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235: Number of ELV's (Including Redundancies) Required to Prepare Two Identical Interplanetary Vehicles of Initial Payload W in Earth Orbit

Collection Creator:
Ehricke, Krafft, 1917-1984  Search this
Container:
Box 83, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Krafft A. Ehricke Papers, Accession 2003-0025, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers
Krafft Arnold Ehricke Papers / Series 2: Graphics
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2003-0025-ref983

Sexual Identity, Yarhouse, Mark A. and Lori Burkett

Collection Donor:
Mattachine Society of Washington  Search this
Container:
Box 7, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2003
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection / Series 4: Publications
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1428-ref616

Striving for Gender Identity, Vonholdt, Christl R.

Collection Donor:
Mattachine Society of Washington  Search this
Container:
Box 8, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
2004
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Collection Citation:
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection
The Mattachine Society of Washington "Love in Action" Collection / Series 4: Publications
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-1428-ref621

Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection

Creator:
Sklarek, Norma Merrick, 1926-2012  Search this
Names:
American Institute of Architects  Search this
Gruen Associates  Search this
Covington, Garnett K.  Search this
Davis, Carolyn Armenta, 1944-  Search this
Diamond, Katherine  Search this
Donaphin, Alexa Barnes  Search this
Grant, Bradford C.  Search this
Gruen, Victor, 1903-1980  Search this
Harney, Henrietta  Search this
Hermanuz, Ghislaine  Search this
Hinton-Lee, W. Chris  Search this
Hutchinson, Louise Daniel  Search this
LeGendre, Laurette  Search this
Love-Stanley, Ivenue  Search this
Mills, Marlene E.  Search this
Moseley-Olaleye, Joyce  Search this
Pelli, Cesar  Search this
Schwartz, Robert (Robert E.)  Search this
Siegel, Margot  Search this
Sklarek, Rolf  Search this
Sutton, Sharon E., 1941-  Search this
Tyler, Kathryn B.  Search this
Washington, Roberta  Search this
Williams, Paul R., 1894-1980  Search this
deJongh, Donna  Search this
Extent:
4.8 Cubic feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Brooklyn (New York, N.Y.)
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
Los Angeles (Calif.)
Date:
1944-2008
Scope and Contents:
The Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection documents the prestigious and groundbreaking career of one of the early women architects who also broke ground for African American architects as well. The collection highlights Sklarek's journey and accomplishments as she paved the way for future women architects and architects of color. The collection is comprised of family records, resumes, business ephemera, photographs, correspondence, publications, clippings, architectural drawings, as well as her many awards and accolades.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been separated into eight series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content and chronology. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Biographical / Historical:
Norma Merrick Sklarek was a renowned architect and a woman of firsts who broke racial and gender barriers earning her place in the male-dominated world of architecture. She was the first Black woman member and esteemed fellow of the highly respected architectural professional organization, American Institute of Architects (AIA). Norma was distinguished in her career for leading challenging assignments and managing large, complex construction projects.

Norma Merrick was born April 15, 1926 to Dr. Walter Ernest Merrick, and Amelia (Amy) Willoughby in Harlem, New York City, New York. Her parents had emigrated from Trinidad, though her father was born in St. Vincent, West Indies. Norma's parents were a part of the first significant Caribbean immigration waves to the United States in the early 20th century. Arriving just a year before her birth, her parents saw possibility and education there. Her father, Walter attended Howard University and eventually became a physician. While her mother, Amy worked as a seamstress in a factory to make ends meet as Walter "wasn't much of a businessman" as described by Norma in an oral history interview. He practiced medicine in Harlem, New York. Norma stated that her father often served as a physician to African American celebrities such as Hazel Scott, Ethel Waters and Art Tatum. Walter was also a talented musician and carpenter that supported his daughter's love of art and math and encouraged her to pursue a career in architecture.

Around 1940, Norma was enrolled at the prestigious Hunter College High School for the intellectually gifted and "Ivy League-bound" young women. Excelling academically, Norma attended Barnard University, the prestigious women's college formerly administered by Columbia University. She attended Barnard initially in order to gain a year of a liberal arts education so that she could be accepted into then-known Columbia University School of Architecture. In 1947, she met and married, Dumas Flagg Ransom, law student at nearby Wagner University. She subsequently gave birth to her first son, Gregory Merrick Ransom shortly thereafter. She graduated from Columbia in 1950 with a Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) degree. She was one of only two women and the only African American in her graduating class.

Despite her Columbia University pedigree, her race and gender made it predictably difficult to obtain employment. Norma easily recalls in an oral history interview later in life that she was turned down by nineteen prospective employers. It was on the twentieth interview with the Department of Public Works (DPW) that she was hired as a junior draftsperson for New York City. She passed her architecture licensing examination in 1954 becoming the first Black woman believed to be licensed to practice architecture in New York. Despite a poor recommendation from her DPW supervisor, she worked briefly at Katz, Waisman, Blumenkranz, Stein and Weber as a junior associate. She felt stifled and unchallenged and left that firm to do some rendering coloring work with notable New York architect, Bob Schwartz. In 1955, she started working at notable architectural firm, Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill (SOM) in New York City where she was given larger-scale projects. At the same time, she taught architecture courses at New York City Community College (presently called the New York City College of Technology) located in Brooklyn, NY. She was the school's first woman faculty member. It was also during her tenure at SOM that Norma joined AIA and inadvertently became the organization's first African American woman member. She was a member of the Council for the Advancement of the Negro in Architecture, a New York-based group. During all this groundbreaking work, Norma was a twice-divorced mother of two sons with the birth of her second son, David Merrick Fairweather from her union with Benjamin Fairweather. Norma depended on the assistance of her family in raising her sons while she worked and advanced her career.

In an effort to advance her career, Norma moved to Los Angeles, California to work with architectural firm, Gruen Associates in 1960. A requisite for an architect in California, Norma became the first Black woman to be a licensed architect in the state. Gruen Associates, founded by visionary Austrian architect Victor Gruen, was notable for their pioneering work with shopping malls and multi-use buildings. At Gruen, in 1965 she earned the director of architecture position where she was responsible for hiring and overseeing multiple staff members as well as serving as project manager on several high-profile projects for the firm.

Her projects included the high-rise multi-use building California Mart (1963), now known as California Market Center; skyscraper Fox Plaza (1966) in San Francisco and some of Norma's most notable work for Gruen, The Pacific Design Center (1975), a multi-use facility utilized by the California's bustling apparel and fashion industry. Norma's contributary design is affectionately known by California's locals as the "Blue Whale." Norma worked on the latter project with Gruen's lead architect at the time, Cesar Pelli, known for some of the world's tallest buildings, most notably World Finance Center (Brookfield Place) in New York City. Pelli also shared his credit with Norma for her exemplary contribution to the renovation and redesign of the San Bernardino City Hall (1972) in California as well as their work on the U.S. Embassy (1976) in Tokyo, Japan. While at Gruen, Norma married Rolf Sklarek, a fellow architect at the firm. She also taught architecture courses at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and the University of Southern California (USC). At UCLA, she was the first African American member of the faculty.

