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MS 2016-a Daniel Little Chief drawings of Cheyenne ceremonial customs and implements, with explanations by Albert Gatschet

Creator:
Little Chief, Daniel, d. 1906.  Search this
Annotator:
Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (disbound volume (65 pages) of 29 drawings and 34 pages of typescript.)
Culture:
Cheyenne -- Northern  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1891 February
Scope and Contents:
29 drawings and 34 pages of typed explanatory text, formerly bound together, now disbound, plus an identifying title page handwritten by Albert Gatschet and one drawing on ruled paper. The explanatory text was transcribed from Gatschet's notebook, No. 2016-b, with corrections by Gatschet. T.p. inscribed: "Crayon Pictures of Cheyenne Ceremonial Customs and Implements. Drawn by Wuxpais or Daniel Littlechief, son of the present headchief of the Cheyenne Indians of South Dakota, at the Pine Ridge Agency. Explained by notes obtained from the same Indian by Albert S. Gatschet." The last drawing in the volume is signed "T.D. Little Chief," but cannot be identified as a drawing by Daniel Little Chief. Subjects include ceremonial items, name glyphs, painted tipis, and illustrations of Cheyenne customs. A nearly identical set of drawings by Daniel Little Chief is located at the Newberry Library in Chicago. Information provided by Candace Greene.
Biographical / Historical:
Daniel Little Chief, a.k.a. Wuxpais (?-1906), was a Northern Cheyenne warrior whose band of Cheyenne were sent south to the Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation in Indian Territory after their surrender, traveling there between 1878-1879. In 1881 this band moved north to the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota. In 1891 Daniel Littlechief inherited the role of head chief from his father and remained in South Dakota until his death in 1906. For more information see "American Indian Painters: A Biographical Dictionary" by Jeanne Snodgrass 1968, New York: Museum of the American Indian.
Albert S. Gatschet (1832-1907) was educated in his native Switzerland and in Germany (University of Bern [Ph.D., 1892]); University of Berlin. Early in his career, he pursued antiquarian research in European museums and wrote scientific articles. Among his interests was the etymology of Swiss place names. After coming to the United States in 1869, he worked on the American Indian vocabularies collected by Oscar Loew, of the United States Geological Survey West of the 100th Meridian (Wheeler Survey). Eventually John Wesley Powell employed him as an ethnologist with the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Regions. When it was founded in 1879, he joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology and continued there until he retired in 1905. For the Powell Survey, Gatschet researched the ethnography of the Klamath in Oregon and the Modoc in Oklahoma. He also collected Native American material objects and investigated special problems for Powell's classification of the American Indian languages north of Mexico, working on languages of the Southeast, including groups forcibly settled in the southern Plains. He not only visited well known tribes but also searched out small groups, including the Biloxi and Tunica. He also worked with the Natchez, Tonkawa, Chitimacha, and Atakapa in the United States and Comecrudo and several other small groups in northern Mexico. Through library research, he studied the Timucua, Karankara, and the Beothuk. During the later part of his career, Gatschet was assigned comparative work on all the Algonquian languages. Although the project was never completed, he collected much about many of the languages, especially Peoria, Miami, and Shawnee. In addition, he worked with members of diverse tribes of the eastern United States. For more information, see NAA finding aid located at http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/guide/_g1.htm#jrg575
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2016-a
Varying Form of Title:
Crayon pictures of Cheyenne ceremonial customs and implements / drawn by Wuxpais or Daniel Littlechief ... ; explained by notes from the same Indian by Albert S. Gatschet
Place:
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Agency.
United States South Dakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Album Information:
MS 2016a 001
Topic:
Habitations -- Cheyenne  Search this
Sweatbaths -- Cheyenne  Search this
Music -- Cheyenne  Search this
Married people's tipi -- Cheyenne  Search this
Weapons -- Cheyenne  Search this
Pipe -- Cheyenne  Search this
Amulets and fetishes -- Cheyenne  Search this
Medicine -- Cheyenne  Search this
Mortuary customs -- Cheyenne  Search this
Names, Personal -- Cheyenne  Search this
Medicine tent -- Cheyenne  Search this
Sun Dance -- Cheyenne  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2016-a, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2016A
See more items in:
MS 2016-a Daniel Little Chief drawings of Cheyenne ceremonial customs and implements, with explanations by Albert Gatschet
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2016a
Additional Online Media:

