The Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers, 1920-1980, document her professional life in anthropology. Much of the field material and reading notes relate to Goldfrank's work on the Pueblos, Navahos, Blood, and Teton Dakota. There is also considerable material of colleagues. Some of this seems to have been given to her directly. Other material, particularly that of Ruth Benedict's Blackfoot project, was acquired by Margaret Mead and then sent to Goldfrank. Included are field notes or manuscript articles concerning the Blackfoot Indians by Benedict, Harry D. Biele, Marjorie Lismer, Jane Richardson, and George D. Spindler. Most of the photographs in the collection concern Goldfrank's early travels with Franz Boas or Harvey Biele's work with the Bloods. Copies of illustrations used in her autobiography are also included.
Scope and Contents:
These papers document the professional life of anthropologist Esther Schiff Goldfrank (b. 1896) through correspondence, arranged both alphabetically and chronologically; correspondence specifically referencing the Isleta paintings; manuscripts by Goldfrank; field, reading and typescript notes; material from other anthropologists; miscellaneous printed material such as articles, reports, papers and invitations; transparencies of artwork from Isleta paintings; facsimiles of the Joe B. Lente letters; and, photographs, mostly concerning Goldfrank's early travels with Franz Boas and Harvey Biele's work with the Bloods. The collection dates from 1920 through 1980.
Among correspondents whose letters are included in the papers, are David F. ABERLE, John ADAIR, M. F. ASHLEY-MONTAGUE, Victor BARNOUW, Ruth F. BENEDICT, Franz BOAS, Charles E. BORDEN, Henry B. COLLINS, Carlton S. COON, George DEVEREUX, Rene d'HARNONCOURT, Edward P. DOZIER, Fred R. EGGAN, Ward H. GOODENOUGH, Alfred I. HALLOWELL, June HANKS, Byron HARVEY III, Florence M. HAWLEY, E. Adamson HOEBEL, Alfred V. KIDDER, Solon T. KIMBALL, Clyde KLUCKHOLN, R. Weston LABARRE, Oliver LAFARGE, Dorothea C. LEIGHTON, Oscar LEWIS, Edward M. LOEB, John P. LUCERO, Margaret MEAD, Robert MURPHY, Morris OPLER, Elsie Clews PARSONS, Herbert PARSONS, Jane RICHARDSON, M. Estellie SMITH, Frank G. SPECK, Leslie SPIER, Morris SWADESH, Sol TAX, Mischa TITIEV, Caroline TRUJILLO, Leslie A. WHITE, Nathalie F. S. WOODBURY, and Richard B. WOODBURY.
The bulk of the material concerns Goldfrank's work on the genesis and publication of the Isleta paintings and her research on and fieldwork with the Pueblo, Navaho, Blood and Teton Dakota. Additionally, there are field notes and manuscript articles by Ruth F. Benedict, Harry D. Biele, Marjorie Lismer, Jane Richardson, and George D. Spindler.
There is also a good deal of autobiographical material and information about her interaction with other anthropologists (Franz Boas and Ruth F. Benedict among others) in the various drafts of Goldfrank's privately published autobiography, "Notes on an Undirected Life" (1978).
The collection is arranged into the following series: (1) Correspondence arranged by correspondent or subject; (2) Correspondence arranged in chronological order, 1922-1950; (3) Correspondence arranged in chronological order, 1951-1980; (4) Manuscripts by Goldfrank; (5) Isleta paintings, 1949-1976, undated; (6) Blackfoot and Blood Indians; (7) Navajo and Pueblo Indians; (8) Teton Dakota (Sioux) Indians; (9) Miscellany; (10) Photographs.
Esther Schiff Goldfrank took an undergraduate course under Franz Boas when she was a student at Barnard College. This led to her becoming his secretary between 1919 and 1922 and, at the same time, taking graduate courses in anthropology at Columbia University. With the financial and intellectual assistance of Elsie Clews Parsons, she also traveled with Boas and his wife in the Southwest and carried out anthropological field work at Laguna and Cochiti Pueblos between 1920 and 1922. Out of this work came her Social and Ceremonial Organization of Chochiti, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, number 23, 1927.
Although she married Walter Goldfrank in 1922 and became a homemaker, her interest in Pueblo life continued. In 1924, she carried out field work at Isleta for the Southwest Society under arrangements made by Parsons.
After her husband's death in 1935, Goldfrank worked for Caroline Zachry's Study of Adolescents for the Commission on Secondary School Curriculum of the Progressive Education Association and, later, became a nondegree graduate student in anthropology, again at Columbia University, In 1939, she took part in a program of field studies of four Blackfoot tribes that was directed Ruth Fulton Benedict. The purpose of the program was to determine differences in the effects of American and Canadian policies on similar cultures.
