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Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection

Creator:
Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950  Search this
Former owner:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation  Search this
Extent:
1428 Negatives (photographic)
40 Photographic prints (black & white)
Culture:
Mushuaunnuat (Barren Ground Naskapi)  Search this
Mistassini Cree  Search this
Lorette Huron  Search this
Mohawk  Search this
Montagnais Innu  Search this
Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg (Maniwaki Algonquin) [River Desert]  Search this
Maliseet (Malecite)  Search this
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)  Search this
Iroquois [Six Nations/Grand River (Brantford, Ontario)]  Search this
Penobscot  Search this
Passamaquoddy  Search this
Abenaki (Abnaki)  Search this
Wampanoag  Search this
Nauset  Search this
Mohegan  Search this
Niantic  Search this
Pequot  Search this
Nanticoke  Search this
Rappahannock  Search this
Chickahominy  Search this
Pamunkey  Search this
Mattaponi  Search this
Nansemond  Search this
Catawba  Search this
Eastern Band of Cherokee  Search this
Machapunga (Pungo River)  Search this
Innu  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Negatives (photographic)
Photographic prints
Negatives
Place:
Massachusetts
Maine
Maryland
Virginia
Canada
Delaware
North Carolina
Date:
1909-1937
Summary:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes portraits of individuals and families, as well as scenic shots and landscape views made between 1909 and 1937. Speck was an anthropologist and ethnographer, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and worked on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation collecting ethnographic materials across the Eastern United States and Canada. His collection of photographs includes materials from native communities ranging from Newfoundland to Ontario in Canada and from Maine to South Carolina in the United States.
Scope and Contents:
The Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection includes negatives and a small amount of prints made by Speck throughout the course of his career as an anthropologist and ethnographer. The majority of the photographs in this collection were made while Speck conducted field trips on behalf of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation between 1924 and 1932, though there are photographs from before and after this time. This collection has been arranged into Series by geographical location and then into subseries by culture group or community. Series 1: Newfoundland and Labrador: Innu, Mushuaunnuat, 1916-1935; Series 2: Quebec: Innu, Mistassini Cree, Lorette Huron, Wawenock, Mohawk, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, 1910-1937; Series 3: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia: Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, 1909-1917; Series 4: Ontario: Six Nations/Grand River (Naticoke, Mohawk, Cayuga, Mahican, Tutelo), Oneida Nation, 1914-1937; Series 5: Maine and New Hampshire: Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, 1910-1924; Series 6: Massachussets and Rhode Island: Wampanoag, Nauset, 1914-1931; Series 7: Connecticut: Mohegan, Niantic, Schaghticoke, Pequot, 1912-1931; Series 8: Delaware: Nanticoke and Rappahanock, 1911-1925; Series 9: Virginia and Maryland: Rappahanock, Chickahominy, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Potomac, Accomac, Powhatan, 1915-1924; Series 10: North Carolina and South Carolina: Catawba, Eastern Band of Cherokee, 1915-1930.

Many of Frank Speck's photographs are individual and family portraits of community members, many identified, posed outdoors in front of homes and community buildings. There are also landscape views as well as photographs taken during community events. There are a small amount of photographs that have now been restricted due to cultural sensitivity though for the most part Speck did not photograph culturally sensitive activities.
Arrangement:
The collection is intellectually arranged in 10 Series by geographic region and within each series by culture group. The negatives are physically arranged by catalog number.
Biographical / Historical:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck was born on November 8, 1881 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied under the prominent linguist John Dyneley Prince and anthropologist Franz Boas at Columbia University, receiving his BA in 1904 and MA in 1905. He received his Ph.D. in 1908 from the University of Pennsylvania. His doctoral dissertation on the ethnography of the Yuchi became a basis for an article which later appeared in the Handbook of American Indians. That same year Speck became an assistant in the University of Pennsylvania Museum and an instructor in anthropology at the University. He was made assistant professor in 1911, and professor and chairperson of the department in 1925, a position which he held until his death in 1950. Speck was the founder of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society, and was vice-president of the American Anthropological Association from 1945-46. Speck's research concentration was on the Algonkian speaking peoples. Speck studied every aspect of a culture: language, ethnobiology, technology, decorative art, myths, religion, ceremonialism, social organization, and music. Collecting material culture was also an integral part of Speck's fieldwork. His collections can be found in museums around the world, one of which is the National Museum of the American Indian. He is the author of numerous books and articles. Frank G. Speck died February 6, 1950. (A. Irving Hallowell, American Anthropologist, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1951)
Related Materials:
The Frank G. Speck Papers can be found at the American Philosophical Society (Mss.Ms.Coll.126) along with additional photographic materials by Speck.
Frank Speck published extensively in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation publications; "Indian Notes" and "Indian Notes and Monographs." These publications are avialable through the Smithsonian Institution Libraries or online on the Internet Archive.
Separated Materials:
A small amount of notes from Speck's field work can be found in the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation records (NMAI.AC.001) in Box 273, Folder 18 through Box 274 Folder 2.