In 1980, she was finally recognized for all of her trailblazing and innovative work, when she became the first African American woman elected to the AIA College of Fellows. The highest honor within the architecture profession. This prestigious award gave her assurance that she could take her career to another level. She departed Gruen for Welton Becket & Associates, a prominent California firm renowned for iconic music and cultural centers, including the iconic Capitol Records building in Los Angeles. Norma was appointed as the vice president of the firm and lead project manager on one of her most notable works, Terminal One at the Los Angeles International Airport. She was recognized for the timely completion of the project as preparation for the influx of travelers to Los Angeles the for the 1984 Olympic Games. Norma also suffered the loss of her husband, Rolf Sklarek, the same year.

It was her work from the Los Angeles Airport project that empowered Norma to break yet another barrier. 1985 proved to be significant year as she became first African American woman to found and co-own a woman-owned architectural firm. Norma collaborated with fellow veteran architects Margot Siegal and Katherine Diamond to create Siegel-Sklarek-Diamond (SSD). SSD was one of the largest woman-owned architecture firms at the time. Their largest project was the Tarzana Promenade, a 90,000 sq. ft. medical and retail center, and the remodel and renovation of the Lawndale Civic Center; both located in California. Norma also designed work for the proposed Marva Collins Preparatory School in Compton, CA. The school was named after seminal educator, Marva Collins that had revolutionized education for low-income students in a crime-ridden area in Chicago, Ill. The hope was the replicate Collins' important work for children in Compton.

Being a new firm amidst the prevalence of racism and sexism within the profession left SSD at a disadvantage. Their projects were mainly residential and smaller commercial projects that didn't bring the income and accompanying challenges like larger scaled projects. Sklarek left SSD in 1989 for Jerde Partnership, an established innovator in the design and construction of shopping malls around the world. Norma was hired as the principal on the project management for the design and construction of the Mall of America. Located in Bloomington, Minnesota, it is considered to be the largest shopping mall in United States.

In 1992, Norma retired from the profession but did not resign herself to stop working. Norma became an active advocate in broadening the profession to include more women and people of color. She focused her work on teaching, lecturing, and mentoring. Over the years, she served as faculty and lecturer at several universities including UCLA, USC, University of Iowa, Kansas State University, California Polytechnic as well as her alma mater Columbia University. In an effort to inspire Black architects, Norma regularly lectured at HBCUs including Howard University, Hampton University, Tuskegee University, and Southern University.

Sklarek's work was recorded and recognized by the black press and publishers, such as her being included in Ebony magazine as early as 1958, in their article on "Successful Young Architects." In 2008, the AIA awarded her with the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Award that recognizes architects who represented the profession's responsibility to address social issues. She also served on multiple professional boards and committees, such as the California Architects Board, Professional Qualifications Committee, California State Board of Architectural Examiners, the AIA National Ethics Council and many more.

On February 6, 2012, Sklarek died in the Pacific Palisades, California at the age of 85. She was survived by her husband Cornelius Welch, whom she married in 1985; her son, David Merrick Fairweather, stepdaughter Susan Welch as well as three grandchildren. She was predeceased by her son Gregory Merrick Ransom in 2006.

Historical Timeline

1926 -- Norma Merrick was born to Amy Willoughby and Walter Merrick in Harlem, New York.

1944 -- Graduated from Hunter College High School, New York, NY

1944-1945 -- Attended Barnard College, New York, NY

1945-1950 -- Attended Columbia University in New York City earning a bachelor's degree in architecture (B.Arch.).

1947 -- Married Dumas Flagg Ransom and had son, Gregory Merrick Ransom. They later divorced.

1950 -- Married Elwyn (Benjamin) Fairweather and had son, David Merrick Fairweather. They later divorced.

1950-1955 -- Worked at the Department of Public Works, New York, NY

1954 -- Licensed in the state of New York; believed to be the first black woman architect licensed in New York

1959 -- First African American woman member of the American Institute of Architects (AIA).

1955-1960 -- Worked at Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill in New York, NY

1957-1960 -- Architecture faculty member at New York City Community College, Brooklyn, NY

1960 -- Married Francis "Harry" Pena in New York, NY. Moved to California and began working at Gruen Associates and served as the Director of Architecture until 1980.

1962 -- First African American woman architect licensed in California

1963 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the California Mart, Los Angeles, CA.

1966 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction Fox Plaza in San Francisco, CA.

1967 -- Sklarek divorced Pena and married Rolf Sklarek, a fellow architect at Gruen Associates.

1970 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the Park Center Commercial Complex in San Jose, CA .

1972-1973 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the San Bernardino, City Hall in San Bernardino, CA.

1973 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of Commons-Courthouse Center in Columbus, IN.

1973-1978 -- Served as faculty member in the UCLA School of Architecture and Urban Planning

1976 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the U. S. Embassy in Tokyo, Japan.

1978 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of Pacific Design Center in Los Angeles, CA.

1980 -- First African American woman fellow of the AIA

1980-1985 -- Worked as VP and project manager at Welton Becket & Associates in Santa Monica, CA

1984 -- Sklarek working with Welton Becket Associates coordinated the design and construction of Terminal One at the Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA. Rolf Sklarek died in February.

1985 -- Sklarek along with Margot Siegal and Katherine Diamond formed their own firm, Siegel- Sklarek-Diamond. Sklarek married Dr. Cornelius Welch.

1989 -- Left the Siegel-Sklarek-Diamond and joined The Jerde Partnership, in Venice, CA, as the principal project manager.

1989-1992 -- Sklarek coordinated the design and construction of the Mall of America in Minneapolis, MN.

