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Report on Indian education final report to the American Indian Policy Review Commission Task Force Five, Indian Education

Author:
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission Task Force Five, Indian Education  Search this
Scheirbeck, Helen M. (Helen Maynor)  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 382 pages illustrations 24 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1976
Topic:
Education  Search this
Education--Law and legislation  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Education--Law and legislation  Search this
Call number:
KF8205 .A3195 1976
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1118268

Writing their bodies restoring rhetorical relations at the Carlisle Indian School Sarah Klotz

Author:
Klotz, Sarah  Search this
Physical description:
1 online resource illustrations (some color)
Type:
Electronic resources
Electronic books
History
Place:
Pennsylvania
Carlisle
United States
Pennsylvanie
Date:
2021
Topic:
Off-reservation boarding schools--History  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
English language--Study and teaching--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Cultural assimilation  Search this
Indians of North America--Ethnic identity--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Social conditions--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Education--History  Search this
Racism in education--History  Search this
Internats pour Autochtones--Histoire  Search this
Anglais (Langue)--Étude et enseignement--Histoire  Search this
Racisme en éducation--Histoire  Search this
LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES--General  Search this
LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES--Rhetoric  Search this
SOCIAL SCIENCE--Ethnic Studies--Native American Studies  Search this
Education--History  Search this
English language--Study and teaching  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Ethnic identity  Search this
Indians of North America--Social conditions  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools  Search this
Racism in education  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156590

A collection of lessons for American Indians and Canadian natives : (K-12, adult education) / [10th Annual National American Indian Cultural Curriculum Development Workshop, July 22-27, 1990, Greenbay, Wisconsin ; sponsor: American Indian Institute, Continuing Education & Public Service, University of Oklahoma ; booklet editor: Anita Chisholm ; booklet co-editors: Carolyn Holloway, Guyneth Cardwel...

Title:
Lessons for American Indians and Canadian natives
Author:
National American Indian Cultural Curriculum Development Workshop (10th : 1990 : Greenbay, Wis.)  Search this
Chisholm, Anita  Search this
Holloway, Carolyn  Search this
Cardwell, Guyneth  Search this
University of Oklahoma American Indian Institute  Search this
University of Oklahoma Continuing Education and Public Service  Search this
Physical description:
viii, 168 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
Type:
Congresses
Place:
Canada
Date:
1990
1990]
Topic:
Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Education (Higher)  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Call number:
E97 .N27 1990
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472409

Bird Carson photographs of Cheyenne River Indian Reservation

Photographer:
Carson, Bird  Search this
Extent:
93 Photographs
Culture:
Cheyenne River Lakota Sioux  Search this
Minneconjou Lakota [Cheyenne River]  Search this
Oohenonpa Lakota [Cheyenne River]  Search this
Itazipacola Lakota [Cheyenne River]  Search this
Hunkpapa Lakota [Cheyenne River]  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
circa 1890-1920
Summary:
This collection contains 93 photographs shot by amateur photographer Bird Carson (1842-1925) depicting daily life on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, circa 1890-1920. Bird worked as a housekeeper for the local school and her husband John Franklin Carson worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs as a teacher at Cherry Creek Day School on the Reservation.
Arrangement:
Photographs arranged in the original order in which they were organized and donated to NMAI.
Biographical / Historical:
Bertha "Bird" Louise Pickering Carson was born to Hannah Binford Pickering (1842-1925) and Philip Pickering (1837-1909) in Iowa on August 18, 1872. In 1891, she married John Franklin Carson (1860-1935) and they lived on the Cheyenne River Agency at Cherry Creek in South Dakota circa 1890-1920. John Franklin worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs as a teacher on the reservation and census records show that Bird Carson served as a housekeeper. The couple had four children: Catherine Hannah Carson Spain (1895- 1980); Franklin Morris Carson (1898-1941); John Henry Carson (1900-1964); and Philip D. Carson (b. circa 1902).

Bird Carson was an amateur photographer and photographed daily life on the reservation.
-------

[Excerpt below is from the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe website (2022) which borrows text from Cheyenne River Sioux by Donovin Sprague. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, S.C., 2003.]

The name Sioux is part of the Ojibway/Chippewa/Anishinabe word "Nadoweisiweg," which the French shortened to Sioux. The original word meant "little or lesser snakes/enemies." The Sioux are really three groups comprised of the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota, each having slightly different language dialects. Geographically, the Lakota are the most western of the groups and there are seven distinct bands. Four of the Lakota bands (Minnicoujou, Itazipco, Siha Sapa, and Oohenumpa) are located on the land known as the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation. The other three (the Oglala of Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, Hunkpapa at Standing Rock Reservation, and Sicangu at the Rosebud Indian Reservation and also at Lower Brule Indian Reservation), are all located in western South Dakota. The Standing Rock Reservation also stretches into North Dakota. Some of the Lakota also settled in Canada at Wood Mountain Reserve in Saskatchewan beginning in 1876. Collectively the bands are part of the Oceti Sakowin (Seven Council Fires) of the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota.