Goldfrank's work was among the Blood Indians of Canada, and she reported it in her Changing Configurations in the Social Organization of a Blackfoot Tribe during the Reserve Period, J. J. Austin, 1945.
In 1940, Goldfrank married Karl A. Wittfogel and, in 1943, became staff anthropologist for the Chinese History Project, which her husband directed. Shortly after her marriage, she undertook work on historical aspects of Teton Dakota culture through library studies. Her interest in Pueblo cultures continued, however, and she contributed two major publications concerning them. In 1962, under her editorship, Elsie Clews Parsons' Isleta Paintings was published as Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 181. In 1967, her own The Artist of "Isleta Paintings" in Pueblo Society was issued as Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, volume 3.
Under the influence of her husband, she also became interested in the implications for southwestern cultures of the need to control water.
Goldfrank was active with several anthropological organizations but especially with the American Ethnological Society. She served as its secretary-treasurer in 1945-1947 and its president in 1948. In the latter position, she was particularly concerned with the constitution of the society and, especially, its anomolous relationship with the American Anthropological Association. She was also the society's editor from 1952 to 1956.
1896 -- Born
1918 -- Bachelor of Arts, Barnard College
1919-1922 -- Took graduate courses in anthropology at Columbia University Became secretary to Franz Boas Conducted field work with Franz Boas among the Indians at Laguna and Cochiti
1922 -- Married Walter S. Goldfrank
1924 -- Pursued field work at Isleta for the Southwest Society
1927 -- Published Monograph, "The Social and Ceremonial Organization of Cochiti," Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, number 23, 1927
1935 -- Death of Walter S. Goldfrank
1939 -- Took part in a study of four Blackfoot tribes directed by Ruth F. Benedict
1940 -- Married Karl A. Wittfogel
1943 -- Became staff anthropologist for Wittfogel's Chinese HistoryProject
1944 -- Published Monograph, "Changing Configurations in the Social Organization of a Blackfoot Tribe During the Reserve Period," J. J. Austin, 1945
1945-1947 -- Served as Secretary-Treasurer of the American Ethnological Society
1948 -- Served as President of the American Ethnological Society
1952-1956 -- Publication of "Isleta Paintings,"Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 181, with Introduction and Commentary by Elsie ClewsParsons and edited by Esther S. Goldfrank Served as editor for the American Ethnological Society
1967 -- Goldfrank's "Artist of 'Isleta Paintings' in Pueblo Society" was issued as Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, volume 3
1978 -- Publication of the Memoirs of Esther S. Goldfrank, entitled, "Notes on an Undirected Life," New York, Queens College, 1978
1988 -- Death of Karl A. Wittfogel
1997 April 23 -- Died
The papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Esther Schiff Goldfrank in 1982. A small addition was made in 1984.
The Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers are open for research.
Restrictions on the use of the material specify that living informants are not to be mentioned in publications; no material is to be used to defame any individual; and, transparencies of the Isleta Paintings and copies of Joe B. Lente's letters cannot be reproduced (copies should be obtained from the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia).
Esther Schiff Goldfrank papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
This collection consists of approximately 98 Hopi color illustrations on 70 leaves. The illustrations were used in the 1930 book "The Oraibi Book of Indian Designs for Arts and Crafts or Decorative Work" by J. Preston Myers. Also includes a photocopied manuscript of the book.
Copied into Schedule of John Wesley Powell's Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages outline of 180 terms in handwriting of George Gibbs; with "Sinecu" and "Isleta" [del Sur] terms added in pencil in handwriting of James Mooney .
NAA MS 454
Sinecu and Isleta notes are marked, "D7-97" and "D-15," as are corresponding notes in Mooney's notebook, Catalog Number 1953, where these figures apparently refer to the dates December 7 and 15, 1897. See 19th Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology for year 1897-98, page xvi, referring to Mooney's trip to this area in December, 1897. --MCB, 1/67.
MS 502-a Linguistic and ethnological material on the Karankawa tribe, "taken down from the recollection of Mrs Alice W. Oliver, at Lynn Massachusetts, in November, 1888." Approximately 71 pages in notebook. ("Karankawa" printed on edge of binding.
MS 502-b A report on the information, 4 pages, accompanied by letter of transmittal to the Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Contents: Frontispiece, sketch map; pages 1-12, San Felipe vocabulary from Jose Zepherino of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and Laguna vocabulary, source not given, interpaged or on same pages; pages 13-22, Laguna vocabulary from John Menaul; 24-32, copy of Whipple's Kiwomi or Santo Domingo vocabulary from Pacific Railroad Survey Report III, pages 86-90; pages 45-62, copy of Col. James Stevenson's Santa Ana and Silla vocabulary; pages 63-82, vocabulary extracted from Die Koshare (later published as The Delight Makers) by A. F. Bandelier.