MS 39-c Kiowa drawings by Koba, Etahdleuh, and others

Artist:
Doanmoe, Etahdleuh, 1856-1888  Search this
Kobay, (Comanche chief)  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Kobay, (Comanche chief)  Search this
Onkoiday  Search this
Sepinta  Search this
White Horse  Search this
Zonekeuk ?  Search this
Zotom  Search this
Extent:
33 Drawings (graphite, colored pencil, crayon, ink, and watercolor, 12 x 18 cm.-20 x 55 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
The manuscript contains 28 drawings depicting warfare, courting, hunting, dances, a horse race, and an intertribal meeting. The drawings also include 5 pages with pictographs representing various words and the names of the prisoners. Included in the manuscript are rosters of the Ft. Marion prisoners listing the prisoners' names and tribal affiliations. Several drawings are inscribed with the name of Koba, some with the name Etahdleuh. Most were probably drawn by Koba.
Biographical / Historical:
Koba (Wild Horse) was born in 1848. During the Red River War he was a member of the Kiowa band that surrendered on February 18, 1875. Following his surrender, he was confined at Fort Sill, Indian Territory. He was accused of stealing horses and mules in Texas and participating in the August 22, 1874 skirmish at the Wichita Agency, one of the opening engagements of the Red River War. He was among the Kiowa prisoners who were incarcerated in Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida following the end of the conflict. He arrived at Fort Marion on May 21, 1875. After his release from Ft. Marion, Koba attended the Hampton Institute in Virginia. He arrived at Hampton on April 14, 1878. In June of 1879, he left Hampton to work on a farm in Lee, Massachusetts. He then enrolled in the Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania, where he studied to be a tinsmith. He arrived at Carlisle on October 7, 1879. On September 10, 1880, Koba left Carlisle on what was intended to be a brief trip to Indian Territory. Although his health was failing, he was deemed fit to travel. He died of consumption on September 24, 1880, only three days after arriving at his destination.
Etahdleuh (1856-1888) was also known as Etahdleeuh, Etadeleuh, Etahdleuh Doanmoe, Boy, and Boy Hunting. He was imprisoned at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida from 1875-1878. After his release from Fort Marion, he attended the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Virginia, arriving in April, 1878. In 1879, he travelled to the Indian Territory to recruit pupils to attend the Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania, where he would study and work on and off from 1879 to 1887. He made two extended trips back to the reservation during this period and from February to May 1880, he worked at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. He was trained as a Presbyterian missionary and returned to the reservation in January 1888 to serve in this capacity.
For further biographical information on Koba or Etahdleuh see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 39C
Album Information:
MS 39C 000
Provenance:
Reynolds, Mary B.
Topic:
Federal-Indian relations -- Kiowa  Search this
Marriage and family -- Courtship -- Kiowa  Search this
War -- Apache  Search this
War -- Navaho  Search this
War -- Comanche  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Kiowa
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 39C, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS39C
See more items in:
MS 39-c Kiowa drawings by Koba, Etahdleuh, and others
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms39c
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MS 7500 Tichkematse book of drawings