Close to 4000 ethnographic and archeological items were collected by Speck for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) and are now in the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) collection. For more information about these objects contact the NMAI Collections Department.
Provenance:
The majority of the negatives were gifted to the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (MAI) by Frank Speck in 1927. The group of Nanticoke photographs were purchased by the MAI in 1915 and smaller amounts of photographs were gifted and purchased by the MAI between 1923 and 1942.
Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Topic:
Indians of North America -- Maine  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Maryland  Search this
Indians of North America -- Massachusetts  Search this
Indians of North America -- Canada  Search this
Indians of North America -- Delaware  Search this
Indians of North America -- Midwest  Search this
Indians of North America -- Virginia  Search this
Indians of North America -- North Carolina  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Genre/Form:
Negatives
Photographic prints
Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Frank Speck photograph collection, Photo Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.001.032
See more items in:
Frank Gouldsmith Speck photograph collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
https://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sv4a7ad21af-6cc2-49e2-a636-bcf01e1c4dc6
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmai-ac-001-032
Online Media:

Collar

Culture/People:
probably Oklahoma Shawnee (attributed); collected from the Oklahoma Delaware  Search this
Previous owner:
George Bullette (George Bullet), Oklahoma Delaware, 1885-1916  Search this
Collector:
Mark Raymond Harrington (M. R. Harrington/MRH), Non-Indian, 1882-1971  Search this
Object Name:
Collar
Media/Materials:
Wool cloth, glass bead/beads, thread
Techniques:
Sewn, overlay beadwork
Dimensions:
52 x 31 x 1 cm
Object Type:
Adornment/Jewelry
Native Term:
wa" ho kwe ni'
Place:
Near Bartlesville; Bartlesville; Washington County; Oklahoma; USA
Catalog Number:
2/837
Barcode:
020837.000
See related items:
Oklahoma Shawnee
Oklahoma Delaware
Adornment/Jewelry
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ws6398ea06d-efaf-4f5d-8a08-b1df948c391b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_21882
Online Media:

Seal of New York City [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Manship, Paul 1885-1966  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Topic:
Emblem--Seal  Search this
Allegory--Place--New York City  Search this
Occupation--Other--Sailor  Search this
Ethnic--Lenape  Search this
Animal--Bird--Eagle  Search this
Animal--Beaver  Search this
Architecture--Industry--Windmill  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0038904
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_38905

Seal of the City of New York [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Artist:
Manship, Paul 1885-1966  Search this
Type:
Photograph
Date:
1915
Topic:
Emblem--Seal  Search this
Allegory--Place--New York City  Search this
Ethnic--Lenape  Search this
Occupation--Other--Sailor  Search this
Animal--Bird--Eagle  Search this
Animal--Beaver  Search this
Architecture--Industry--Windmill  Search this
Image number:
JUL J0039114
See more items in:
Photograph Study Collection
Data Source:
Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_jul_39115

Religion and ceremonies of the Lenape M.R. Harrington

Author:
Harrington, M. R (Mark Raymond) 1882-1971  Search this
Physical description:
249 pages, IX plates (2 color; including plan) color illustrations 18 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Photomechanical prints
Date:
1921
Topic:
Delaware Indians--Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Delaware Indians  Search this
Indians of North America--Religion  Search this
Call number:
E51 .I393 no. 19
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_947755

Two Lenape stone masks from Pennsylvania and New Jersey by Alanson Skinner

Author:
Skinner, Alanson 1886-1925  Search this
Physical description:
7 pages II illustrations 17 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Date:
1920
Topic:
Delaware Indians--Antiquities  Search this
Indian masks  Search this
Masks (Sculpture)  Search this
Call number:
E51 .I393 no. 3
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_940176

A Delaware Indian Symposium : [proceedings] / edited by Herbert C. Kraft

Author:
Delaware Indian Symposium (1972 : Seton Hall University)  Search this
Kraft, Herbert C  Search this
New Jersey Historical Commission  Search this
Seton Hall University  Search this
Physical description:
vii, 160 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Congresses
Date:
1974
Topic:
Delaware Indians  Search this
Call number:
E99.D2 D18 1972X
E99.D2D18 1972X
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_76426

Legends of the Delaware Indians and picture writing / Richard C. Adams ; edited and with an introduction by Deborah Nichols ; with translations by Nora Thompson Dean and Lucy Parks Blalock ; transcription by James Rementer

Author:
Adams, Richard C (Richard Calmit) 1864-1921  Search this
Nichols, Deborah  Search this
Rementer, James  Search this
Physical description:
xlv, 115 p. : ill. ; 24 cm
Type:
Folklore
Texts
Place:
United States
Date:
1997
1905
Topic:
Legends  Search this
Tales  Search this
Delaware language  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_548056