Contents: Vocabularies of the Comecrudo and Cotoname Dialects of the Pakawa Linguistic Family... Autograph document. 1 volume. approximately 100 pages. 1886. Comecrudo and Cotoname. Autograph document. notebook. approximately 80 pages. December 6, 1886. (Copied 1900). Comecrudo and Cotoname, U.S. Geological and Geographic Survey Comparative Vocabulary printed schedule. Autograph document. 7 pages. December 1886.
Biographical / Historical:
These documents were collected and arranged by subject and alphabetically by Gatschet in 1886, at Las Prietas, between Camargo and Matamoros in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.
NAA MS 297-a-b-c
Both volumes and the printed schedule are stamped, "Bureau of American Ethnology Manuscript Vault. March, 1926."
Contains "Extracts from Fr Bartholome Garcia's Manual" printed at Quaeretaro, 1760 (88 pages octavo). This is the only book known to contain the texts of the Coahuiltecs o Texano. The author was missionary of the mission of N.S.P.S. Franciscans on the Rio de San Antonio in the Provincia de Texas. The chief part is a catechism; then terms of relationship, etc.
NAA MS 298
Taken from a copy in the possession of Mr Alphonse Pinart, copied by A.S. Gatschet.
Photographs depicting a delegation of Zuni spiritual leaders with members of the Department of Anthropology. Made on September 26, 1978, they include images of the Zuni individuals Alonzo Hustito, Allen Kallestewa, Chester Mahooty, and Edmund J. Ladd. The photographs also depict T. J. Ferguson of the University of Arizona School of Anthropology, and William W. Fitzhugh, William C. Sturtevant, John Canfield Ewers, Bruce David Smith, and James A. Hanson of the Smithsonian Institution.
The Zuni delegation pictured in this collection came to the Smithsonian to investigate and discuss the Institution's holdings of Zuni religious objects, September 25-27, 1978.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 99-3, NAA Photo Lot 86-68
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Photographs previously filed in Photo Lot 86-68 have been relocated and merged with Photo Lot 99-3. These are additional photographs of this Zuni delegation and form part of this collection.
The National Anthropological Archives holds the William C. Sturtevant papers, the John Canfield Ewers papers, and the Bruce D. Smith Papers.
Writing by Edmund Ladd can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7584.
Reports by T. J. Ferguson can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in MS 7404 and MS 7405.
Related Archival Materials note:
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Alonzo Hustito September 26, 1978 AAA0722NA (GEAC)00008049 NAA ACC 86-68
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Allen Kallestewa September 26, 1978 AAA0723NA (GEAC)00008050 NAA ACC 86-68
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Chester Mahooty September 26, 1978 AAA0724NA (GEAC)00008051 NAA ACC 86-39
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Edmund J. Ladd September 26, 1978 AAA0725NA (GEAC)00008052 NAA ACC 86-68
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Zuni delegation September 26, 1978 AAA0726NA (GEAC)00008054 NAA ACC 86-68
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Zuni delegation and Smithsonian anthropologists September 26, 1978 AAA0727NA (GEAC)00008055 NAA ACC 86-68
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Zuni delegation and Smithsonian anthropologists September 26, 1978 AAA0728NA (GEAC)00008056 NAA ACC 86-68
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Zuni delegation and Smithsonian anthropologists September 26, 1978 AAA0734NA (GEAC)00008063 NAA ACC 86-68
Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services Zuni delegation and Smithsonian anthropologists September 26, 1978 AAA0735NA (GEAC)00008064 NAA ACC 86-68
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo Lot 99-3, Smithsonian Institution Office of Printing and Photographic Services photographs of Zuni delegation, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Front and profile images of Apache, Kiowa, Omaha, Osage, Teton, and Yankton Indians made for Ales Hrdlicka's use in preparing busts and physical anthropological exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition in 1915. Accompanying the photographs are notes produced under the supervision of Lucile Eleanor St. Hoyme; these include the tribe, age, sex, name(s), photographer, and number of corresponding bust. Photographers represented in the collection are Frank Micka, a sculptor hired by the exposition to make busts, as well as photographers Frank Bennett Fiske, De Lancey W. Gill, and others.
Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) was born in Czechoslovakia and came to the United States at the age of thirteen. Originally trained in medicine, he developed an interest in physical anthropology while working with the New York State hospitals and researching with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals. Hrdlicka joined the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and made his own expeditions to study physical characteristics of Southwest tribes. In 1903, he was appointed head of the United States National Museum's newly-formed Division of Physical Anthropology.