1992 -- Retired from The Jerde Partnership

2003-2007 -- Served as commissioner on the California State Board of Architectural Examiners

2008 -- Awarded American Institute of Architects' Whitney M. Young Jr. Award

2012 -- Norma Merrick Sklarek died in the Pacific Palisades, California at the age of 85.
Provenance:
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of David Merrick Fairweather and Yvonne Goff
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Architecture  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Business  Search this
Design  Search this
Women  Search this
Japan -- Tokyo  Search this
Entrepreneurship  Search this
African diaspora  Search this
Education  Search this
Gender  Search this
Identity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection, 1944-2008. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2018.23
See more items in:
Norma Merrick Sklarek Archival Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2018-23
Online Media:

James A. Baldwin Collection

Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Names:
Baldwin, Daniel  Search this
Baldwin, David  Search this
Dandridge, Frank  Search this
Evers, Charles  Search this
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968  Search this
Whaley, Paula Baldwin  Search this
Extent:
4.29 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Place:
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)
France
Turkey
Venice (Italy)
Date:
1935-1988
Summary:
James Baldwin was a writer and an activist and is one of the most prominent voices from his generation to bring light to issues of racial and sexual discrimination. This collection contains correspondence, photographs, manuscripts, and awards. The collection provides insight into his family, writing process, and travels during his lifetime.
Scope and Contents:
The James Baldwin Collection provides insight into Baldwin's life as a writer and activist. The collection contains correspondence, photographs, manuscripts, and awards. A significant portion of the collection are photographs by photojournalist Frank Dandridge. The collection focuses on Baldwin's grade school educational career, his writing process, as well as his thoughts about social equality and civil rights.
Arrangement:
The materials in this collection have been kept at the folder level and separated into six series. The materials have been ordered and organized based on the content. Series 6 has been broken down into a smaller subseries dedicated to the Frank Dandridge photographic prints. Series 8: Oversize Materials acts as an extension of the first five series, with materials that could not be housed with their corresponding materials due to size constraints. Within each series and subseries, the folders are organized as close to the collection's original order as when it was acquired.
Biographical Sketch:
James Arthur Baldwin (1924–1987) was born in Harlem, New York, on August 2, 1924, to Emma Berdis Jones, originally from Princess Anne, Maryland. He was reared by his mother and stepfather David Baldwin, whom Baldwin referred to as his father and whom he describes as extremely strict. He did not know his biological father. As the oldest of nine children, Baldwin took seriously the responsibility of being a big brother and his mother's right hand. He cared for and protected his three younger brothers and five sisters in a household governed by the rigid rules of their father, a Baptist preacher, originally from New Orleans, Louisiana.

Between the ages of fourteen and sixteen, Baldwin, himself, became a preacher at the Fireside Pentecostal Assembly, where he developed a celebrated preaching style. Baldwin's brief experience in the church would have a sustained impact on his rhetorical style and on the themes, symbols, and biblical allusions in his writings. Baldwin's Pentecostal experience is, in fact, essential to understanding his complex views on Christianity, which he espoused in his speeches and publications. His experience would also serve in part as the underpinnings of his stance on religion. In The Fire Next Time, Baldwin proclaims, "If the concept of God has any validity or any use, it can only be to make us larger, freer, and more loving. If God cannot do this, it is time we got rid of Him." During his early teen years, Baldwin attended Frederick Douglass Junior High School, where he met his French teacher and mentor Countee Cullen, who achieved prominence as a poet of the Harlem Renaissance. Baldwin went on to DeWitt Clinton High School, where he edited the school newspaper The Magpie and participated in the literary club, just as Cullen had done when he was a student there. By high school graduation, he had met his close friends at DeWitt Clinton—Richard Avedon, Emile Capouya, and Sol Stein.

The 1940s marked several turning points in Baldwin's life. In 1942, he graduated from high school, and a year later he witnessed the New York Race Riots and experienced the death of his father. After this emotional loss, Baldwin felt more than ever it was important to play father figure to his siblings. He worked at menial jobs during the day, and at night he played guitar in Greenwich Village cafes and wrote long hours, trying to fulfill his dream of becoming a writer.

In 1944, Baldwin met Richard Wright, whose written work spoke to his heart and who would also become a mentor. Baldwin appreciated Wright's strong opinions about race in America, and he greatly valued their intellectual exchange. Wright helped Baldwin to obtain a fellowship to write his first novel, which enabled him to leave for Paris in 1948, where the older writer had relocated a few years earlier. However, the two were often at odds about the ways in which they approached race in their work. Baldwin wrote three essays explicating his critique of Wright's "protest art." This conflict eventually led to the demise of their friendship.

In 1948, at age twenty-four, Baldwin left the United States to live in Paris, France, as he could not tolerate the racial and sexual discrimination he experienced on a daily basis. Professor Kendall Thomas of Columbia Law School explains that Baldwin left his country because of racism and Harlem because of homophobia--two aspects of his identity that made him a frequent target of beatings by local youth and the police. Years later, when asked about his departure, Baldwin explained in a Paris Review interview: "My luck was running out. I was going to go to jail, I was going to kill somebody or be killed" (1984). In Paris, Baldwin began to interact with other writers. He reconnected with Richard Wright, and for the first time, he met Maya Angelou, with whom he maintained a close relationship.

Baldwin would spend the next forty years abroad, where he wrote and published most of his works. Between 1960 and 1970, Baldwin lived regularly in Istanbul, Turkey. Still, the violence and assassinations in the United States during the politically turbulent 1960s took an emotional toll on Baldwin. After the assassination of his three friends—Medgar Evers in 1963, Malcolm X in 1965, and Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968—Baldwin suffered an emotional breakdown and eventually moved to the South of France to recuperate. In 1970, he settled in a house in the village of St. Paul de Vence, where he would live the rest of his life.

During his years abroad, Baldwin returned to the United States frequently and considered himself a "transatlantic commuter." In 1955, he signed a lease for an apartment at 63 West 97th Street in New York, and from the mid 1960s on, he maintained a home at 137 West 71st Street in Manhattan. When Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in 1968, Baldwin was actually living in California. Many of Baldwin's extended visits were to spend time with his large and beloved family and to participate in Civil Rights Movement events. He attended the March on Washington in 1963 and the Selma to Montgomery March in 1965. Baldwin also participated in literary events, such as the 1965 conference titled "The Negro Writer's Vision of America" sponsored by the New School of Social Research in New York. During his presentation, Baldwin addressed the conference theme, stating, "I know a story which America denies. And it denies it for the very good reason that my story, once told, confronts it with the truth about itself. In fact, my story, once told, will liberate America. The possibility of liberation—the necessity of becoming responsible for one's own life—is what most people most profoundly fear."

Baldwin passed away on November 30, 1987, in his house in St. Paul de Vence after a short battle with stomach cancer. A week later, he was laid to rest at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City and buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in New York. Family members and friends participated in a large service during which Toni Morrison, Amiri Baraka, and Maya Angelou delivered touching remarks about their friend and brother. Angelou stated that Baldwin's love "opened the unusual door for me, and I am blessed that James Baldwin was my brother."

