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Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1428 Negatives (photographic)
40 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Iroquois [Six Nations/Grand River (Brantford, Ontario)]  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Nauset  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Catawba  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Machapunga (Pungo River)  Search this
Innu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Virginia
Canada
Delaware
North Carolina
Date:
1909-1937
Summary:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.

Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
Related Materials:
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
Separated Materials:
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.

Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
Provenance:
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maryland  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Delaware  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a7ad21af-6cc2-49e2-a636-bcf01e1c4dc6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-032
Online Media:

Carol H. Krinsky papers

Author:
Krinsky, Carol Herselle  Search this
Extent:
2.92 Linear feet ((7 boxes))
Culture:
Minnesota Chippewa [White Earth, Minnesota]  Search this
Minnesota Chippewa [Red Lake, Minnesota]  Search this
Hupa  Search this
Tohono O'odham (Papago)  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Paugussett (Paugusset)  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Iroquois  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Akimel O'odham (Pima)  Search this
Piipaash (Maricopa)  Search this
Pueblo  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Ho-Chunk (Winnebago)  Search this
Yakama (Yakima)  Search this
Swinomish  Search this
Makah  Search this
Shinnecock  Search this
Seneca  Search this
Oneida  Search this
Apache  Search this
Tulalip  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Clippings
Correspondence
Interviews
Photographs
Date:
1964-2004
Summary:
These papers consist of research materials collected and used by Professor Carol Herselle Krinsky for her book Contemporary Native American Architecture: Cultural Regeneration and Creativity.
Scope and Contents:
These papers consist of research materials collected and used by Professor Carol Herselle Krinsky for her book Contemporary Native American Architecture: Cultural Regeneration and Creativity. This book discusses the connection between trends in modern architecture and native culture, as well as how culture has been revived through architecture, and how existing structures are altered to better reflect the native culture they serve. These materials include correspondence, newspaper clippings, interview transcripts, and photographs. News clippings in this collection include articles in German.
Arrangement:
The Carol H. Krinsky Papers are divided into two main series based on the original order established by Dr. Krinsky.

Series 1, Tribes (1964-2004) [Boxes 1-4] Series 2, Subject Files (1967-2004) [Boxes 5-7]
Biographical / Historical:
Carol Herselle Krinsky is a professor of Fine Arts at New York University. She received a BA from Smith College in 1957, a M.A. from the NYU Institute of Fine Arts in 1960, and a PhD from NYU in 1965. Professor Krinsky has received many honors and awards throughout her career including the Miess Publication Award from the College Art Association (1985), the National Jewish Book Award (1986), a Merit of Distinction from the International Center for Holocaust Studies (1987), a Golden Dozen Teaching Award from NYU (1990) and; the Brunner Research Award from the New York City Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. She has also been named a Senior Fulbright Scholar.

Previous publications have included Synagogues of Europe, Rockefeller Center, and Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
Provenance:
The collection was donated by Dr. Carol Herselle Krinsky on March 3, 2004.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from the NMAI Archivist. The Archives has no information on the status of literary rights for the work of others found in these papers; researchers are responsible for determining any question of copyright.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Wyoming  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Dakota  Search this
Indians of North America -- Wisconsin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Washington (State)  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Mexico  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona  Search this
Indians of North America -- Georgia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Florida  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- New Jersey  Search this
Indians of North America -- Montana  Search this
Indians of North America -- New York  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Architecture, Modern  Search this
Indians of North America -- Government relations  Search this
Indians of North America -- Social life and customs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Alaska  Search this
Indians of North America -- Colorado  Search this
Indians of North America -- Connecticut  Search this
Indians of North America -- Idaho  Search this
Indians of North America -- Indiana  Search this
Indians of North America -- Illinois  Search this
Indians of North America -- Louisiana  Search this
Indians of North America -- Kansas  Search this
Indians of North America -- Minnesota  Search this
Indians of North America -- Michigan  Search this
Indians of North America -- Nevada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Nebraska  Search this
Indians of North America -- Rhode Island  Search this
Indians of North America -- Oregon  Search this
Indians of North America -- Tennessee  Search this
Indians of North America -- South Dakota  Search this
Indians of North America -- Oklahoma  Search this
Indians of North America -- Texas  Search this
Genre/Form:
Clippings
Correspondence
Interviews
Photographs
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Carol H. Krinsky Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.008
See more items in:
Carol H. Krinsky papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4afebd282-9411-45dd-b232-5f274c643c2d
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-008

