantins State in Brazil. The photographs include portraits of individuals in traditional dress, as well as scenes of daily life such as preparing meals, body painting, and carrying water.
Arrangement:
Collection arranged by Catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Born in 1886, Elizabeth Kilgore Steen was an explorer and anthropologist. She studied anthropology at the University of California. Steen visited Karajá (Caraja) and Tapirapé (Tapirape) villages in Brazil circa 1930-1931. Her publications include the 1937 children's book, Red Jungle Boy, which she wrote and illustrated. She died in 1938.
Related Materials:
The Smithsonian Institution Libraries hold a copy of Elizabeth K. Steen's book Red Jungle Boy (call no. F2230.S77 1937)
Separated Materials:
This National Museum of the American Indian also holds Karajá (Caraja) objects collected by Elizabeth K. Steen: Object numbers 189729-189853.
Provenance:
Museum purchase from Elizabeth Steen, 1936.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Elizabeth K. Steen photographs from Brazil, Item Number, NMAI.AC.196; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.196
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-196

Frederick Starr negatives and lantern slides

Creator:
Starr, Frederick, 1859-1933  Search this
Photographer:
Lang, Charles B.  Search this
Grabic, Louis  Search this
Extent:
152 Lantern slides
3344 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Zoque  Search this
San Felipe Pueblo  Search this
Mazatec [Huautla]  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Maya  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Mazahua  Search this
Ute  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Numakiki (Mandan)  Search this
Tzotzil Maya  Search this
Taos Pueblo  Search this
Tzeltal Maya  Search this
Sac and Fox (Sauk & Fox)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Triqui (Trique) [San Joan Copala]  Search this
Shuar  Search this
Niimíipuu (Nez Perce)  Search this
Chol Maya  Search this
Totonac  Search this
Osage  Search this
Chaticks Si Chaticks (Pawnee)  Search this
Tonkawa  Search this
Otomí (Otomi)  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tlingit  Search this
Mixe  Search this
Chinantec  Search this
Mixtec  Search this
Potawatomi  Search this
Chibcha  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Mehináku (Mehinacu)  Search this
Salish (Flathead)  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tsitsistas/Suhtai (Cheyenne)  Search this
Ponca  Search this
Menominee (Menomini)  Search this
Cahuilla  Search this
Haida  Search this
Karajá (Caraja)  Search this
Cherokee  Search this
Sahnish (Arikara)  Search this
Assiniboine (Stoney)  Search this
Apsáalooke (Crow/Absaroke)  Search this
Caddo  Search this
Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)  Search this
Cochiti Pueblo  Search this
Teotihuacán (archaeological culture)  Search this
Isleta Pueblo  Search this
Purepecha (Tarasco)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/Ojibwa)  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Macushi (Macusi)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives (photographic)
Negatives
Place:
Colombia
Washington
West Virginia
Kansas
Kentucky
New Mexico
Brazil
Ecuador
Missouri
Wisconsin
Oklahoma
Ohio
New York
Georgia
Mexico
Iowa
Arkansas
Illinois
Pennsylvania
Alaska
Date:
1894-1910
Summary:
The collection includes materials from cultures in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, and Guiana: Acoma Pueblo, Apache, Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboine, Caddo, Cahuilla, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chinantec, Chippewa (Ojibwa), Choco, Chol, Chontal, Cochiti Pueblo, Crow, Cuicatec, Eskimo, Flathead, Haida, Hopi, Huastec, Huave, Iowa, Iroquois, Isleta, Karaja, Kwakiutl, Laguna Pueblo, Macusi, Mandan, Maya, Mazahua, Mazatec, Mehinaku, Menomini, Mixe, Mixtec, Navajo, Nez Perce, Osage, Otomi, Ottawa, Pawnee, Pima, Ponca, Potawatomi, Salish, San Blas, San Felipe Pueblo, Sauk & Fox, Shuar, Sioux, Taos Pueblo, Tarasco, Teotihuacan, Tepehua, Tlaxcala, Tlingit, Tonkawa, Totonac, Triqui, Tzental, Tzotzil, Ute, Wampanoag, Zapotec, Zoque, Zuni.
Arrangement note:
Collection arranged by item number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Frederick Starr was born in Auburn, New York, on September 2, 1858. He received a Ph.D. in biology in 1884 at Coe College, where he was later appointed professor of biology. Starr did postgraduate work in anthropology at Yale. In 1889 he was appointed head of Ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History, and in 1892 he was chosen by William Harper to organize the Anthropology Department at the new University of Chicago. Starr remained at the University until his retirement in 1923. Besides his field studies with various Indian tribes in the United States, Starr traveled to Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Guiana, Japan, the Philippines, and Africa. He died in Tokyo, Japan, on August 14, 1933. Starr was the author of several books and scholarly articles.
General note:
Starr hired professional photographers Charles B. Lang and Louis Grabic to accompany him on his field trips. One lantern slide of Moses Ladd (Menomini) was taken by William H. Jackson.
Provenance:
Dr. Frederick Starr, Purchased, circa 1929
Restrictions:
Access restricted. Researchers should contact the staff of the NMAI Archives for an appointment to access the collection.
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Indians of Mexico  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Colombia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Alaska  Search this
Indians of North America -- Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of South America -- Ecuador  Search this
Indians of South America -- Guiana  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Lantern slides
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.052
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-052