Literary and Civil Rights Timeline

1924 -- Born August 2nd

1938 -- Graduates from Frederick Douglass Junior High School, where his early ambitions in writing were encouraged by his teacher Countee Cullen, the Harlem Renaissance poet

1942 -- Graduates from DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was a member of the literary club and edited the school newspaper The Magpie

1944 -- Meets writer Richard Wright, who refers Baldwin's first draft of Go Tell It On The Mountain to Harper and Brothers publishing house

1945 -- Receives a $500.00 Saxton Fellowship from Harper and Brothers; the first draft of Go Tell It On The Mountain is rejected by Harper and Doubleday; Baldwin begins writing reviews for The Nation and The New Leader

1947 -- Publishes essay "History as Nightmare" in The New Leader

1948 -- Publishes essay "The Harlem Ghetto" and short story "Previous Condition" in Commentary; Baldwin moves to Paris

1949 -- Publishes "Everybody's Protest Novel," in which he critics Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and Richard Wright's Native Son; jailed in Paris for eight days for theft (falsely accused of stealing hotel bed sheets)

1951 -- Publishes "Many Thousands Gone" in the Partisan Review; attack on Richard Wright leads to breakup; Baldwin completes Go Tell It On the Mountain in Switzerland, where he stayed three months with Swiss friend and lover Lucien Happersberger

1953 -- Publishes "Stranger in the Village" in Harper's Magazine; the essay is based on his stay in Switzerland

1954 -- Wins Guggenheim Fellowship; attends MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire

1955 -- Attends Yadao, an artists' community in Sarasota Springs, New York; revises Amen Corner during Howard University rehearsals and publishes it the same year; also publishes the collection of essays Notes of a Native Son and an autobiographical narrative "Equal in Paris," about being jailed in Paris in 1949, originally published in Commentary magazine

1956 -- Publishes Giovanni's Room with Dial Press; accepts National Institute of Arts and Letters Award and a Partisan Review fellowship; covers First Conference of Negro and African Writers and Artists at the Sorbonne, sponsored by Presence Africanize

1957 -- Publishes "Sonny's Blues" in the Partisan Review; Travels to the South on assignment for the Partisan Review, where he interviews student protests and meets with Martin Luther King, Jr.

1959 -- Awarded a two-year Ford Foundation grand to complete Another Country; Interviews film director Ingmar Bergman in Sweden; publishes essay "A Letter From the South: Nobody Knows My Name" in the Partisan Review ; apprentice on Elia Kazan's productions of Sweet Bird of Youth and J.B.

1960 -- Covers sit-ins in Tallahassee, Florida; interviews student at Florida A & M; published "They Can't Turn Back" in Mademoiselle Magazine; Richard Wright dies suddenly

1961 -- Publishes second collection of essays Nobody Knows My Name, Dial Press; publishes the essay "Alas, Poor Richard," another scathing critic of Richard Wright's work; appears on radio and television to promote Nobody Knows My Name and to speak about civil rights; meets Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X; completes Another Country; Swiss television produces "Stranger in the Village"; publishes the "Black Boy Looks at the White Boy"; makes first visit to Turkey at the invitation of Turkish actor Engin Cezzar

1962 -- Publishes Another Country, Dial Press, and it becomes a national best seller; Baldwin travels to West Africa; "Letter from a Region in My Mind" published in The New Yorker, later printed in The Fire Next Time as "Down at the Cross"

1963 -- Publishes The Fire Next Time to national acclaim; appears on the cover of May 17th issue of Time magazine; NAACP Field Secretary and friend Medgar Evers is assassinated on June 12 outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi; starts lecture tour for CORE in the South and the North; registers voters in Alabama for SNCC; wins Polk Memorial Award for outstanding magazine journalism; participates in March on Washington; travels to Nairobi, Kenya, with Harry Belafonte and Sidney Poitier to celebrate Kenya's independence

1964 -- Elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters; publishes the play Blues for Mr. Charlie, Dial Press, and theater production of Blues for Mr. Charlie appears at the historic American National Theater and Academy (ANTA) in New York; publishes Nothing Personal with photographer and high school friend Richard Avedon, Atheneum Books

1965 -- Debates William F. Buckley at Cambridge and receives standing ovation for his response to "Is the American Dream at the Expense of the American Negro?"; Malcolm X is assassinated in the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity; Baldwin attends Selma to Montgomery March; publishes Going to Meet the Man, Dial Press; The play The Amen Corner is performed in New York, Israel, and Europe

1968 -- Publishes the novel Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone, Dial Press; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee; Baldwin speaks at the World Council of Churches in Sweden against apartheid in South Africa; testifies at a Congressional hearing in support of a commission to establish a national museum of African American history and culture; receives personal attacks from Soul on Ice author Eldridge Cleaver

1969 -- Publishes New York Times article "The Price May Be Too High" about black writers in a white publishing industry; directs John Herbert's "Fortune and Men's Eyes" in Istanbul, Turkey

1970 -- Becomes the subject of photographs and a short film From Another Place , both by Sedat Pakay in Istanbul; holds conversations with anthropologist Margaret Mead titled "A Rap On Race"

1971 -- Baldwin and anthropologist Margaret Mead publish the transcript of conversations held in New York in 1970 in a co-authored book titled A Rap On Race; publishes "An Open Letter to My Sister Angela Davis" in New York Times Review of Books; moves to a house in St. Paul de Vence in the South of France

1972 -- Publishes No Name In The Street, Dial Press; publishes the screenplay One Day When I Was Lost, based on Alex Haley's bestselling classic The Autobiography of Malcolm X .

1973 -- Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates secures rare interview with James Baldwin and Josephine Baker together in James Baldwin's house in St. Paul de Vence, France; Baldwin appears with television host and poet Nikki Giovanni on "Soul," and the transcript is published as a dialogue

1974 -- Publishes If Beale Street Could Talk, Dial Press; becomes the third recipient (after writer Tennessee Williams and dancer Martha Graham) of the prestigious Centennial Medal awarded to "The Artist As Prophet" by the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York

1976 -- Publishes what would be his only children's book Little Man, Little Man: A Story of Childhood, with illustrations by Yoran Cazac, Dial Press; publishes the book-length essay The Devil Finds Work

1978 -- Teaches a spring course in contemporary literature at Bowling Green State University in Ohio (returns in the fall of 1979 and 1981); awarded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Medal

1979 -- Publishes Just Above My Head, his sixth and last novel, Dial Press; goes into seclusion after friend and mentor Beauford Delaney dies in March; teaches at UC Berkeley in the spring and speaks in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Santa Barbara; begins writing and lecturing on black English; publishes "Open Letter to the Born Again" in The Nation; meets Chinua Achebe at the University of Florida, African Literature Association; travels throughout the South

1982 -- Film makers Dick Fontaine and Pat Harley release television documentary of Baldwin' trip through the South "I Heard It Through The Grapevine"

1983 -- Publishes selected poems in Jimmy's Blues, St. Martin's Press; teaches Afro American Studies at University of Amherst in the fall

1984 -- Hospitalized for exhaustion; works on the play The Welcome Table

1985 -- Publishes "Freaks and the American Ideal of Manhood" in Playboy; American Playhouse dramatizes Go Tell It On The Mountain; publishes The Evidence of Things Not Seen, Holt, Rinehart & Winston Publishing; publishes The Price of the Ticket: Collected Non-Fiction, 1948–1985, St. Martin's Press