In 1912, Hrdlicka planned and directed seven expeditions, gathering information that helped him prepare physical anthropology exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, California (1915). During this process, he hired sculptor Frank Micka to make busts of people from around the world. While in the field making casts, Micka also took front and profile photographs of subjects. Hrdlicka made his own trip to photograph the people in Urga, Mongolia, making 360 images of Mongolians and some Tibetans for use in the exposition.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 9, USNM ACC 61302
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds original negatives for many of these photographs (Photo Lot 73-26B) and images of resulting busts (Photo Lot 88-25).
The National Anthropological Archives also holds the Ales Hrdlicka Papers ca. 1887-1943.
Material from Hrdlicka, mostly correspondence, is held in the National Anthropological Archives in the papers and records of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, Frank Spencer, the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution).
Hrdlicka photographs held in National Anthropological Archives Photo Lot 8, Photo Lot 24, Photo Lot 70, Photo Lot 78, Photo Lot 97, Photo Lot 73-26B, Photo Lot 73-26G, Photo Lot 83-41, and Photo Lot 92-46.
The collection is open for research.
Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Photo lot 9, Aleš Hrdlička photograph collection of American Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Copied from Reports of Secretary of Warar, Senate ex. document No. 64, 31st Cong., 1st sess., 1850. Simpsonʹs contribution to this report included "35 words of the Ticorilla [sic], a branch of the Apaches (no. 8), obtained by Lieutenant Simpson from an Apache Indian, a prisoner in the guard-house at Santa Fe."-- Information from Pilling, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 14, page 94.
NAA MS 115
Gibbs copied 9 Simpson vocabularies; the title page for the whole group is filed with Manuscript No. 104-a. (Note added by SJB 12/1969.)
This account was used freely in the preparation of various articles in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30 on the Apache, and seems to have been considered one of the principal sources at that time. It has not been published, however, in any other manner. According to his own statements, White was scrupulously careful in securing and checking his information. The account is probably quite trustworthy. It was prepared for the purpose of accompanying his vocabulary. [Manuscript 178].
J. B. White is mentioned in the article in the New Mexico Historical Review, "Es-kim-in-zin," by John P. Clum, who succeeded White as agent at San Carlos. This article gives a good account of the disturbances that occurred during White's sojourn as acting agent. See also the Report of J. B. White, August 9, 1874 on the San Carlos Agency in Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1874, page 294. I have not found any biographical material on White, who was an army surgeon prior to his Indian office appointment. ---Notes by M. W. Stirling, Director, Bureau of American Ethnology October 19, 1953.
Copy in hand of George Gibbs, marked "Simpson Number 1." Title page, filed with Navajo Manuscript Number 104, reads, "Vocabularies of the Pueblo and other Indians of New Mexico from a Journal of a Military Reconnaissance from Santa Fe New Mexico to the Navajo Country, by Jas. H. Simpson 1st Lieutenant Top. Eng. Phila. 1852." (Note added by SJB 12/1969.)
Letter of transmittal to George Gibbs from General George H. Thomas, Louisville, Kentucky, March 5, 1868 (filled with Manuscript Number 1107) gives the date of recording as "several years before our late war."
NAA MS 100
Title page is in handwriting of A.S. Gatschet. VOcabulary is on letterhead of Office of Assistant Adjutant General, Louisville, Kentucky.
Listed in Pilling, Bureau of American Ethnology-B 14, page 108.
MS 104-a Vocabularies of the Pueblo and other Indians of New Mexico from a "Journal of a Military Reconnaissance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Navajo Country [in 1844], by Jas. H. Simpson 1st Lieut. Top. Eng." Phila. 1852
Title page, in handwriting of George Gibbs, and back cover prepared to enclose Manuscript copies by Gibbs of vocabularies by Simpson, printed in the publication cited. Manuscript copies of the 9 Simpson vocabularies (marked by Gibbs, "Simpson Number 1," etc.) are separately catalogued as follows: "Keresan Manuscript Number 504-b (Simpson Number 1), Tewa Manuscript Number 1024-a (Simpson Number 2), Tiwa Manuscript Number 1024-b (Simpson Number 3), Towa Manuscript Number 1026 (Simpson Number 4), Zuni Manuscript Number 1156-b (Simpson Number 5), Hopi Manuscript Number 780 (Simpson Number 6), Navaho Manuscript Number 104-b (Simpson Number 7), Apache Manuscript Number 115 (Simpson Number 8), and Ute Manuscript Number 783 (Simpson Number 9).