The present land base of the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation was established by the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty. Prior to this, the bands placed within this reservation knew no boundary to their territory. They were a hunting people and traveled frequently in search of their main food source, the sacred American bison or buffalo.

The Sioux Agreement Act of 1889 set reservation boundary lines and was named the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation. West of the Missouri River was the waters of the Cheyenne River, known to the Lakota as the Good River (Wakpa Waste'). The "Post at Cheyenne River Agency" was established seven miles above Fort Sully on the Missouri River in 1870 and became known as Fort Bennett. Fort Bennett was next to the village named Cheyenne Agency, and was the quarters for the Indian Agent and soldiers. Separate from the fort was the agency town which housed U.S. Government employees and this location would later be moved to higher ground away from the river. The fort and town would be moved a total of four times in the coming years, with the name Cheyenne Agency attached to the town adjoining Fort Bennett. As reservation land was ceded following the Dawes Act of 1887, the town was moved again since it was now off the new reservation boundaries. After 1891, Fort Bennett was closed by the military and the reservation was believed to be safe without a military fort beside it. The next location of the agency would be between the Cheyenne River (Good River) and the Moreau (Owl) River at the site of Chief Martin Charger's camp. It was called Cheyenne Agency.

The final location of the Agency would be to the town of Eagle Butte in 1959, a move necessitated due to the construction of the Oahe Dam near Pierre, South Dakota, which flooded tribal lands along the Missouri River. When people refer to the Old Agency or Old Cheyenne Agency, they are referring to the Agency location prior to the move to Eagle Butte, which is now the tribal headquarters offices. There is also confusion about the name Cheyenne as people often think the four bands here are of the Cheyenne Tribe. Although the Lakota's have been close allies with the Cheyenne, they are, nevertheless, a separate tribe. The tribal headquarters of the Northern Cheyenne are located in Montana and the Southern Cheyenne are in Oklahoma.

The first towns were Evarts and then LeBeau which were trading posts. LeBeau was established by Antoine LeBeau, a French trader. Evarts and LeBeau became non-existent when railroad service left and the town of LeBeau burned. Both locations are now under the waters of the Missouri River. The old main home camps of the Minnicoujou were in the towns of Cherry Creek, Bridger, and Red Scaffold in the western area of the reservation. Cherry Creek is believed to be the oldest permanent community in South Dakota. The home camps of the Oohenumpa went from Iron Lightning, Thunder Butte, Bear Creek, and White Horse along the Moreau (Owl) River. The Siha Sapa located around the Promise and Blackfoot areas in the northeast part of the reservation. Green Grass and On The Tree communities were home to the Itazipco. Green Grass is the home to the sacred Buffalo Calf Pipe. There would soon be some reshuffling of the band locations as allotments were chosen and intermarriage. Many Itazipco joined the Minnicoujou and the Siha Sapa had earlier camped in close proximity to the Hunkpapa on the neighboring Standing Rock Reservation. Today, other communities on or near the reservation include Eagle Butte, Dupree, Red Elm, Takini, Bridger, Howes, Glad Valley, Isabel, Firesteel, Timber Lake, Glencross, Swiftbird, La Plant, Ridgeview, Parade, and Lantry. There are also many rural areas on the reservation.

There are different spelling preferences by individuals of the band names and the spellings in this writing appeared on a tribal flag. An older name for Minnicoujou was Howoju meaning "the people." Minnicoujou means "planters by the water," Itazipco means "Without Bows," and the French called them Sans Arc. Siha Sapa means "Black Foot," and Oohenumpa means "Two boilings/Two Kettle." The Black Foot Lakota should not be confused with the larger Blackfeet/Blackfoot nations of Montana and Canada. Many tribal members are a mixture of the four bands.
Provenance:
Gift of the family of Catherine Spain, 2022.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Bird Carson photographs of Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, image #, NMAI.AC.425; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.425
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv408920998-bab7-4ed2-8a67-3cb282200b4b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-425

Joseph C. Park collection of lantern slides

Collector:
Park, Joseph C., 1872-  Search this
Extent:
31 Lantern slides
1 Poster
Container:
Box 1
Map-case 13
Culture:
Cherokee  Search this
Kiowa  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Ephemera
Lantern slides
Posters
Place:
Indian Territory (U.S.A)
Date:
circa 1880-1901
Summary:
The Joseph C. Park collection of lantern slides contains 31 lantern slides and 1 poster that were used by Joseph C. Park for his lectures on Indians of North America. Park was the Principal of the Cherokee Baptist Academy located at Tahlequah Indian Territory (today Oklahoma) from 1896 to 1901.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 31 lantern slides and 1 poster that were used by Joseph C. Park for his lectures on Indians of North America. Park was the Principal of the Cherokee Baptist Academy located at Tahlequah Indian Territory (today Oklahoma) from 1896 to 1901.