1986 -- Receives France's highest civilian recognition, the Legion of Honor; travels to the Soviet Union for an international conference and to London for a production of Amen Corner ; suffers fatigue and becomes ill

1987 -- Returns to St. Paul de Vence and is diagnosed with cancer of the esophagus, which spreads to the stomach; grants his last interview to poet and journalist Quincy Troop in mid-November in bed at his home; dies November 30 and his friend and assistant publicly announces his death December 1; memorials are held in St. Paul de Vence and Harlem; is eulogized by Maya Angelou, Toni Morrison, and Amiri Baraka at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York; body buried at Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, New York
Provenance:
Acquired as a purchase from Baldwin's sister, Paula Baldwin Whaley in 2017.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Topic:
Literature  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Civil rights  Search this
Theater  Search this
LGBTQ  Search this
Activism  Search this
Awards  Search this
Education  Search this
Communication  Search this
Families  Search this
finance  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Justice  Search this
Mass media  Search this
Photography  Search this
Politics  Search this
Poverty  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Sexuality  Search this
Travel  Search this
Identity  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2017.47
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47
Online Media:

In Defense of Stokely Carmichael

Collection Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1968
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
James A. Baldwin Collection / Series 2: Writings
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47-ref71
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View In Defense of Stokely Carmichael digital asset number 1

"James Baldwin: Another Country" (1962)

Collection Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1962
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
James A. Baldwin Collection / Series 2: Writings
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47-ref73
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View

Letter from Dr. Martin L. King to James Baldwin with related clippings about Nobody Knows My Name

Collection Creator:
Baldwin, James, 1924-1987  Search this
Container:
Box 1, Folder 16
Type:
Archival materials
Text
Date:
1961
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Access to collection materials requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The NMAAHC Archives can provide reproductions of some materials for research and educational use. Copyright and right to publicity restrictions apply and limit reproduction for other purposes.
Collection Citation:
James Baldwin Collection, National Museum of African American History and Culture
See more items in:
James A. Baldwin Collection
James A. Baldwin Collection / Series 3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2017-47-ref83
1 Page(s) matching your search term, top most relevant are shown: View entire project in transcription center
  • View Letter from Dr. Martin L. King to James Baldwin with related clippings about Nobody Knows My Name digital asset number 1

MM Propulsion Assessment Program 1989 - "Minuteman Propulsion Assessment Program" - ICBM Systems Program Management Division, Ogden Air Logistics Center, August 1989 [Identical file to previous file]

Collection Creator:
Stumpf, David  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
General:
Identical file to previous file.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf], NASM.2020.0028 , National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf]
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf] / Airframe / Minuteman Assessment Program 1989
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0028-ref878

MM RV RS Assessment Program 1989 - "Minuteman Reentry System/Reentry Vehicle Assessment Program" - ICBM Systems Program Management Division, Ogden Air Logistics Center, August 1989 [Identical file to previous file]

Collection Creator:
Stumpf, David  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
General:
Identical file to previous file.
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf], NASM.2020.0028 , National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf]
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf] / Airframe / Minuteman Assessment Program 1989
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0028-ref880

US3212257 - "Rocket Motor", U.S. Patent 3,212,257, C.M. Frey et al., October 19, 1965 [Identical file - "submerged nozzle US3212257"]

Collection Creator:
Stumpf, David  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Collection Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Collection Citation:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf], NASM.2020.0028 , National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf]
Minuteman ICBM Program Research Data [Stumpf] / Airframe / MM II [Minuteman II]
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nasm-2020-0028-ref907

Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection

Creator:
Turner, Reginald  Search this
Names:
Arnold, Juanita Burnett, (1909-2005)  Search this
Bates, J. B., 1916-2008  Search this
Campbell-Webster, Beatrice  Search this
Clark, Otis Granville, (1903-2012)  Search this
Eddy, Clyde, (1911-2008)  Search this
Ellsworth, Scott  Search this
Franklin, Archie Jackson, (1915-2006)  Search this
Franklin, Jimmie Lilly, (1915-2009)  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Gates, Eddie Faye  Search this
Holloway, Robert, (1918-2010)  Search this
Hooker, Olivia J., Dr., (1915-2018)  Search this
Jackson, Eunice Cloman, (1903-2004)  Search this
Knight, Thelma Thurman, (1915-2009)  Search this
McCondichie, Eldoris Mae Ector, (1911-2010)  Search this
O'Brien, William [Bill]  Search this
Ogletree, Charles, Jr.  Search this
Rogers, Jewel Smitherman, (1918-2010)  Search this
Rogers, John Washington, Jr.  Search this
Young, Wess Hubert, (1917-2014)  Search this
Extent:
1.38 Terabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Terabytes
Oral history
Place:
Tulsa (Oklahoma)
Date:
2004-2007
Scope and Contents:
The Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection documents the survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre as well as their journey to acknowledgment, justice, and restitution. This digital collection is an edited version of a larger collection created by Reginald Turner, Executive Director and Founder of The Tulsa Project, Inc. The collection consists of interview videos of individual survivors, their descendants, riot witnesses, historians, community supporters as well as the legal proceedings for U.S. government acknowledgement of the massacre and its subsequent devastation. This collection serves to bear witness to one of the most infamous episodes of American history, allowing those who lived through it to convey their experiences directly in their own words.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1921, one of the most devastating race massacres in American history occurred in Tulsa, Oklahoma. From May 31 to June 1, mobs of white Tulsa residents ransacked, pillaged, bombed, and burned over 1,000 homes, businesses, and churches and murdered scores of African Americans in the Tulsa's Black community of Greenwood. The history of this event was hidden in plain sight for many generations, invariably vanished from or never placed in the history books across the country. Generations of Tulsa's universal community began to learn of this tragic event over the course of the last few decades through the efforts of the survivors and their supporters. The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection alongside the great work of The Tulsa Project, Inc. sheds light on a community of resilience grappling with complex questions of history and memory, justice and law, reparation and reconciliation.

In the decades that followed, just a partial list of cities exhibits the expansive and dizzying geographic and temporal scope of organized white violence that continued with little recourse or reproach well into twentieth century. Such cities include: Colfax, Louisiana (1873); Clinton, Mississippi (1875); Hamburg, South Carolina (1876); Thibodaux, Louisiana (1887); Omaha, Nebraska (1891); Wilmington, NC (1898); Atlanta, Georgia (1906); and East St. Louis, Missouri (1917). In the summer of 1919, the U.S. was rocked by the white supremacist violence and attacks against over thirty Black communities across the country. This period of overwhelming racial violence was dubbed, "Red Summer" and affected major Black communities in Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland; Clarksdale, Mississippi; and Omaha, Nebraska as well as many others. In these cities like Tulsa, mob violence devastated Black communities through the destruction of property and livelihoods.