Creator:
Tichkematse, 1857-1932  Search this
Depicted:
Bliss, Zenas Randall, 1835-1900  Search this
Extent:
21 Drawings (graphite, watercolor, and ink, 14 x 22 cm.)
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Photographs
Date:
1887 April
Scope and Contents:
Drawings in a small notebook of ruled paper, now disbound, covers retained. Drawings document an 1887 hunting excursion taken by Colonel Bliss of Fort Supply (in Indian Territory) and Major John Dunlop, a visitor to the fort from Washington D.C.. Included in the manuscript are a cyanotype picture featuring Colonel Bliss, end papers, and covers of the book as well as a typescript note pasted to the inside cover describing the drawings. The inscription reads as follows: "This pictorial history of various hunts made by Cheyenne Indians, and white men, was drawn and painted entirely by Squint Eye, a Cheyenne and Sergeant of the Scouts at Fort Supply, Indian Territory, April 1887. It will be observed that Sergt. Squint Eye, and Major Dunlop are the most important personages represented ; and it will also be observed that the Sergt. never forgets to put on his stripes, or chevrons. If any difference is noticed between the verbal report made by the major, of his encounter with the Catamount, and Squint eye's representation of it, it will please be ascribed to the native Scotch and Cheyenne modesty of the participants. Fort Supply, I.T., April 17, 1887, with compliments of Z.R. Bliss, on this his birthday." Many drawings are inscribed names identifying the figures, most of whom are Cheyenne men who were enlisted as Army scouts.
Biographical / Historical:
Tichkematse a.k.a. Squint Eyes, Quchkeimus (1857-1932) was one of the best known groups of Plains artists was among the men held prisoner at Fort Marion in Saint Augustine, Florida, from 1875-1878. Tichkematse, a Cheyenne, was one of these prisoner artists. While imprisoned, he learned to speak English and to read and write. Upon release he attended school at the Hampton Institute in Virginia for about a year before coming to the Smithsonian. There he was trained in the preparation of bird and mammal specimens for study and display. During his time at the Smithsonian, he also produced drawings illustrating his old life on the Plains, full of buffalo hunts and battles as well as everyday camp life. In 1880 he returned to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation in what is now Oklahoma, but he continued his affiliation with the Smithsonian. He was active in collecting bird and mammal specimens as well as craft items acquired from Cheyenne friends and relatives, which he shipped to the museum. For additional information on Tichkematse, see Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion by Karen Daniels Petersen (University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK 1971), "Squint Eyes: Artist and Indian Scout" by Bob Rea, (2002) www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/scout, and "Tichkematse: A Cheyenne at the Smithsonian" by Candace Greene, (2000) www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/squint_eyes/squint_eyes.htm. For further information on the Cheyenne scouts and their artwork, see "Artists in Blue: the Indian Scouts of Fort Reno and Fort Supply," by Candace S. Greene (American Indian Art Magazine, Winter 1992, pp.50-57) Major John Dunlop was a supply sergeant in San Antonio before the Civil War, then went to Mexico, and later to Washington. While in Washington he met Col. Bliss and the maintained a friendship over time, resulting in his visiting Bliss in Indian Territory and participating in the hunt depicted.
Fort Supply, established in 1868, was initially designated as a supply camp where U.S. Cavalry troops could restock and refresh themselves. It was from this post that Custer and the Seventh Cavalry marched to the Battle of Washita. Over the next twenty-five years, soldiers from Fort Supply performed duties that included peace-keeping and monitoring of the Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation and the Cherokee Outlet as well as monitoring the Land Run of 1893. From 1869 to early 1870, the post served as the temporary location for the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Agency. For more information on Fort Supply see Fort Supply, Indian Territory: Frontier Outpost by Robert C. Carriker, 1990 Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; and "History of Fort Supply" at http://www.ok-history.mus.ok.us/mus-sites/fshistory.htm.
Local Numbers:
NAA ACC 91-13

NAA MS 7500
Place:
United States Indian Territory Fort Supply.
United States Oklahoma Fort Supply.
Album Information:
MS 7500 000
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Photographs
Citation:
Manuscript 7500, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS7500
See more items in:
MS 7500 Tichkematse book of drawings
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms7500
Additional Online Media:

MS 2002-28 Kiowa calendar on canvas

Extent:
1 Item (pictorial calendar 77 drawings, graphite and colored pencil, 10 x 213 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1862-1901
Scope and Contents:
The calendar consists of 77 entries drawn on a piece of coarse cotton cloth with one selvedge edge and one edge machine hemmed. The entries begin near one end of the strip and move from left to right in a staggered linear sequence, stopping well short of the opposite end. Summer and winter entries alternate, with the register of summer entries drawn above the register of winter entries. A green forked pole accompanies pictures for summers when the Medicine Lodge ceremony was held. A yellow diamond outlined in blue indicates winter seasons. The calendar covers the period between 1862 and 1901. No information is known about the original production of this calendar.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2002-28
Local Note:
The collection record is based on information presented in Candace S. Greene and Russell Thornton, The Years the Stars Fell: Lakota Winter Counts at the Smithsonian, University of Nebraska Press, in press.
Album Information:
MS 2002-28 000
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2002-28, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2002-28
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2002-28
Additional Online Media:

MS 2002-27 Quitone Kiowa calendar

Extent:
171 Drawings (25 leaves, graphite, watercolor, and ink on card stock, 28 x 22 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Date:
1825-1921
Scope and Contents:
The calendar consists of 171 pictographs on heavy card stock. Each page contains two to four pictographs, arranged top to bottom and left to right. The calendar entries cover the period 1825 - 1921. A red diamond is used to signify winter and a green or yellow bar to signify summer. A depiction of the forked Medicine Lodge pole often accompanies the symbol for summer. No information is known about the original production of this calendar. However, the pictures are a close match to a tracing that Wilbur S. Nye made in the 1920s of a calendar on cloth belonging to Jimmy Quitone, although arranged in a different format, and this may be considered a variant of the Quitone calendar. Nye's tracing is in the collection of the Fort Sill Museum in Oklahoma together with his notes about the version that he examined. He recorded that while Quitone owned the calendar when he made the tracing, it had been produced by Johnny Anko and Hauvahte. Huvahte may be an alternate rendering of Habate, or Haba. Nye believed that the calendar was destroyed when the Quitone home burned in the 1930s.
Biographical / Historical:
Jimmy Quitone (Wolf Tail) was one of the elders from whom W.S. Nye recorded much information about Kiowa history. According to Nye, he was the father of George Hunt and Guy Quitone. Hugh Corwin provides anecdotal information about Quitone, including a note that he died in 1956 at the age of 101. For additional biographical information see: W.S. Nye, Bad Medicine and Good: Tales of the Kiowa, University of Oklahoma, 1962. Hugh Corwin, The Kiowa Indians Their History and Life Stories, 1958.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 2002-27
Local Note:
The collection record is based on information presented in Candace S. Greene and Russell Thornton, The Years the Stars Fell: Lakota Winter Counts at the Smithsonian, University of Nebraska Press, in press.
Album Information:
MS 2002-27 000
Genre/Form:
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 2002-27, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS2002-27
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms2002-27
Additional Online Media:

MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist

Extent:
20 Drawings (18 leaves, graphite and colored pencil, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
Twenty drawings in a commercial exercise book that has been rebound. The book had been sewn into a second cover prior to its acquisition by the Smithsonian. This second cover was removed when the book was rebound. It is still with the manuscript. The drawings depict hunting, courtship, dance, social gatherings, Indian scouts, mounted and dismounted warriors, and part of the Kiowa Sun Dance. The inside of the front cover is inscribed, "Capt Pratt USA", "By the Indians", "By the Indians incarcerated in Fort Marion St. Augustine in 1876", "Engaged in the Custer Massacre", "Care of Capt Pratt in charge assisted by the following ladies Mrs Linethurst, Mrs Gibbs - Mrs S' Mother St Augustine Mrs Kingsly Gibbs aunt Mrs Valentine Phila Miss Reed", "Carlisle was the outcome of Capt Pratt's efforts assisted by Mrs Kingsly Gibbs of St Augustine". The back cover is inscribed "Works of the Indians while in prison in Fort Marion St Augustine Florida/ after the Custer Massacre in care of Capt Pratt/ The founder of Carlisle/ These Indians finally taken there for housing and taming/ by the Government/ under the care of Capt Pratt USA". In addition to the inscription, the back cover bears the image of a man wearing a breechcloth, which was scratched into its surface. The name "ZOTOM" appears in stencil block letters on the back cover and the inside of the front cover. Although Zotom was a noted Kiowa artist, it is not clear that he is responsible for the drawings. Candace Greene notes that they are unlike his later work and early documented examples of his drawing style have not been identified.
Biographical / Historical:
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 000
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS1998-54
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms1998-54
Additional Online Media:

Wohaw drawing of tightrope walker

Creator:
Wohaw, 1855-1924  Search this
Annotator:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and watercolor, 12 x 18 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1855-1877
Scope and Contents:
The manuscript consists of one drawing of a tight rope walker. It is inscribed on the verso "Drawn by Wohaw Kiowa."It is from a set of 12 drawings donated by Captain Richard Pratt. Three of the drawings are now in the NAA (MS 30,740, 30,747, and 30,750) and 8 are now in the Graphic Arts collection of the National Museum of American History. The location of the twelfth drawing is not known.
Biographical / Historical:
Wohaw, also known as Wo-Haw, Beef, Gu hau de, and Wolf Robe, was a Kiowa born in 1855. He was accused of being a combatant in the Red River War of 1874 and 1875. On October 3, 1874, he surrendered at the Cheyenne-Arapaho Agency at Darlinton, Indian Territory. He was transferred to Ft. Sill, where he was held in the guard house. He was among the Kiowa warriors who were subsequently imprisoned at Ft. Marion in San Augustine, Florida. Following his release in 1878, Wohaw returned to the Indian Territory, arriving in Anadarko on May 1, 1878. He served in the Indian Police between 1879 and 1880 and in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry from 1891 to 1895. He was a member of the Ohomah society and is believed to have been an adherant of the Ghost Dance and Peyote religions. Wohaw died in Oklahoma in 1924. For further biographical information on Wohaw see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Moira Harris, Between Two Cultures: Kiowa Art from Fort Marion, Pogo Press, 1989.
Richard Henry Pratt had a long and varied military career, beginning as a soldier in the Civil War and participating in the Indian wars on the frontier. It was his work on the frontier that sparked Pratt's lifelong interests in the American Indian and spurred him to develop his infamous education system devoted to "civilizing" American Indian peoples. It was Pratt's Belief that the American Indian, although leading a savage and uncivilized life, was fully capable of being educated and absorbed into American society. Pratt gained support for this view when he commanded a group of seventy-two Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1875. While at Fort Marion, Pratt encouraged the prisoners to draw and produce works of art, which he often collected and sold as tourist souvenirs. Some of the drawings he collected were later donated to museums around the country including the Smithsonian Institute and the Yale Library. Information on Pratt taken from http://webtext.library.yale.edu/xml2html/beinecke.PRATT.con.html. For more information about Richard Henry Pratt, see his autobiography Battlefield and Classroom; Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904, 1964, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08500300

NAA MS 30750

OPPS NEG 88-19,335

OPPS NEG 92-11256
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 30750
Provenance:
Pratt, R H Capt
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 30750, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS30750
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms30750

Book of drawings by Anonymous Kiowa artist

Collector:
Hubbel, Henry W.  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (disbound volume of 20 drawings (11 leaves, graphite and crayon, 18 x 22 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875
Scope and Contents:
Twenty drawings on 11 leaves of ruled paper in a commercial notebook, now disbound. Drawings depict: rituals associated with the sun dance, warfare, dancers, men seated in painted tipis, mounted warriors, and a train.
Biographical / Historical:
Brigadeer General Henry W. Hubbel was stationed at St. Augustine, Florida from October 26, 1873 to December 2, 1875. He was subsequently stationed at Ft. Sill, Indian Territory (Oklahoma) from August 16, 1875 to August 18, 1876. While at Ft. Marion Hubbel served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 1st Artillery.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
USNM ACC 203,386

NAA MS 392,725

OPPS NEG MNH 1269-K
Local Note:
Gen. Henry W. Hubbel was stationed at St. Augustine, Florida from October 26, 1873 to December 2, 1875. He was subsequently stationed at Ft. Sill, Indian Territory (Oklahoma) from August 16, 1875 to August 18, 1876. Evidence suggests that Hubbel acquired this set of drawings from a Kiowa prisoner at Ft. Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. A second book of drawings collected by General Hubbel was offered for sale by George Terasaki in the 1990s. It contains an inscription describing the incarceration of the southern plains prisoners at Ft. Marion and indicating that the images were drawn by one of the prisoners. This establishes that Hubbel visited Ft. Marion and obtained a set of drawings from one of the prisoners. Thus it seems likely that the collection of drawings at the NAA were also obtained at Ft. Marion, although they were not created by the same artist. However, a comparison of drawing of a train in Ms. 392,725 and a drawing of a train in a book in the collection of the National Museum of the American Indian (Collection #20-6236) suggest that these drawings were created by the same artist. As the latter set of drawings was collected at Ft. Marion, the results of this comparison seem to indicate that Ms. 392,725 was also created there.
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 392725 000
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 392,725, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS392725
See more items in:
Book of drawings by Anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms392725
Additional Online Media:

Lizard Hawk and Hearty Bear pictographic signatures

Artist:
Lizard Hawk  Search this
Hearty Bear (Cheyenne)  Search this
Collector:
Lindesmith, Eli Washington John, 1827-1922  Search this
Extent:
2 Drawings (graphite, 6 x 9 cm.-6 x 13 cm.)
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Pictographs
Date:
ca. 1880-1884
Scope and Contents:
Original number 1430 appears on envelope; 1430-A, -B on signatures
Biographical / Historical:
Reverend Eli Washington John Lindesmith (1827-1922) was a Catholic priest who served from 1880 to 1891 as Military Chaplain at Fort Keogh, Montana. His papers are in the Catholic University Archives, Washington, DC.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 395,612
Place:
United States Montana Fort Keogh.
Album Information:
MS 395612 000
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Pictographs -- Cheyenne
Citation:
Manuscript 395,612, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS395612
See more items in:
Lizard Hawk and Hearty Bear pictographic signatures
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms395612

White Buffalo Head pictographic letter to Minimic

Creator:
White Buffalo Head.  Search this
Addressee:
Minimic (Cheyenne)  Search this
Annotator:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
2 Items (leaves of drawings , graphite, colored pencil, and ink, 20 x 27 cm.)
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Pictographs
Ledger drawings
Letters
Date:
ca. 1877
Scope and Contents:
From White Buffalo Head and family to his father, Minimic, then imprisoned at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. The letter, which spans two sheets of paper, is annotated with explanations provided by Richard H. Pratt. Shows White Buffalo, his father Minimic, members of Minimic's family and other Cheyennes. Also included is a map showing the North Canadian River and tributaries and neighboring trails, camps (identified by chief's name), the Cheyenne and Arapaho agency, fields identified by owners, etc. A legend, and a note, in the hand of Richard H. Pratt identifies elements of the drawing and its provenance. One leaf of paper has letterhead of Cheyenne and Arapaho, etc.
Biographical / Historical:
White Buffalo Head's father, Minimic or Eagle Head, was a Cheyenne prisoner at Fort Marion, Florida. (USNM-P Volume I, 1878, page 204).
Richard Henry Pratt (1840-1924) was a career Army officer, beginning as a soldier in the Civil War and participating in the Indian wars on the frontier. He was in charge of a group of seventy-two Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida, 1875-78, and subsequently founded the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. For more information about Richard Henry Pratt, see his autobiography Battlefield and Classroom; Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904, 1964, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 30,740

NAA INV 08500000

NAA INV 08500100
Place:
United States Indian Territory Darlington.
United States Oklahoma Darlington.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Genre/Form:
Pictographs -- Cheyenne
Ledger drawings
Letters
Citation:
Manuscript 30,740, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS30740
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms30740
Additional Online Media:

Wohaw drawing of camp scene

Creator:
Wohaw, 1855-1924  Search this
Annotator:
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Names:
Fort Marion artists  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (graphite, colored pencil, and watercolor, 12 x 18 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
ca. 1855-1877
Scope and Contents:
The manuscript consists of one drawing of a Kiowa camp with painted tipis. It is inscribed on the verso "Drawn by Wohaw Kiowa." It is from a set of 12 drawings donated by Captain Richard Pratt. Three of the drawings are now in the NAA (MS 30,740, 30,747, and 30,750) and 8 are now in the Graphic Arts collection of the National Museum of American History. The location of the twelfth drawing is not known.
Biographical / Historical:
Wohaw, also known as Wo-Haw, Beef, Gu hau de, and Wolf Robe, was a Kiowa born in 1855. He was accused of being a combatant in the Red River War of 1874 and 1875. On October 3, 1874, he surrendered at the Cheyenne-Arapaho Agency at Darlinton, Indian Territory. He was transferred to Ft. Sill, where he was held in the guard house. He was among the Kiowa warriors who were subsequently imprisoned at Ft. Marion in San Augustine, Florida. Following his release in 1878, Wohaw returned to the Indian Territory, arriving in Anadarko on May 1, 1878. He served in the Indian Police between 1879 and 1880 and in Troop L of the 7th U.S. Cavalry from 1891 to 1895. He was a member of the Ohomah society and is believed to have been an adherant of the Ghost Dance and Peyote religions. Wohaw died in Oklahoma in 1924. For further biographical information on Wohaw see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Moira Harris, Between Two Cultures: Kiowa Art from Fort Marion, Pogo Press, 1989.
Richard Henry Pratt had a long and varied military career, beginning as a soldier in the Civil War and participating in the Indian wars on the frontier. It was his work on the frontier that sparked Pratt's lifelong interests in the American Indian and spurred him to develop his infamous education system devoted to "civilizing" American Indian peoples. It was Pratt's Belief that the American Indian, although leading a savage and uncivilized life, was fully capable of being educated and absorbed into American society. Pratt gained support for this view when he commanded a group of seventy-two Indian prisoners at St. Augustine, Florida, in 1875. While at Fort Marion, Pratt encouraged the prisoners to draw and produce works of art, which he often collected and sold as tourist souvenirs. Some of the drawings he collected were later donated to museums around the country including the Smithsonian Institute and the Yale Library. Information on Pratt taken from http://webtext.library.yale.edu/xml2html/beinecke.PRATT.con.html. For more information about Richard Henry Pratt, see his autobiography Battlefield and Classroom; Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867-1904, 1964, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Fort Marion, also known as Castillo de San Marco, is a stone fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. Between 1875 and 1878, seventy-two prisoners from the southern plains were incarcerated in the fort. Captain Richard Pratt supervised the prisoners during their incarceration at Fort Marion. The prisoners consisted of 27 Kiowas, 33 Cheyennes, 9 Comanches, 2 Arapahos, and a single Caddo. With the exception of one Cheyenne woman, all the prisoners were men. They had been accused of participating in the recent Red River War, earlier hostilities, or both. With the exception of the wife and daughter of one of the Comanche men, the prisoners families were not allowed to accompany them to Fort Marion. For further information on Fort Marion see Karen Daniels Petersen, Plains Indian Art from Fort Marion, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 and Richard Pratt, Battlefield and Classroom, ed. by R. M. Utley, Yale University Press, 1964.
Local Numbers:
OPPS NEG 92-11407

NAA INV 08500200

NAA MS 30747
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 30747
Provenance:
Pratt, R H Capt
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 30747, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS30747
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms30747

Tracing of anonymous Cheyenne drawing

Annotator:
Bourke, John Gregory, 1846-1896  Search this
Extent:
1 Drawing (colored pencil, crayon, and ink on tracing paper, 36 x 46 cm.)
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
n.d
Scope and Contents:
Single leaf of thin, tracing paper. Depicts scene from battle between General Ranald McKenzie and group of Northern Cheyenne, including the warrior/artist Yellow Nose (see MS 166032 for biographical information), on the Head Powder River in Southeast Montana, Nov 1877. Name glyph of Yellow Nose (with adjacent inscription "Gellow Nose") appears above the Indian warriors head. Inscription on top left reads "McKenzie's fight with Cheyenne on hd Powder Riv."
Biographical / Historical:
Col. John Gregory Bourke (1846-1896), a graduate of West Point, spent most of his military career participating in the Indian Wars in the Northern Plains under Brigadier General George Crook, 1869-1888. He subsequently compiled ethnological accounts of the Apache and several other tribes in the Southwest as well as collections of Indian objects and ledger books. For more information on John Gregoy Bourke, see "John Gregory Bourke, Victorian Soldier-Scientist, the Western Apprenticeship, 1869-1886" by Joseph Charles Porter, PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.
Local Numbers:
NAA INV 08602500

NAA MS 409978
Local Note:
Media was changed from watercolor to crayon due to smudging and impressions in wax caused by lamination process.
Album Information:
MS 409978
Provenance:
Richardson, A. H. Mrs
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 409978, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS409978
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms409978
Additional Online Media:

Four drawings by anonymous Cheyenne artist

Collector:
Bourke, John Gregory, 1846-1896  Search this
Extent:
4 Drawings (2 leaves, graphite and colored pencil, 16 x 24 cm.-16 x 29 cm.)
Culture:
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Ledger drawings
Date:
before 1876
Scope and Contents:
Four drawings of warfare on two loose pages torn from a ledger book. Other drawings from the same ledger were pasted into the donor's diary, which is now in the Special Collections Library at the US Military Academy at West Point. Bourke records there that the book was captured in June 1876 from a camp then believed to be Sioux. This encounter is now known as the Battle of the Rosebud, and the camp identified as Northern Cheyenne, not Sioux.
Biographical / Historical:
Col. John Gregory Bourke (1846-1896), a graduate of West Point, spent most of his military career in the Northern Plains under Brigadier General George Crook. After serving in these campaigns from 1869-1888, Bourke was given some time off from his military duties to study Indian people where he compiled ethnological accounts of the Apache and several other tribes in the Southwest. For more information on Bourke, see "John Gregory Bourke, Victorian Soldier-Scientist, the Western Apprenticeship, 1869-1886" by Joseph Charles Porter, PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 176,622
Local Note:
Catalog number 176,622-E was identified by Mrs. Karen D. Peterson as a drawing by Cheyenne artist Howling Wolf; and was exchanged with Mrs. A.B. Richardson (who owned the notebook to which this sketch belonged) through the Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, September 28, 1966, for a drawing by Yellow Nose (USNM catalog Number 409,978). Catalog Numbers 176,622-F,-G are Numbers designated by R. Elder to cover two of the "seven pictographs" called for in the accession papers, when this set of drawings was separated and individually catalogued (1966); these last two drawings have not been located (1969).
Album Information:
MS 176622 000
Provenance:
Bourke, John G. Capt
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Citation:
Manuscript 176,622, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS176622
See more items in:
Four drawings by anonymous Cheyenne artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms176622
Additional Online Media:

Anonymous Kiowa drawing of five men wearing assorted headgear and carrying a crooked lance, a society whip, a saber, and a tomahawk

Extent:
1 Item (graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper drawing, graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
Drawing depicts a man wearing a wolf hide, a man wrapped in the American flag, and a man wearing body paint.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 001
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1998-54-ref1

Anonymous Kiowa drawing of five men wrapped in blankets standing in front of a painted tipi; one man with crooked lance

Extent:
1 Item (graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper drawing, graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 010
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1998-54-ref10

Anonymous Kiowa drawing of three men riding horses, carrying shields and lances

Extent:
1 Item (graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper drawing, graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 011
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1998-54-ref11

Anonymous Kiowa drawing of three mounted men wearing face and body paint and carrying shields

Extent:
1 Item (graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper drawing, graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 012
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1998-54-ref12

Anonymous Kiowa drawing of three men on horseback, with two carrying firearms and the third carrying a shield and a lance

Extent:
1 Leave (drawing (2 leaves, graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Leaves
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
One woman wearing a painted buffalo robe and a cradleboard and a man wearing a buffalo robe. Shield on stand behind tipi.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 013
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1998-54-ref13
Additional Online Media:

Anonymous Kiowa drawing of mounted Indian scouts in uniform

Extent:
1 Leave (drawing (2 leaves, graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Leaves
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Scope and Contents:
One woman wearing a painted buffalo robe and a cradleboard and a man wearing a buffalo robe. Shield on stand behind tipi.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 014
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1998-54-ref14
Additional Online Media:

Anonymous Kiowa drawing of three mounted men wearing headdresses and carrying lances

Extent:
1 Item (graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper drawing, graphite and colored pencil on ruled paper, 17 x 20 cm.)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Ledger drawings
Date:
1875-1878
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 98-54
Place:
United States Florida Fort Marion.
Album Information:
MS 98-54 015
Genre/Form:
Ledger drawings
Collection Citation:
Manuscript 98-54, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
MS 1998-54 Exercise book containing drawings by anonymous Kiowa artist
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-ms1998-54-ref15

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