The lantern slides depict Cherokee Baptist Academy students including the 1899 football team; female seminary building in Tahlequah; as well as the gallows (for public hangings) at Tahlequah. Other lantern slides depict portraits of Set-Imkia, also known as Stumbling Bear (Kiowa Chief); Sitting Bull (Lakota); Pe-ji (Grass Blackbear); A.L. Lacie and Wolf Coon; a Wahpetonwan Dakota (Wahpeton Sioux) man with an amputated leg; a Paiute man; a Cheyenne boy; Dr. J. S. Murrow, and General George Armstrong Custer.

A few lantern slides depict drawings such as the capture and death of Sitting Bull; the battle of Big Horn and Custer's last charge; and a drawing depicting an Indian burial (restricted). Several lantern slides also depict wigwam or wickuup structures and scenes in Alaska including totem poles.

Some slides were produced by the American Museum of Natural History in New York and Kurz and Allison, Pub. in Chicago.

The poster depicts a photo of Joseph C. Park and reads, "Illustrated lecture / Joseph C. Park / Subjects 1. The Indians of North America / Illustrated by beautiful calcium light views. Many of these pictures were taken from life by the lecturer during his sojourn among the Indians in Indian Territory. 2. The life of our Savior, or Jesus, the Nazarine / Illustrated by beautiful calcium light views taken from the world's greatest paintings. / Mr. Park was Principal of Cherokee Baptist Academy, a large Indian School located at Tahlequah, Ind. Ter., for a period of five years. He has made an extended study of the "Indian Problem" and comes highly recommended as a lecturer."
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by subject matter.
Biographical / Historical:
Joseph Charles Park was born in Big Flats, New York in 1872 and went on to graduate from Cornell University and Syracuse University. From 1896 to 1901, Park served as the principal of the Cherokee Baptist Academy. This Indian boarding and day school was located on a 160-acre farm in Tahlequah, Indian Territory (today Oklahoma) and was run by the American Baptist Home Mission Society.
Provenance:
Gift of Donald Weber, 2019.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Some images in this collection are restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Cultural assimilation  Search this
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Joseph C. Park collectino of lantern slides, NMAI.AC.387; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.387
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4bb978be5-84be-4039-947f-df4ea655ef1f
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-387

JAIE

Author:
Arizona State University Center for Indian Education  Search this
Physical description:
volumes illustrations 23 cm
Type:
Periodicals
Periodical
Périodiques
Date:
1961
Topic:
Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_601692

Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection

Creator:
Jenkins, Dale  Search this
Extent:
145 Postcards
11 Photographic prints
0.5 Linear feet
Culture:
Havasupai (Coconino)  Search this
Hopi Pueblo  Search this
A:shiwi (Zuni)  Search this
Acoma Pueblo  Search this
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Tesuque Pueblo  Search this
K'apovi (Santa Clara Pueblo)  Search this
Laguna Pueblo  Search this
Inupiaq (Alaskan Inupiat Eskimo)  Search this
Suquamish  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Cayuse  Search this
Northern Paiute (Paviotso)  Search this
Nuwuvi (Southern Paiute)  Search this
Plains Apache (Kiowa Apache)  Search this
Inunaina (Arapaho)  Search this
Seminole  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Panama  Search this
Indians of Central America -- Guatemala  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Postcards
Photographic prints
Place:
Temuco (Chile)
Cuzco (Peru)
Date:
1890-1939
Summary:
This collection consists of 145 postcards and 11 photographs depicting indigenous peoples of the Americas, with dates ranging 1890 – 1930s. The bulk of the collection consists of postcards of Native communities throughout the United States, and includes portrait images, dwellings, basket-making, weaving, and crafts.
Scope and Contents:
The Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection consists of 145 postcards and 11 photographs with dates ranging 1890 – 1930s. The images depict indigenous peoples of the Americas, and spans a large geographical breadth extending from the Arctic in the north to Chile and Peru in South America. The bulk of the collection consists of postcards of Native communities throughout the United States, with a significant number of images depicting various Pueblo and Southwest cultural groups; many of these latter postcards were produced by the Fred Harvey Company. A number of the postcards and photographs include portrait images, dwellings, basket-making, weaving, and crafts. Also of particular note are 13 scenes of daily life at a number of different Indian Boarding Schools at the turn of the twentieth century. Finally, in addition to the postcard images are 11 photographs consisting of cabinet cards and other photographic prints.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged into 11 series, organized thematically (Indian Boarding Schools) and then regionally by location or culture group. Series 1: Indian Boarding Schools, Series 2: Arctic/Subarctic, Series 3: Northwest Coast, Series 4: California, Series 5: Great Basin/Plateau, Series 6: Southwest, Series 7: Plains, Series 8: Northeast/Great Lakes, Series 9: Southeast, Series 10: Mexico/Central America, Series 11: South America
Biographical / Historical:
Dale Jenkins is a retired Financial Planner living in California, having previously worked in the Aerospace industry. He has collected late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century American photographs and postcards for over 30 years. In addition to archival collections donated to the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian, Jenkins has also donated postcard and photograph collections to the California Museum of Photography, the California Historical Society, and the Museum of the City of New York.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Dale Jenkins in 2013 and 2014.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools -- Photographs  Search this
Education -- Carlisle Indian School  Search this
Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians. Minnesota  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection, NMAI.AC.069, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.069
See more items in:
Dale Jenkins postcard and photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv497ccf83e-56ee-4a16-8ea6-3e3c84db22eb
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-069
Online Media:

George Conner Carlisle Indian School collection

Publisher:
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Names:
Conner, George  Search this
Extent:
0.21 Linear feet
Culture:
Osage  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Pamphlets
Date:
circa 1884-1914
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains materials documenting George Conner (Tse-da-ha; Osage) and his time as a student at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. The collection contains 3 photographs of Conner circa 1884-1896, as well as Carlisle Indian School booklets and correspondence circa 1900-1914.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 5 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
George Conner, also known as Tse-dah-ha (Buffalo Hide), was born on the Osage Reservation in Kansas in 1870. His parents were Wah-kon-tah Shinka (Little Doctor) and Le-ah-tsa, both of the Little Osage tribe. Le-ah-tsa was the daughter of Wa-caba-shinka (Little Bear) who was the Principal Chief of the Little Osage.

Kansas Militia killed George's father on a return hunting trip shortly after George was born. George's mother married William Conner (Oh-hunka-moie) and approximately five years later, she was also killed. William Conner played a prominent role in reformulating the Osage government in the new Oklahoma Reservation and helped write the first Osage Nation Constitution.

William sent George to live with his Aunt Margaret "Maggie" Lawrence on her ranch west of Grainola. He attended Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania from 1885-1890 and was re-admitted in 1896 and stayed until 1899. During his last years at Carlisle, George assisted with the physical education of fellow students including exercise drills using 3.5-pound Spaulding Indian clubs, a set of which he brought home (now held in NMAI's collection). He also assisted with coaching younger boys in baseball and other athletics at Carlisle. While at Carlisle the second time, he learned harness making and saddle repair. He also participated in Carlisle's "outing" program, which placed student on neighboring Pennsylvania farms in the summer.

Upon return to the Osage Reservation at age twenty-nine, George moved from his boyhood home on the Lawrence ranch to the Osage Nation capital, Pawhuska. There he opened a harness shop and met his wife Lillian House, a matron at the Osage Girl's school. They had five children Letha, Adelia, Victor, Lester, and Don. George served as the Osage National Council Secretary for a number of years.

George and his step-father William also got involved with Osage resistance to the U.S. Government's Allotment Act, otherwise known as the Dawes Act of 1887. This law was designed to open up remaining Indian land in the West to white settlement, by dividing large reservations among the tribal members. Each would receive a small parcel and then U.S. made the remaining "surplus" land available for settlement. The Osage opposed this and William, George, and the tribe worked collectively for nearly two decades to prevent the reservation from allotment. In 1906, U.S. Congress passed the Osage Allotment Act, making the Osage one of the last tribes in Oklahoma to accept allotment. The tribe was also able collectively to retain the mineral rights of the reservation.

George and Lillian moved from Pawhuska, started farming west of Grainola, Oklahoma, and remained on the farm the rest of their lives. George died in 1936 at the age of 66 years old.

[Biography written by Dr. Joe L. Conner (George Conner's grandson) in 2012 and edited by E. Moazami (NMAI Assistant Head Archivist) in 2018.]
Related Materials:
The Archives and Special Collections at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania also holds collections related to the school.
Separated Materials:
The museum also purchased two objects with this collection: a Carlisle Indian School uniform owned and worn by George Conner and a set of exercise jugggling pins used by Conner when he assisted with physical education at Carlisle (object #s 268789 and 268790).
Provenance:
This collection was purchased by the museum in 2012.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Education -- Carlisle Indian School  Search this
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Pamphlets
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); George Conner Carlisle Indian School collection, NMAI.AC.250; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.250
See more items in:
George Conner Carlisle Indian School collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv433f5caa5-1cc0-49da-ada0-d61c9fea56ff
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-250
Online Media:

Horace G. Jennerson collection

Photographer:
Jennerson, Horace G.  Search this
Bratley, J. H. (Jesse H.)  Search this
Names:
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot
28 Glass plate negatives
30 Photographic prints
Culture:
Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux)  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Oglala Lakota [Pine Ridge]  Search this
Sicangu Lakota (Brulé Sioux)  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Glass plate negatives
Photographic prints
Place:
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Rosebud Indian Reservation (S.D.)
Date:
bulk circa 1887-1902
circa 1887-1940
Summary:
This collection contains photographs was shot circa 1887-1899 by Jesse Hasting Bratley and Horace G. Jennerson while they served as teachers on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 28 glass plate negatives and 30 photographic prints that were mostly shot by Jesse Hasting Bratley and Horace G. Jennerson circa 1887-1905, while they were teachers on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations respectively. The photographs include depictions of the Corn Creek Day School on Rosebud Reservation and No. 20 Day School on the Pine Ridge Reservation; portraits of individuals and families; interior views of an Omaha earth lodge and exterior views of encampments; activities such as branding calves, a 4th of July celebration, and an Episcopalian Convocation; and landscapes of the Badlands in South Dakota. One photograph in the collection possibly depicts Horace G. Jennerson circa 1938-1940.