The Greenwood District of Tulsa, Oklahoma is rooted in the history of westward expansion of the United States in early 19th century. Beginning in 1830s, the first African Americans came to the Oklahoma Territory with Native Americans along the Trail of Tears, the U. S government sanctioned removal of American Indians from their native territory across the country. Some of the African American travelers were enslaved while free Blacks traveled through treacherous conditions alongside white travelers. Dubbed the "Oil Capital of the World" and "Magic City," Tulsa experienced booming economic growth and prosperity during the early 1900s. During the era of post-Emancipation until the onset of the 20th century, African Americans were a part of a newer wave of migration that came to Tulsa from all over the country, including other parts of the Oklahoma Territory.

More than 50 all-Black settlements were established in Oklahoma territory during this era, including Tatums, Langston, Rentiesville, Boley, as well as Black communities of larger cities such as Muskogee, Okmulgee, and Tulsa. By 1900, African Americans composed seven percent of the combined Oklahoma and Indian Territories and five percent of Tulsa's population. In 1905, the Tulsa's Greenwood community was sold to African American settlers. Many of Greenwood's founding families were of mixed-race heritage as result of multiracial migration patterns and organic cultural adaptation to Oklahoma's natural resources and environment. The Perrymans, one of Tulsa's founding families, included Muskogee (Creek), African American, and white members.

In 1907, Oklahoma was admitted into the United States, and the legislature immediately began implementing restrictive race laws. Many mixed-race families lived in the Oklahoma Territory in the late 1800s. But dividing lines between the races were drawn more sharply after Oklahoma became a state. Oklahoma had one of the strictest sets of Jim Crow laws that divided the country, especially in Tulsa. Black Tulsans formed their community along Greenwood and Archer streets and quickly began to thrive as homes, churches and businesses were built and further developed. The community took shape with the construction and proliferation of African American owned cafes, grocery stores, beauty parlors, movie theaters, and dentist, lawyers, and doctor offices. By close of World War I, 10,000 individuals lived in Tulsa's Greenwood District, considered to be one of the most prosperous African American communities in America at the time. Educator, activist, and statesman Booker T. Washington dubbed the district, "Negro Wall Street." Later coined as "Black Wall Street" in the 1950s as scholarship began developing around the massacre.

After World War I, Black veterans returned to seek a "double victory" by securing freedom and equality at home, striking fear among white supremacists. This fear left white Tulsans blaming the prosperity of "Black Wall Street" for the lack to employment opportunities and other misfortunes among the white community. Tulsa city founder and prominent businessman, W. Tate Brady, despite his support of African American financial independence, was a member of white supremacy terrorist group, the Klu Klux Klan (KKK) as well as an active member in the Sons of the Confederate Veterans. A resolute white supremacist, Brady's mansion's design was inspired by the Virginia home of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. He welcomed KKK founder, Nathan Bedford Forrest to that same home in 1915. It was Brady's active membership in the Sons of Confederate Veterans that brought the organization's 28th annual convention to the city in 1918. The latter circumstances along with the ongoing racial tensions set the stage for 1921 massacre.

On May 30, 1921, Dick Rowland, a 19-year-old African American shoe shiner was accused of assaulting a 17-year-old white woman, Sarah Page. Rowland went inside the Drexel Building to use the restroom, the only bathroom allowed to African Americans in downtown Tulsa. Page was an elevator operator in the building. It is unclear if Rowland tripped or the elevator stopped suddenly, but he had physical contact with Page. Page screamed assault and a scared Rowland immediately fled. The next morning on May 31, Rowland was arrested and jailed in the city's courthouse. Later that afternoon, the city's most popular newspaper, Tulsa Tribune printed the story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that claimed Rowland raped Page. Also printed was an editorial with the title, "To Lynch Negro Tonight," which no doubt influenced the rumors of a possible lynching of Rowland as the evening approached.

A large mob of thousands continued to grow over the course of the night outside the courthouse. African American WWI veterans and other members of the Greenwood community began to set up defenses outside the courthouse in order to protect Rowland. Tensions rose and soon an individual fight broke out and a gun was fired. The now weaponized white mob began to move about Greenwood armed with torches, guns, and other weaponry. Some survivors recall aerial bombs released overhead from small planes. The terror was directed at every visible African American in the vicinity, many fled for their lives while their homes and livelihoods were demolished. Historical research has not rendered an accurate number of lives lost in the massacre; it is believed that over 300 African Americans were murdered. Over 35 blocks of homes and businesses were destroyed with damages estimated to be over 1.5 million dollars.

On June 1st, the Oklahoma National Guard arrived, and martial law was declared. They arrested over 6,000 African Americans including children and illegally held them in detention centers throughout Tulsa. They were only released if a white person named them as an employee. Martial law ended on June 3rd, but African Americans were required to carry "green cards" once released from the detention centers as a mechanism to the police the Black population. The next week, Oklahoma governor James B.A. Robertson ordered an inquiry into the massacre. Only 85 people were indicted, mostly African Americans citizens. Rowland was released from jail and not charged for any crimes. Page recanted her claim as well.

Residents of Greenwood filed over 1400 lawsuits for damaged property. Insurance companies denied all claims based on a "riot clause." 1,000 Black Tulsans were forced to live in tents provided by the Red Cross from 1921-1922 because their homes were demolished. Historians estimate that over 700 families left Tulsa and never returned. However, many stayed and worked to rebuild the Greenwood community but experienced great difficulty as the city government actively tried to prevent African Americans from returning to their homes. Zoning regulations were put into effect that would make Greenwood only a commercial area, making it virtually impossible to live there. B.C. Franklin, businessman and father of historian John Hope Franklin, led the charge and filed a suit against the City of Tulsa before the Oklahoma Supreme Court and won, allowing Greenwood to rebuild.

Dozens of Black-owned businesses were rebuilt in Greenwood within a year of the riot, and hundreds more followed over the next three decades. The Oklahoma Eagle newspaper founded in 1922, replacing the community's former Black newspaper, The Tulsa Star that was destroyed by the riot. The Oklahoma Eagle, founded directly after the massacre, reported on African American community, as well as all facets of the massacre, since white newspapers refused to acknowledge the incident. In 1925, in a display of courage, the National Negro Business League held its 26th annual convention in Greenwood. By the 1950s, Greenwood was a thriving Black community despite racial segregation and inequality. Greenwood's mid-century renaissance was a rare occurrence as employment opportunities and fair treatment outside of the Greenwood remained limited. The Tulsa NAACP chapter, along with other activist groups, was formed to fight inequality and racism in wider Tulsa. Despite advances of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, redlining and urban renewal projects dwindled the former Greenwood improvements leaving the area and its residents impoverished and highly segregated.