George C. Coudert photographs from Brazil

Photographer:
Coudert, George C.  Search this
Extent:
14 Negatives (photographic)
Culture:
Tenharim  Search this
Parintintín (Parintintin)  Search this
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Amazonia  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Place:
Amazonas (Brazil)
Date:
1924
Summary:
Photographs made by George C. Coudert among the Tenharim and Parintintín (Parintintin) communities in Brazil during a 1924 expedition.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes 14 negatives shot by George Coudert among the Tenharim and Parintintín (Parintintin) communities along the Rio dos Marmelos in the Amazonas State in Brazil. These were made during an expedition to collect rare bird specimens on behalf of the Zoological Gardens of Philadelphia. According to his original negative sleeves, the expedition stayed six days in the Madeira region to study the indigenous people in the area. Images include portraits of Tenharim and Parintintín (Parintintin) men, women, and children, often posed in groups outside of dwellings and along the river. The photographs were made in 1924 and were likely shot on nitrate. The negatives were transferred to safety film (acetate) in the 1960s when the Museum of the American Indian, Heye foundation conducted a large scale photograph conservation project. Contact prints were also made at this time.
Catalog numbers: N09121-N09134
Arrangement:
Arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
George C. Coudert (1884-1955) was a photographer and cinematographer. Born in France, Coudert moved to the United States as a young child and attended school in Newark, New Jersey. Thought he started his career as a photographer, he moved into film and worked as cinematographer for most of his career. In the 1920's, Coudert went on several expeditions to South America serving as the photographer. In 1924 he travelled to Brazil on a rare bird catching expedition for the Zoological Gardens of Philadelphia, along with Joseph McGoldrick, Rudolphe Meyer De Schauensee, Henry Norris and Alec Eesso. Eventually, Coudert moved to California where he lived out the rest of his life.
Provenance:
It is still unclear how this collection came to the Museum of the American Indian, though it was likely a donation around 1924-1925 based on the catalog numbers.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu). Some images restricted for cultural sensitivity.
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); George C. Coudert photographs from Brazil, Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.133
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-133

Borys Malkin slides, negatives and other material

Creator:
Malkin, Borys, 1917-2009  Search this
Extent:
28 negatives (photographic) (black and white)
1 Photographic print (black and white)
117 slides (photographs) (color)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Slides (photographs)
Photographs
Color slides
Black-and-white negatives
Place:
Brazil
Date:
circa 1960-1962
Summary:
Images of Brazilian Indians, including Karaja, Tapirape, Awetí (Aueto), Wayana (Oyana) and Ka'apor. Images include outdoor/ indoor portraits and daily and ceremonial activities.
Arrangement note:
Negatives: organized in envelopes; arranged by negative number

Slides: organized in binders; arranged by slide number

Prints: organized in folders; arranged by print number
Biographical/Historical note:
Boris Malkin was a naturalist and ethnographer born in Vitebsk, Belarus. Malking spent his childhood in Warsaw, Poland, where he showed an early interest in the natural world and exploration. In 1938, he emigrated to the United States, where he developed a relationship with the American Museum of Natual History through his interest in entomology. In 1941, Malkin received a scholarship to attend the University of Oregon in Eugene, but academics were put on hold when he was drafted into the Army, where he fought with Air Force units in the Pacific theater. After the war, Malkin continued his education at University College, London. In 1948, with funding from the California Academy of Science, he undertook a trip to Africa with the aim of collecting insects for the Academy. Malkin returned to the United States, spending time at the University of Washington and the University of Minnesota, where he was a lecturer in anthropology. Very soon after, Malkin resigned his position at the university to pursue intensive field work, devoting his time to collecting natural specimens as well as items documenting the material culture of the Indians of South and Central America.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian
Topic:
Indians of South America -- Brazil  Search this
Wayana Indians  Search this
Tapirapé Indians  Search this
Urubu Kaapor Indians  Search this
Caraja Indians  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Photographs
Color slides
Black-and-white negatives
Citation:
Borys Malkin slides, negatives and other material, circa 1960-1962, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (negative, slide and catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.040
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-040

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