Photographs of note include 2 glass plate negatives depicting Chief Red Cloud.

Some photographs in this collection are restricted because they depict culturally sensitive scenes such as sweat house/lodges and burial grounds.

Jennerson collected Bratley's photographs at some unknown point in time and Jennerson's wife Mary captioned many of the original plates and prints. In some instances, the original photographer is unclear.
Arrangement:
This collection is organized into 5 series: Series 1: Portraits, Series 2: Students and schools, Series 3: Activities, Series 4: Buildings and structures, and Series 5: Landscapes.

The photographs are physically arranged in original catalog number order within folders. The glass plate negatives are arranged in boxes according to image size and then by catalog number order.
Biographical / Historical:
Born in Kansas in 1863, Horace G. Jennerson served as a teacher at the No. 20 Day School on the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota from circa 1896-1905. He married Mary R. Jennerson in Saline, Kansas in 1889. Their children included M. Leah Jennerson and Horace L. Jennerson. He also served as a financial clerk for the Indian Service in Ponca, Oklahoma circa 1905-1913. He died in Seattle, Washington in 1940.

Jesse Bratley was born in Brown Town, Wisconsin in 1867. He served as teacher at the Lower Cut Meat Creek Indian Day School on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota from circa 1893-1899. In addition to regular classes, he also taught the children farming, carpentry, and blacksmithing. He later served as a teacher at the Cantonment Boarding School in Oklahoma, circa 1899-1900; Havasupai at Cataract, Arizona, circa 1902-1903; Hopi Day School in Arizona, circa 1902-1903, and Seminole, Florida, 1910. He passed away in Florida in 1948.
Separated Materials:
Horace L. Jennerson also donated objects to the Museum of the American Indian and are cataloged under numbers 243761-243811.
Provenance:
This collection was donated to the Museum of the American Indian by Horace L. Jennerson (son of Horace G. Jennerson) in 1970.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Some images restricted: Cultural Sensitivity
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Horace G. Jennerson collection, catalog #; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.224
See more items in:
Horace G. Jennerson collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4df69a7b8-70b1-4dc7-9126-fb635453661b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-224
Online Media:

St. Bernard Mission School photographs

Creator:
St. Bernard Indian Residential School (Grouard, Alta.)  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Linear feet
5 Photographic prints
Culture:
Cree  Search this
Plains Cree (Prairie Cree)  Search this
Cree Metis  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Grouard (Alta.)
Date:
circa 1925-1935
Summary:
This collection contains 5 gelatin silver prints depicting students and teachers at the St. Bernard Mission School (also known as the St. Bernard Indian Residential School) in Grouard, Alberta, Canada, circa 1925-1935.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains 5 gelatin silver prints depicting students and teachers at the St. Bernard Mission School (also known as the St. Bernard Indian Residential School) in Grouard, Alberta, Canada. The photographs, shot by an unidentified photographer, depict student classes, activities, and teachers circa 1925-1935. One photograph also depicts a nurse and child at St. Theresa Hospital in Ft. Vermilion in Alberta, Canada. The students are most likely from the Plains Cree First Nations Indigenous community in Canada.
Biographical / Historical:
Founded in 1872, the St. Bernard Mission was located at Lesser Slave Lake in Alberta, Canada near the Hudson's Bay Company trading post. The Catholic mission run by the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate worked with the Plains Cree and Cree Metis Indigenous communities in the region. By 1900, the mission ran the St. Bernard Mission School (also known as the St. Bernard Residential School), a residence for nuns, and a farming operation at Grouard, Alberta, Canada. The school closed its doors in 1962.
Provenance:
Donated by Patricia Krehbiel in 2017 and 2018.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools -- Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); St. Bernard Mission School photographs; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.125
See more items in:
St. Bernard Mission School photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a451230c-a4ad-42ab-8fa4-6ab58105c9ef
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-125
Online Media:

St. Michael Indian School photographs

Creator:
St. Michael Indian School (Saint Michaels, Ariz.)  Search this
Extent:
0.02 Linear feet
8 Photographic prints
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographic prints
Place:
Saint Michaels (Ariz.)
Navajo Indian Reservation
Date:
circa 1950-1959
Summary:
This collection contains photographs that depict students, teachers, and medical professionals associated with the St. Michael Indian School in St. Michaels, Arizona on the Navajo Reservation from circa 1950-1959.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 8 gelatin silver prints that depict students, teachers, and medical professionals associated with the St. Michael Indian School in St. Michaels, Arizona on the Navajo Reservation from circa 1950-1959.