After suffering decades of aftereffects from the massacre, Tulsa's African American community demanded justice and reparations from the state of Oklahoma and the U.S. government. In 1997, African American state lawmakers, Representative Don Ross and Senator Maxine Horner, co-sponsored an Oklahoma House Bill to create the Tulsa Race Riot Commission. The Commission was tasked with finding survivors and recording their testimony, gaining accurate accounts of property losses and values, and then make recommendations for reparations. In addition, they worked with forensic anthropologists and archeologists tasked with locating mass graves of massacre victims. In 2001, the committee concluded that each survivor should receive $200,000 and up to $100,000 in property claims. Unfortunately, these recommendations were not passed leaving survivors and descendants with little prospects for restitution.

In 2003, over 200 Tulsa massacre survivors filed a suit against the state of Oklahoma in the case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al. Survivors and their descendants served as plaintiffs and recounted their experiences during and after the massacre. The legal team was led by esteemed lawyer and educator Charles Ogletree and celebrity lawyer Johnnie Cochran. The suit demanded restitution for the damages and injuries done by the state of Oklahoma and the city of Tulsa. The main argument declared violations of the 14th Amendment of the U. S. Constitution including "deprivation of life and liberty [and property] and the privileges and immunities of United States citizenship". In addition, plaintiffs wanted to establish a scholarship fund to ensure future generations learn the history of the massacre for years to come. The judge ruled against the survivors, claiming that the statute of limitations had passed. In 2005, the lawyers tried yet again for justice by bringing the case to the U. S. Supreme Court, but the court declined to hear the appeal. A few survivors were given the opportunity to speak at a briefing in front of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) and other leaders on Capitol Hill, the same year with no action taken.

Over the years, Tulsa cultural institutions and organizations were developed to preserve the legacy of the African American community in Greenwood, Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma. The Greenwood Cultural Center and Mabel B. Little House have showcased the heritage of the community since the 1990s. In 2008, lawyer and filmmaker, Reginald Turner founded The Tulsa Project, Inc., a non-profit group committed to raising funds and awareness on behalf of massacre survivors and their descendants. The same year, Turner filmed interviews of massacre survivors that were later compiled in a documentary entitled, "Before They Die!" The interviews took place from 2004 to 2007 and featured survivors' efforts for justice, government hearings, and legal proceedings as well as Tulsa Commission meetings. The film's sales go towards compensating survivors and serve as an educational tool exhibited in schools, churches, and civic organizations around the country. In 2010, the John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize the massacre survivors and educate the community. In 2018, Tulsa Mayor G.T. Bynum called for the opening another investigation into the location of mass graves. In 2019, the Tulsa Race Massacre was added to the Oklahoma Education department curriculum and taught in classrooms.

As the massacre approaches its 100th anniversary in 2021, there are continuing advances for greater education about the massacre and the restitution of justice for the victims, survivors, and descendants of the one of the darkest times in American history.

Historical Timeline

1900 -- African Americans composed seven percent of Oklahoma territory and five percent of the Tulsa population.

1905 -- The Greenwood area in Tulsa was sold to African American Settlers.

1907 -- Oklahoma was made a state.

1917-1918 -- World War I veterans returned home seeking freedom and equality. In 1918, Tulsa hosted the 28th Annual Sons of the Confederacy Convention.

1919 -- "Red Summer," Over 30 race riots occurred over the course of 10 months in states across America.

1920 -- The wealth and prosperity of the Greenwood community, nicknamed "Black Wall Street," led to it to becoming one of the most financially prosperous African American communities in America.

1921: Tulsa Race Riot also known Tulsa Race Massacre takes place from May 30th to June 1st, in the Greenwood community of Tulsa. -- May 30: Dick Rowland, an African American shoe shiner is accused of assaulting Sarah Page, a white elevator operator. May 31: Rowland was arrested and brought to the courthouse jail. Afternoon: The Tulsa Tribune printed a story, "Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator" that Rowland raped Page and printed the editorial, "To Lynch Negro Tonight." 4:00 pm: Talk and rumors of lynching Rowland had spread. Police and Fire commissions J.M. Adkison phoned to warn Sheriff Willard McCullough of a possible incident. 7:30: A large white mob, numbering in the hundreds, gathered at the courthouse demanding Rowland be released to them. 9:30 pm: The mob had grown to two thousand. Members of the Greenwood community, many World War I veterans, set up defenses at the courthouse in order to protect Rowland from any impending violence from the mob. 10:00 pm: A fight broke out and a gun was fired. The mob began attacking and shooting all African Americans. June 1 12:00-1:30 am: Gunfire occurred between the white and African American commercial businesses across Fisco yards. 1:00-4:00 am: Over 35 blocks were destroyed, including 1200 homes, and an estimated 300 African Americans were murdered. However, the exact number is unknown. 9:00 am: The Oklahoma National Guard arrived. 11:30 am: Government declared martial law, by this point most of the fighting had already stopped. The final altercation occurred at Noon when the mob fired on African Americans near the Santa Fe railroad tracks. The National guard gathered and arrested nearly all the Greenwood residents, over 6000, detaining them in the Convention Center, sports arenas, and fairgrounds. 6:00 pm: All businesses were ordered to close, and a curfew was put into effect beginning at 7:00. June 3: Martial law ended. African Americans were required to carry "green cards" to leave the detention centers until July. June 8-20: Governor James B. A. Robertson ordered an inquiry of events by a Grand Jury examining the role of the police and sheriff departments. The all-white jury indicted over 85 people, the majority African American, for rioting and illegally carrying weapons. Five city police officers, including the Tulsa Chief of Police, John Gustafson, were also indicted and later fired. June 8-July 30: 1400 lawsuits were filed by African Americans for damaged commercial and/or personal property. The insurance companies invoked a "riot clause" that dismissed almost all the claims. Rowland was released and was not charged for any crime.

1922 -- Mary E. Jones Parrish was hired by the Inter-Racial Commission to write an account of the Race Riot. She was a teacher and journalist living with her daughter in Tulsa at the time of the massacre. Parrish interviewed survivors of the riot, collecting oral histories, photographs and a listing of property loses, publishing her findings in Events of the Tulsa Disaster. This was the first book published about the race riot. A large reconstruction effort began in Greenwood, and 80 businesses opened.

1925 -- National Negro Business League holds national convention in Tulsa, celebrating the rebuilding of Greenwood.

1931 -- Buck Colbert Franklin writes an unpublished memoir of the massacre entitled: The Tulsa Riot and Three of its Victims. It was later published by his son, John Hope Franklin and grandson, John W. Franklin in 1997.

1946 -- The first general history of the riot was published by Loren L. Gill, from the University of Tulsa. Although conducting many oral histories and research, some of his conclusions were later found to be incorrect.

1975 -- The Tulsa Race War of 1921 by Rudia M. Halliburton, Jr. was published. Halliburton was a professor at Northeastern State University and his work featured a collection of photographs, many from his students, of the riot.

