The files are those of the Washington, D.C., office that were accumulated primarily under William Youpee. Youpee served as the first president of the association and became its executive director in 1972. There are also files accumulated by Chinzu Toda, a Bureau of Indian Affairs employee who was on loan to the National Tribal Chairmen's Association. In 1978, Kenneth E. Black became the executive director. Material created from 1978 to the end of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association are in private hands.
Scope and Contents:
The records in this collection came from several offices within the National Tribal Chairman's Association. Most of the files either came from the offices of William Youpee, Executive Director, or Chinzu Toda, who had been loaned to NTCA from the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and contain material relating to the work conducted by the organization. This includes board meeting minutes and transcripts from 1971-1978, correspondence with government organizatons such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Health, Education and Welfare departments as well as correspondence with Native American tribes and organizations. Also included are administrative and personnel files which contain information on the various committee's run by NTCA, the "Tribal Chairman's Mailout" and other newsletters, as well as information on individuals and Tribal Leaders who worked with the NTCA. Documents on the NTCA'a annual conventions as well as general correspondence and chronological files are also included.
The collection was initally arranged into 24 separate series when it was accessioned at the National Anthropological Archives. NAA staff examined the records and created a folder level listing for all boxes. Using this inventory, staff identified 14 series.
1) Constitutional Convention Files
2) Meeting Minutes of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association Board
3) Resolutions Files
4) General Correspondence
5) Copies of Letters Received
6) Chronological Files
7) Correspondence with Government Departments
8) Correspondence with Indian Tribes
9) Correspondence with Indian Organizations
10) Administrative Files
11) Personnel Files
12) American Indian Movement Takeover Files
13) Backlash Files
14) Conventions Files
NMAI archive staff did not change the arrangement of this collection upon transfer.
The National Tribal Chairmen's Association (NTCA) was formally created in Albuquerque July 13th, 1971. Funded in part by contracts with the Department of the Interior and in part by funds from the department of Health Education and Welfare the NTCA was composed of elected chairmen from federally recognized Indian tribes, bands and communities in the United States. The NTCA served as a voice to promote American Indian unity, observation of treaty and other rights, preservation of values, and progress in justice, social standing, education, economic well being, and political influence of all Indians of the United States. The organization no longer exists.
The records of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association were donated to the National Anthropological Archives in 1980 from NTCA. The records were then transferred to the National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center in 2007.
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: email@example.com).
Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish or broadbast materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Records of the National Tribal Chairmen's Association, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Wounded Knee (S.D.) -- History -- Indian occupation, 1973
The majority of Pearse-Hocker's momentous negatives give eyewitness account to two weeks of both the mundane and brutal reality of daily life during the 1973 occupation of Wounded Knee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. The takeover of the town and the conflict between about 200 members of AIM (American Indian Movement, the Native American civil rights activist organization begun in the 1968) and the United States Marshals Service began on February 27 and lasted for 71 days, resulting in tragedy on both sides of the conflict. Members of AIM along with some local Oglala (Lakota) Sioux from the local reservation took over the town in protest against the United States Government's history of broken treaties with various Native groups, the poverty and maltreatment of Native populations, as well as in defiance against the corruption and paternalism within the local subsidiary of the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs). The siege finally came to an end on May 5 when members of AIM and the assistant attorney general for the Civil Division of the US Justice Department Harlington Wood Jr. settled on a ceasefire. Kent Frizzell served as Chief Government Negotiator in the capacity of Assistant Attorney General (Land and Natural Resources Division, U. S. Department of Justice) and later as Solicitor, U. S. Department of the Interior. Among those pictured both during and post-conflict are AIM activists Dennis Banks, Clyde and Vernon Bellecourt, Ted and Russell Means, Frank Clearwater, Wallace Black Elk and Anna Mae Pictou Aquash. A small number of negatives also document AIM's takeover of the BIA building and the AIM Powwow both in Minneapolis in 1970.
Negatives: organized in binders; arranged in sleeves by strip and image number, interspersed with relevant applicable contact sheets
Anne Pearse-Hocker is a photojournalist who first encountered the American Indian Movement while a student on assignment for a journalism class at the University of Kansas. Her photographs document some very important moments in the early history of the American Indian Movement (AIM).
Pearse-Hocker was scheduled to interview the area director of the BIA in Minneapolis in the spring of 1970 as part of an Investigative Reporting class, and walked into the middle of an AIM occupation of the building, which she documented on film and with taped interviews. She stayed well past her spring break plans to use this opportunity to develop contacts with AIM leaders Clyde Bellecourt and Dennis Banks.
Her connections came in handy in 1973 during the occupation of Wounded Knee. Pearse-Hocker sneaked into the compound with a CBS news crew at night, and was allowed to remain due to her acquaintance with Banks, who remembered her from Minneapolis. She had strategically arrived the evening before the standoff was supposed to end, but when the settlement negotiations fell through, she remained in the compound for an additional few weeks, documenting the daily events including the firefight that claimed Frank Clearwater's life.
Pearse-Hocker returned to Wounded Knee in 1998 to revisit the site on the 25th anniversary of the occupation, and documented the experience for the journal 'Native Americas' (Spring 1998 issue) with new photographs of some of the survivors of the event.
After a career of news photography in broadcast journalism, she is retired and living in Montana.
Access is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the Archive Center to make an appointment.
Copyright: Anne Pearse-Hocker, 1973. Researchers must contact copyright holder for permissions, reproductions, and use.