The photographer of the photos is unknown. The names of several individuals were written on the back of the photographs presumably by the photographer.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 2 folders.
Biographical / Historical:
St. Katharine Drexel founded the St. Michael's Indian School in Saint Michaels, Arizona in 1902. Diné (Navajo) elementary students initially attended the school, but in 1950 the school added a four-year high school program.
Provenance:
This collection was donated by Mary Fennell Ainsley in 2017.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Some images restricted: privacy.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Indians of North America -- Arizona -- Photographs  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); St. Michael Indian School photographs, Box and Item Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.096
See more items in:
St. Michael Indian School photographs
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv43b23dc22-aa4c-45f5-92f4-a2da877f2044
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-096
Online Media:

Haskell Institute photograph album

Creator:
Haskell Institute  Search this
Names:
Haskell Institute -- Photographs  Search this
Levi, John, 1898-1946 -- Photographs  Search this
Extent:
1 Linear foot (1 photograph album containing 42 prints)
Container:
Box 1
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Photograph albums
Date:
circa 1930-1934
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 1 photograph album containing 42 snapshot photographs and photographic postcards from circa 1930-1934. The bulk of the photographs depict Haskell Institute students including members of the football team Arnes Barlow, Paul Edge, Leonard Barlow, Guy Bush, Charles Bernard, Led Wilson, and coach John Levi [Inunaina (Arapaho)]; other unidentified students; buildings on campus including Hiawatha Hall (Chapel); a 1930 pageant and pow-wow; and athletics including archery, baseball, and track, among other scenes.

Other photographs depict the University of Kansas and Memorial High School both in Lawrence, Kansas. Some photographs were also shot at an unidentified Wyoming Indian school.

Many photographs have handwritten captions on the back of the prints. The album has a soft leather cover that features a painting of an American Indian man in a headdress.

One photographic postcard may provide a clue as to the album's creator; the postcard was sent in 1932 from a Haskell teacher named Mary to a teacher named Elsie C. Ramage (Mrs. J. C. Ramage) of Denver, Colo. This postcard may have been sent by Mary Louise Breuninger who was a Haskell teacher according to the 1929 Lawrence, Kansas City directory. The photographs in the album may have been shot, collected, and/or assembled by either Mary or Elsie.
Arrangement:
Original order was maintained when processing this collection, however it does not appear that the photos were assembled in chronological order. Some of the photographs are attached to the album pages via photo corners. The loose are stored in folders in the original order in which they were found.
Biographical / Historical:
Located in Lawrence, Kansas, the United States Indian Industrial School opened its doors in 1884. The school soon changed its name to Haskell Institute after the passing of Dudley Haskell (1842-1883)- a U.S. Representative and chairman of the House Committee on Indian Affairs- who was instrumental in opening the school in his hometown of Lawrence.

The first twenty-two students that attended Haskell Institute were from the Ponca, Chilocco, and Ottawa communities. The school initially taught trades such as blacksmithing, farming, cooking, and sewing, among other industrial skills. As the school grew and expanded its curriculum, American Indian and Native Alaskan students from communities across the country enrolled in the boarding school. The student population grew from 22 to 400 pupils in just one semester. Similar to other Indian boarding schools of its time, Haskell Institute's mission in part was to "civilize" American Indian students and the school employed militaristic techniques in its teaching and discipline. By 1927, the school taught both high school and post-graduation courses.

From 1896-1930, the school also sustained prominent athletic teams, including its nationally recognized football team. Fullback John Levi [1898-1946; Inunaina (Arapaho)] led the football team to many victories in the mid-twenties and eventually went on to coach the team from 1926-1936.

By 1965, the school discontinued its high school courses and in 1970, it transitioned into the Haskell Indian Junior College. The school was renamed Haskell Indian Nations University in 1993 and began offering a four-year baccalaureate degree program with a mission dedicated to Indian cultural preservation, research, and education. The University continues to teach students from federally recognized tribes.
Separated Materials:
The photograph album in this collection was purchased at an auction in 1985 along with a pair of bookends that were probably made by a Haskell Institute student. The bookends are in NMAI's object collection, catalog number 25/2220. A 1931 Haskell yearbook was also purchased at the auction and is now located in the Huntington Free Library Collection at Cornell, call number E97.6.H34.
Provenance:
Purchased from New Durham Auction Barn, Inc. in 1985.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited users to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not changed, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian.
Topic:
Sports -- American Indian  Search this
Indians of North America -- Cultural assimilation  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools -- Photographs  Search this
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Haskell Institute photograph album, NMAI.AC.105; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.105
See more items in:
Haskell Institute photograph album
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv46cc51dc3-f0b7-4494-a52c-e9655547f25e
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-105
Online Media:

Writing their bodies restoring rhetorical relations at the Carlisle Indian School Sarah Klotz

Author:
Klotz, Sarah  Search this
Physical description:
xviii, 150 pages illustrations 23 cm
Type:
Books
History
Place:
Pennsylvania
Carlisle
United States
Pennsylvanie
Date:
2021
Topic:
Off-reservation boarding schools--History  Search this
Picture-writing  Search this
English language--Study and teaching--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Cultural assimilation  Search this
Indians of North America--Ethnic identity--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Social conditions--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Education--History  Search this
Racism in education--History  Search this
Internats pour Autochtones--Histoire  Search this
Anglais (Langue)--Étude et enseignement--Histoire  Search this
Racisme en éducation--Histoire  Search this
English language--Study and teaching  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Ethnic identity  Search this
Indians of North America--Social conditions  Search this
Off-reservation boarding schools  Search this
Racism in education  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1156839