1997 -- The Tulsa Race Riot Commission is established to study the riot and recommended reparations for survivors and their descendants. The city didn't comply.

1998 -- The Commission recommends archeological search for mass graves. This was approved in February 1999. A potential mass grave was found in Oaklawn Cemetery.

2003 -- Court case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al, was filed by over 200 survivors of the massacre. The suit was denied because the statute of limitations had passed.

2005 -- The survivors and lawyers attempted to repeal the decision in the Supreme Court, but the Court decided not to accept a case.

2010 -- John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park opened in Greenwood to help memorialize and educate the community about the race massacre.
Provenance:
Acquired as a gift from The Tulsa Project, Inc. (Reginald Turner, J.D.Clement & The Lomax Company).
Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use. It is the responsibility of the user to pursue the copyright owner, The Tulsa Project, Inc . for permission to use and publish the materials from this collection for use beyond private study, scholarship or research. Any reproduction of materials of this collection must include the copyright notice: © The Tulsa Project, Inc.
Topic:
Race relations  Search this
Tulsa Race Massacre, Tulsa, Okla., 1921  Search this
Hate crimes  Search this
Race discrimination  Search this
Violence  Search this
Race riots  Search this
Justice  Search this
Activism  Search this
Law  Search this
Identity  Search this
American South  Search this
American West  Search this
Genre/Form:
Oral history
Citation:
Guide to the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection, 2004-2007. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.240
See more items in:
Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmaahc-a2014-240

John Hope Franklin, 2007; undated

Collection Creator:
Turner, Reginald  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Scope and Contents:
John Hope Franklin was born January 2, 1915 in Rentiesville, Oklahoma. Franklin's father, Buck Colbert (B.C.) Franklin was a renowned attorney in the Greenwood District. During the race massacre, his family home and office were destroyed by fire and Franklin worked out of a tent. B.C. was also held in a detention center after the massacre ended. B.C. was instrumental in helping Greenwood to rebuild, bringing a court case against the city of Tulsa's rezoning laws. John Hope Franklin earned his master's and PhD. at Harvard University. Franklin was a historian, educator, and author. He taught at multiple universities and colleges including Howard University, Brooklyn College, Duke University, and internationally at Cambridge University. Franklin published over ten books on African American history from slavery through the twenty-first century. Franklin was dedicated to reshaping America's racial identity through history and the lasting effects of slavery. He served as a plaintiff in the court case, Alexander, et al., v. Oklahoma, et al. in 2003. He is well known for helping to write the legal brief used in the Supreme Court Case, Brown v. Board of Education. Franklin also participated in the march from Selma with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1995, President Bill Clinton awarded Franklin with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Franklin was the first African American president of the American Historical Association. He was the founding chairman of the Scholarly Advisory Committee for the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture. Franklin died March 25, 2009 in Durham, North Carolina.
Collection Rights:
The copyright law of the United States (title 17, United States Code) governs the making reproductions of copyrighted material. Any reproductions of these materials are not to be used for any purpose other than research or educational use. It is the responsibility of the user to pursue the copyright owner, The Tulsa Project, Inc . for permission to use and publish the materials from this collection for use beyond private study, scholarship or research. Any reproduction of materials of this collection must include the copyright notice: © The Tulsa Project, Inc.
Collection Citation:
Guide to the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection, 2004-2007. National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NMAAHC.A2014.240, Series 15
See more items in:
Guide to 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Oral History Collection
Archival Repository:
National Museum of African American History and Culture
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmaahc-a2014-240-ref15

Lady luna [music]

Composer:
Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974  Search this
Collection Creator:
Boatwright, Ruth Ellington, 1914-2004  Search this
Extent:
3 Items (copy scores, 32 cm.)
Container:
Box 13, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Copy scores
Manuscripts
Music
Piano vocal scores
Scope and Contents:
3 scores
Lady luna is contained in one folder consisting of 3 two page piano vocal scores in Eb Major concert -- in ink -- in unidentified hand (Whaley?).
Piano vocal score lyrics begin "Lady luna way out there in the blue ...". Scores with alternate titles begin "Luna lady way out there ..." and "Moon maiden way out there ...". The scores are otherwise identical. -- from the Ruth Ellington Collection.
General:
Handwriting and other details have been reported based on the notes of David Berger, Andrew Homzy, Dr. Theodore Hudson, Walter van de Leur, Wayne Shirley, and Dr. Mark Tucker.
Condition: fair, tape.
Other Title:
Luna lady.
Moon maiden.
Related Materials:
Ruth Ellington Collection Music Manuscripts (Series 3), 1940-1991
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research but is stored off-site and special arrangements must be made to work with it. Contact the Archives Center for information at archivescenter@si.edu or 202-633-3270.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction. Copyright restrictions exist. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Music -- United States -- 20th century  Search this
Genre/Form:
Copy scores
Manuscripts
Music
Piano vocal scores
Collection Citation:
Ruth Ellington Collection, 1923-1992, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials
Ruth Ellington Collection of Duke Ellington Materials / Series 1: Music Manuscripts, Scripts, and Compositional Materials / 1.1: Music Manuscripts
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0415-ref1481

Native/American Fashion: Inspiration, Appropriation and Cultural Identity - Mobility and Cultural Identity

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Sat, 22 Apr 2017 10:45:00 EST
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
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Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_11968cf099049fb4e262c62bdd223fbf

Native/American Fashion: Inspiration, Appropriation and Cultural Identity - Problematics of Cultural Appropriation in Contemporary Fashion

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Sat, 22 Apr 2017 13:32:00 EST
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
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Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_226bff06bc97d7fed7033bbf46392a67

Native/American Fashion: Inspiration, Appropriation and Cultural Identity - Creative Collaborations

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Sat, 22 Apr 2017 15:47:00 EST
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
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Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_2d512adfe7b931605b77f49222dfd6f7

Native/American Fashion: Inspiration, Appropriation and Cultural Identity - Mobility and Cultural Identity

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Sat, 22 Apr 2017 10:35:00 EST
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more episodes:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_2f0669b77aade725abddd1aabba855a0

Native/American Fashion: Inspiration, Appropriation and Cultural Identity - Mobility and Cultural Identity

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Sat, 22 Apr 2017 11:29:00 EST
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
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Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_430c21ca12ad47f7e134d36cefa4ba08

Native/American Fashion: Inspiration, Appropriation and Cultural Identity - Problematics of Cultural Appropriation in Contemporary Fashion

Creator:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage  Search this
Type:
Video recordings
Podcast
MIME Type:
video/mp4
Uploaded:
Sat, 22 Apr 2017 14:15:00 EST
Topic:
Cultural property  Search this
See more episodes:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Live Events
Data Source:
Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:podcasts_4c271de3a40be59fd1b6181722ed5285

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