The white deer and other stories told by the Lenape / edited by John Bierhorst

Author:
Bierhorst, John  Search this
Physical description:
xi, 137 p. : ports. ; 24 cm
Type:
Folklore
Place:
United States
Ontario
Date:
1995
C1995
Topic:
Folklore  Search this
Tales  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_482105

On records : Delaware Indians, colonists, and the media of history and memory / Andrew Newman

Author:
Newman, Andrew 1968-  Search this
Physical description:
xiii, 308 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm
Type:
Books
Place:
Delaware
Date:
2012
C2012
Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775
Topic:
Delaware Indians--Historiography  Search this
Delaware Indians--Colonization  Search this
Indians of North America--First contact with other peoples  Search this
History  Search this
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_1001109

There Were Once Seven Boys, Who Spent All Their Time Dancing, and so, They Danced Up Into the Sky, And Are There Now: The Pleiades., from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and charcoal on paper
Dimensions:
22 x 30 in. (55.9 x 76.2 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Ceremony\dance  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.1
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7fb55c0df-da66-457c-aaf6-6d66c3e2365c
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.1

Twelve Men, Searching for a Sacrificial Bear, Were Led by the Boy-Bear, Who Always Knew Where a Bear Was Sleeping, Calling Out "There Is a Bear There," and Again, "There.", from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 21 7/8 x 27 3/4 in. (55.5 x 70.5 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Animal\bear  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7d2480b48-cfd5-40d4-979a-befa0513effe
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.10

Selected Young Warriors Dance Homage to the Nighthawk, from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 22 x 28 in. (55.8 x 71.0 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Ceremony\dance  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.11
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk76c2cf91c-71c1-4a1f-b6a7-ee89ed148471
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.11

The Spirit of a Bear, Being Released from Its Body, Carries a Plea for Good Hunting to the Manitu Above, from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 21 7/8 x 27 5/8 in. (55.5 x 70.3 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Animal\bear  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.12
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7a7a301a7-efb2-4440-b01b-b0d1f5a0ff96
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.12

When a Boy Was 12, He Was Sent, Alone, Into the Wilderness. There Would Come to Him, There, the Spirit-Forces of the World He Lived In., from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 21 7/8 x 27 3/4 in. (55.6 x 70.4 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure male\child  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Allegory\life\manhood  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.2
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk71910ccc6-1c96-49fa-a97d-b1352b2c9b45
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.2

Nenabush, Man-God, Fought the Evil Monsters of Earth, Air, and Water, from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 22 x 28 in. (55.8 x 71.1 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure male  Search this
Still life\weapon  Search this
Fantasy\monster  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.3
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7542479d8-4478-43e9-8c5c-a9463f0bb1d2
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.3

The Boy-Bear's Cub-Brothers, Growing Too Big, Were Sent, Wearing Sacred Wampum Back to Their Natural Home, from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 21 7/8 x 27 5/8 in. (55.6 x 70.3 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.4
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk74458660e-0397-471a-9214-6b4d4cdc384f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.4

To Two Young Boys, Mother Corn Gave Good Seed from Which Comes All the Corn We Have Today, from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 21 7/8 x 28 in. (55.7 x 71.1 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Figure group\male  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Still life\vegetable\corn  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.5
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7b023ec5d-0185-44b3-ab93-40c1eb8cb142
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.5

The Snow Boy Comes from His Home in the Frozen North, to Whiten the Wilderness with His Snow Flakes, from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 21 7/8 x 27 3/4 in. (55.5 x 70.4 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Landscape\weather\snow  Search this
Figure male\child\head  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.6
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk7bb14257b-b5a5-47c3-98d2-cf56384bf569
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.6

A Boy, Lost, Was Nurtured by an Old She-Bear, from the series Legends of the Lenape Indians

Artist:
Robert Riggs, born Decatur, IL 1896-died Philadelphia, PA 1970  Search this
Medium:
graphite and scratchwork on prepared paperboard
Dimensions:
sheet: 21 7/8 x 27 5/8 in. (55.6 x 70.2 cm)
Type:
Drawing
Date:
ca. 1966
Topic:
Animal\bird  Search this
Animal\bear  Search this
Mythology\other\American Indian  Search this
Figure male\fragment\leg  Search this
Indian\Lenape  Search this
Credit Line:
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Philip Desind
Object number:
1986.91.7
Restrictions & Rights:
Usage conditions apply
See more items in:
Smithsonian American Art Museum Collection
Department:
Graphic Arts
Data Source:
Smithsonian American Art Museum
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/vk76092cb0e-83df-430e-b121-4d60b554c5bf
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:saam_1986.91.7

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