Frank and Dolores Becker papers

Creator:
Becker, Dolores  Search this
Becker, Frank E.  Search this
Indian Association of America  Search this
Names:
United States. Army. Air Corps  Search this
Extent:
9 Sound discs
9 Photographic prints
3 Linear feet
1 Sound cassette
Culture:
Diné (Navajo)  Search this
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Sound discs
Photographic prints
Sound cassettes
Membership lists
Phonograph records
Date:
1943-1968
Summary:
The Frank and Dolores Becker papers contains materials from the Indian Association of America, Inc. as well as material regarding Frank Becker's work with Navajo Soldiers in the Army Air Corps during World War II. This includes a full run of the Indian Association of America's publication Smoke Signals, personal scrapbooks as well as a collection of phonographic records.
Scope and Contents:
The bulk of the Frank and Dolores Becker papers come from their years working for the Indian Association of America between 1949 and 1968 as president (Frank) and secretary (Dolores). This includes administrative materials such as articles of incorporation and dissolution, the constitution and by-laws, member lists, as well as meeting reports and notes. There is also a full run of Smoke Signals (1949-1961), the association's bi-monthly magazine edited by Dolores Becker.

In addition to materials regarding the Indian Association of America there are two copies of Frank Becker's book, Navajo Way and background information on his work at the Presbyterian Hospitality house during WWII teaching English and reading to Navajo soldiers. There are several photos of Becker and the Navajo soldiers he taught as well as an audio cassette of the recording in the Navajo language used in the classroom. The recording features Frank Becker in English and Roger Davis in Navajo and includes several prayers as well as general army instructions and general orders for interior guard duty.

There are also two scrapbooks in the collection. One was created by Dolores which includes drawings, poems and research she conducted on Native American culture. The second is a scrapbook of newspaper articles and clippings, many of them written by Frank Becker, on the Becker's activities with the Indian Association of America and other related Native American issues. Many notices of Frank Becker's speaking engagements are included in this scrapbook. Also included is the Becker's collection of phonographic records. These nine records, 10 inch (78rm) were produced by Tom Tom records, Canyon records and one by Victor and include a variety of Native American songs.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in one series alphabetically. The phonographic records are listed at the end of the collection, also in alphabetical order.
Frank and Dolores Becker:
Frank Becker was born in New York City on April 24, 1907 to Frank and Thora Bregartner Becker. A Graduate from Stuyvesant High School and the New York Training School for teachers, Becker received a B.S. from NYU in 1942 and was awarded his degree the same year he was inducted into the Army Air Corps. Becker taught at P.S. 17 before and after WWII and later received a Masters of Arts Degree.

Though he started as a mechanic in the Army Air Corps in 1942, Becker was soon transferred to the 704th training group in Atlantic City, New Jersey to help organize a school for illiterate soldiers. Becker was tasked to teach reading, writing and arithmetic to a mixed group of students that included Greeks, Chinese, Navajo, Pima and Papago soldiers. The largest group of Native American soldiers Becker taught were Navajo. Because many of the Navajo soldiers could not speak English, Roger Davis, an elected leader to the Navajo Tribal Council and Presbyterian missionary, was sent to Atlantic City to act as an interpreter. Together, Becker and Davis made phonographic recordings of the Army Handbook in both English and Navajo. Davis assisted Becker for five weeks staying as a guest of the Presbyterian Hospitality House. Becker later wrote a book on his experiences working with the group of Navajo soldiers titled Navajo Way (1956). The experience also sparked a lifelong interested in the Navajo culture as well as awareness of many of the problems facing the Navajo community in regards to education and health.

Following the war, Becker visited Arizona and New Mexico with his family in in the fall on 1947. Frank had Frank met Dolores in the early 1940's through mutual friends and the two were married December 27, 1944. Dolores, born August 6, 1913, had passed the New Jersey bar in 1936 and had been practicing law in the juvenile court system. After meeting Frank she also took an active interest in Native American culture. The family visited Gallup, Window Rock and Indian Wells, where they visited with Roger Davis, making particular note of the schools they visited. On the return from this trip, Becker wrote passionately on the failing of the U.S. government to fulfill its obligations to the Navajo people, particularly in the area of education. Frank and Dolores both joined several organizations, most notably the Indian Association of America, dedicated to helping Native Americans advocating especially for WWII Veterans returning home and education. Additionally, Frank wrote many columns, letters to the editor and speeches on both his experiences teaching Navajo soldiers during the war as well current issues facing Native American communities. Dolores appeared on several TV shows in the 1950's directed towards younger audiences explaining Native American cultures.

Frank Becker died November 11, 1979 in Shokan, NY and Dolores died on March 6, 2010 leaving behind a daughter and a son.