George L. Nelson papers

Creator:
Nelson, George L.  Search this
Names:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Extent:
0.2 Linear feet
Culture:
Rappahannock  Search this
Powhatan  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Letters
Writings
Articles
Speeches
Date:
1920-1925
Summary:
The George L. Nelson papers consist of documents belonging to Chief Nelson and left in the posession of his daughter Waneta Swain. The bulk of these documents relate to the work done by Chief Nelson in establishing the Rappahannock Indian Association in 1922 and the activities that led to the recognition of the tribe as part of the larger Virginia Indians Powhatan Confederacy. Chief George L. Nelson was born and raised in Indian Neck, VA.
Scope and Contents:
The George L. Nelson papers consist of documents belonging to Chief Nelson and left in the possession of his daughter Waneta Swain. The bulk of these documents relate to the work done by Chief Nelson in establishing the Rappahannock Indian Association in 1921 and the activities that led to the recognition of the tribe as part of the larger Virginia Indians Powhatan Confederacy. These includes letters, speeches, notes and membership lists. These papers also include letters and articles from Frank Speck, an anthropologist from the University of Pennsylvania, who maintained a relationship with Nelson and his family. Additionally these records includes notes and documents written by Chief Nelson regarding the Racial Integrity act (Bill No. 68) which was enacted in 1924. There are three family photographs which were accompanied by a newspaper clipping announcing the 50th wedding anniversary of Mr. and Mrs. George L. Nelson.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged alphabetically by folder title.
Biographical / Historical:
Chief George L. Nelson (Rappahannock) was born circa 1883 in Indian Neck, Virginia to parents Samuel and Virginia Nelson. A member of the Rappahannock community, Nelson began working to incorporate his tribe under the state laws of Virginia. The Rappahannock Indian Association was founded in 1921 with George Nelson as Chief. In the early 1920's anthropologist Frank Speck spent time among the Rappahannock photographing Nelson and other community members.

Nelson married Polena Sensenbaugh daughter to Simon and Louisa born 1888 in South Whitely, Indiana in 1908. They became acquainted while Nelson was on his way home following a trip around the world with the Navy. George and Polena had 11 children, six sons and five daughters and the family eventually moved to Millville, New Jersey. Nelson died in 1960 in Cumberland, New Jersey. Nelson's daughter Waneta Swain Ackerman (born Waneta Pocahontas Nelson) bequeathed her father's papers to the National Museum of the American Indian in 2005.

Speck, Frank. "The Rappahannock Indians of Virginia," Indian Notes and Monographs, Volume V, No. 3. Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, 1925.
Related Materials:
Photographs of Chief George Nelson and family were taken both by Frank Speck and Frederick Johnson in the 1920's and can be found in their photo collections.

Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.032) Frederick Johnson photograph collection (NMAI.AC.001.038)
Provenance:
The Chief George L. Nelson papers were donated to NMAI in 2005 by the Estate of Waneta P. Swain, daughter to Nelson, along with an outfit worn by Nelson which can be found in the object collections (NMAI Object 265403).
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Race discrimination -- Law and legislation -- Virginia  Search this
Genre/Form:
Letters
Writings
Articles
Speeches
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); George L. Nelson Papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.018
See more items in:
George L. Nelson papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv47579c350-fc07-4f08-a96a-5f25be07e78a
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-018
Online Media:

Daniel Sutherland Davidson prints and negatives

Creator:
Davidson, Daniel Sutherland, 1900-  Search this
Extent:
36 Photographic prints (albumen, 2.5 x 4 inches.)
101 Acetate negatives (black and white, 5 x 7 inches.)
Culture:
Chickahominy  Search this
Algonquin (Algonkin)  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Acetate negatives
Black-and-white negatives
Albumen prints
Photographs
Date:
1925
Summary:
This collection consists of 101 black-and-white acetate negatives and 36 albumen prints taken by Daniel Sutherland Davidson in 1925. The images portray Pamunkey and Chickahominy Indians of Virginia and the Algonquin (Kitcisakik, Grand Lake Victoria) and Tetes de Boule (Attikamek) Indians of Quebec, Canada.
Arrangement note:
Negatives: organized in individual sleeves; arranged by image number.

Prints: organized in folders; arranged by image number.
Biographical/Historical note:
Daniel Sutherland Davidson (1900-1952) was born in Cohoes, New York. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1923 and continued his studies there, eventually receiving his Ph.D. in anthropology in 1928. Davidson went on to teach at the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Buffalo and finally the University of Washington. He did a considerable amount of field work among the Algonquin Indians in Quebec, as well as various tribes in Virginia, but his abiding interest was in aboriginal Australian culture.
Restrictions:
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment.
Rights:
Copyright: National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- Québec (Province)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Black-and-white negatives
Albumen prints
Photographs
Citation:
Daniel Sutherland Davidson prints and negatives, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution (image, negative or catalog number).
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.044
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv495f19c6b-f421-4250-9fc4-3f5c42112735
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-044

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