Additional Information on Frank and Dolores Becker provided by their daughter Thora Becker.
Indian Association of America:
According to its constitution and by-laws, The Indian Association of America was originally founded in Denver, Colorado by Dr. Vincent "Red Fox" St. James and Dr. George C. Stagg in 1924. Red Fox, who claimed to be Blackfoot but whose origins are undetermined, had previously been a founder of the Tipi (Tepee) Order of America, an organization that blended ritual aspects closely related to Freemasonry with the pan-Indian movement dedicated to advocacy work for the welfare of Native Americans. The Indian Association of America mimicked this model with some of its stated objectives being; to promote better understanding between the races, to study the Indian cultures of America, to foster education for American Indians, to provide direct help in emergencies faced by American Indian communities, to protest laws detrimental to American Indians and to promote the observance of American Indian Day.

Though previously active, the Indian Association of America was officially incorporated in the state of New York in 1950 as a non-profit organization. Frank Becker took over as "Great Sachem," or President, in October of 1950 and led the organization until its dissolution in 1968. Its magazine, Smoke Signals, began publishing bi-monthly in June of 1949 with Dolores Becker serving as editor for the entirety of its run between 1949 and 1961. Frank Becker acted as a contributing editor and later as an advisory editor. The Indian Association of America formally dissolved in March of 1968.
Provenance:
Gift of Thora Becker, 2013.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Thursday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Due to their fragile nature, the AV materials in this collection are closed to researchers until they have been digitized.
Rights:
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiarchives@si.edu.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Periodicals  Search this
Navajo language  Search this
Indians of North America -- Education  Search this
Genre/Form:
Membership lists
Phonograph records
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank and Dolores Becker papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.075
See more items in:
Frank and Dolores Becker papers
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4d5bff029-897d-4c24-acb8-12fa91ea686b
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-075

Spirit - knowledge - vision : many roads, one direction : conference program

Author:
American Indian Science and Engineering Society Conference (17th : 1995 : Detroit, Mich.)  Search this
Physical description:
36 p. : ill ; 22 x 28 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
1995
Topic:
Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Employment  Search this
Indians of North America--Education (Higher)  Search this
Indian scientists  Search this
Call number:
E97 .A514 1995
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_917137

Telling stories out of school : remembering the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1879-1918 / Genevieve Bell

Author:
Bell, Genevieve  Search this
Subject:
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Physical description:
xii, 431 leaves : ill., ports. ; cm
Type:
Manuscripts
Place:
Pennsylvania
Carlisle
Date:
2008
1998
Topic:
Indians of North America--Education--History  Search this
Call number:
E97.6.U55 B45 1998a
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_900955

A schoolteacher in old Alaska : the story of Hannah Breece / edited, and with an introduction and commentary by Jane Jacobs

Title:
School teacher in old Alaska
Author:
Breece, Hannah  Search this
Jacobs, Jane 1916-2006  Search this
Subject:
Breece, Hannah  Search this
Physical description:
xxii, 302 p. : ill., maps (some col.) ; 22 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1995
C1995
Topic:
Teachers--Biography  Search this
Eskimos--Education--History  Search this
Indians of North America--Education--History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_911999

The Thomas Indian School and the "irredeemable" children of New York / Keith R. Burich

Author:
Burich, Keith R.  Search this
Subject:
Thomas Indian School (Iroquois, N.Y.)  Search this
Physical description:
xvii, 189 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
New York (State)
Cattaraugus Indian Reservation
Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.)
Date:
2016
Topic:
Off-reservation boarding schools--History  Search this
Indian students--History  Search this
Iroquois Indians--Education--History  Search this
Iroquois Indians--Cultural assimilation  Search this
Indian children--Abuse of--History  Search this
Iroquois children--Social conditions  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Cultural assimilation  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1059428

Young native Americans and their families : educational needs assessment and recommendations : final report / prepared by Bank Street College of Education under BIA contract no. K01C14200614 May 1976

Author:
Bank Street College of Education  Search this
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs Office of Indian Education Programs  Search this
Physical description:
viii, [2], 300, [89] pages : illustrations, forms, tables ; 28 cm
Type:
Books
Date:
1976
Topic:
Indians of North America--Education (Primary)  Search this
Call number:
E97 .B218 1976
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_446114

Cultural lessons for teachers of American Indians, Alaskan natives and Canadian first nations / [10th Annual National American Indian Cultural Curriculum Development Workshop, July 8-13, 1990, Juneau, Alaska ; sponsor: American Indian Institute, Continuing Education & Public Service, University of Oklahoma ... ; booklet editor, Guyneth Cardwell ; booklet co-editors: Anita Chisholm, Carolyn Hollowa...

Author:
National American Indian Cultural Curriculum Development Workshop (10th : 1990 : Juneau, Alaska)  Search this
Cardwell, Guyneth  Search this
Chisholm, Anita  Search this
Holloway, Carolyn  Search this
University of Oklahoma American Indian Institute  Search this
University of Oklahoma Continuing Education and Public Service  Search this
Physical description:
vii, 142 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Type:
Congresses
Conference papers and proceedings
Place:
Alaska
Canada
Date:
1990
[1990]
Topic:
Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Education  Search this
Indians of North America--Social life and customs  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_472410

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